The Dawn-Breakers Study Outline

Chapter 26



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  • CHAPTER XXVI: ATTEMPT ON THE SHAH'S LIFE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES (To refer to the booklet by Mírzá Shafí'-i-Nayrízí (DB 644), see http://bahai-library.com/histories/nayriz.html.)

    Extended Contents View with Summaries




  • CHAPTER XXVI: ATTEMPT ON THE SHAH'S LIFE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES Other headings???? (To refer to the booklet by Mírzá Shafí'-i-Nayrízí (DB 644), see http://bahai-library.com/histories/nayriz.html.)



    The Declaration of the Báb's Mission

    (Condensed Summary of Chapter 26)



    (Note: Due to the great amount of detail in this chapter a summary of the condensed summaries themselves was necessary (though even this summary is still long given that there is a lot of eventful detail in this chapter). See below for this briefer version.)

    I. Death of the Ámír-Nizám - 595
    A. In 1852 Bahá'u'lláh was alone able to revive & direct the remaining community after the tragedies before & after the Báb's martyrdom. He also prepared them for the coming tests.

    B. That year Mírzá Taqí was induced into a false sense of security by a report from a harem lady to the Princess that the Sháh had relented on his death decree and left for a public path where he was given his choice of death and had his veins cut open.

    C. Despite his responsibility for many of the unprecedented cruelties against the Bábís, he was unable to stay the Faith's onrush and died dishonorably.

    D. His successor, Mírzá Áqá Khán, however, at first sought to reconcile the government with Bahá'u'lláh, having considered Him the most capable of the Báb's disciples, sending Him a warm request to return to Tihrán to meet Him.

    II. Bahá'u'lláh's return to Tihrán - 598
    A. Bahá'u'lláh had already decided to leave 'Iráq for Persia and was welcomed and hosted by the Vazír's brother, Ja'far-Qulí Khán, at the Vazír's special orders. Many notables flocked to meet Him there, preventing His return home.

    III. Bahá'ulláh's meeting with 'Azím - 599
    A. Bahá'u'lláh met 'Azím on His way to Shimírán who had been seeking His presence to tell Him of his plan to assassinate the Sháh. Bahá'u'lláh emphatically condemned his plan, dissociating Himself from it, and warned it would bring about unprecedented disasters. With Ja'far-Qulí Khán still as His host (in Afchih village this time), the news of an assassination attempt on Násiri'd-Dín Sháh reached Him.

    IV. Attempt on the Sháh's life - 599
    A. 2 half-crazed youth, out of despair, unaware of the Vazír's responsibility for the execution, lost reason and sought to avenge the Báb's and Bábís' martyrdoms. As the Sháh went on his morning horseback ride with his large retinue, they with 1 other approached, stating the customary lines but emphasizing "We make a request!" They fired shots, injuring the Sháh, but failing to kill him, as he hit them on the head until his retinue came to and killed the youth attacker Sádiq-i-Tabrízí (who had rushed to the Sháh with his sword) and bound the others. They cut the youth's body in 2 to allay the populace and suspended the pieces to public gaze at the city gates. They ordered his body tied to a mule's tail and dragged over stones to Tihrán that the people could see the conspirators' failure.

    B. The court doctor brought the king into a garden to safety. A great commotion occurred as people feared imminent danger, and rumors spread the king had been killed. The merchants had deserted the bazaars, the people had hoarded goods from the bakery, and soldiers closed the citadel gates by Ardishír Mírzá's orders, as no one knew what had happened to the king and who the enemy was.

    C. Comte de Gobineau reported how the Ardishír closed and guarded the city gates, and ordered the close examination of all asking to leave. The people were urged to climb the walls near the Shimírán gate to see Sádiq's mutilated body in the open field across the bridge. The prince governor called together the Kalántar (prefect of police), the city Vazír, the Dárúghih (police judge), and the heads of the boroughs, ordering them to seek and arrest everyone suspected to be a Bábí. As no one could leave the city, they waited until night to use trickery and cunning to ferret them out.
    1. A youth 'Abbás, a former servant of Hájí Sulaymán Khán, who knew the names, number, and dwelling places of the many Bábí friends his master had made, was arrested, and though having identified himself as a zealous supporter of the Faith, he was compelled to betray those whom he knew with the promise of reward and threat of inhuman tortures. He pledged to inform the assistants of Hájí 'Alí Khán, the Hájibu'd-Dawlih, the Farrásh-Báshí of their names and abodes. Taken through the streets to point out every follower, he had several he had never met or known delivered as the Hájibu'd-Dawlih's attendants specially requested him to salute as a sign of betrayal for every one he thought could pay a heavy bribe, with the promise of reward and threat of his life. Those thus captured were only able to be freed by such heavy bribes.

    2. The police force in Tihrán (as in all Asiatic cities) was well-organized as this Sassanides' legacy was carefully preserved by the Arabian Khálifs as it was advantageous to all governments, especially the worst, to preserve this institution, though allowing other efficient institutions to decay. The head of every borough, always in touch with the Kalantár, had under him generally well-liked policemen ('sar-ghishmihs) who without uniform or badge never left their assigned streets, were helpful at all times, and, at night as they reclined under any store's awning, indifferent to rain or snow, watched over private property, thereby reducing thefts by rendering them difficult. As they knew every dweller and his ways, mind, opinions, acquaintances, and relations such that without spying, he would know if 1 asked 3 friends to dinner, that he would know their arrival time; what was served, said, and done; and when they left. Therefore, the Kad-khudás employed them, warning them to watch the Bábís in their sections while everyone awaited the results.


    D. Bahá'u'lláh pointed out that the youths using shot was a proof of a lack of judgment and that He therefore could not have committed it. Lord Curzon wrote in favor of the Bábís' innocence, given their moral Writings and overall faithfulness to the government. He implied also that the immorality charges were derived mostly from their opponents, due in part to their claims for greater freedom among women. Despite their innocence and restraint despite the attacks against them, and despite the fanatics acts having been condemned by Bahá'u'lláh, the Faith's purposes were again misrepresented by the clergy and the Bábís were again harshly persecuted.

    E. The Tihrán Gazette condemned the Báb and His disciples as irreligious, accursed, unable to prove their Faith's truth in writing or worldly argument, and desiring sovereignty through insurrections and pillaging. It reported that Mullá Shaykh 'Alí of Turshíz, styling himself chief and the Báb's deputy and titling himself High/Imperial Majesty, had won over some of the Báb's former disciples and seduced some immoral people as Hájí Sulaymán Khán, the late Yahyá Khán of Tabríz's son, in whose house they consulted on their planned attempt and where 12 were selected to use pistols, daggers, etc. and proceed to Níyávarán.

    F. Despite Ja'far-Qulí Khán's warnings to Bahá'u'lláh that the Sháh's mother was denouncing Him as the murderer and that He should remain concealed for safety, Bahá'u'lláh rejected his offer for a servant and rode out calmly to the army's headquarters and was met by His brother-in-law who worked for the Russian embassy minister, who invited him to stay.

    G. When informed of this, the Sháh and his officers were stunned at the Accused's bold step and ordered Him to be brought to him. The Russian minister refused and requested Him to go to Mírzá Áqá Khán's home as the most appropriate. The minister formally expressed his desire that their government's Trust be ensured safety or he would be held responsible. Though Mírzá Áqá Khán did respectfully receive Him, his concerns for losing his position prevented him from providing the protection expected. Mírzá Áqá Khán's daughter was distraught of the dangers facing Him and tearfully asked her father why he could not befittingly protect him. He sought to assure her, but in the end he failed to live up to his charge.

    H. The chaos that had ensued after the assassination attempt had permitted the clergy and government to collaborate to destroy their common foe of 8 years. The martyrdoms up to this point ranged from 10,000 to 30,000 and higher.

    I. 6 possibly innocent persons were condemned to perpetual imprisonment while the rest were divided by Mírzá Áqá Khán, who, to lessen chances of blood-revenge, assigned several for execution to the principal ministers, generals, officers/chief servants of the Court, law doctors, and infantry, artillery, priestly, townspeople, tradesmen, artisans, and merchant representatives, exempting only himself. A total of twelve were killed.
    1. The Sháh was entitled to Qisás (legal retaliation) and the right to kill first for his wound. To save the crown's dignity, the household steward fired on his behalf at the selected conspirator upon which his farrásh deputies finished the job. Hájí Qásim-i-Nayrízí and Fathu'lláh-i-Hakák-i-Qumí had been subjected to many tortures prior to this, including red-hot pincers and limb-rending screws, the latter thought mute after refusing to speak. Exasperated, the enemy poured molten lead down his throat. Incisions were made in Hájí Qásim's body after he was stripped (note says Mullá Fathu'lláh of Qum) (who fired the wounding shot) where lit candles were thrust. He was paraded before the yelling and cursing multitude. He was wounded where he had the Sháh, then he was stoned to death.

    2. The Prime Minister's son (Home office head and Nizámu'l-Mulk) slew one (a Mullá Husayn?).

    3. The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, a pious, silly man, who spent his time memorizing Muhammad's traditions, morally and religiously zealously, made the first sword-cut (shot?) while looking away upon which the Under-Secretary of State and Foreign Office clerks hewed Mullá Zaynu'l-'Ábidín of Yazd to pieces.

    4. The princes killed the immoral (?) Siyyid Hasan of Khurásán with pistol-shots, swords, and daggers.

    5. The mullás, priests, and learned slew Mullá Shaykh 'Alí, the author (?).

    6. Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Vahháb of Shíráz (1 of the 12 assassins?) was killed by the Prime Minister's brother and sons and cut in pieces by his other relations.

    7. The Sháh's admirable French physician, Dr. Cloquet was even invited to show his loyalty in this manner. Pleasantly declining saying he had killed too many men professionally to be allowed any more, the Sadr became excited and asked angrily, reminded that these proceedings were both revolting and would produce utter horror and disgust in Europe, whether he wished the Bábís' vengeance to be on him alone.

