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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1783. c. 1783 Birth of Mírzá `Abbás-i-Irivání, later Prime Minister Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, in Máh-Kú. Mah-Ku; Iran Mirza `Abbas-i-Irivani; Prime Minister of Persia; Prime Minister of Iran; Haji Mirza Áqasi
1798 c. Mar Áqá Muhammad Khán, leader of the Qájárs, proclaims himself Sháh of Persia; beginning of Qájár dynasty. Persia; Iran Áqa Muhammad Khan; Qajars; Qajar dynasty; Shah
1825. c. 1825 Birth of Áqá Husayn-i-Isfahání (Mishkín-Qalam), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and well-known calligrapher, in Shíráz. Shíráz; Iran Áqa Husayn-i-Isfahani; Mishkin-Qalam; Apostle; calligrapher
1829 29 Mar Birth of Áqá Muhammad-i-Qá'iní (Nabíl-i-Akbar), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw-Firist, near Bírjand. Naw-Firist; Birjand Nabil-i-Akbar; Apostle; Aqa Muhammad-i-Qa'ini
1834 9 Sep The end of the reign of Fath-`Alí Sháh and the accession of Muhammad Sháh. [B7; BBD83, 164; BBR153, 482]
  • Fifty–three sons and 46 daughters survive Fath-`Alí Sháh. [B7]
  • After his accession Muhammad Sháh executes the Grand Vizier, the Qá'im Máqám, the man who has raised him to the throne. He then installs his tutor, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, to the office (1835). [B10–11]
  • See BBD164 for picture.
  • See B11–122 for the relationship between the Sháh and his new Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí.
  • For details on the life of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí see BBD19.
Iran; Fath-`Ali Shah; Muhammad Shah; Grand Vizier; Qa'im Maqam; Haji Mirza Áqasi
1835 Birth of Mírzá Áqá Ján-i-Kashání (Khadimu'lláh), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and His amanuensis. Mirza Áqa Jan-i-Kashani; Khadimu'llah; Apostle of Baha'u'llah; amanuensis
1835 Nov c. Hájí Mírzá Áqásí becomes Prime Minister of Persia. Iran Haji Mirza Áqasi; Prime Minister of Persia; Prime Minister of Iran
1847. 28 Mar The Báb and His escort arrive at the fortress of Kinár-Gird, 28 miles from Tihrán. Muhammad Big, the head of the escort, receives a message from Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, the prime minister, telling him to take the Báb to Kulayn to await further instructions. [B119; DB225–6; GPB16] Tihrán; Tehran; Kulayn; Iran Báb; fortress Kinár-Gird; Muhammad Big; Hájí Mírzá Áqásí; prime minister
1847. Apr The Báb receives a courteous message from the Sháh, who, on the advice of his prime minister, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, assigns Him to the fortress of Máh-Kú in the province of Ádharbáyján. The Báb is taken to Máh-Kú via Tabríz. [B121–2, 124; DB229–32; GPB16; TN11–12] Máh-Kú; Ádharbáyján; Tabríz; Iran; Persia Bab; Shah; prime minister; Haji Mirza Áqasi; fortress Mah-Ku
1848. 9 Apr The Báb is removed from Máh-Kú.
  • Hájí Mírzá Áqásí is alarmed by the developments at Máh-Kú and orders that the Báb be moved to Chihríq. [B131; DB259; GPB1920]
  • The Báb's presence in Máh-Kú, so close to the Russian frontier, is also a cause for concern for the Russian government. Prince Dolgorukov, the Russian Minister in Tihrán, asks that He be removed. It is likely that this request was made in 1847 but not carried out until now. [B131; BBR72; TN13]
  • The Báb had been in Máh-Kú for nine months. [DB259]
Mah-Ku; Chihriq; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Báb; Hájí Mírzá Áqásí; Russian; Russia; Prince Dolgorukov
1848 Aug The Báb is taken back to Chihríq, where He remains until June/July 1850. [B147; DB322; TN15]
  • B147 says He must have arrived in the first days of August.
  • On His return the Báb writes a denunciatory letter to Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. He sends it to Hujjat in Tihrán, who delivers it personally. [B147; DB323; GPB27]
  • The Báb completes the Arabic Bayán. [BBR45; GBP25]
Chihriq; Iran; Persia Bab, Life of; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Hujjat; Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan)
1848. 4 Sep The death of Muhammad Sháh. [BBR153–4]
  • This precipitates the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. [B147; BBD19; BBR156]
  • For details of his life, fall and death, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
  • The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest is rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
Iran; Persia Muhammad Sháh; Grand Vizier; Hájí Mírzá Áqásí; Bahá'u'lláh; arrest
1849. 1 Aug Death of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí at Karbalá. [B147; BBD19; BBR156] Karbala; Iraq Haji Mirza Aqasi; Prime Minister
1851. 1 May Áqá Husayn is blown from a cannon in Yazd. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran; Persia Áqá Husayn; cannon
1851. 23 Jul Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání is beaten to death in Yazd after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran; Persia Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání; death
1851. 4 Aug Áqá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Hakkák is blown from a cannon after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Áqá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Hakkák; canon; death
1851. 13 Nov Mírzá Taqí Khán, the Amír-Nizám, is dismissed from his post and told he is only in charge of the army. [BBR163; BKG71]

