||`Abdu'lláh Páshá becomes the governor of `Akká in 1819. In 1832 when the Egyptians take `Akká he surrenders and is taken to Egypt. He is freed in 1840 when the area reverts to Turkish rule. [BBD5]
||`Akká; Israel; Egypt
||`Abdu'llah Pasha; governor of `Akka
|1831 – 40
||Egyptian occupation of `Akká. [BBR202; DH128]
- 'Abdu'lláh Páshá is the governor of 'Akká from 1919 to 1831. In 1832 when the Egyptians took the city he surrenders and is taken to Egypt. He is freed in 1840 when the area reverted to Turkish rule. [BBD5]
||Egyptian; occupation; `Akka
||The British fleet take `Akká from the Egyptians. [BBR202]
||Britain; British take `Akka; Egyptians
|1868 – 1870
||During this period Bahá'u'lláh reveals a number of Tablets to rulers including the Lawh-i-Ra'ís to `Alí Páshá, His second Tablet to Napoleon III and Tablets to Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria and Pope Pius IX. [BBD13]
- President Grant of the United States is in office when Bahá'u'lláh addresses a Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'. [BFA1:80N]
||`Ali Pasha; Napoleon III; Czar Alexander II; Queen Victoria; Pope Pius IX; President Grant; Lawh-i-Ra'is; Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'
|1868. 31 Aug
||The ship arrives in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party is put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
- Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembark and are taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
- One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, throws himself into the sea when he learns he is to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
The exiles land in `Akká to begin a confinement in the citadel that is to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
- See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
- See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
- See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
- See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
- DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
- See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
- See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
- See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
- See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
- The first night the exiles are refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
- Afterwards each prisoner is allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
- Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
- Three of the exiles die soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
- See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
- See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
- At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'bdu'l-Ahad ahead some time before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
- The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
- After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letter to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
|Haifa; Famagusta; `Akka; citadel
||Life of Bahaullah; Banishment of Bahaullah; Mishkin-Qalam; Áqa `Abdu'l-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Ra'is; Dr. Petro; Mirza Ja'far
|1868. c. Oct
||Nabíl is released from prison in Egypt and departs for `Akká. [BKG290–1; RB3:57]
- He visits Cyprus on the way. [BKG291]
|Cairo; `Akká; Cyprus
||Nabil; cave of Elijah
|1868. end Oct
||Nabíl enters `Akká in disguise but is recognized and after three days is thrown out of the city. [BKG290–1; GPB188; RB3:57]
- He spends the next four months wandering about Haifa, Mount Carmel and the Galilee waiting for another opportunity to enter `Akká. He lived for a time in the cave of Elijah on Mount Carmel. He would walk the 10 miles to the vantage point outside of the citadel where he might, on rare occasion, see the hand of Bahá'u'lláh waving from the small middle window.[BKG290–1; RB3:57, CH68]
|1869 Early in the year
||Hájí Amín-i-Iláhí arrives in `Akká from Iran and is the first pilgrim to see Bahá'u'lláh. [DH33]
- He is `only able to do so in the public bath, where it had been arranged that he should see Bahá'u'lláh without approaching Him or giving any sign of recognition'. This is the bath of Al-Jazzár. [DH33; GBP817]
|`Akká; bath of Al-Jazzár
||Nabíl makes a second attempt to enter `Akká. He is able to remain for 81 days and meets Mírzá Áqá Ján and others but does not see Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG291; RB3:57]
- DH35 says Nabíl spent 81 days in the citadel from 21 March to 9 June 1870.
|1869. 1 May
||Nabíl meets Bahá'u'lláh. [RB3:57]
|1870. 22 Jun
||Mírzá Mihdí, the Purest Branch, falls through the skylight in the roof of the prison in `Akká onto a crate lying on the floor below. [BKG311–12; GBP188; RB3:205]
- It was a normal practice for prisoners to go onto the roof in the summer evenings for fresh air. [RB3:205]
- He was chanting the verses of Bahá'u'lláh's Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih. [RB3:206]
- He is so badly injured that his clothes have to be torn from him. [RB206]
- Bahá'u'lláh comes to him at His bedside and asks His son whether he wishes to live; the Purest Branch begs Bahá'u'lláh to accept his life as a ransom for the opening of the gates of the prison to pilgrims. Bahá'u'lláh accepts this sacrifice. [BKG311–12; GPB188; RB3:208]
||Mírzá Mihdí; Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih
|1870. 23 Jun
||Mírzá Mihdí dies from his injuries 22 hours after his fall. [BKG311–12; GPB188; RB3:208]
- See BKG313, GPB188 and RB3:210 for the prayer of Bahá'u'lláh for His son.