    The victims were killed after having their soles' skinned, wounds boiled in oil, shod, and forcing them to run; digging out their eyes and forcing them to eat without sauce their own ears, hacking with hatchets and maces, mortar blasts, bayoneting, tearing their teeth out by hand, crushing their bare skulls with hammer blows. Others had deep holes dug in their breasts and shoulders, with burning wicks inserted therein, causing the illumination of the bazaar–some of these being dragged in chains through the bazaar preceded by a military band with the wicks burning so deep as to flicker the fat in the wound convulsively like a newly-extinguished lamp.

    Without crying out due to faith, their body succumbed but the executioner continued swinging the whip. They hung the scorched and perforated bodies by the victims' hands and feet to a tree, head downwards, and fired from a fixed but not too close distance, some corpses with nearly 150 bullets.


    J. A European witness asserted the truth of the above account despite its vivid grotesqueness. He was forced to witness it, and stopped leaving his house in order to avoid scenes of horror. He said that after their death, the Bábís were hacked in 2 and either nailed to the city gate or cast out to the plain as dog and jackal food, with the intended further punishment that their souls, as the unburied, would not enter the Prophet's Paradise. Due to the unequivocal infamy, he stated his intention to no longer be associated with those crimes.

    K. Though innocent, other Bábís were not brought to trial, questioned, or allowed to plead and prove their innocence as was their right. 2 of the Báb's companions were martyred each day, one in Tihrán the other in Shimírán. Both were similarly arrested, tortured and handed over to the various classes, whose messengers would visit the dungeon each day and claim their victim.
    1. People marched between executioners, with children and women with deep incisions with lit candles. They were dragged with ropes and goaded on with whips. They nevertheless triumphantly sung "In truth, we come from God and unto Him do we return" above the crowd's deep silence as the Tihránís were not mean or great believers in Islám. If they fell, they were prodded up with bayonets, and if the dripping blood loss had left him strength, he would dance and cry out the verse with even greater enthusiasm.

    2. Some of the children died on the way. The executioners would throw their bodies under their fathers' and sisters' feet, who proudly walked over them without reservation. When they reached the execution place near the New Gate, the victims were given the choice to recant and were intimidated to do so. One executioner conceived to tell a father that unless he yielded he would cut his 2 young sons' throats (the oldest about 14) on his breast. Covered with blood, their flesh scorched, they listened stoically to the threats. The father lay down and replied that he was ready but the elder boy claimed a prior right to die. However, the executioner may have denied him that last comfort.

    3. Bringing their victim to his death scene, they ordered his attack. Men and women closed in, tore his body to pieces and left no trace of the body, amazing even the most brutal and seasoned executioners, who had never done what those people had.

    4. When the tragedy was finally over and night fell on the bodies, the heads were tied in bundles to the justice posts and the dogs of the city outskirts crowded about.


    L. That day the Bábís won a larger number of secret followers than much exhortation could have. The events left a deep and lasting impression. Men close to the government, even of important positions described to Comte de Gobineau their admiration and high conception of the new Faith's resources, hopes and means of success that, despite Islám's inglorious participation, it almost seemed the witnesses were all Bábís.

    V. Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál - 607
    A. They deemed it their first duty to seize Bahá'u'lláh since the Báb no longer remained. The Russian minister's precautions and warning went unheeded, and the Grand Vazír, for fear of losing his position were he to extend protection to Him, delivered Him into His enemies' hands. Hájí 'Alí Khán, the Hájibu'd-Dawlih, was responsible for His incarceration due to his hasty folly/demands, though the Sháh, through his kindness, later ordered a dispassionate investigation ('Abdu'l-Bahá, A Traveler's Narrative , p. 31).

    B. From Shimírán to Tihrán, Bahá'u'lláh was several times stripped of His garments and abused and ridiculed. On foot , exposed barefoot and bareheaded to the fierce midsummer sun, and in chains, He was forced to walk all the way from Shimírán to the Síyáh-Chál (Black Pit) dungeon. He was pelted and vilified all along the way by the crowds whom His enemies had convinced that He was the Sháh's sworn enemy and wrecker of his realm. He was exposed to wordlessly horrible treatment on His way. As He approached the dungeon, an old and decrepit woman emerged from the crowd with a stone in hand, eager to cast it at His face. Her eyes glowed with a determination and fanaticism few women her age could. With her entire frame shaking with rage as she stepped forward and raised her hand to hurl her missile, she adjured those whose hands had overtaken Him by the Siyyidu'sh-Shuhadá (Imám Husayn) to allow her a chance to fling the stone in His face. He told them to not suffer her disappointment and denial of what she regards as a meritorious act in God's sight.

    C. Originally a water reservoir for a public bath of Tihrán, the underground dungeon was where the worst criminals were confined. They were plunged into a filthy, dark, and fever-stricken dungeon, with chains on His neck which only notorious criminals were condemned to carry. The 4 months of bearing this burden left marks on His body for the rest of His life. The conditions of the prison combined to make it the worst place a person could be condemned. Bahá'u'lláh's feet were placed in stocks while chains were placed around His neck, infamous throughout Persia for their galling weight. Bahá'u'lláh spoke of these, instructing the Son of the Wolf in His epistle to him to ask the director and chief of the Sháh's prison, should he sometime happen to visit there, to see the 2 chains, Qará-Guhar and Salásil. He swore by the Day-star of Justice that He was weighted with them for 4 months. He stated the quote that the sorrow of Jacob paled before His sorrow and that his afflictions were but part of His. 'Abdu'l-Bahá described how the heavy chain about His neck by which He was chained to 5 other Bábís was locked together by strong, very heavy, bolts and screws and His clothes and headdress were torn to pieces for the 4 months He was there.
    1. Life imprisonment, terms of years or hard labor were unknown, and lengthy confinement rare. Each new year, when a new governor is appointed, he often empties the prison filled by his predecessor, with 1 or 2 of the worst given the death penalty, to give an impression of strength. As there were no female wards, women were detained as well as high-ranking male criminals in the priest's house. 3 kinds of prisons in Tihrán were said to exist: underground cells beneath the Ark where those guilty of conspiracy or high treason are reported to be confined; the town prison where vulgar criminals may be seen with iron neck collars, sometimes with feet in stocks, these being attached together by iron chains; and the private guard-house, a frequent feature of the greats' mansions. The Persian theory of justice is reported to be sharp and rapid in sentence and punishment, in a manner roughly equivalent to the original offense, without any sense of reform.

    2. For 3 days and nights, He was given no food or drink and rest and sleep were impossible. The place was infested with vermin and had a stench to crush one's spirit. Even an executioner watching Him was moved to try to induce Him to take some tea he had covered and managed to bring into the dungeon. Bahá'u'lláh refused to drink it. Though no amount of His brothers, sisters, and kindred's unrelaxing pleading with the guards to bring food into Him worked to reduce the discipline's severity, they gradually yielded to His friends' persistent urgings. However, no one knew if the food would reach Him or whether He would consent to eat it with His disciples starving there.

    3. Bahá'u'lláh declared that despite His innocence, indisputably proved before the tribunals, they arrested Him, brought Him from Níyávarán (royal seat residence) to Tihrán on foot and in chains with bare feet and head (as a brutal man on horseback had snatched His hat from His head on the way) with many executioners and farráshes rapidly hurrying Him along into the unique dungeon where He stayed for 4 months and which was worse than a dark and narrow cell. Entering the prison and conducted along a dismal/pitch-black corridor, He descended 3 steep stairs to the dark, gloomy, loathsome and undescribably putrid dungeon where nearly 150 thieves, assassins, and highway robbers were kept without any other outlet. Most were without clothes or mat to lie on. He suffered indescribable sufferings.

    4. He reflected there day and night how the Bábís could be capable of such an attempt. He then determined to arise to regenerate these people after leaving prison. One night, in a dream, the all-glorious word was heard from all directions that He would be aided to triumph by His self and His pen, bade Him not grieve for what befell Him and to have no fear, assured Him He was of the secure and that God would soon send and reveal treasures, men who would give Him victory by Himself and by His name by which God revived the knowings' hearts.

    5. 'Abdu'l-Bahá told of how He one day was allowed to enter the prison-yard to see His beloved Father as He came out for daily exercise. He had been terribly altered, so ill He could hardly walk, His hair and beard unkempt, His neck galled and swollen from the heavy steel collar's pressure, and His body bent by the chains' weight. This sight left a never-to-be-forgotten impression on the sensitive Boy's mind.



    VI. Fate of would-be murderers - 609
    (see IV.I.1. above)


    VII. Reign of terror - 610
    (see IV.I.2-IV.L above)


    VIII. Reference to Hájí Sulaymán Khán - 610
    A. Hájí Sulaymán Khán was the son of Yahyá Khán, an officer serving Náyibu's-Saltanih (Muhammad Sháh's father). He also served this position during the early days of Muhammad Sháh's reign but showed a marked disinclination to rank and office from his earliest years.
    1. In early youth, he longed to escape the capital's turmoil for Karbilá. He met and became one of Siyyid Kázim's most ardent supporters, showing sincere piety, frugality, and love of seclusion.

    2. When the Call from Shíráz came through Mullá Yúsuf-i-Ardibílí and Mullá Mihdíy-i-Khu'í, those among his best-known friends, He enthusiastically embraced it.

    3. Upon accepting the Báb's Cause, he pitied and disdained the petty pursuits of the people around him. (He was reported to have met the Báb during His pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina). Intending to head to Tabarsí upon arriving at Tihrán, he arrived too late.

    4. He stayed in Tihrán wearing the dress adopted in Karbilá: small turban, a white tunic concealing his black 'abá. The Amír-Nizám, displeased with these, induced him to discard them for a military uniform, kuláh (lambskin headdress considered to be more in accordance with his father's rank government employees and civilians). Though the Amír insisted he accept a government position, he obstinately refused. He spent most of his time with the Báb's disciples, particularly those who survived Tabarsí, caring for them with a truly surprising care and kindness. Given his and his father's influence, the Amír was induced to refrain from any violence against him and chose to ignore his acts (of which he was duly informed) rather than precipitate conflict with him or his father. When the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán were martyred, no government official or people ventured to demand his arrest. Even in Tabríz where he went to save the Báb's life, none there dared to lift a finger against him.