  • He is succeeded by Mírzá Áqá Khán-i-Núrí. [BBRXXIX, 482; DB598]
Mírzá Taqí Khán; Amír-Nizám; dismissed; Mírzá Áqá Khán-i-Núrí
1852 Jan Mírzá Taqí Khán is killed in the public bath in Káshán by order of the Sháh on the instigation of the Sháh's mother and Mírzá Áqá Khán. [BBR164–5; BKG72]

  • He chooses to have his veins opened and he bleeds to death. [BBR164; BKG72]
Káshán; Iran; Persia Mirza Taqi Khan; death; Shah; mother; Mirza Áqa Khan
1852 Dec Bahá'u'lláh is released from the Síyáh-Chál.

  • This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
  • See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release. He invoking his full power as an envoy of Russia, called out the Sháh and his court for their barbaric behaviour.
  • See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh on release.
  • See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán on His release.
  • The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but Bahá'u'lláh chose instead to go to Iraq. It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would have been misrepresented as having political implications. [BBIC:8; DB650]
Iran; Persia; Iraq Baha'u'llah; release; Siyah-Chal; Russia; Minister; Prince Dolgorukov; Mirza Áqa Khan
1853. summer Bahá'u'lláh reveals His station and mission to Mírzá Áqá Ján in Karbalá. [BKG109–11; GPB115–16] Karbalá; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Mirza Áqa Jan a few newspaper stories in English mention 'A certain "Babee"'
1854 10 Apr - 1856 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh suddenly leaves Baghdád and goes to Kurdistán. [BKG115; DB585; GPB120]

  • Before He left, Bahá'u'lláh asked His family to look after Mírzá Yahyá during His absence. [CB70–1; CH50–1]
Bahá'u'lláh lives for some time as a dervish in a cave on the mountain of Sar-Galú. He takes the name Darvísh Muhammad-i-Írání to conceal His true identity. [BBD214–15; BBRSM:60–1; BKG116–19; GPB120–1; TN38–9]

