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|1817. 12 Nov
||Birth of Mírzá Husayn `Alíy-i-Núrí (Bahá'u'lláh).
- He is of royal Persian blood, a descendant of Zoroaster and the Sásáníyán kings of Persia through Yazdigird III, the last king of that dynasty. Through His mother He is a descendant of Abraham through Katurah and Jesse. [BW8:874; GPB94; RB1:305]
- He is born in Tihrán. His father is Mírzá `Abbás whose ancestral home is Tákur in the province of Núr. His father is also known as Mírzá Buzurg in royal circles. [BKG13; RB1:7]
- His mother is Khadíjih Khánum. [BBD127; BBRSM57–8]
- He is born at dawn. [LOG353]
- For biblical reference see LOG378.
- RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
- BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
- See GPB93-99 for the significance of Bahá'u'lláh's station.
|Tihran; Nur; Iran
||Bahaullah, Birth of; Bahaullah, Life of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Mirza Buzurg; Khadijih Khanum; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Births and deaths; Zoroaster; Abraham
||BIC Statement on Bahá'u'lláh; Bahá'u'lláh: The Word Made Flesh|
|1819. 20 Oct
||Birth of Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad (The Báb), before dawn, in Shíráz. [B32; GH13; DB72]
- The Primal Point (Nuqtiy-i-Úlá). [BBD185]
- The Promised One of Islam, the Qá'im. [BBD188]
- Siyyid-i-dhikr (Lord of Remembrance). [BBD212]
- His mother is Fátimih-Bagum (Zajra Bagum). [B33, 46; KB20; RB2:382]
- His father is Mírzá Muhammad Ridá. [BW4:234–5; LOG351; SE206; TN4]
- He is a direct heir of the House of Háshim and descended thus from Muhammad and through Him from Abraham. [BW8:874]
- Designations of the Báb include `Abdu'dh-dhikr (Servant of the Remembrance), Bábu'lláh (the Gate of God) and Hadrat-i-A`lá (His Holiness the Most Exalted One). [BBD1, 30, 93]
- For biblical reference see LOG378. See RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
- See BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
- See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
- See DB28–30. See DB75 for the extent of His schooling. See DB75 n1 for his education.
- See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
||Bab, Birth of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Fatimih Bagum; Zajra Bagum; Mirza Muhammad Rida; House of Hashim; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Holy days; Twin Holy days; Births and deaths
|1844. 22 May
||Declaration of the Báb's Mission
Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad makes His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í.
- See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
- See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
- See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
- See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
- Nabíl-i-A`zam relates that Mullá Husayn was welcomed at the Báb's mansion by Mubárak, His Ethiopian servant. [DB53]
- He reveals the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text will later be translated by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
- Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
- See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
- This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
- This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. ZK320
- The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
- See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
- Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
- He chooses the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn is given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
- In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He takes the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gives the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn is called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
- At His public declaration the Báb declares Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Holy days; Bab, Writings of; Mulla Husayn; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Bab, Life of; Cycles; Ages and Epochs; Heroic age; Qaim; Promised One; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Mubarak; Letters of the Living
|1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul
||The Conference of Badasht
Bahá'u'lláh, who hosts and directs the event, rents three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]
The conference coincides with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July.
It is held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]
- `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
- B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb. It is attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
- Each day Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet, and on each believer He confers a new name. Each day an Islamic law is abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
- See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
- Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
|Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran
||Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Veils; Women; Womens rights; Gender; Equality; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Letters of the Living
|1850. 9 Jul
||Martyrdom of the Báb
In the morning the Báb is taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]
At noon the Báb and Mirza Muhammad-Ali Zunuzi, known as Anis are suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz in Sarbazkhaneh Square. They are shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men in succession. [B157; DB512]
- The warrants are already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
- Anís's stepfather tries to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son is also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remains unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]
The Báb and Anís are suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, has been found to undertake the execution. After the volleys, the bodies of the Báb and Anís are shattered and melded together. [B158; DB514]
- When the smoke clears the Báb is gone and Anís is standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, is found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
- See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.