    XI. Hájí Sulaymán Khán's martyrdom - 618 (switched from below) (Same day and manner as Hájí Qasim, companion in assassination attempt on the Sháh)
    A. Hájí Sulaymán Khán was one of those seized & thrown in prison after the assassination attempt. Áqáy-i-Kalím shared the following with Nabíl (as he had shared in the suffering then in Tihrán and was with Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Majíd and many notables and dignitaries of the capital, including Hájí Mullá Mahmúd (Nizámu'l-'Ulamá) on the day of Hájí Sulaymán Khán's martyrdom). When Hájí Mullá Mahmúd requested the Kalantar to describe Hájí Sulaymán Khán's death, the Kalantar motioned his finger to Mírzá Taqí, the kad-khudá, saying he had conducted him from near the imperial palace to the execution place outside the Naw gate. Mírzá Taqí then was requested to relate what he had witnessed.
    1. Mírzá Taqí described how the Hájibu'd-Dawlih (Hájí 'Alí Khán) had been commanded by the Sháh to inquire into the accused's complicity, and if assured of his innocence, to induce him to recant. If he did, he was to live and be detained pending the case's final settlement. If not, he was to be put to death as he chose. When Hájí 'Alí Khán's investigations led him to be convinced of his innocence, and he sought to induce him to recant, the accused joyously exclaimed that he would never be willing to recant his faith in his Beloved and that the world the Imám 'Alí likened to carrion would never allure him from his heart's Desire. He said that the King had the right to demand loyalty and uprightness from his servants but not meddle with their religious convictions. His boldness then led them to martyr him as an example to others.
    B. Upon describing the manner of his martyrdom, he asked to be paraded such that the multitude would witness his glorious martyrdom, and that the memory of his death would be imprinted in their hearts and help them recognize the Light he embraced. When he was to reach the gallows' foot and utter his last prayer on earth, he asked for his body to be cut in 2 with his limbs suspended on either side of the Naw gate of Tihrán, that the passing multitude would witness the love the Báb's Faith had kindled in His disciples and the proofs of their devotion. His wishes were carried out as orders were given to Mírzá Taqí and his assistants to buy 9 candles, thrust them into deep holes in his flesh, light each one, and bring him to the market with drums and trumpets (and minstrels) to his execution site and cut him in 2 (with a hatchet) and display him as requested.
    1. As they handed the victim the candles they purchased and prepared to thrust knives into his breast, he stretched his arm to take the knife, requesting that he be allowed to make the holes and light the candles. Fearing an attack, Mírzá Taqí ordered his men tie the victim's hands behind his back. The victim then pleaded to point out with his fingers where he wished them to put the dagger as his only other request. He asked them to pierce 2 holes in his breast, 2 in his shoulders, 1 in his neck nape, and 4 others in his back. He endured this with stoic calm, steadfast eyes, and mysterious, serene and unbroken silence, despite the multitude's howling and the sight of blood over his body, until all 9 were lit.

    2. When the march was complete, he stood erect as an arrow and stepped to lead those pressing around him to his martyrdom site. Every few steps he interrupted the march, gazed at the bewildered, shouted that no greater pomp could accompany his progress to win martyrdom and glorified the Báb for kindling such devotion in His lovers' breasts and for giving them power of kings. Intoxicated by his fervid devotion, he exclaimed that while Abraham had, in His prayer for His soul's refreshment amidst His agony, heard the Unseen call the fire to be cold for Abraham's safety, he wished that His fire burn unceasingly within and consume his being. Seeing the wax flicker, he delightedly wished for the Báb to witness His state and cried to the throng for them not to think he was intoxicated with earthly wine but the love of His Beloved endowing him with a sovereignty kings might envy. He continually exclaimed joy at being chosen to be worthy to be martyred, and sang and recited poetry verses.

    3. These exclamations were but a few of those which had an effect on the multitude. In the bazaar, a breeze excited the candle flames, melting rapidly that those following a few steps behind him could hear the sizzling of flesh. This only increased his enthusiasm, as he called to the flames that they had long lost their sting and power to pain him, and told them to hurry as he could hear from their tongues a voice calling him to his Beloved. He walked as a conqueror marching to the scene of victory.

    4. Whenever the candles fell, he picked it up with his own hands, lit it with another candle, and replaced it. The executioners seeing him exulting so, asked him why he did not dance if so eager for martyrdom. He leapt and sung verses about how men dance when they are free from evil and self. He mocked the executioners asking them why they did not dance since they found death so pleasant. He cried "Dance!" to them and stated how this dance was his desire. At the gallows' foot, he made a last appeal to them, asking whether he had not recently enjoyed all wordly riches, and what could have caused him to renounce all this for great suffering. Prostrating toward the Imám-Zádih Hasan's shrine, he uttered some words in Arabic. He told the executioner his work was now finished and that he should come and do his. Without hesitation, he stretched out his feet and recited verses that one's body seems worthless and detestable while weapons seem like flowers at one's death. Still alive when cut in 2, he praised his Beloved until his last moment of life.

    5. The listeners to this story were stirred to their souls' depths, including the Nizámu'l-'Ulamá, who after listening intently, wrung his hands in horror and despair, exclaiming how very strange this Cause was, then left without a further word.
    C. Lord Curzon testified to the unquestioned and sublime devotion and self-sacrificing heroism inculcated by the new Faith, indicating their creed's importance. Though ignorant and unlettered as many were, they were ready to die for their religion, with a courage amidst the threat of more refined torture, than that committed by the fires of Smithfield. Only one Bábí had been reported to have recanted under pressure or menace of suffering, and he reverted to the Faith and was executed in 2 years. These incidents prove Persia not yet be quite redeemed as the tall-talkers of Iranian civilization would have it.

    IX. Reference to the Ámír-Nizám's repentance - 615
    Soon after Mullá Zaynu'l-'Abidín-i-Yazdí's martyrdom, a rumor spread that Siyyid Husayn, the Báb's amanuensis, and Táhirih, whom the government intended to execute, were to be released and that further persecution was to be definitely abandoned. It was widely reported that the Amír-Nizám, as he perceived death approaching, had been seized with fear, recalling the Báb's vision Whom he had caused to be martyred. He now regretted his part at not restraining those pressing him to shed His and His companions' blood, as the State's interests required it. His successor, Mírzá Áqá Khán was likewise inclined to make a lasting reconciliation with the Bábís during his early administration until the attempt on the Sháh's life occurred.

    X. Incident related by the Most Great Branch - 616
    A. Nabíl heard 'Abdu'l-Bahá, then 8 years old, recount how He had sought to leave His then residence of His uncle's (Mírzá Ismá'íl) house to cross the street to the market when boys His age crowded around Him crying "Bábí! Bábí!". He deliberately ignored them and stealthily went home. One day when walking alone through the market to His uncle's house, He saw behind Him a band of little ruffians sprinting to overtake Him, pelting Him with stones and menacingly shouting "Bábí! Bábí!"
    1. As intimidation was the only apparent way to avert danger, He turned back and determinedly rushed toward them that they fled in distress and vanished, while He could hear their distant cry that the little Bábí was pursuing them and would surely overtake and kill them all. On His way home, a man shouted at the top of his voice congratulating Him as a fearless child as no one His age could have withstood their attack. The boys never uttered anything offensive or harassed Him again.


    XII. Táhirih's martyrdom - 626
    A. Táhirih was affected by this as well. She was of a highly reputed family with members in enviable ecclesiastical positions. She had the illustrious Fátimih's namesake given by her father, was surnamed Umm-i-Salmih and designated Zakíyyih by her family, designated as Zarrín-Táj (Crown of Gold) and Zakíyyih (Virtuous) by family & kindred, born in the same year as Bahá'u'lláh (1817-1818), and recognized as a prodigy in intelligence and beauty from childhood by her fellow-townsmen, esteemed highly by even the most haughty and learned 'ulamás of her country for her brilliant and novel views, known as 'Qurrat-i-'Ayní (solace of my eyes) by her admiring teacher, Siyyid Kázim, Táhirih (the Pure One) by the "Tongue of Power and Glory," the only woman of the Letters of the Living.
    1. She was affectionately treated in Tihrán & highly esteemed by the leading women– the high mark of her popularity. Many men & women came to visit. Women thronged to her doors for her presence and knowledge. While she was a house prisoner, a son of the family married. The prominent men's wives were invited. Though much was spent for customary entertainment, the women loudly demanded Qurratu'l-'Ayn. The ladies, forgetting the sweets they were so fond of, only wished to see her. Though she had hardly appeared & begun to speak, the musicians & dancers were dismissed.

    2. While in Qazvín, the place priding itself of having at least 100 of the highest ecclesiastics of Islám, she consolidated newly won victories with her fearlessness, skill, enthusiasm and organization.

    3. She aroused the women by showing them the abject role the Shí'ah 'ulamás had assigned them and won them to the new Faith by showing them the freedom and respect it would bestow. Many domestic disputes followed, not always to the husband's advantage and credit. Had Mírzá Áqá Khán not been appointed Sadr-i-A'zam, these discussions might have continued. He ordered Hájí Mullá Muhammad Andirmání and Hájí Mullá 'Alí Kiní to call on her to look into her belief. They held 7 conferences, where she passionately argued and affirmed that the Báb was the promised and expected Imám. When her adversaries called her attention to the fact that the Imám was to come from Jábulqá and Jábulsá, she passionately retorted that these prophecies were falsely forged by traditionalists, that these 2 cities never existed, and could only be the superstitions of diseased brains. Though she expounded the new doctrine and its truth, she always encountered the same argument. Exasperated, she finally told them that their reasoning was like that of an ignorant and stupid child, asking them when they would lift their eyes to the Sun of Truth. Hájí Mullá 'Alí rose up and led his friend away, asking him why they should prolong their discussion with an infidel. They returned home & wrote the sentence, establishing her apostasy and refusal to recant, and condemning her to death in the name of the Qur'án.