  • This action compares to Moses' going out to the desert of Sinai, to Buddha's retreat to the wilds of India, to Christ's walk in the wilderness and to Muhammad's withdrawal to the hills of Arabia. [BKG114]
  • Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Hamadání was His only companion. Áqá Abu'l-Qásim was killed on a journey to collect money and provisions. [BKG116–17]
  • "It was this period of voluntary seclusion, following shortly after the execution of the Báb in 1850, which bequeathed to history irrevocable proof that Bahá'u'lláh and not His half-brother, Subhi-Ezel, was in reality the one celebrated by the Báb and for whom the Bábí Movement was the spiritual preparation. Tor by this act of voluntary retirement, Bahá'u'lláh gave Sebhi-Ezel unhampered opportunity to exercise the spiritual leadhership over the Bábís which the latter claimed as his right. The result, however, demonstrated Subhi-Ezel's utter incapacity to maintain unity among the Bábís, inspire them with faith and confidence sufficient to meet their many difficulties and guide them along lines of true future progress. Nother but the return of Bahá'u'lláh could re-quicken the flames of their ardour or supply them with the more universal principles of conduct and faith required to transform the Bábí Movement into a world religion." [BW2Surveyp33]
  • It was during this time that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the poem Qasídiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqá'íyyih. It was composed of 2,000 couplets but Bahá'u'lláh allowed only 127 to be preserved. [BBD215; BKG118; GPB123]
  • See BKG114, GPB117–19 and K1250 for reasons for Bahá'u'lláh's retirement.
  • Before and during His absence no fewer than 25 people claimed to be the One promised by the Báb. [BBRSM29, 59; EB269; GPB125]
  • See BKG115–19 and GPB120 for Bahá'u'lláh's activities while in Kurdistán.
  • See KI248–51 for Bahá'u'lláh's own account of the episode.
  • See BKG119–22 and GPB124–6 for the condition of the Bábí community in Baghdád during this period.
  • The son born to Navváb shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád became ill and died during Bahá'u'lláh's absence. [CB71; CH51–2]
  • See SBBR2:1–28 for Bahá'u'lláh's contact with Súfís.
  • BW16:528 for an account of Daoud Toeg, who visited the caves of Sar-Galú and photographed them.
Kurdistan; Baghdad Bahaullah, Life of; Dervishes; Sulaymaniyyih; Sar-Galu; Aqa Abul-Qasim-i-Hamadani; Poetry; Qasidiyi-i-Izz-i-Varqaiyyih (Ode of the Dove); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Yahya; Sufism; Daoud Toeg; Caves
1858. Aug The dismissal of Mírzá Áqá Khán, the prime minister who had directed the persecution of the Bábís that followed the attempt on the life of the Sháh. Írán; Persia Mirza Áqa Khan; prime minister; Babi; Shah
1863. 26 Mar Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. [BKG154; GPB147; RB1:228; SA163]

  • The Tablet is recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
  • See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
  • See RB1:228–44 and SA163–5 for descriptions of the Tablet and analyses of its content.
  • Immediately after it is chanted Bahá'u'lláh orders the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. [GBP147; RB1:228–9; SA163]
  • The party has not yet left when a messenger arrives from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the invitation to go to Constantinople. [RB1:229; SA163]
Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshash; Iraq; Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Lawh-i-Mallahul-Quds (Tablet of the Holy Mariner); Naw-Ruz; Mirza Áqa Jan; Namiq Pasha
1863. 3 May Bahá'u'lláh leaves the Garden of Ridván.

  • This initiates the holy day the Twelfth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 2 May. [BBD196]
  • As He is about to leave He reveals a Tablet addressed to Áqá Mírzá Áqá in Shíráz. It brings relief and happiness to those who receive it. [EB222]
  • His leaving is accompanied by symbolic signs of His station: He rides a horse rather than a donkey and wears a tall táj. [BBD221; BKG176]
  • See BKG175–6, GPB155 and RB1:281–2 for descriptions of the scenes that accompanied His departure.

Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrive at Firayját, about three miles away on the banks of the Tigris. [BKG176]

  • They remain here for seven days. [BKG176]
  • See BKG for a description of activities during this period.
Najibiyyih Garden; Firayjat; Iraq; Shiraz; Iran; Persia Life of Bahaullah; Ridvan Festival; Twelfth Day of Ridvan; Aqa Mirza Aqa; Horses; DonkeyS; Taj; Tigris; Rivers; Garden of Ridvan
1863. 9 May Bahá'u'lláh and His party leave Firayját for Istanbul although at this point the destination is unknown to the exiles. [CH57, GPB156; SA235]

  • The journey takes 110 days. [GPB156]
  • For the details of the journey see BKG176–96; GPB1567; SW13:277.
  • See BKG180 for a map of the journey.
  • They pass through the following:
    