At night, the bodies are thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. The bodies were removed and hidden under cover of darkness. [B159; TN27]
- See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
- The face of the Báb is untouched. [B158]
- At the moment the shots are fired a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remains dark from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
- See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.
||Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Remains of; Holy days; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Sam Khan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál
Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá flees to Tákur and goes into hiding. He eventually goes to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
- See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
- No food or drink is given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
- Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
- "Upon Our arrival We were first conducted along a pitch-black corridor, from whence We descended three steep flights of stairs to the place of confinement assigned to Us. The dungeon was wrapped in thick darkness, and Our fellow prisoners numbered nearly a hundred and fifty souls: thieves, assassins and highwaymen. Though crowded, it had no other outlet than the passage by which We entered. No pen can depict that place, nor any tongue describe its loathsome smell. Most of these men had neither clothes nor bedding to lie on. God alone knoweth what befell Us in that most foul-smelling and gloomy place!" [ESW20-21]
- See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
- They were also assisted by Isfandíyár, the family's black servant that had been emancipated in 1839 on the order of Bahá'u'lláh. This man's life was in great danger. At one time they had 150 policemen looking for him but he managed to evade capture. They thought that if they questioned (tortured) Isfandíyár he would reveal Bahá'u'lláh's nefarious plots. [SoW Vol IX April 28, 1918 p38-39]
- ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, is attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
- See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
- Bahá'u'lláh's properties are plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
- See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
- See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
- Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
- An attempt was made to poison Him. The attempt failed but His health was impaired for years following. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100, GPB72]
|Tihran; Takur; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Attempts on; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Prison; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Poison; Chains; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
||Bahá'u'lláh has a vision of the Maiden, who announces to Him that He is the Manifestation of God for this Age. [BBD142–3, 212; BKG823 ESW11–12, 21 GPB101–2; KAN62]
- This experience compares to the episode of Moses and the Burning Bush, Zoroaster and the Seven Visions, Buddha under the Bodhi tree, the descent of the Dove upon Jesus and the voice of Gabriel commanding Muhammad to ‘cry in the name of thy Lord'. [GPB93, 101]
- The Báb repeatedly gave the year nine as the date of the appearance of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. The Declaration of the Báb took place in AH 1260; year nine was therefore AH 1269, which began in the middle of October when Bahá'u'lláh had been in prison for about two months. [CB46–7]
- Subsequently in His Writings Bahá’u’lláh declared that He was the "Promised One" of all religions, fulfilling the messianic prophecies found in world religions. He stated that being several messiahs converging one person were the spiritual, rather than material, fulfilment of the messianic and eschatological prophecies found in the literature of the major religions. His eschatological claims constitute six distinctive messianic identifications: from Judaism, the incarnation of the "Everlasting Father" from the Yuletide prophecy of Isaiah 9:6, the "Lord of Hosts"; from Christianity, the "Spirit of Truth" or Comforter predicted by Jesus in His farewell discourse of John 14-17 and the return of Christ "in the glory of the Father"; from Zoroastrianism, the return of Shah Bahram Varjavand, a Zoroastrian messiah predicted in various late Pahlavi texts; from Shi'a Islam the return of the Third Imam, Imam Husayn; from Sunni Islam, the return of Jesus, Isa; and from the Bábí religion, He whom God shall make manifest.
While Bahá’u’lláh did not explicitly state Himself to be either the Hindu or Buddhist messiah, He did so in principle through His writings. Later, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá stated that Bahá’u’lláh was the Kalki avatar, who in the classical Hindu Vaishnavas tradition, is the tenth and final avatar (great incarnation) of Vishnu who will come to end The Age of Darkness and Destruction. Bahá’ís also believe that Bahá’u’lláh is the fulfilment of the prophecy of appearance of the Maitreya Buddha, who is a future Buddha who will eventually appear on Earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure Dharma. Bahá’ís believe that the prophecy that Maitreya will usher in a new society of tolerance and love has been fulfilled by Bahá’u’lláh's teachings on world peace. [Bahaikipedia]
- See P&M295-196(1969), 298-299(1987) where states, "...the First Call gone forth from His lips than the whole creation was revolutionized, and all that are in the heavens and all that are on earth were stirred to the depths". What was "the First Call"?. See GPB121, “These initial and impassioned outpourings of a Soul struggling to unburden itself, in the solitude of a self-imposed exile (many of them, alas lost to posterity) are, with the Tablet of Kullu’t-Tá’am and the poem entitled Rashh-i-‘Amá, revealed in Ṭihrán, the first fruits of His Divine Pen.”