    4. The Kalántar's (Mahmúd Khán-i-Kalántar, in whose custody she was) wife, especially, showed her reverence, enthusiastic hospitality & never failed to help deepen as she could Táhirih's influence. The Kalántar's wife's intimate acquaintances related how she had told them that Táhirih summoned her one night, adorned and wearing a snow-white silk gown, her room redolent with choicest perfume. Upon her expressing her surprise, Táhirih told her that she was preparing to meet her Beloved and wished to free her from the cares of her imprisonment. Greatly startled at first, she wept at the thought of separation. She told her not to weep, that the time of lamentation had not yet come, but that as her arrest and martyrdom was quickly approaching, she wished to tell her her last wishes that the Kalántar's wife's son take Táhirih to her death site and ensure that the guards to not divest her of that attire. She also wished to be thrown into a pit which would be filled with earth and stones. She said that a woman would come 3 days after her death to take the package she now gave her. Her last request was that she not allow anyone to enter her room and disturb her devotions and fasting until the day she leaves to meet her Beloved. She had her lock the room's door, bade her not open it until the time of departure, and urged her to keep secret the news of her death until the enemy disclosed it.

    5. Only a great love for her allowed her to obey. She locked the door and went to her own in uncontrollable sorrow, disconsolate on her bed thinking of her impending martyrdom. She prayed to God to change her desire if it were His will. She several times that night went to Táhirih's door, stood silently eager to hear anything she said, was enchanted by her voice's melody of praise to her Beloved that she could hardly stand on her feet. 4 hours after sunset, she heard a knock at the door, and hastened to tell her son Táhirih's wishes. He pledged to fulfill every instruction given his mother.

    6. Her husband was absent that night. Her son opened the door and told her that 'Azíz Khán-i-Sardár's attendants were at the gate demanding Táhirih. Terrified, she tottered to her door, unlocked it with trembling hands, and found her veiled, pacing, chanting a litany of grief and triumph, and preparing to leave. When she saw her, she approached and kissed her. She placed a chest key in her hand, told her that she had left a few trivial things as a remembrance of her stay, and hoped that when she opened the chest that she would remember her and rejoice in her gladness. Táhirih then bade her farewell and left with her son. She felt deep anguish as Táhirih vanished. She mounted the steed the Sardár had sent for her, and, escorted by her son and some attendants marching on each side, rode out to the garden site of her martyrdom.

    7. The authorities had first come to Shamsu'd-Duhá's home, another prominent Bábí woman, and abused her until Táhirih had sent a message to the governor, declaring that she was at his disposal and told him not to harm any other. See 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Memorials of the Faithful , for more on this Bábí heroine's life as well as on Táhirih's life.

    8. 3 hours later, her son returned, face drenched with tears, invoking evil on the Sardár and his lieutenants. Seating him and trying to calm him, she asked him to relate as fully as possible her death. He sobbed to her that he could barely describe what he saw. They went outside the city gate to the Ílkhání garden, a vast square across from the English Legation and Turkish Embassy where 5 or 6 trees stood toward the center marking the site of her martyrdom. (In 1898 the square had entirely disappeared, covered by modern buildings, with the fate of the trees planted by pious hands unknown whether they had been saved.)

    9. He found, to his horror, the Sardár and lieutenants flushed with wine and roaring with laughter. Táhirih dismounted, called him to her, asked him to act as an intermediary with the Sardár, whom she did not wish to address amidst his revelry, and told him that they apparently wished to strangle her and that she set long ago aside a silken kerchief she hoped they would use for that purpose. She gave it to him that he would induce the drunkard to use it to kill her. Wretchedly intoxicated, the Sardár shouted for him not to interrupt their happy festival, and calling for "that miserable wretch" to be strangled and thrown into a pit.

    10. Surprised at such an order, and believing it unnecessary to make any request, he went to 2 of his attendants he knew and gave them the kerchief, granting her request. The kerchief was wound round her neck as the instrument of her martyrdom. She was 36 when she was martyred in Tihrán. A gardener he asked, told him to his great delight that he could conceal the body in a recently dug, abandoned, and unfinished well. With a few others' help, he lowered her into her grave, filled the well with earth and stones as she had wished. Those who saw her in her last moments were deeply affected, mourning with downcast eyes and rapt in silence, as they left her.

    11. The Kalántar's wife wept at this tale that she fell prostrate & unconscious. She woke to find her son lying on the couch, passionately and devotedly weeping. Beholding her plight, he went to comfort her, stating that her tears would betray her to his father and that considerations of rank and position will induce him to forsake them, sever any ties to home, accuse them before Násiri'd-Dín Sháh as falling under the hateful enemy's charm, obtain his consent for their death, and would probably kill them with his own hands. He asked why they should allow themselves to suffer so, as they never embraced the Cause, and that their only duty was to defend her from those who denounce her chastity and honor and that they should always cherish her love in their hearts and maintain her integrity amidst a slanderous enemy.

    12. His words calmed her, and she went to the chest and opened it with the key she had given her, finding a small vial of choicest perfume, a rosary, coral necklace, and 3 rings mounted with turquoise, cornelian, and ruby stones. Gazing on them, she pondered her eventful life, recalling with wonder, her courage, zeal, duty, devotion, and literary attainments; brooding over the imprisonments and shame she faced with a fortitude no woman of their land could; picturing her face now buried under earth and stones; being warmed by the memory of her passionate eloquence, repeating the words she often spoke; becoming disconcerted at the suddenness by which an awareness of her vast knowledge and mastery of Islám's sacred Scriptures entered her mind; contemplating what could have induced such a great woman to forsake the riches and honors she was surrounded with to identify with the Cause of an obscure Shírází Youth, remain passionately loyal to it, fervently plead its cause, render it services, endure woes for its sake, exemplify it for its followers, advance it and carve a name for herself in her countrymen's hearts; wondering what secret could have torn her away from home and kindred that had sustained her through her stormy career & brought her to her grave; and wondering whether the force could be of God, guiding her destiny and steering her life's course amidst perils.

    13. The 3rd day after her martyrdom, the promised woman arrived (whom she did not know), and as it was the same name Táhirih had told her it would be, she delivered the package to her and never met her again.

    14. Nabíl, Lord Curzon, Valentine Chirol, E. G. Browne, Sir Francis Younghusband, Comte de Gobineau, a playwright Sarah Bernhardt had asked to write a dramatized version of her life, the great author and poet of Turkey, Sulaymán Názim Bey, Mrs. Marianna Hainisch (a mother of a President of Austria) left eloquent testimonies. Dr. T. K. Cheyne describes how suffrage ideas had quietly been spreading through harems though the men and everyone were ignorant of it until the floodgate opened. Suffrage clubs had been organized, intelligent memorials incorporating women's demands were drafted and circulated, women's journals and magazines with excellent articles sprang up, and public meetings were held. One day 400 of these club members cast their veils off. The fossilized society class were shocked, good Muslims were alarmed, and the government moved to action. The men of Constantinople resorted to drastic measures, deporting 40 of these Turkish suffragettes from Constantinople to the prison where Bahá'u'lláh was in 'Akká, the rest being divided into other groups. Everyone was talking about it, and many were in favor of removing the veils, including men who thought the custom archaic and thought-stifling. The authorities only added to the flame of liberty by their action and created greater public opinion and understanding.

    XIII. Siyyid Husayn's martyrdom - 631
    A. Siyyid Husayn-i-Yazdí, the Báb's amanuensis in Máh-Kú and Chihríq, was so knowledgeable about the Faith's teachings, that the Báb in a Tablet to Mírzá Yahyá urged him to seek anything about the Writings from him. He was a man of standing and experience in whom the Báb held his confidence. Though he suffered a long confinement in the underground dungeon of Tihrán and led to his martyrdom, Bahá'u'lláh greatly helped to allay his hardships. He sent him every month any money he needed. He was praised and admired by even the jailers. His intimate association with the Báb had during His last and stormiest days, deepened him and endowed him with a power he increasingly manifested toward his death. In prison he longed to be martyred as the Báb had been. Though deprived of dying the same day as Him (this had been his supreme desire) he now awaited his death.
    1. Though the leading Tihrání officials sought to induce him to agree to be delivered from prison and a cruel death, he steadfastly refused. Continual tears flowed then, born of a longing to see the radiant face which shone and whose glow warmed amidst the cruel and wintry incarceration in Ádhirbáyján. Anguished at the contrast between those blissful days and the present, he was alone comforted by Bahá'u'lláh, Whose presence he attained until death. 'Azíz Khán-i-Sardár, who had killed Táhirih, killed him also in cruel circumstances which Nabíl did not need to expatiate upon.

    XIV. Incidents in the Síyáh-Chál, as related by Bahá'u'lláh - 631
    A. Nabíl heard Bahá'u'lláh tell of how, despite horrors in the Síyáh-Chál, one group fervently chanted, "God is sufficient unto me; He verily is the All-sufficing!" while the other intoned "In Him let the trusting trust." This noise reached the Sháh though he did nothing about it.

    B. When offered a roast meat tray, all were silent, Bahá'u'lláh declined, and only one companion indicated desire to eat, while the others praised God rather than complain.

    C. Each day one companion was taken to the gallows. Each gladly responded, embraced Bahá'u'lláh and took comfort in His promise of Paradise, embraced the others, and left. The befriended executioner would tell the joy and events of his death.

    D. Bahá'u'lláh interpreted the dream of 'Abdu'l-Vahháb in which he was flying in beautiful space as meaning he should remain steadfast until being martyred to enjoy such rapture again. When 'Abdu'l-Vahháb was called, he embraced the others and Bahá'u'lláh. He have him His shoes and afterwards the executioner praised the spirit of the youth, pleasing Bahá'u'lláh.

    XV. Attempts to prove Bahá'u'lláh's complicity - 635
    A youth, 'Abbás who had had access to many Bábís was forced to inform the Farrásh-Báshí's assistants of their names and locations, pointing out especially the wealthy to be captured (for bribery). Though taken to the Síyáh-Chál to betray Bahá'u'lláh and promised a reward by the Sháh's mother (who was persisting in frustration to demand His execution), each time in His presence he felt compelled to deny having seen Him. The assistants tried to poison Him (for the Sháh's mother), and did affect His health for years, He did not die. On failing they were forced to shift the blame to 'Azím (to appease the Sháh's mother).