    Judaydih
    Dilí-'Abbás
    Qarih-Tapih
    Saláhíyyih (stay two nights)
    Dúst-Khurmátú
    Táwuq
    Karkúk (stay two days)
    Irbíl
    By the River Záb
    Bartallih
    Mosul (stay three days)
    Zákhú
    Jazírih
    Nisíbín
    Hasan-Áqá
    Márdiín
    Díyár-Bakr (stay two days)
    Ma'dan-Mis
    Khárpút (stay two or three days)
    Ma'dan-Nuqrih
    Dilik-Tásh
    Sívás
    Túqát
    Amasia (stay two days)
    Iláhíyyih (the last day of the overland journey)
    Sámsún on the Black Sea. (110 days after departure) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • For the number of people on the journey see BKG179 (72), GPB156 (26 plus members of His family plus guards), RB2:5–6 (54) and SW13:277 (72).
  • As the party draws close to Sámsún on the Black Sea Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Hawdaj. [BKG195; RB2:6]
  • The party remains in Sámsún for seven days. [GPB157]
Firayjat; Samsun; Istanbul; Judaydih; Dili-'Abbas; Qarih-Tapih; Salahiyyih; Dust-Khurmatu; Tawuq; Karkuk; Irbil; Bartallih; Mosul; Zakhu; Jazirih; Nisibin; Hasan-Áqa; Mardiin; Diyar-Bakr; Ma'dan-Mis; Kharput; Ma'dan-Nuqrih; Dilik-Tash; Sivas; Tuqat; Amasia; Ilahiyyih Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Journeys; Black Sea; Suriy-i-Hawdaj
1864 c. During the time in Adrianople In their efforts to discredit Bahá'u'lláh and His companions, the followers of Azál made complaint to the authorities. They complained that they had insufficient means of livelihood, blaming Bahá'u'lláh for depriving them of their share of the allowances. Àqá Ján Kajkuláh, instigated by Siyyid Muhammad, wrote to dignitaries and government representatives with the false accusation that Bahá'u'lláh had made an alliance with Bulgaria with the purpose of conquering Constantinople.
  • The Persiana ambassador in Constantinople took advantage of the disturbance in Turkey to inform Persian Consuls in Iraq and in Egypt that the Turkish government had withdrawn protection for the Bábí sect. This news precipitated malice and mischief in both countries. [FAA7]
Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Mirza Yahya; Àqa Jan Kajkulah; Siyyid Muhammad; Azal
1865. Mar Death of former Prime Minister Mírzá Áqá Khán, in Qum. He is buried at Karbalá. [BBR165] Qum; Iran; Karbalá; Iraq Prime Minister; Mirza Áqa Khan; death
1866 10 Mar - c. Mar 1867 Bahá'u'lláh reveals numerous Tablets in the months that follow.

  • See GBP170–1 for a description of the number of verses revealed every day.
  • See BKG245 and GPB171 for list of Tablets revealed before Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in the house of ‘Izzat Áqá.
  • In addressing the Tablets to the Kings and the Queens of the earth Baha'u'lláh addressed them as "Servants of the Most High God and Guardians under Him of the people entrusted to their guidance" and called on them to join with Him in establishing an International Arbitration Council so that humanity should never again suffer the misery of war. His approach was now more direct, He claimed Divine authority and that He was the Chosen One, Whom, under various names, all the religions of the world were awaiting. [CH63]
Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; Tablet; ‘Izzat Áqa; International Arbitration Council; kings
1867. Jan or Feb Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a Bahá'í physician, is executed in Zanján. [BBR253; BKG238; BW18:383]

Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání, a disciple of Hujjat, is executed in Tihrán. [BBR254; BW18:383]

Zanján; Tihrán Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí; Bahá'í; physician; executed; Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání; Hujjat
1867. c. Jun Bahá'u'lláh rents the house of ‘Izzat Áqá. [BKG239; GPB168]