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Visions; Maid of Heaven; Angels; Year nine; Promised One; Prophecies; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Lawh Kullut-Taam (Tablet of All Food); Rashh-i-Ama (Sprinkling from the Cloud of Unknowing); Firsts, Other
|1856 – 1863
||It is in this period that Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Seven Valleys in response to a request from a Súfí, Shaykh Muhyi'd-Dín, the Qádí of Khániqayn, whom He may have met in Kurdistán. In it Bahá'u'lláh describes the stages of the mystical life. [BBD206 BBRSM:64; SA150]
- For details of the composition and content of the Seven Valleys see SA1507.
|Baghdad; Iraq; Kurdistan
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Sufism; Shaykh Muhyid-Din; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
||Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Hidden Words (Kalimát-i-Maknúnih), originally designated ‘The Hidden Words of Fátimih', while walking along the banks of the Tigris. [BBD102; BKG159; GPB138–40]
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Fatimih; Tigris; Rivers; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Interfaith dialogue
||Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Kitáb-i-Íqán, ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]
- The Tablet is revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
- It is revealed in the course of two days and two nights. [BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
- The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. [BKG165; RB1:159]
- It is probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
- For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
|Baghdad; Iraq; Tihran; Iran
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Haji Mirza Siyyid Muhammad; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Interfaith dialogue; Islam; Shiism; Prophecies; Qaim; Hadith
|1863. 22 Apr - 3 May
||Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh in the Garden of Ridván.
The garden was located in a large agricultural area immediately north of the walls of the city of Baghdad, about 450 metres (1,480 ft) from the city's northern Mu'azzam gate. Located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River in what is now the Bab al-Mu'azzam neighbourhood of Baghdad's Rusafa District, it was directly opposite the district in which Bahá'u'lláh lived during his stay in the city, on the river's western bank. [Wiki]
||Ridvan; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Gardens; Holy days; Bahaullah, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
|1863 22 Apr
||Thirty–one days after Naw-Rúz, which in this year falls on 22 March, Bahá'u'lláh leaves His house for the last time and walks to the Najíbíyyih Garden, afterwards known as the Garden of Ridván (Paradise).
On this day Bahá'u'lláh declares His mission to a few of His disciples. [RB1:260, 262]
- ‘Of the exact circumstances … we, alas, are but scantily informed.' [BKG173; GPB153]
- For such details as are known, see BKG173–5 and GPB153.
- For the import of the event, see BKG169–73; G27–35; GBP153–5.
- This initiates the holy day of the First Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 21 April. [BBD196]
- This marks the end of the dispensation of the Báb and of the first epoch of the Heroic or Apostolic Age of the Bahá'í dispensation. [BBD72, 79]
On the same day Bahá'u'lláh makes three important statements to His followers:
- He forbids the use of the sword.
- He states that no other Manifestations will appear before one thousand years. This is later reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Badí‘ and in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
- He states that, as from this moment, all the names and attributes of God are manifested within all created things, implying the advent of a new Day. [RB1:278–80]
On the afternoon of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival at the Garden He reveals the Lawh-i-Ayyúb for Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí. [SA239]
During the 12 days in the Ridván Garden Bahá'u'lláh confides to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá that He is ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. [CH82]
- See CH82–3 for the effect of this announcement on ‘Abdu'l-Bahá.
||Ridvan; Naw-Ruz; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Ages and Epochs; Lawh-i-Ayyub; Haji Muhammad-i-Taqiy-i-Nayrizi; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Firsts, Other; Taj; Holy days
|1863 probably near end
||Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-Mulúk (Súrih of Kings). [BKG245; GPB171–2; RB2:301-336]
- This is described by Shoghi Effendi as ‘the most momentous Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh', in which He, ‘for the first time, directs His words collectively to the entire company of the monarchs of East and West'. [GPB171]
- See GPB172–5 and RB2:301–25 for a description of the content of the Tablet.