    XVI. 'Azím's confession and death - 637
    A. The Russian minister had kept informed of this situation, sent representatives to ascertain from 'Azím Bahá'u'lláh's role, and assured he would abide by his assessment. As 'Azím confessed to plotting his vengeance (at the Báb's death) in the presence of the representative of the minister and Vazír, Bahá'u'lláh was to be released.

    B. The 'ulamás were temporarily stopped from killing 'Azím by a call for judgment by the Imám-Jum'ih. Through device they obtained his death warrant. A siyyid clubbed his head and a mob mutilated him. Hájí Mírzá Jání was also secretly martyred (secretly due to reservations of the Vazír).

    XVII. Bahá'u'lláh's possessions plundered in Mázindarán - 637
    A. Adjoining provinces were influenced by the violence, through confiscation of His property and the martyrdom of 2 devoted Bábís, Muhammad-Taqí Khán and 'Abdu'l-Vahháb of Núr. Others, emboldened by Mírzá Yahyá's aspirations, sought to involve added charges to lead to His loss of influence and death.

    B. Barely recovered, the Sháh put down the Vazír for failing to maintain order, impelling him to send regiments to Tákur to repress the albeit exaggerated troublemakers. He sent Husayn-'Alí Khán of the Sháh-Sún regiment who appointed his nephew Mírzá Abú-Tálib Khán (the brother-in-law of Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Hasan) warning him against any excesses of the men. Though the Vazír assured Husayn-'Alí Khán of his and Mírzá Abú-Tálib's likely support, Mírzá Abú-Tálib disregarded Husayn-'Alí Khán's pleas and attacked, intent on massacring, pillaging, and capturing the women. The people appealed to Mírzá Hasan, who asked for mercy but was refused????. The men of the town fled to the mountains. Mírzá Abú-Tálib pillaged and destroyed Bahá'u'lláh's inherited home then razed the whole town. Though no able-bodied men were found in town, they shot two sleeping men in the mountain slopes and brought the captured (including one of these two) in chains into the Síyáh-Chál where a number died. The year after, Mírzá Abú-Tálib fell to the plague and was shunned by his kindred except for Mírzá Hasan who was visiting him at his death-bed when the Vazír came to visit.

    XVIII. Effects of the turmoil in Yazd and Nayríz - 642 (To refer to the booklet by Mírzá Shafí'-i-Nayrízí (DB 644), see http://bahai-library.com/histories/nayriz.html.)
    A. Bábís in the area and to Yazd and particularly in Nayríz were taken and martyred. All levels of local officials would imprison and torture suspected Bábís for the Sháh's favor. A Mírzá 'Alí cared for the poor, wounded, sorrowful and widowed and orphaned survivors in Nayríz. Zaynu'l-'Abidín Khán, believed to be responsible, was killed by Mírzá 'Alí's companions, leading the widow to bribe with jewels Mírzá Na'ím to capture and beat Bábís. The list of captives was given to the Sháh, the rest to be brought to Tihrán. At least 180 Bábís were martyred and as many incapacitated and brought to Tihrán. Of the 28 who survived, 15 were hung and many others died after prison.
    1. In Shíráz many were slain, 200 beheaded with the heads carried on bayonets.

    2. 300 of 600 women were released in Nayríz with the rest brought on horseback to Shíráz, tortured, and abandoned, many dying in the process.

    3. A martyr's niece was veiled then led to a garden, when the head of her beheaded uncle, a feeble old man, Mullá Muhammad-Músá was thrown at Mírzá Na'ím in her presence. Mírzá Na'ím's mouth was stuffed with dirt and he was shot in the head (not fatally).

    4. As women and children captives were being moved, a baby on the shoulders of his brother wearing an ornamental hat, was pulled by the hat and thrown 10 feet, leaving the mother to find him unconscious. 5. Prodded along by whip and sword amidst martyrs' heads on pikes, women were bumped into water-filled ditches and later led naked to be stoned, whipped, spat on, and insulted–some died from the cold, others were beheaded. They were imprisoned in Shíráz.

    6. The governor ordered the prisoners to be brought before him amidst prominent citizens. When Mullá 'Abdu'l-Husayn refused to curse the Báb, he was beheaded. A few others were executed and the rest, with the women, were imprisoned–73 were later brought to Tihrán by the Sháh's order. 22 died on the way, 15 were killed on arriving, 23 died in prison, 13 were freed in 3 years.

    7. Men were killed and 40 women and children were holed into a cave by firewood which was set on fire. A few days later a persecutor opened the cave door and saw the women's bodies seated in a circle, heads sunk to their knees (in grief), others in their original posture despite the fire. On touching them, they crumbled. They repented but to no avail.

    8. Such gruesome events fulfilled the tradition Hadíth-i-Jábir which foretells the magnanimity of the Promised One and the brutal massacres among His follower-saints.

    9. A fairly prominent Bábí government official later related how his grandfather had led persecutions after being assured by 2 'ulamás that he would be rewarded in Pardise for this holy war. 750 men were killed, women and children stripped almost naked were led on mules, etc. amidst rows of the heads of their dear relatives to Shíráz where they were held captive and where many died amidst suffering and insult. The grandfather later fell ill and dumb murmuring "Bábí!" before dying. His great-uncle, also a persecutor, was fined in disgrace 25,000 túmáns by the government, with his hands, feet, and head subjected to torture. He was then dismissed in ruin.

    XIX. Bahá'u'lláh's release and banishment to Baghdád - 650
    A. Bahá'u'lláh was freed from danger by 'Azím's confession and the resulting vengeance. Convinced of His innocence from being a conspirator, the Vazír ordered Him freed. The emissary who was sent saw Bahá'u'lláh chained to the vermin-infested floor, neck in chains, dishevelled, face in sorrow, and breathing foul air. In disbelief and indignation, the emissary denounced the Vazír for such cruelty. Though offered the emissary's mantle, Bahá'u'lláh refused and wore the prisoner dress to the government seat. When told by the Vazír that had He dissociated Himself from the Báb's Faith, He would not have suffered so, Bahá'u'lláh replied the government situation would not have become so critical had he followed His earlier counsel that the flame of the Báb's Martyrdom would grow even greater. On asking what to do, Bahá'u'lláh replied for him to order the governors to stop shedding innocent blood, plundering, dishonoring women, injuring women, and seeking to exterminate the Faith. Though he consented and sent a circular for the governors to desist, his later actions betrayed this temporary assent. On being freed, Bahá'u'lláh was ordered to leave Persia within a month. To pacify Him, certain properties were to be restored, the few left went unclaimed. He requested going to 'Iráq, despite the Russian minister's invitation of protection to Russia. He left with His family including 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Áqáy-i-Kalím (Mírzá Músá) escorted by an imperial guard and a Russian embassy official to Baghdád.

    B. Mírzá Áqá Khán was driven from office, placed under strict surveillance in Yazd, and died in shame and despair. The Hájibu'd-Dawlih was despoiled of property, his beard was cut off, then was forced to eat it, and was subjected to watch atrocities to his women and children. Mahmúd Khán-i-Kalantar was 9 years later dragged by ropes around his feet through bazaars then hung.




    The Declaration of the Báb's Mission

    (Condensed Summary of Chapter 26)



    (Note: Due to the great amount of detail in this chapter this summary of the condensed summaries themselves was considered necessary (though it is still long given that there is a lot of eventful detail in this chapter). See above for the more extensive version.)

    (If you may be interested in helping make a more condensed version as a better synopsis of this chapter's events, please feel free to email me at:

    I. Death of the Ámír-Nizám - 595
    In 1852 Bahá'u''lláh revived the remaining community and prepared them for tests.

    Mírzá Taqí mistakenly was led to leave his protection and was assassinated, under a death warrant from the Sháh, by his veins being cut open in a public bath. His successor, Mírzá Áqá Khán, in contrast to Mírzá Taqí, at first sought to reconcile the government with Bahá'u'lláh, warmly inviting Him back to Tihrán.

    II. Bahá'u'lláh's return to Tihrán - 598
    Bahá'u'lláh had already decided to return and was welcomed and hosted by the Vazír's brother, Ja'far-Qulí Khán, at the Vazír's special orders. Many notables flocked to meet Him there, preventing His return home.

    III. Bahá'ulláh's meeting with 'Azím - 599
    Bahá'u'lláh met 'Azím on His way to Shimírán who had been seeking His presence to tell Him of his plan to assassinate the Sháh. Bahá'u'lláh emphatically condemned his plan, dissociating Himself from it, and warned it would bring about unprecedented disasters. With Ja'far-Qulí Khán still as His host (in Afchih village this time), the news of an assassination attempt on Násiri'd-Dín Sháh reached Him.

    IV. Attempt on the Sháh's life - 599
    A. 2 half-crazed youth, out of despair, sought in vain to avenge the Báb's and Bábís' martyrdoms, shooting the Sháh, but failing. One attacker was overtaken, mutilated, and dragged over stones, while the others were bound.

    B. The court doctor brought the king to safety. The merchants deserted the bazaars, the people had hoarded goods from the bakery, and soldiers closed the citadel gates unaware of what exactly was happening.

    C. Sádiq's body was exposed to public view. The city gates were closed and guarded. At night, a youth, 'Abbás, was impelled to betray the location of Bábís, especially the rich ones who could compelled to pay bribes. The police, who knew were well familiar with the neighborhood people, were drawn on to watch the Bábís.

    D. Bahá'u'lláh pointed out that the youths using shot was a proof of a lack of judgment and that He therefore could not have committed it.

    E. The Tihrán Gazette condemned the Báb and His disciples and insinuated they wish to foment rebellion and pillaging.

    F. Despite warnings regarding the anger of the Sháh's mother, Bahá'u'lláh calmly rode to the army headquarters. Stunned, the Sháh and officers ordered Him in. The Russian minister refused and sent Him to Mírzá Áqá Khán's. Though he received Him and he promised his imploring daughter he would protect Him, he failed in the end to fully do so.