  • See BKG241 for a description of this house.
Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; ‘Izzat Áqa; house
1868. 22 Aug Soon after sunrise the ship arrives at Smyrna. [BKG264]
  • It stays for two days. [BKG264; GPB182]
  • The illness of Mírzá Áqáy-i-Káshání (Jináb-i-Muníb) necessitates his removal to the hospital. He dies before 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Musá can return to the ship. 'Abdu'l-Bahá makes arrangements with the local funeral director. They hold a simple funeral and burial takes place in Izmír. [CH65, BKG264–5; GPB182]
  • This young and vibrant man arrived in Baghdad before the exile and travelled with the party holding the bridle of the horse of Bahá'u'lláh the whole route, often with 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the other side. When the party reached Constantinople he was instructed to go on teaching trip to Persia and to Iraq, a long and an arduous tour. He rejoined the group in Adrianople just prior to the exile and he was in precarious condition but begged Bahá'u'lláh for permission to be included. It is reported in FAA21 that he died two or three days after the departure of the ship.
Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Aqay-i-Kashani
1868. 31 Aug The ship arrives in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembark and are taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
  • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, throws himself into the sea when he learns he is to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party is put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
  • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
The exiles land in `Akká to begin a confinement in the citadel that is to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
  • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
  • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
  • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
  • DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
  • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
  • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
  • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • The first night the exiles are refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
  • Afterwards each prisoner is allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
  • Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
  • Three of the exiles die soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
  • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
  • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
  • At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'bdu'l-Ahad ahead some time before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
  • The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
  • After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letter to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Rais; Petro. Dr; Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies
1868. 5 Sep Mírzá Yahyá arrives with his entire family but without a single disciple or even a servant. [BBR306]
  • Also exiled to Cyprus were four loyal Bahá'ís and they were:
      Mishkín-Qalam (Áqá Hussain Isfahání)
      Mirzá ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáh-i-Maraghih'í (Mullá Ádí-Guzal)
      Áqá ‘Abdu’l-Ghaffár
      Áqá Muḥammad-Báqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallátí) (coffee-maker)
  • With their arrival Cyprus becomes the first island in the Mediterranean to receive the Faith.
  • See also GPB 182 and AB285, 523.
Famagusta Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Hussain Isfahani; Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi, Mirza; Mulla Adi-Guzal; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir; Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati; Mirza Yahya
1870 In Zanján, Áqá Siyyid Ashraf is arrested, condemned to death as a Bábí and executed. [BWG470]
  • He is the son of Mír Jalíl, one of the companions of Hujjat who was martyred in Tihrán at the end of the Zanján episode. [BKG470]
  • He was born during the siege at Zanján. [BKG470]
  • His mother was brought to prison to persuade him to recant his faith but she threatened to disown him if he did so. [BBD25; BKG470; ESW73–4; GPB199–200]
  • See G135–6 for Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet concerning Ashraf and his mother.
Zanján; Áqa Siyyid Ashraf; Mir Jalil
1871. End of the year Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Qad Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisun (Fire Tablet). It was revealed in answer to a letter from one of His devoted followers in Persia, Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar-i-Dahaji. In a passage, as yet untranslated, addressed to the uncle of Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar, Bahá'u'lláh states that He revealed the Fire Tablet for the his nephew so that it might create in him feelings of joy as well as igniting in his heart the fire of the love of God. It was revealed at a time when great afflictions and sorrows had surrounded Bahá'u'lláh as a result of the hostility, betrayal and acts of infamy perpetrated by those few individuals who had once claimed to be the helpers of the Cause of God. [BKG321–2; RB3:226–31] Akka Lawh-i-Qad Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisun; Fire Tablet; Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar-i-Dahaji
1887 Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
  • He is buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
  • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
`Akká; Mirza Musa; Áqay-i-Kalim; Apostle of Baha'u'llah; Karbala'i Hasan Khan; Karbala'i Sadiq
1889 Jun E. G. Browne gives a paper on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') at the Royal Asiatic Society, London.

Royal Asiatic Society; London; E. G. Browne; Áqa Najafi
1889. 17 Jul Upheaval in Najafábád: Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', drives over a hundred Bahá'ís out of Sidih and Najafábád. They take sanctuary in the Telegraph Office and in the stables of the governor of Isfahán. [BW18:383]
  • See BBR280–4 for Western reporting of the episode.
Najafabad; Sidih; Isfahan Aqa Najafi
1892. summer `Abdu'l-Bahá goes to Haifa and Mount Carmel and isolates Himself in a small apartment in the stone building west of the lower cave of Elijah. [DH59, 188]

Áqá Murtadá of Sarvistán, who has been in prison for five years, is executed in Shíráz. [BW18:384]

