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|1876. 31 Aug
||Deposition of Murád V followed by the accession of `Abdu'l-Hamíd II to the Sultanate of the Ottoman Empire, upon which the banishment decree of Sultan 'Abdu'l-Aziz for Bahá'u'lláh is relaxed.
||Murad V; Abdul-Hamid II; Sultan
|1909 27 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Hamid II is deposed. [BBR486]
Sultan 'Abdu'l-Hamid II lived from 1842 to 1918) and reigned from 1876 to 1909. During his reign large portions of the Ottoman Empire were lost. Following his defeat in the war with Russia in 1878, Tunisia was occupied by France (1881), and Egypt was controlled by Britain (1882). In 1897, the Empire was forced by the Europeans to recognize the autonomy of Crete. The Sultán ruled as a despot, and brutally repressed the Armenians between 1894-6. In 1908, due to the lack of support among the army and the rise of the Young Turks, 'Abdu'l-Hamid was forced re-enact the Constitution of 1876 which he had earlier suspended, and which, for the first time in an Islámic state, defined the rights of both the ruler and his subjects. He was ultimately deposed when he attempted to plot a counterrevolution against the Young Turks and was exiled to Salonika, where he died in disgrace.
Accession of Muhammad (-Rishád) V [BBR486]
The last Ottoman Sultán, Muhammad VI, was deposed and was succeeded briefly by a cousin, but in 1924, the caliphate was abolished by Ataturk.
||Abdul-Hamid II; Sultans; Muhammad-Rishad VI; Caliphate