    G. The martyrdoms up to this point ranged from 10,000 to 30,000 and higher.

    H. 6 possibly innocent were imprisoned for life, and 12 were divided, out of fear of relatiation, to be killed among the ministers, clergy, and people. Two had been tortured prior, with red-hot pincers, limb-rending screws, and one had molten lead poured down his throat when thought mute by refusing to speak. One conspirator was stripped, had lit candles thrust into incisions in body, was paraded before wild multitude, and was stoned to death. Others were stabbed and cut into pieces, shot.
    1. When the Sháh's French physician politely declined an invitation to take part in the killing, the Sadr became angry at not sharing the accountability, reminded of the horror which would be evoked by this in Europe.

    2. The victims were killed after having their soles' skinned, wounds boiled in oil, shod, and forcing them to run; digging out their eyes and forcing them to eat without sauce their own ears, hacking with hatchets and maces, mortar blasts, bayoneting, tearing their teeth out by hand, crushing their bare skulls with hammer blows. Others had deep holes dug in their breasts and shoulders, with burning wicks inserted therein, causing the illumination of the bazaar–some of these being dragged in chains through the bazaar preceded by a military band with the wicks burning so deep as to flicker the fat in the wound. The executioner continued swinging the whip after death. They hung the scorched and perforated bodies by the victims' hands and feet to a tree, head downwards, and fired, some with nearly 150 bullets.
    J. A European witness testified to this and described how Bábís were hacked in 2 and either nailed to the city gate or cast out to the plain as dog and jackal food, with the intended further punishment that their souls, as the unburied, would not enter the Prophet's Paradise.

    K. Though innocent, other Bábís were not brought to trial. 2 of the Báb's companions were martyred each day. Both were tortured and handed over to the various classes, whose messengers would visit the dungeon each day and claim their victim.
    1. Despite deep incisions with lit candles, dragged with ropes and whipped, women and children sung "In truth, we come from God and unto Him do we return" silencing the nonfanatical crowd. If they fell, they were prodded with bayonets, and would if possible dance and cry out with even greater enthusiasm.

    2. Fathers' and sisters' of children who died would proudly walk over their bodies. Near the New Gate (near execution), the victims were asked and intimidated to recant. When an executioner told a father that he would cut on his breast his 2 young sons' throats otherwise (the oldest about 14), despite the blood and scorched flesh, the father stoically lay down indicating he was ready but the elder boy claimed a prior right to die (the executioner may not have obliged).

    3. At the death scene, they ordered the attack and men and women tore his body to pieces, leaving no trace, amazing and surpassing even the cruelest, most seasoned executioners.

    4. Afterwards, when night fell, the heads were tied in bundles to the justice posts and the dogs of the city outskirts came.
    L. A large number of secret followers were gained that day, leaving a deep and lasting impression as to its hopes of success, even to men close to the government, even of important positions.

    V. Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál - 607
    A. Despite the Russian minister's precautions, the Grand Vazír, for fear of losing his position delivered Bahá'u'lláh to His enemies. Hájí 'Alí Khán, the Hájibu'd-Dawlih hastily demanded His incarceration, though the Sháh, later ordered an investigation ('Abdu'l-Bahá, A Traveler's Narrative , p. 31).

    B. From Shimírán/Níyávarán (royal seat residence)? to Tihrán, Bahá'u'lláh was several times stripped and ridiculed. Barefoot, bareheaded (as a brutal man on horseback had snatched His hat from His head on the way), and enchained, in the midsummer sun, He was forced to walk all the way to the Síyáh-Chál, pelted, vilified, and facing wordlessly horrible treatment by the crowds convinced that He was the Sháh's sworn wrecker of his realm. Upon approaching, an old woman emerged from the crowd, her eyes glowing and frame shaking with rage, she adjured His overtakers by the Siyyidu'sh-Shuhadá the chance to fling her stone in His face. He told them to not disappoint her at what she thought to be meritorious in God's sight.

    Many executioners and farráshes rapidly hurried Him into the dungeon (originally a reservoir for a public bath) (worse than a dark and narrow cell) and conducted Him along a dismal/pitch-black corridor. He descended 3 steep stairs to the dark, gloomy, loathsome, fever-stricken,vermin-infested, and spirit-crushingly putrid place without any other outlet where nearly 150 thieves, assassins, and highway robbers were–most without clothes or mat to lie on. He suffered indescribably.

    C. With 4 months of bearing chains on His neck, (by which He was chained to 5 other Bábís locked together by very heavy bolts and screws) for notorious criminals, infamous throughout Persia for their weight, marks were left for life. He later told the Son of the Wolf in His epistle to ask the prison director, should he visit, to see the chains Qará-Guhar and Salásil, stating Jacob's afflictions and sorrow paled before His. His clothes and headdress were torn to pieces and His feet placed in stocks.
    1. (Iranian prison sentences described: life imprisonment and hard labor unknown, etc.)

    2. For 3 days & nights, He was given no food, drink, or any rest. Though an executioner was moved to take some covered tea in, Bahá'u'lláh refused it. While the discipline's severity was not reduced by siblings and kindred's unrelaxing pleas to bring in food, the guards gradually yielded. However, no one knew if the food reached Him or if He would consent with His disciples starving.

    3. (Bahá'u'lláh's description added to C. above)

    4. After reflecting day and night how the Bábís could make such an attempt, He determined to regenerate them after leaving. In a dream one night, the all-glorious word was heard from all directions that He would be aided to triumph by His self and His pen, bade Him not grieve for what befell Him and to have no fear, assured Him He was of the secure and that God would soon send and reveal treasures, men who would give Him victory by Himself and by His name by which God revived the knowings' hearts.

    5. 'Abdu'l-Bahá told of being allowed to enter the prison-yard one day to see His Father (coming out for daily exercise). So ill He could hardly walk, His hair and beard unkempt, His neck galled and swollen from the heavy steel collar's pressure, and His body bent by the chains' weight, a never-to-be-forgotten impression was left on the Boy's mind.

    VI. Fate of would-be murderers - 609
    (see IV.I.1. above)


    VII. Reign of terror - 610
    (see IV.I.2-IV.L above)


    VIII. Reference to Hájí Sulaymán Khán - 610
    A. Hájí Sulaymán Khán (son of an officer serving Muhammad Sháh's father) also served this position but showed a marked disinclination to rank and office from his earliest years.
    1. In early youth, longing to escape the capital's turmoil for Karbilá, he met and ardently supported Siyyid Kázim, showing sincere piety, frugality, and love of seclusion.

    2. He embraced the Call from Shíráz when it came through Mullá Yúsuf-i-Ardibílí and Mullá Mihdíy-i-Khu'í, those among his best-known friends.

    3. Upon accepting the Báb, he pitied and disdained the petty pursuits of the people around him. (He was reported to have met the Báb during His pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina). Intending to head to Tabarsí upon arriving at Tihrán, he arrived too late.

    4. Wearing the dress adopted in Karbilá: small turban, a white tunic concealing his black 'abá, he stayed in Tihrán, displeasing the Amír-Nizám who induced him to change to military uniform, kuláh (lambskin headdress considered to be more in accordance with his father's rank government employees and civilians). Despite the Amír's insistence, he obstinately refused to accept a government position. Spending most of his time with the Báb's disciples, he cared for particularly those surviving Tabarsí with surprising kindness. Given his and his father's influence, the Amír refrained from any violence against him and ignored his acts rather than start a conflict with them. When the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán were martyred, no government official or people ventured to demand his arrest. Even when he went to save the Báb's life in Tabríz, none dared to stop him.


    XI. Hájí Sulaymán Khán's martyrdom - 618 (switched from below) (Same day and manner as Hájí Qasim, companion in assassination attempt on the Sháh)
    A. However, Hájí Sulaymán Khán was thrown in prison after the assassination attempt. Sharing in the suffering of Tihrán and being with Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Majíd and many notables, including Hájí Mullá Mahmúd (Nizámu'l-'Ulamá) on the day of Hájí Sulaymán Khán's martyrdom, Áqáy-i-Kalím shared the following. When Hájí Mullá Mahmúd requested the Kalantar to describe Hájí Sulaymán Khán's death, the Kalantar motioned his finger to Mírzá Taqí, the kad-khudá, saying he conducted him from near the imperial palace to the execution place outside the Naw gate. Mírzá Taqí then was to relate what he witnessed.
    1. The Sháh commanded the Hájibu'd-Dawlih (Hájí 'Alí Khán) seek recantation if innocent. If he recanted, he would be held until the end of the case. If not, he would be executed as he chose. When convinced of innocence, investigators sought recantation, though he joyously exclaimed he would never do so and that the world the Imám 'Alí likened to carrion would never allure him from his heart's Desire. Before being martyred, he said the King had the right to loyalty from his servants but not meddle with religious convictions.
    B. He asked to be paraded to show the masses his martyrdom, to help, by his death's memory, them recognize the Light. When to reach the gallows' and say prayer, he asked for body to be cut in 2 with limbs held on sides of Tihrán's Naw gate for all to see the love the Báb's Faith kindled. Mírzá Taqí and assistants bought 9 candles, thrust them deep, lit each, and brought him to the market with drums, trumpets, and minstrels and cut him with a hatchet.
    1. Before they could, he stretched his arm to be allowed to make the holes and light candles himself. Fearing an attack, Mírzá Taqí ordered his hands tied. He then pleaded to point out where he wished the dagger put in him: 2 holes in breast, 2 in shoulders, 1 in neck nape, and 4 others in his back. With stoic calm, steadfast eyes, and mysterious silence, despite masses' howling and the sight of blood.

    2. At end, he shouted amongst those around that no greater pomp could accompany his martyrdom and praised the Báb for devotion and power kindled. Despite God's wish of fire to be cold for Abraham's agony, he wished the fire to burn continually to consume him. He wished for the Báb to witness, and cried to the crowd to know his intoxication and super-kingly power was from God. He exclaimed joy at being worthy, sang, and recited poetry.

    3. As the breeze helped melt the candles, those following heard flesh sizzling. His enthusiasm increased as he said flames had lost their sting. He told them hurry as he could hear their tongues call him to his Beloved. He walked as a victorious conqueror.