- He is interred in the cemetery next to the shrine of Nabí Sálih in `Akká. [GBP188; RB3:209]
- Also see BBD155, BKG311–14, RB3:204–20.
||Mirza Mihdi; The Purest Branch
|1870. 29 Sep
||Mírzá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár effects his escape from Cyprus and rejoins Bahá'u'lláh in `Akká. [BBR306]
|1872. 22 Jan
||Three Azalís, among them Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahání, the Antichrist of the Bahá'í Revelation, are murdered by seven Bahá'ís. [BBD163; BKG3256 DH41; GPB189; RB3:235]
Siyyid Muhammad Isfahání, Nasr’ulláh Tafríshí, Áqá Ján Ka’j Kuláh and Ridá Qulí these four kept vigil near the land gate to ensure no one would meet Bahá’u’lláh. They kept watch from the second story window of a building overlooking the land gate so that if a pilgrim, after spending some six months traveling on foot, intended to enter the city they could somehow prevent his entrance. This situation lasted for some time. After two years and a few months, Bahá’u’lláh was released from the prison. Some of the friends, including Salmání, decided to get rid of these enemies and during the night went to their place and killed Siyyid Muhammad, Áqá Ján and another person. [Sweet and Enchanting Stories, Aziz Rohani, P 31]
- Bahá'u'lláh is taken to the Governorate where He is interrogated and imprisoned for 70 hours. [BKG327; GBP190; RB3:237]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá is thrown into prison and kept in chains the first night. Twenty–five of the companions were also imprisoned and shackled. [BKG328; GBP190; RB3:237]
- See BKG331, GPB191 and RB3:238 for the effect of the murders on the local population.
- Ilyás `Abbúd puts a barricade between his house and the house of `Údí Khammár, where Bahá'u'lláh lives. [BKG331; GPB191]
- See BKG330, DH44 and RB3:239 for the fate of the murderers, who are imprisoned for seven years.
|`Akká; House of `Údí Khammár
||Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Ilyas `Abbud; Antichrist of the Baha'i Revelation
|1872 Last months
||Munírih Khánum arrives in `Akká. She stays in the house of Mírzá Músá for several months. [MKBM]
- Note: BKG347 suggests she arrived some time after February 1873.
||Munirih Khanum; Mirza Musa
||Ahmad Big Tawfíq (Ahmad Bey) becomes Mutasarrif of `Akká. [BBD12, 20; BBR487; DH126–9; GPB192]
- His governorship lasts two years. [BKG337]
- This `sagacious and humane governor' meets `Abdu'l-Bahá and is greatly impressed by Him. The governor peruses some of the writings, which also impress him. [BKG334; GPB191]
- In response to a request for permission to render Bahá'u'lláh some service, the suggestion is made to him to restore the disused aqueduct built to bring water into `Akká, a suggestion which he immediately arose to carry out'. [DH52; GBP192]
- See DH126–9 for history of the aqueduct.
- See BKG333–4 for information on Ahmad Big Tawfíq.
||Ahmad Big Tawfiq (Ahmad Bey); Mutasarrif of `Akka
|1877. 3–10 Jun
||Bahá'u'lláh takes up residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD154]
- It takes the repeated pleadings of Shaykh `Alíy-i-Mírí, the Muftí of `Akká, to persuade Him to go. [BBD 154; BKG358–9; GPB192–3]
- See BKG359 and DH89 for a description.