- In The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p41 Shoghi Effendi dates this tablet as "1863". Given the intense activity of that year an assumption was made that it was revealed near the end of the year in either Constantinople or Adrianople.
Chronological list of significant events related to Bahá'u'lláh's historic pronouncement in the Súriy-i-Múlúk
[The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p41-42]
- Fall of the French Monarchy (1870)
- Virtual extinction of the Pope's Temporal Sovereignty (1870)
- Assassination of Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz (1876)
- Assassination of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh (1896)
- Overthrow of Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd II (1909)
- Fall of the Portuguese Monarchy (1910)
- Fall of the Chinese Monarchy (1916)
- Fall of the Russian Monarchy (1917)
- Fall of the German Monarchy (1918)
- Fall of the Austrian Monarchy (1918)
- Fall of the Hungarian Monarchy (1918)
- Fall of the Turkish Monarchy (1922)
- Collapse of the Caliphate (1924)
- Fall of the Qájár Dynasty (1925)
- Fall of the Spanish Monarchy (1931)
- Fall of the Albanian Monarchy (1938)
- Fall of the Serbian Monarchy (1941)
- Fall of the Italian Monarchy (1946)
- Fall of the Bulgarian Monarchy (1946)
- Fall of the Rumanian Monarchy (1947)
|Edirne; Istanbul; Turkey
||Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Tablets to kings and rulers; Timelines; History (general); Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
|1873. Early part
||Bahá'u'lláh completes the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248]
- There is evidence to suggest that at least some of the work was written earlier as confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and there is further evidence to suggest that parts of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17, 248]
- For the significance of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
- For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
- The Law of the Huqúqu'lláh that had first been ordained by the Báb in the Persian Bayán, chapter 19 of unit 5, was reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, verses 227-233 and in the Questions and Answers.
- At first Bahá'u'lláh declined to accept the Huqúq from the believers stating that the funds were not needed. [Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God p9]
- "After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas had been revealed in response to the pleas of the friends, Bahá’u’lláh withheld it from publication for some time and even then, when a number of devoted Bahá’ís, having learned of the law, endeavored to offer the Ḥuqúqu’lláh, the payment was not accepted. The Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh show His acute consciousness of the way in which material wealth has been permitted to degrade religion in the past, and He preferred the Faith to sacrifice all material benefits rather than to soil to the slightest degree its dignity and purity. Herein is a lesson for all Bahá’í institutions for all time." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987]
||Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Laws; House of Udi Khammar; Charters; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Dating of Writings; Tablets to kings and rulers; Napoleon III; Huququllah; Funds; Gradual implementation of laws
|1892. 29 May
||The Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh passes away at Bahjí in His seventy–fifth year. [AB47; BBRXXIX, 233; BKG420; CB148; GPB221; RB4:411]
- He cited these last words, two verses from the Kitáb-i-Aqdas:
“Say: Let not your hearts be perturbed, O people, when the glory of My Presence is withdrawn, and the ocean of My utterance is stilled. In My presence amongst you there is a wisdom, and in My absence there is yet another, inscrutable to all but God, the Incomparable, the All-Knowing. Verily, We behold you from Our realm of glory, and shall aid whosoever will arise for the triumph of Our Cause with the hosts of the Concourse on high and a company of Our favoured angels.”
“Be not dismayed, O peoples of the world, when the day-star of My beauty is set, and the heaven of My tabernacle is concealed from your eyes. Arise to further My Cause, and to exalt My Word amongst men. We are with you at all times, and shall strengthen you through the power of truth. We are truly almighty. Whoso hath recognized Me will arise and serve Me with such determination that the powers of earth and heaven shall be unable to defeat his purpose.” [GWB137]
- For an account by Túbá Khánum see CH105–9.