    4. Whenever the candles fell, he picked it up, lit it with another, and replaced it. The executioners asked him why he did not dance if so eager. He leapt and sung about how men dance when free from self. He mocked them asking them why they did not dance, finding death so pleasant. He cried "Dance!" and said how the dance was his desire. At the gallows', he asked why though recently enjoying wordly riches, he would renounce all for great suffering. Prostrating toward the shrine of Imám-Zádih Hasan, he uttered in Arabic. He told the executioner that as his work was finished, he should do his. He stretched out his feet and recited verses that one's body is as detestable while weapons seem like flowers at death. Still alive when cut in 2, he praised his Beloved until dead.

    5. The listeners of the story were deeply stirred, including the Nizámu'l-'Ulamá, who after listening, wrung his hands in horror/despair, exclaimed how strange the Cause was, then left.
    C. Lord Curzon testified to the unquestioned devotion, heroism, and self-sacrifice the new Faith inculcated. Though many were ignorant and unlettered, they would die for their religion, with a courage amidst the threat of more refined torture. Though one Bábí recanted under pressure, he later reverted to the Faith and was executed in 2 years.

    IX. Reference to the Ámír-Nizám's repentance - 615
    Soon after Mullá Zaynu'l-'Abidín-i-Yazdí's martyrdom, Siyyid Husayn, the Báb's amanuensis, and Táhirih were instead to be released, abandoning further persecution as the Amír-Nizám was to have been seized with fear upon death's approach, recalling the Báb's vision Whom he had caused to be martyred. He now regretted not restraining those pressing him to shed blood. Mírzá Áqá Khán also made a reconciliation during his early administration until the attempt on the Sháh's life.

    X. Incident related by the Most Great Branch - 616
    A. Nabíl heard 'Abdu'l-Bahá, then 8, recount how He had sought to leave His uncle's (Mírzá Ismá'íl) house to cross to the market when boys His age crowded around crying "Bábí! Bábí!". He deliberately ignored them and stealthily went home. One day when walking alone through the market to His uncle's, He saw a band of little ruffians chasing behind, pelting Him with stones and menacingly shouting "Bábí! Bábí!"
    1. To avert danger, He rushed toward them that they fled, while He heard their distant cry that the little Bábí was pursuing them and would surely kill them all. On His way home, a man shouted loudly congratulating His fearlessness as no one His age could have withstood. The boys never again harassed Him.

    XII. Táhirih's martyrdom - 626
    A. Táhirih's family was highly reputed and in enviable ecclesiastical positions. She was known as a prodigy in intelligence and beauty from childhood by townsmen, esteemed even by the most haughty, learned 'ulamás for brilliant and novel views. Admired by Siyyid Kázim, named the Pure One by the "Tongue of Power and Glory," she was the only woman of the Letters of the Living.
    1. In Tihrán, she was highly esteemed/treated by (leading) women and many men even visited for her presence and knowledge. At the house she was imprisoned, a son married, but the prominent men's wives loudly demanded and only wished for Táhirih despite expenses on entertainment, sweets, etc. Though she had hardly begun to speak, the musicians and dancers were dismissed.

    2. In Qazvín (having 100+ of Islám's highest ecclesiastics), she consolidated victories with fearless skill, enthusiasm and organization.

    3. She aroused the women by demonstrating their abject role given by the 'ulamá and won them to the Faith by showing them the freedom and respect it bestowed. The following domestic disputes were not always to the husband's advantage. Mírzá Áqá Khán as Sadr-i-A'zam ordered two to call on her to look into her belief. At 7 conferences she passionately argued the Báb was the promised Imám. Her adversaries stated the Imám was to come from Jábulqá and Jábulsá, but she passionately retorted that traditionalists falsely forged these prophecies, that the cities never existed, and could onlly be the superstitions of diseased brains. While expounding the doctrine, she always met the same argument, leading her to tell them their reasoning was like an ignorant child, asking them when they would lift their eyes to the Sun of Truth. Hájí Mullá 'Alí rose and led his friend away, asking why they should prolong their discussion with an infidel. They returned and wrote the sentence of death in the name of the Qur'án, establishing her apostasy and refusal to recant.

    4. Her host's (Mahmúd Khán-i-Kalántar) wife especially showed her reverence, enthusiastic hospitality and helped deepen her influence. The wife's intimates said the wife told them that Táhirih summoned her one night. Adorned and in a snow-white silk gown, her room with choicest perfume, Táhirih surpised the wife. Táhirih explained she was to meet her Beloved and wished freedom from imprisonment's cares. Weeping at the thought of separation, she was told not to weep as time for it had not yet come. However, as it was near, she wished to say her last wishes to be taken by the wife's son to her death site and ensure the guards not divest her of that attire. She also wished to be thrown into a pit to be filled with earth and stones. She said a woman would come 3 days afterwards to take the package she now gave. She last asked her to lock the door that no one disturb her devotions and fasting until the day to meet her Beloved. She urged her keep her death secret until they disclosed it.

    5. Only out of love could she obey. Locking the door, she went to hers in uncontrollable sorrow, thinking on her bed of her martyrdom. She prayed God change her desire if it were His will. She several times that night went to Táhirih's door, stood eager to hear anything, was enchanted and could hardly stand upon hearing her voice's melody of praise to her Beloved. 4 hours after sunset, she heard a knock, and hastened to tell her son Táhirih's wishes (which he pledged to fulfill).

    6. Her husband absent, her son opened the door and said 'Azíz Khán-i-Sardár's attendants were at the gate demanding Táhirih. Terrified, she went to her door, unlocked it with trembling hands, and found her veiled, pacing, chanting a litany of grief and triumph, and preparing to leave. When she saw her, she approached and kissed. She placed a chest key in her hand, telling her she had a few trivial remembrances and hoped when opening the chest she would remember her and her gladness. Táhirih then bade farewell and left with her son, leaving her in deep anguish. Mounting the steed the Sardár had sent, and, escorted by the son and marching attendants on each side, rode out to the garden site.

    7. The authorities first went to another prominent Bábí's home, troubling her until Táhirih appelaed to the governor, declaring herself at his disposal asking him not to harm any other.

    8. 3 hours later, the son returned in tears, invoking evil on the Sardár and lieutenants. Trying to seat and calm him, the wife had him relate as fully as possible her death. He sobbed to her that he could barely describe it.

    9. To his horror, the Sardár and lieutenants were flushed with wine and roaring in laughter. Táhirih dismounted, called him to act as intermediary, whom she did not wish to address in his revelry. In apparently wishing to strangle her, she hoped he could induce them to use a silk kerchief she set aside long ago for it. Wretchedly drunk, the Sardár shouted that he not interrupt them and called for the "miserable wretch" to be strangled and thrown in a pit.

    10. Surprised at the order, he instead went to 2 of his attendants he knew and gave them the kerchief. Kerchief wound round her neck, she was martyred at 36. A gardener said to his joy that he could conceal the body in a recently dug, abandoned well. With some others' help, he lowered her into her grave, filled the well with earth and stones. Those who saw her were deeply affected with downcast eyes and rapt in mournful silence, as they left.

    11. The wife hearing this wept and fell unconscious. She woke finding her son lying on the couch, devotedly weeping. Beholding her plight, he went to comfort her, stating her tears would betray them to his father whose thought of rank and position may induce him to forsake them and accuse them before the Sháh for their death, and even kill them himself, though they never embraced the Cause. He said their only duty was to defend her chastity and honor and always cherish her love in their hearts.

    12. Calmed, the wife went to open the chest and found a small vial of choicest perfume, a rosary, coral necklace, and 3 rings mounted with turquoise, cornelian, and ruby. She pondered her life, recalling her courage, zeal, duty, devotion, and literary attainments and her imprisonments and shame faced with a fortitude no woman of their land could. She pictured her face now beneath earth and stones. She was warmed by the memory of her eloquence, repeated her words, grew disconcerted at realizing her vast mastery of Islám's sacred Scriptures; contemplated what induced her to forsake riches, honors, and comforts of family to identify with; remain loyal to amidst woes; and plead, serve, and exemplify the Cause of an obscure Shírází Youth, carving her name amidst her countrymen. She wondered whether the force might be of God, guiding her life's course amidst perils.

    13. The 3rd day after martyrdom, the promised unknown woman arrived, and as it was the same name Táhirih had told her it would be, she delivered the package and never met after.

    14. Several prominents left eloquent testimonies. Suffrage ideas had quietly spread through harems though the men were ignorant until the floodgate opened. Suffrage clubs had been organized, intelligent memorials/women's journals incorporating women's demands were circulated, and public meetings held. One day 400 club members cast their veils off. The fossilized society class were shocked, good Muslims alarmed, and the government took action. Constantinople's men deported 40 to Bahá'u'lláh's prison in 'Akká, the rest were divided up. Everyone talked about it, and many including men thinking the veils archaic and thought-stifling were in favor of removing them. The authorities action only added to liberty's flame, creating more public opinion and understanding.

    XIII. Siyyid Husayn's martyrdom - 631
    A. Siyyid Husayn-i-Yazdí, the Báb's amanuensis in Máh-Kú and Chihríq, was so knowledgeable on the Faith, that the Báb in a Tablet urged Mírzá Yahyá to seek anything on the Writings from him. A man of standing and experience, he suffered a long confinement in Tihrán's underground dungeon. Bahá'u'lláh greatly helped allay this, sending him every month any money needed. Even the jailers praised and admired him. Intimate association with the Báb during His last days deepened him with a power he increasingly manifested toward death. In prison he longed to be martyred as the Báb. Though deprived of dying the same day (his supreme desire) he now awaited death.
    1. Though leading Tihrání officials sought to induce him to be delivered from prison and a cruel death, he steadfastly refused. Continual tears flowed, born of a longing to see the radiant face warming him amidst a cruel and wintry incarceration in Ádhirbáyján. Anguished at the contrast between those days and the present, he was alone comforted by Bahá'u'lláh until death. 'Azíz Khán-i-Sardár, Táhirih's killer, killed him cruelly (Nabíl did not expatiate.)

    XIV. Incidents in the Síyáh-Chál, as related by Bahá'u'lláh - 631
    A. Nabíl heard Bahá'u'lláh tell how, despite Síyáh-Chál's horrors, one group fervently chanted, "God is sufficient unto me; He verily is the All-sufficing!" while the other intoned "In Him let the trusting trust." The noise reached the Sháh though he did nothing.