- Bahá'u'lláh resides here for two years with some members of His family while `Abdu'l-Bahá, the Greatest Holy Leaf and Navváb continue to live in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD13, 106; DH89–90]
- See CH136 for the reason why `Abdu'l-Bahá did not live at Mazra`ih.
- Also see DH8994.
||Shaykh `Aliy-i-Miri; Mufti of `Akka; Greatest Holy Leaf; Navvab
||An epidemic of plague breaks out in `Akká and environs. Among others who feel its effects are `Údí Khammár and his family who leave the mansion at Bahjí. [BBD42, 128; BKG362; DH91, 203; GPB194]
||Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
- He is buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
- He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
||Mirza Musa; Áqay-i-Kalim; Apostle of Baha'u'llah; Karbala'i Hasan Khan; Karbala'i Sadiq
|1890 In the year
||Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar are arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd is imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín is imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar is imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]
Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí is arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he is sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he is imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]
In Mashhad a mob sets out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání but failing to find him they loot his shop. [BW18:384]
|`Akka; Haifa; Tihran; Qazvin; Kalat-i-Nadiri; Mashhad
||Haji Akhund; Haji Amin; Ibn-i-Abhar; Mahmud-i-Furughi, Mirza; Husayn-i-Bajistani, Mirza
|1898. 20 Aug
||Jamál Effendi passes away in `Akká. [EB128]
|1898. 11 Nov
||Kheiralla arrives in `Akká. [BFA1:XXVIII, 141]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá confers titles on him: `Bahá's Peter', the `Second Columbus' and `Conqueror of America'. [BFA1:142; GPB275; SBBH2:112]
|1898. 10 Dec
||The first Western pilgrims arrive in `Akká. [AB68; BBD13; BBRXXX; DH214; GPB257; SCU13]
- They divide themselves into three parties, using Cairo as a staging post. [AB68; BFA1:143; SBBH1:93]
- See AB68–72; BFA2:9; DH61; GPB257, 259 for those included in the pilgrimage group.
- Included were Mrs Hearst's nieces, a few American friends and, joining in London, Mrs Mary Thornburgh-Cropper and her mother. [SCU13. CH234-236]
- See BFA1:143–4 for those included in the first group.
- Among the group is Robert Turner, the first member of the black race to become a Bahá'í. For 35 years, Turner faithfully served as butler to Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Senator George Hearst, parents of newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. [AB72; BBD227; BFA1:139; GPB259]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá receives the pilgrims in the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD13, 108; DH61]
- See AB68–71; BW16:104–5; CH235–6 and GPB257–9 for the pilgrims' responses to the pilgrimage.
- Edward Getsinger makes a recording of `Abdu'l-Bahá chanting a prayer. [BFA1:160]
- The Getsingers returned from the pilgrimage with an Arabic copy of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas which was later translated by Anton Haddad. [BFA2:11]
|`Akka; Cairo; House of `Abdu'llah Pasha
||Robert Turner; Edward Getsinger; The Kitab-i-Aqdas; Anton Haddad; pilgrimage; BWC Pilgrimage
|1898. c. 20 Dec
||The second group of Western pilgrims arrive in `Akká, staying three days before returning to Cairo. [BFA1:145]
- See BFA1:145 for those included in this group.
||Dr Yúnis Khán arrives in `Akká to act as translator for `Abdu'l-Bahá. He remains for nine years. [BW12:679]
||Dr Yunis Khan
||`Abdu'l-Bahá writes His Will and Testament over this seven-year period. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
- It is written in three parts. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
- It `may be regarded as the offspring resulting from that mystic intercourse between Him Who had generated the forces of a God-given Faith and the One Who had been made its sole Interpreter and was recognized as its perfect Exemplar'. [GPB325]
- For an analysis of its content and its import see AB484–93 and GPB325–8.
||Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Baha
|1901 20 Aug
||Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd re-imposes the restrictions confining `Abdu'l-Bahá and His brothers within the walls of `Akká. [AB94; CB226–7; DH67–8; GBP264]
- This is the result of mischief stirred up by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [AB92–5; CB227; GBP264]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá is subjected to long interviews and detailed questioning. [AB95; GPB2645]
- For the continued mischief and false allegations of the Covenant-breakers see CB227–30 and GBP265–7.