- Bahá'u'lláh has spent 23 years, 8 months and 29 (or 30) days in the Holy Land. [DH12]
- He passes away eight hours after sunset. [GPB221; UD170]
- The news of His passing is immediately communicated to Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd by `Abdu'l-Bahá: `the Sun of Bahá has set'. [AB47; BKG420 GPB222]
- Shortly after sunset, on the very day of His passing, Bahá'u'lláh is buried beneath the floor of a room in the house adjacent to the mansion of Bahjí, the Qiblih of the Bahá'í Faith. [AB47; BBD211; BKG427; GPB222]
- See CB149 and RB4:149 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's ascension on `Abdu'l-Bahá.
- See ARG71-72 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His attempt to convince Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí to be faithful to the Covenant.
- See AB52–3, CB148–9 and RB4:148–9 for the theft of Bahá'u'lláh's cases containing His seals, papers and other items.
- See AB52–61, CB148–51 and RB4:148–54 for the Covenant-breaking activities of Bahá'u'lláh's family immediately following His death.
- See GPB222–3 for the mourning following the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh.
- At this time the Faith has spread to 15 countries. [MBW61]
- See BBR234–6 for a list of Europeans who met Bahá'u'lláh.
||Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bahaullah, Life of; Holy days; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Covenant-breakers; Covenant (general); Qiblih; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1892. 7 Jun
||On the ninth day after Bahá'u'lláh's passing the Will and Testament of Bahá'u'lláh, the Kitáb-i-`Ahd, is read at Bahjí before a large assembly in His Most Holy Tomb. [AB51–2; BBD132; CB150; DH113; GPB238; RB4:419–20, BKG420-425]
- In it Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appoints `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
- See CB150, 164 for the effect this has on the believers.
||Kitab-i-Ahd (Book of the Covenant); Bahaullah, Will and Testament of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bahaullah, Ascension of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1897. 1 Mar
||The birth of Shoghi Effendi, in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD208; BKG359; DH60, 214; GBF2]
- He is descended from both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: his mother is the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá; his father is an Afnán, a grandson of Hájí Mírzá `Abu'l-Qásim, a cousin of the mother of the Báb and a brother of His wife. [CB280; GBF2]
- He is the Ghusn-i-Mumtáz, the Chosen Branch. [BBD87]
- `Shoghi' means `one who longs'. [CB281]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá commands everyone, even Shoghi Effendi's father, to add the title `Effendi' after his name. [CB281; GBF2]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá gives him the surname Rabbání in the early years of his study in Haifa so that he will not be confused with his cousins, who are all called Afnán. Rabbání is also used by Shoghi Effendi's brothers and sister. [BBD191–2; DH60–1]
- See GBF6 for the schools he attends.
- See also Rabbani, The Priceless Pearl;
Rabbani, The Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith;
Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections.
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; House of Abdullah Pasha; Bahaullah; Family of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Afnan; Aghsan; Haji Mirza Abul-Qasim; Rabbani (name); Names and titles; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
|1911 11 Aug
||The beginning of `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Western tour. [AB139]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá departs from Egypt with a party of four on the S. S. Corsica for Marseilles, Thonon-les-Bains and London. [AB139; GPB280; SBR22, SoW Vol2 no.10 (8 September, 1911) p7]
- Subsequent research has shown that the ship was not the S.S. Corsica as stated in GPB280 but rather the L'Orenoque. See 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris page 6 note 47.
- See BW1:130 for a list of cities He visits between 1911 and 1913.
- It is believed that funds for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s teaching journeys to the West were provided by an oil-rich believer in Baku, Áqa Músá Maqiof,. [AY11; ABF295note684]
|Baku; Alexandria; Egypt; Marseilles; Thonon-les-Bains; France; London; United Kingdom
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; S. S. Corsica; Orenoque; Ships; Funds; Donations; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1912 25 Mar-17 Jun 1913
||`Abdu'l-Bahá's second Western tour
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1921 28 Nov
||Ascension of `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá passes away at about 1:00 a.m., in Haifa. [AB452; BBD4; BBR347; GPB311; UD170]
- For details of His passing see DOMH210-216, AB452, BW1:19-23; BW15:113-15 and GPB310-11.