Anton Haddad arrives in the United States. [BFA1:26]

  • He is probably the first Bahá'í to reach American soil. [BFA1:26]
Mount Carmel; Shíráz; USA lower cave of Elijah; Áqá Murtadá of Sarvistán; Anton Haddad
1892 6 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Nabil-i-Akbar Áqá Muhammed-i-Qá'Ini. He was born in Naw- Firist, Persia (Iran) on 29 March 1829.
  • “It has been claimed that no one within the enclave of the Baha’i Faith has ever surpassed the profundity of his erudition.” Bahá’u’lláh addressed the Lawh-i- Hikmat* (Tablet of Wisdom), in his honour. [EB115]
  • He was imprisoned a number of times in Iran for his Bahá’í activities and eventually moved to Ashkhabad (‘Ishqábád, Turkmenistan). He died in Bukhárá, Uzbekistan. ‘Abdu’lBahá designated him a Hand of the Cause of God. [LoF28-31]
  • For details of his life see EB112–15.
  • See OPOP86 for "Pilgrim's Note" concerning what Jináb-i-Fádil said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá said about Nabil's suicide.
  • Bukhárá; Uzbekistan; Naw- Firist; Iran; Nabil-i-Akbar Áqa Muhammed-i-Qa'Ini; Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God
    1893. 17 Jun Áqá Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Muhammadábádí is killed by three men on the orders of two of the `ulamá of Yazd. [BW18:384; GPB296]
    • He is the first to suffer martyrdom in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • See GPB296 for details of his martyrdom.
    Yazd; Iran Aqa Muhammad-Riday-i-Muhammadabadi; Martyrs; Persecution
    1894 In the year Green Acre is founded by Sarah J. Farmer in the aftermath of the World Parliament of Religions. [BBRSM:104; BFA2:142–7; BW5:29; GPB261; SBBH1:125]

    Two Bahá'ís are arrested and bastinadoed in Níshápúr. One dies seven days later, the other two years later. [BW18:384]

    Hájí Yárí, a Bahá'í of Jewish background, is arrested and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384]

    A Bahá'í in Dastjirdán, Khurásán, Áqá `Abdu'l-Vahháb Mukhtárí, is beaten and expelled from the village. [BW18:384]

    Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, are beaten and Bahá'í homes are looted. [BW18:384]

    Green Acre; Eliot; Maine; United States; Nishapur; Hamadan; Dastjirdan; Khurasan; Faran; Khurasan Sarah Farmer; Haji Yari; Aqa Abdul-Vahhab Mukhtari; World Parliament of Religions; Persecution Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia)
    1896 In the year Áqá Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Yazdí is martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Tabríz Áqa Siyyid Mihdiy-i-Yazdi; persecution
    1897. c. 1897 Mírzá Áqá Ján, Bahá'u'lláh's amanuensis for 40 years, throws in his lot with Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and becomes a Covenant-breaker. [CB181]
    • For the story of his downfall see CB181–92.
    Mirza Áqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Covenant-breaker
    1897 In the year Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, the first Bahá'í to have settled China, dies in Bombay on his way back to Shíráz. [PH24]

    The Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh are instructed by `Abdu'l-Bahá to gather to begin the consultations regarding the future organization of the Bahá'í community in Tihrán.

    • This gathering leads to the formation of the Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán in 1899. [BBD98, 114, 115; EB268]
    Fifteen Bahá'ís are arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They are taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]

    Three Bahá'ís are arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]

    The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán are looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]