- `Abdu'l-Bahá suspends the visits of the pilgrims for a time. [GBP267]
- He directs that all the Bahá'í writings in the possession of His family and secretaries be transferred to Egypt and has His mail redirected through an agent in Egypt. [GBP267]
- For the work of `Abdu'l-Bahá whilst in confinement 1901–8 see CB231–44 and GBP267–9.
||Sultan `Abdu'l-Hamid; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Covenant-breakers
||Thomas Breakwell goes on pilgrimage to `Akká, the first Englishman to do so. [BFA2:154; BW7:709]
- For an account of this pilgrimage see AB77 and BW7:710.
||Thomas Breakwell; pilgrimage
||Mírzá Badí`u'lláh, the fourth surviving son of Bahá'u'lláh, writes to the Bahá'ís announcing his break with Muhammad-`Alí and giving his loyalty to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB102; GPB264]
- His letter gives details of the plots of Muhammad-`Alí against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [GPB264]
- This reconciliation is short-lived. [AB102]
||Mirza Badi`u'llah; Muhammad-`Ali
||Laura Clifford Barney makes a number of extended visits to `Akká in this period. She brings with her questions to ask `Abdu'l-Bahá, the answers to which she notes down. These questions and answers result in the book Some Answered Questions. [AB81–2; BFA2:238]
- See AB81–2 for information about Laura Clifford Barney.
- The translator during this period was Dr Yúnis Afrukhtih (Yúnis Khán), whose memoirs, not yet published in English, make a valuable contribution to the history of the Faith. [BW12:679–81]
- He arrived in `Akká in 1900 and remained nine years. [BW12:679]
||Laura Clifford Barney; Some Answered Questions; Dr Yunis Afrukhtih (Yunis Khan)
||Agnes Alexander arrives in Alaska, the first Bahá'í travelling teacher to visit the territory.
A Bahá'í group is established in Germany. [BBRSM:107, 219]
|Alaska; Germany; `Akká
||Agnes Alexander; travel teacher; Baha'i group; Commission of Inquiry; `Árif Bey
||Mrs Whyte, the wife of a well-known Scottish clergyman, makes a pilgrimage to `Akká with Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper. In answer to a letter Whyte leaves for `Abdu'l-Bahá upon their departure, He reveals the Tablet the `Seven Candles of Unity'. [AB361–2]
- See AB360–2 and SWAB29–32 for text of the Tablet.
- See AB355–9 and SBR20–1 for accounts of Mrs Whyte's pilgrimage.
- See also Anjam Khursheed's, The Seven Candles of Unity pg45-54.
- Her account of the meeting with 'Abdu'l-Bahá can be found in Seven Candles of Unity: the Story of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Edinburgh (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1991). [Scottish Women: A Documentary History, 1780-1914 by Esther Breitenbach and Linda Fleming p.213]
||Mrs Whyte; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; pilgrimage; Seven Candles of Unity'
||Corinne True travels to `Akká to present `Abdu'l-Bahá with a scroll with the signatures of 800 Bahá'ís calling for construction to start on the American House of Worship. [CT51–3]
- BW13:847 says the scroll contained over a thousand signatures.
||Corinne True; House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
||Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven leave the United States on the first Bahá'í teaching trip to circle the globe. [BFA2:348, GPB261]
- They go to Hawaii, Japan, Shanghai, Singapore and to Burma, India and `Akká. [BFA2:348–50]
|Hawaii; Japan; Shanghai; Singapore; Burma; India; `Akká
||Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; travel teaching
||The Bahá'ís of Haifa and `Akká return to their homes from the village of Abú-Sinán. [DH147]
||Haifa; `Akká; Abú-Sinán
|1922 6 Jan
||A memorial feast for 600 people of Haifa, `Akká and the surrounding area is held 40 days after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:122; ER195]
- More than a hundred poor are also fed. [BW15:122; ERT95-6]
- For details of the memorial service see ER195-9 and SW13, 2:404.