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Search for tag "America"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1855. 15 Oct 1855 or 1856 Birth of Robert Turner, first black American Bahá'í. USA; America; United States Robert Turner; Bahá'í
1895. 23 Jun Birth of Leonora Stirling Armstrong, pioneer American Bahá'í, regarded as the Mother of South America, in upstate New York. New York; USA Leonora Stirling Armstrong; Mother of South America; Leonora Armstrong
1900. c. 1900 The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is translated by Anton Haddad. It is not published but circulates in typescript form. [BFA2:27; SA251] North America Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book)
1907 It is estimated that there are from 1000 to 1100 believers in North America by this date, with about 12 believers in Montreal and six Bahá'ís in other localities in Canada. [BFA2:230] North America; Montreal; Canada
1907 31 Mar The Bahá'í calendar is used in North America for the first time. BFA2:247–8] North America Bahá'í calendar
1910 8 Jan The Persian-American Educational Society is inaugurated in Washington DC. [BFA2:XVII; 355–8]
  • Its primary purpose is to assist the Tarbíyat School in Iran. [BFA2:357]
Washington DC; United States; Iran Persian-American Educational Society; Tarbiyat School; Bahai organizations
1918 (in the year) Shoghi Effendi finishes his education in Arts and Sciences at the American University at Beirut. [DH148; GBF9]
  • He receives a Bachelor of Arts degree. [GBF:9]
  • He serves as `Abdu'l-Bahá's secretary for two years before resuming his education in England. [DH148; GBF9; PP26-7]
  • For a picture of Shoghi Effendi at this time see BW13:131, GBF50-1 and PP88-9.
Beirut; Lebanon Shoghi Effendi, Life of; American University at Beirut
1919 c. 4 Aug Martha Root sets foot in South America for the first time, at Para (Belém), Brazil. [MR93; MRHK44]
  • See MR93-100 and MRHK44-59 for her teaching work in Brazil.
South America; Para (Belé; m); Brazil Martha Root
1925 There are 43 local spiritual assemblies in North America by this date. [BBRSM121] North America LSA
1925 10 Apr Shoghi Effendi writes to the American National Spiritual Assembly indicating that the word ‘assembly’ is to apply only to the elected body of nine believers in each locality or to the national assembly, not to the believers as a whole. [BA83; SBBH258] America Shoghi Effendi
1926 Green Acre comes under the direct supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [GAP118] America Green Acre; NSA United States and Canada
1926 The Bahá’í World is first published. [BW1:4; GT77; PP209; SBR232]
  • The first edition, April 1925 to April 1926, is called The Bahá’í Yearbook.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s impression of it see UD82–4.
America Bahai World volumes
1926 4 May Queen Marie of Romania writes three articles as a testimonial to the Bahá’í Faith for a syndicated series entitled ‘Queen’s Counsel’, which appears in over 200 newspapers in the United States and Canada. [BBR61, HEC57-58, MR245, BW2p174-6]
  • For text of the articles see BBR60–1.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s response see BA110–13 and UD56–8.
America Queen Marie; Queen’s Counsel’
1927 Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, a 19-year-old student who had attended the Tarbiyát School in Tehran but now enrolled at the American University at Beirut visits Haifa to meet Shoghi Effendi. Like Hasan Balyuzi before him, he is immediately possessed by a great desire to serve him. [SETPE1p146-7] Haifa; Tihran; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon Abul-Qasim Faizi; Tarbiyat School; American University at Beirut; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1927 8 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appoints seven people to a National Race Unity Committee. [SBR94; TMW166]
  • For the functions and challenges faced by the committee see TMW165–72.
America NSA; National Race Unity Committee
1927 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada draws up and publishes a ‘Declaration of Trust’ and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly’. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
  • For text see BW2:90–8.
  • The Guardian describes it as the Bahá’í ‘national constitution’ heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá’í World Community’. [GPB335; PP302–3]
  • The drafting is largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
  • In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatum. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
America National Spiritual Assembly; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions; By-laws
1927 9 Sep-2 Dec Leonora Holsapple (later Armstrong) makes a teaching trip through Latin America and the Caribbean, becoming the first Bahá’í to visit Venezuela, Colombia, Haiti, Curaçao, Trinidad (2–12 Oct), the Guianas (29 Oct), Barbados (Dec) and several islands in the Antilles group. Latin America; Caribbean Leonora Holsapple; Leonora Armstrong
1932 10 Jun The American National Spiritual Assembly addresses a petition to the Sháh of Iran requesting that the ban on Bahá’í literature be removed and asking that its representative, Mrs Keith Ransom-Kehler, be recognized to present in person the appeal. [BW5:390–1] America NSA; Petition to Sháh of Írán; Keith Ransom-Kehler
1934 28 Aug Mishkín-Qalam’s calligraphic rendering of the Greatest Name is registered as a trade-mark with the United States patent office. [BW6:350] America Mishkin-Qalam; Greatest Name; United States patent office; Copyright and trademarks
1936 1 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appoints the first Inter-America Committee, beginning an organized and coordinated effort to establish the Faith in the Republics of Central and South America. [BW10:181] America NSA
1937 Ridván The First Seven Year Plan is launched in North America. [BBD180; BBRSM158; BW7:17–18; MA9]
  • For the role of individuals, local spiritual assemblies and the National Spiritual Assembly see MA11–12.