    China; Bombay; Tihrán; Saysán; Ádharbáyján; Tabríz; Nayríz; Hamadán Haji Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihran; Áqa Najafi; Iranian persecution
    1897. Feb Six Bahá'ís are arrested in Mamaqán, Ádharbáyján. Three are bastinadoed and three are imprisoned in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Mamaqán; Ádharbáyján; Tabríz
    1898. 1 Jun Áqá Ghulám-Husayn-i-Banádakí is killed by a mob in Yazd after refusing to deny his faith. [BW18:384] Yazd Aqa Ghulam-Husayn-i-Banadaki
    1902 Shanghai is re-opened to the Bahá'í Faith by the arrival of two Bahá'ís from`Ishqábád, Áqá Mírzá Mihdí Rashtí and Áqá Mírz `Abdu'l-Baqí Yazdí, who open a branch of the Ummi'd company, an import-export firm. [PH25] Shanghai; `Ishqábád Áqa Mirza Mihdi Rashti; Áqa Mirza `Abdu'l-Baqi Yazdi; Ummi'd company
    1902 18 Mar Áqá Muhammad-Zamá-i-Sabbágh and Siyyid Ja`far are executed in Isfandábád and Abarqú, Fárs. Several Bahá'ís are expelled from the town and another Bahá'í killed. [BW18:385] Isfandabad and Abarqu; Fars; Aqa Muhammad-Zama-i-Sabbagh; Siyyid Ja`far; Iranian persecution
    1902 - 1903 `Abdu'l-Bahá commissions the restoration of the House of the Báb in Shíráz under the supervision of Áqá Mírzá Áqá, an Afnán and nephew of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB108; EB236; GPB300]
    • Also see Memories of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh and `Abdu’l-Bahá by Mírzá Habíbu’lláh Afnán, (Ahang Rabbani trans.) pages 219-222.
    Shiraz House of the Bab; Aqa Mirza Aqa; Afnan
    1909 months following Mar Construction of the Eastern Pilgrim House in Haifa begins. [BBD178]
    • Mírzá Ja`far Rahmání, (also know as Áqá Mírzá Ja’far Shírází) a believer from `Ishqábád, is given permission by `Abdu'l-Bahá to build it. [DH177, SES25-26]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá composes an inscription that it place above the entrance that reads, "This is a spiritual Hostel for Pilgrims, and its founder is Mírzá Ja'far Rahmani. AH 1327."
    • This is the first property to be granted tax exemption by the civil authorities. [GPB307, SES43-47]
    Haifa; Eastern Pilgrim House; Mirza Ja`far Rahmani; Áqa Mirza Ja’far Shirazi; BWC Pilgrimage
    1910 Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven arrive in Shanghai and meet with Áqá Mírzá `Abdu'l-Baqí Yazdí. They are probably the first Bahá'ís from the West to go to China. [PH25] Shanghai Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; Áqa Mirza `Abdu'l-Baqi Yazdi
    1913 14 Apr His plan had been to leave but His departure is delayed due to a request from the president of the Túránian Society, Count Pal Teleki, who later becomes the Hungarian Prime Minister two times.
    • In the afternoon 'Abu'l-Bahá visits Arminius Vambéry at his home again and some time later sends him a tablet and a carpet by the post. It was reported in "Star of the West" (February 1929) that this tablet was in possession of Arminius's son, Rusztem Vámbéry. [SBBR14p115, 125, AB387, SoW9Vol9p24]
    • At a meeting of the Túránian Society in the grand hall of the National Museum 'Abdu'l-Bahá gives a lecture entitled "Peace Between Nations and Religions" to some 200 people. The talk is translated into Hungarian by Leopold Stark and into English by Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. [SBBR14p113, ABM318]
    • 'Alí Abbás Áqá, a Tabrízí carpet merchant, hosts a dinner party in His honour. Among those attending is the Turkish Consul. [AB387, MRHK367, SBBR14p113]
    Budapest; Hungary Arminius Vambery; Leopold Stark; Count Pal Teleki; Ali Abbas Aqa; Abdu'l-Bahas second Western tour; Travels of Abdul-Baha
    1913 Dec Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Isfandábádí is killed by two assailants in Qúzih-Kúh, Bavánát, Fárs. [BW18:387] Qúzih-Kúh; Bavánát; Fárs. Áqa Abu'l-Qasim-i-Isfandabadi
    1914 27 Aug Áqá Mírzá Yúsif-i-Qá'iní is killed in Mashhad. [BW18:387] Mashhad Aqa Mirza Yusif-i-Qa'ini; Iranian persecution
    1918 15 Mar Áqá Mírzá Javád, I`timádu't-Tujjár, is shot in Bandar Jaz and the houses of the Bahá'ís are looted, causing the death of Javád's 14-year-old nephew. [BW18:387] Bandar Jaz; Iran; Áqa Mirza Javad; I`timadu't-Tujjar; Iranian persecution
    1919 2 Sep The passing of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, entitled Adíbu'l-'Ulamá, know as Adíb in Tihrán. He was born in Talaqán in 1848 and became a Bahá’í around 1889.
  • Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God. [SDH138-140]
  • He was one of the founders of the Tarbíyat Schools in Tihrán. He died in Tihrán. [LoF17-18]
  • Tihrán; Tehran; Talaqán Hand appointed by Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan; Adibu'l-'Ulama; Adib; Hand of the Cause of God
    1921 20 Oct Áqá Siyyid Mustafá Tabátabá'í is poisoned in Sangsar. Continual agitation prevents the burial of the body for several days. [BW18:388] Sangsar; Iran; Áqa Siyyid Mustafa Tabataba'i; Iranian persecution
    1924 21-28 Mar Daily attacks on Bahá'ís and their shops in Mashhad culminate in the expulsion from the town of áqá Gulkání and other Bahá'ís. [BW13:388] Mashhad aqa Gulkani; Iranian persecution
    1924 22 Jun áqá Husayn-`Alí is martyred in Firúzábád, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388] Firuzabad; Fars; Iran aqa Husayn-`Ali; Iranian persecution
    1927 25 Mar Áqá ‘Abdu’l-‘A‘zím, Amínu’l-‘Ulamá’ is martyred in Ardibíl, Iran, by the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:388] Ardibíl; Iran Áqá ‘Abdu’l-‘A‘zím; Amínu’l-‘Ulamá’; martyrdom; religious persecution
    1927 19 Jun Karbalá’í Asadu’lláh-i-Saqat-furúsh is martyred in Kirmán, Iran. [BW18:388] Kirmán; Iran Karbalá’í Asadu’lláh-i-Saqat-furúsh; martyrdom; religious persecution
    1953 Áqá Rahmán Kulayní-Mamaqání is martyred in Durúd, Iran. [BW18:390] Durúd; Iran Áqa Rahman Kulayni-Mamaqani; martyrdom
    1953 26 Sep The martyrdom of Rahmán Kulayní Mamaqání. He was stabbed by a ruffian in a mob. [BW12p710-711] Durúd; Iran martyrdom; Rahman Kulayni Mamaqani.
    1980. 13 Aug In a message the Universal House of Justice announced the publication of translations into English of "The Long Healing Prayer" and "Qad-Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhisún", the prayer commonly known as the "Fire Tablet". These tablets have subsequently been published in prayer books. [Messages63-86p455] BWC The Long Healing Prayer; The Fire Tablet; Qad-Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhisun

    from the main catalogue

    1. Exposition on the Fire Tablet by Bahá'u'lláh, An, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
    2. Fire Tablet, by Bahá'u'lláh (1937). Tablet of "The Hearts of the Sincere are Consumed in the Fire" (Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqa`l-Mukhlisún). [about]
    3. Fire Tablet, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Rituals in Babism and Bahá'ísm (1994). Tablet of "The Hearts of the Sincere are Consumed in the Fire" (Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqa`l-Mukhlisún). [about]
    4. Fire Tablet (Lawh-i-Qad Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisún): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
    5. Ishraqát, Tablet of, Date of Revelation, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Clues that could provide a date for the revelation of Baha'u'llah's "Tablet of Ishraqat." Includes part of Sen McGlinn's original query to which the House. [about]
    6. Lifetime with Bahá'u'lláh, A: Events in Baghdad, Istanbul, Edirne and ‘Akká while in the Company of Bahá'u'lláh, by Aqa Husayn Ashchi, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 14 (2007). One-third of a lengthy primary-source history, annotated by translator. [about]
    7. Memories of Ashchi: Background, by Ahang Rabbani and Sen McGlinn (1999). Background information on and a start at translation of the narratives of Aqa Husayn Ashchi. [about]
    8. Tabla de Fuego, by Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    9. Tablet of Splendors (Lawh-i-Ishráqát): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
    10. Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Bahá'u'lláh (1988). [about]
     
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