- This marks the end of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age of the Bahá'í Faith and the beginning of the Transitional Formative or Iron Age. [BBD35-6]
- For a photograph of the cable sent announcing His passing see SW12, 15:245.
- See The Passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi and Lady Blomfield.
- For a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá see The Oriental Rose by Mary Hanford Ford pg 158-159
- Also see AB452-83; HLS93-100.
- See GPB309-320 for a summation of the events that took place in the lifetime of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, during the Heroic Age of the Faith.
||Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Ages and Epochs; Heroic Age; Formative Age; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Holy days
|1922 3 Jan
||The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá is read aloud for the first time, to a group of nine men, mainly senior members of `Abdu'l-Bahá's family. [BBRSM115; CB286; ER194; GBF14; PP45]
- Shoghi Effendi is not present at the reading. [CB286; ER194]
- Shoghi Effendi is appointed Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. [WT11]
- Shoghi Effendi had no fore-knowledge of the institution of the Guardianship nor that he would be appointed Guardian. [CB285; PP423]
||Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
|1957 4 Nov
||Passing of Shoghi Effendi
Shoghi Effendi passes away in London of coronary thrombosis after a bout of Asian influenza. [CB377; PP446]
- He was in London to purchase some furniture to complete the interior of the International Archives Building. [PP445]
- For a tribute to Shoghi Effendi written by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW13:58–226.]
- See also Rabbání, The Guardian Of The Bahá’í Faith and The Priceless Pearl.
|London; United Kingdom
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; International Bahai Archives; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Appointed arm; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1963 21 Apr
||Establishment of the Universal House of Justice
The Universal House of Justice is elected for the first time. [BW14:427; MC424]
- The election is held at 9:30 in the morning at the home of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 7 Haparsim Street, Haifa. [BW14:427; MC425]
- Ballots are received from all 56 national spiritual assemblies. [BW14:427]
- 288 members of 51 national spiritual assemblies are present at the election. [BW14:427]
- For a list of the electors see MC406–13.
- For details of the election see BW14:425–9 and MC20–1.
||Universal House of Justice, Election of; Conventions, International; Elections; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Firsts, Other; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline
|1985 24 Oct
||On the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations and in anticipation of the United Nations International Year of Peace, the Universal House of Justice addressed a message to the peoples of the world inviting them to consider that a new social order can be fostered by all peoples’ seeing themselves as members of one universal family. This message was presented to world leaders and countless others during the United Nations International Year of Peace. [BBD174, 187–8; BW19:139, 155; VV59, 86–8, The Promise of World Peace]
- Within six months national spiritual assemblies present copies to 167 world leaders, including 140 to leaders of independent countries. [BW19:139, 334–6]
- For pictures see BW19:337–44.
- For text see BW19:324–33.
||United Nations; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Promise of World Peace (statement); Statements; Publications; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages
||The English translation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas is published. [BW92–3:44] [CBN vol5 no 10 Mar93 pg1] [CoB310-13 UHJ Message 5Mar93] [VV142]
- For the significance of its publication see BW92–3:45–6.
- For its place in Bahá'í literature see BW92-3p45-6, p105-118.
||Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Translation; Publications; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||The Universal House of Justice issued a letter addressed to the world’s religious leaders warning of “the danger posed by "the rising fires of religious prejudice" and calls for decisive action against fanaticism and intolerance”. [One Country Vol.14 Issue 1]
- For the text of the letter see To the World's Religious Leaders.
- Also see One Country Vol.14 Issue 1 for an abridged version.
- See also BWNS200; BWNS168 and BW'02-‘03pg79-98.
- The essential message was that God is one and all religions are from that same God and that recognition of these truths is a prerequisite that must be at the heart of all religious discourse. Bahá'i institutions throughout the world delivered thousands of copies of this message to influential figures and the major faith communities. Although some were dismissed out of hand, in general the message was warmly welcomed. [One Common Faith pii]
||Message to the Worlds Religious Leaders; To the Worlds Religious Leaders; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Interfaith dialogue