  • The Plan calls for:
  • the completion of the exterior of the Wilmette Temple. BW7:17–18; PP385]
  • the establishment of a local spiritual assembly in each state and province of the United States and Canada. [PP385]
  • the establishment of a centre in each of the republics of Latin America. [PP385]
America First Seven Year Plan; NSA; LSA; Wilmette Temple; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; Teaching Plans
1938 to 1955 The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]

He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]

Tubingen; Germany; Tabriz; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon; Akka Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Valiyullah Varqa; Hands of the Cause; Varqa; American University at Beirut
1938 William DeForge becomes the first Bahá’í to visit the Dominican Republic. He has made a one-day trip from Puerto Rico. Dominican Republic; Central America First Bahais by country or area find reference
1940 1 Aug The first four people to become Bahá’ís in Costa Rica accept the Faith after Gayle Woolson and Amelia Ford from the United States arrive in Puerto Limón on 29 March 1940.
  • The first to enrol is Raul Contreras, followed by his cousin Guido Contreras, and by José Joaquin Ulloa and Felipe Madrigal.
Costa Rica; Central America First Bahais by country or area
1944 May The first All-American Bahá’í Convention is held.
  • For the first time the delegates have been selected at state and provincial conventions by votes from all believers rather than by communities with local assemblies. [BW9:44; PP390]
America state convention; provincial convention Hilda Yen joins Bahá'í Faith (Wikipedia)
1945 20 Oct Emeric and Rosemary Sala of St. Lambert, Quebec depart on a four month tour of Central and South America. They will visit 19 republics and Mr Sala will give seventy-nine talks. They will visit many pioneers and will pay homage at the grave of May Maxwell at Quilmes, about one hour from Buenos Aires. [TG93-101] Central and South America Emeric and Rosemary Sala
1946 20 - 25 Jan The first teaching conference in Latin America is held in Panama City on the instructions of Shoghi Effendi. Panama; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
1946 21 Apr The Second Seven Year Plan of the United States and Canada (1946-1953) is launched. [BBR180; BBRSM158, 185; MA87-89, MA89]
  • This marks the beginning of the second epoch of the Formative Age. [CB316; CF5–6]
  • For details of the plan see BW16:81–2.
America Second Seven Year Plan; Formative Age; Teaching Plans
1947 spring The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is accredited by the United Nations as a non-governmental organization. [BW12:597; PP303] America NSA United States and Canada; United Nations; NGO
1951 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Central America is elected at a convention in Panama City. [BW12:60]
  • 25 delegates representing 12 countries are present at the convention. [BW12:60]
Panama City NSA of Central America
1951 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of South America is elected at a convention in Lima, Peru. [BW1 2:60]
  • 18 of the 27 delegates are present at the convention. [BW12:60]
Lima; Peru NSA of South America
1952 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Central America launch a One Year Plan (1952-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46] Central America Teaching Plans; One Year Plan
1952 Ridván The National Convention of the Bahá'ís of Central America was scheduled to be held in a prestigious hotel in San Jose, Costa Rica. When a distinguish believer, Mr Matthew Bullock, was not allowed to register at the hotel because of his race, the National Assembly moved the Convention to another venue and registered guests moved to small pensions rather than staying at the hotel. [SDSC65]
  • Matthew Bullock was one of the early African-American believers in the United States. He became an enrolled believer in 1940 after 15 years of knowledge of the Faith. In 1952 he was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly and along with fellow NSA member Elsie Austin, represented that institution at the first Intercontinental Teaching Conference in Uganda in 1953. [LoS108, SDSC102]
San Jose; Costa Rica National Convention; Regional Assembly of the Baha'is of Central America; Matthew Bullock; Elsie Austin
1953 3 – 6 May The All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Chicago. [BW12:133]
  • For the texts of Shoghi Effendi’s messages to the conference see BW12:133–41 and MBW142–6.
  • Twelve Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:143]
  • At the conference, five members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States resign from that body in order to go pioneering: Elsie Austin, Dorothy Baker, Matthew Bullock, Mamie Seto and Dr William Kenneth Christian. [ZK102]
  • Extract from the cecond message to All-American Intercontinental Conference from Shoghi Effendi... [MBW150]
    .....the lands contributed in Latin America for a similar purpose approximate one-half of a million square meters, ninety thousand of which have been set aside near Santiago, Chile, for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of South America..