    B. When offered a roast meat tray, all were silent, Bahá'u'lláh declined, and only one companion indicated desire to eat, while the others praised God rather than complain.

    C. Called to the gallows, each gladly responded, embraced Bahá'u'lláh, took comfort in His promise of Paradise, embraced the others, and left. The befriended executioner would tell the joy and events of his death.

    D. Bahá'u'lláh interpreted 'Abdu'l-Vahháb's flying dream (in beautiful space) to mean he should remain steadfast till death to enjoy the rapture again. When 'Abdu'l-Vahháb was called, he embraced the others and Bahá'u'lláh. He have him His shoes and afterwards the executioner praised the spirit of the youth, pleasing Bahá'u'lláh.

    XV. Attempts to prove Bahá'u'lláh's complicity - 635
    A youth, 'Abbás who had had access to many Bábís was forced to inform the Farrásh-Báshí's assistants of names and locations, pointing out especially the wealthy (for bribery). Though taken to the Síyáh-Chál to betray Bahá'u'lláh and promised a reward by the Sháh's mother (who was persisting in frustration to demand His execution), each time in His presence he felt compelled to deny having seen Him. The assistants tried to poison Him (for the Sháh's mother) and did affect His health for years, but He did not die. On failing they were forced to shift the blame to 'Azím (to appease the Sháh's mother).

    XVI. 'Azím's confession and death - 637
    A. The Russian minister kept informed of the situation, sent a representative to ascertain from 'Azím Bahá'u'lláh's role, and assured he would abide by the assessment. As 'Azím confessed (at the Báb's death) in the minister's representative's and Vazír's presence, Bahá'u'lláh was to be released.

    B. The 'ulamás were stopped from killing 'Azím by the Imám-Jum-ih's call for judgment, but through device they obtained a death warrant. A siyyid clubbed his head and a mob mutilated him. Hájí Mírzá Jání was also secretly martyred (due to the Vazír's reservations).

    XVII. Bahá'u'lláh's possessions plundered in Mázindarán - 637
    A. His property was confiscated and 2 devoted Bábís, Muhammad-Taqí Khán and 'Abdu'l-Vahháb of Núr martyred. Others, emboldened by Mírzá Yahyá's aspirations, sought to add charges to lead to His loss of influence and death.

    B. Barely recovered, the Sháh put down the Vazír for failing to maintain order, impelling him to send regiments to Tákur to repress the (exaggerated) troublemakers. He sent Husayn-'Alí Khán of the Sháh-Sún regiment who appointed his nephew Mírzá Abú-Tálib Khán (Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Hasan's brother-in-law) warning him against any excesses by the men. Though the Vazír assured Husayn-'Alí Khán of his and Mírzá Abú-Tálib's likely support, Mírzá Abú-Tálib disregarded Husayn-'Alí Khán's pleas and attacked, intent on massacring, pillaging, and capturing the women. The people appealed to Mírzá Hasan, who asked for mercy but was refused????. The men of the town fled to the mountains. Mírzá Abú-Tálib pillaged and destroyed Bahá'u'lláh's inherited home then razed the whole town. Though no able-bodied men were found in town, they shot two sleeping men in the mountain slopes and brought the captured (including one of these two) in chains into the Síyáh-Chál where a number died. The year after, Mírzá Abú-Tálib fell to the plague and was shunned by his kindred except for Mírzá Hasan who was visiting him at his death-bed when the Vazír came to visit.

    XVIII. Effects of the turmoil in Yazd and Nayríz - 642 (To refer to the booklet by Mírzá Shafí'-i-Nayrízí (DB 644), see http://bahai-library.com/histories/nayriz.html.)
    A. Bábís in the area, to Yazd, and particularly Nayríz were martyred. Local officials would torture suspected Bábís for the Sháh's favor. A Mírzá 'Alí cared for the poor, wounded, sorrowful and widowed/orphaned survivors in Nayríz. Zaynu'l-'Abidín Khán, believed to be responsible, was killed by Mírzá 'Alí's companions, leading the widow to bribe Mírzá Na'ím to capture and beat Bábís. The captives list was given to the Sháh, the rest to be brought to Tihrán. At least 180 Bábís were martyred and 180 incapacitated and brought to Tihrán. Of the surviving 28, 15 were hung and many others died after prison.
    1. In Shíráz many were slain, 200 beheaded with the heads carried on bayonets.

    2. 300 of 600 women were released in Nayríz with the rest brought on horseback to Shíráz, tortured, and abandoned, many dying in the process.

    3. A martyr's niece was veiled then led to a garden, when the head of her beheaded uncle, a feeble old man, Mullá Muhammad-Músá was thrown at Mírzá Na'ím in her presence. Mírzá Na'ím's mouth was stuffed with dirt and he was shot in the head (not fatally).

    4. As women and children captives were being moved, a baby on the shoulders of his brother wearing an ornamental hat, was pulled by the hat and thrown 10 feet, leaving the mother to find him unconscious.

    5. Prodded along by whip and sword amidst martyrs' heads on pikes, women were bumped into water-filled ditches and later led naked to be stoned, whipped, spat on, and insulted–some died from cold, others were beheaded. They were imprisoned in Shíráz.

    6. The governor ordered them brought before him amidst prominent citizens. When Mullá 'Abdu'l-Husayn refused to curse the Báb, he was beheaded. Some others were executed and the rest, with the women, were imprisoned–73 were later brought to Tihrán by Sháh's order. (22 during travel, 15 on arriving, and 23 in prison) 13 were freed in 3 years.

    7. Men were killed and 40 women and children were holed into a cave by firewood then set on fire. A few days later a persecutor opened the cave door and saw the women's bodies seated in a circle, heads sunk to their knees (in grief), others in their original posture despite the fire. On touching them, they crumbled. They repented but to no avail.

    8. The tradition Hadíth-i-Jábir foretold the Qá'im's magnanimity and massacre among saints.

    9. A fairly prominent Bábí government official later related how his grandfather had led persecutions after being assured by 2 'ulamás that he would be rewarded in Pardise for this holy war. 750 men were killed, women and children stripped almost naked were led on mules, etc. amidst rows of the heads of their relatives to Shíráz to be held captive, many of whom died amidst it. The grandfather later fell ill and dumb murmuring "Bábí!" before dying. His great-uncle, also a persecutor, was fined in disgrace 25,000 túmáns, with his hands, feet, and head subjected to torture. He was then dismissed in ruin.

    XIX. Bahá'u'lláh's release and banishment to Baghdád - 650
    A. Bahá'u'lláh was freed from danger by 'Azím's confession and the resulting vengeance. Convinced of His innocence from conspiring, the Vazír ordered Him freed. The emissary sent saw Bahá'u'lláh chained to the vermin-infested floor, neck in chains, dishevelled, face in sorrow, and breathing foul air. In disbelief and indignation, he denounced the Vazír. Though offered his mantle, Bahá'u'lláh refused and wore the prisoner dress to the government seat. When told by the Vazír that had He dissociated Himself from the Faith, He would not have suffered so, Bahá'u'lláh replied the government situation would not have become so critical had he followed His counsel that the flame of the Báb's Martyrdom would grow greater. On asking what to do, Bahá'u'lláh replied that the governors be ordered to stop shedding innocent blood; plundering, dishonoring, and injuring women; and seeking to exterminate the Faith. Though he consented and sent out a circular, his later actions betrayed this assent. On being freed, Bahá'u'lláh was ordered to leave Persia within a month. To pacify Him, certain properties were to be restored, the few left went unclaimed. He requested going to 'Iráq, despite the Russian minister's invitation of protection to Russia. He left with His family including 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Áqáy-i-Kalím (Mírzá Músá) escorted by an imperial guard and a Russian embassy official to Baghdád.

    B. Mírzá Áqá Khán was driven from office, placed under strict surveillance in Yazd, and died in shame and despair. The Hájibu'd-Dawlih was robbed of property, beard was cut off and forced to eat it, and had to watch atrocities to his women and children. Mahmúd Khán-i-Kalantar was 9 years later dragged by ropes around his feet through bazaars, then hung.




    Cross-References for Chapter 26



    Regarding the overview of the attempt on the life of the Sháh and its consequences (DB 595-650, 655-656), see GPB 61-66, 70-84; TN 29 -31 .

    Regarding Mírzá Áqá Khán-i-Núrí's relation with Bahá'u'lláh (and impact on people) (DB 598), see GPB 70; TN 31 .

    Regarding Bahá'u'lláh bravely turning Himself in (DB 599, 602), see GPB 71; TN 31 .

    Regarding Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment (DB 601, 606-608, 609 note 1, 631-632, 635-636) see GPB 71-72, 104, 240.

    Regarding accusations toward Bahá'u'lláh (DB 602, 604, see also 299-300, 591), see GPB 70-71; TN 31 .

    Regarding Bahá'u'lláh's preservation and exile (DB 603, 636, 646-650), see GPB 66, 104-109.

    Regarding the clergy's spreading of the Faith through their opposition (DB 605-606 note 1), see GPB 63; TN 6 , 7 , 21 , 29 .

    Regarding the martyrdom of Hájí Mírzá Sulaymán Khán (DB 616-621), see GPB 77-78.

    Regarding the Hájibu'd-Dawlih (DB 617-621, 603, 635-637), see GPB 83.

    Regarding Táhirih and her martyrdom (DB 621-631, see also 268-272, 285, 292-297), see GPB 23, 50, 66, 72-77 (and 83 for fate of Kalantar); TN 19 -20 .

    Regarding the martyrdom of Siyyid Husayn (DB 629-631), see GPB 66, 77.

    Regarding the persecutions of Mírzá Abú-Tálib Khán (DB 639-642) and his demise (DB 642), see GPB 84.

    Regarding the Shujá'u'l-Mulk's Demise (DB 645-648 note 1), see GPB 84.



    Overall of Chapter 26 (DB 595-650): GPB 23 , 50 , 61- 66, 70-84, 104-109; TN 6, 7, 19-21, 29-31.

    To refer to the booklet by Mírzá Shafí'-i-Nayrízí (DB 644), see http://bahai-library.com/histories/nayriz.html.


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