Chicago; US; Santiago; Chile; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Pioneering; Elsie Austin; Dorothy Baker; Matthew Bullock; Mamie Seto; William Kenneth Christian; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Chile; Land purchases
1953 Oct Zunilda de Palacios arrives on Chiloé Island and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Chiloe Island; Chile; Latin America Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
1954 Jul Reginald Stone and Allan Delph become Bahá’ís in British Guiana, the first two people to accept the Faith in that country. British Guiana; Latin America First Bahais by country or area
1957 Charles Winfield Small, a native of Barbados and the first to become a Bahá’í in the Bahamas, returns to Barbados, the first Bahá’í to settle in the country. Barbados; Central America First Bahais by country or area
1962 22 May The first Athabascan Indian north of the Arctic Circle to become a Bahá’í, Charley Roberts, enrols. [BW15:455] Canada First Bahais by country or area; Native Americans
1965 19 Sep Walter Garland and Miss Annie Lourie Williams, the first to become Bahá’ís on Grand Turk Island, enrol. Grand Turk Island; Central America First Bahais by country or area
1967 8 Oct The foundation stone of the Mother Temple of Latin America is laid by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in Panama City. [BW14:494] Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Foundation stones; Latin America
1972 Dec The first International Youth Conference of Surinam takes places in Paramaribo. [BW15:341] Paramaribo; Suriname; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
1973 The first International Youth Conference of Mexico takes place in Puebla City, attended by 200 youth from five countries. [BW15:343] Puebla City; Mexico Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences; North America
1975 Feb - Aug Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum sets out on the Green Light Expedition to visit the indigenous peoples of the Amazon Basin in South America. [VV30–2]
  • For a pictorial description of the expedition see BW16:419–48.
Latin America Green Light Expedition; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of
1977 27 – 30 Jan An International Teaching Conference is held in Bahia, Brazil, attended by 1,300 Bahá’ís, the largest such gathering of Bahá’ís to date in Brazil. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:137–8.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 124–5.
Bahia; Brazil; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
1977 4 – 6 Feb An International Teaching Conference is held in Mérida, Mexico, attended by more than 2,000 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:139.
  • Three Hands of the Cause were present – Paul Haney, Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir, and Enoch Olinga, as well as Counsellor Florence Mayberry who had been on the first national assembly of Mexico.
  • For pictures see BW17:112, 126–7.
  • VV33 says this was 2–6 Feb.
Merida; Mexico; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
1980 17 Oct Leonora Armstrong, the ‘spiritual mother of South America’ and the first Latin American pioneer, passes away in Bahia, Brazil. [BW18:738; VV32]
  • For her obituary see BW18:733–738.
Bahia; Brazil Leonora Armstrong; spiritual mother of South America
1981 The Comunicación Intercambio y Radiodifusión Bahá’í para America Latina y el Caribe (CIRBAL) is established by the Universal House of Justice to promote the development of Bahá’í radio and mass media activities in Latin America. [BW19:59] Latin America Comunicación Intercambio y Radiodifusión Baha’i para America Latina y el Caribe (CIRBAL); UHJ
1983 21 - 23 Nov A brief entitled The Future of Canada: A Bahá’í Perspective is presented to The Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects of Canada on behalf of the Canadian Bahá’í Community through the National Spiritual Assembly in Saskatoon. [The Future of Canada: A Bahá’í Perspective] Saskatoon; Canada Social action; Ethics; Economics; Consultation; Agriculture; Women; Native Americans; Elderly; Education
1985 30 Apr - 1 May The first annual conference of the Association for Bahá’í Studies, Brazil, takes place in Saõ Paulo. [BW19:358] Sao Paulo; Brazil; Latin America Bahai Studies, Associations for; Bahai conferences; Conferences, Bahai studies; First conferences
1985 3 – 7 Jul An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Columbus, Ohio, United States attended by more than 3,200 youth from 42 nations. [BW19:300] Columbus; Ohio; United States; North America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
1985 2 – 5 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Lima, Peru, attended by 500 youth from 18 countries and representing four native tribes. [BW19:300]
  • For picture see BW19:322.
Lima; Peru; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, International; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
1985 19 Oct The Association for Bahá’í Studies, Chile, is established in Santiago. [BW19:358–9] Santiago; Chile; Latin America Bahai Studies, Associations for
1988 15 Jul The first International Women’s Conference of Paraguay opens, attended by 130 women from seven countries. [BINS180:5] Paraguay; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women
1990 Jan – Feb The Brazilian Society of Educators for Peace, conceived and initiated by Bahá'ís, is officially recognized by the Amazonas State Government. [BINS219:3] Brazil; South America Society Educators
1990 10 Jun The Paraguay International Chinese Teaching Symposium, the first of its kind in South America, is held in Asuncion, attended by 80 people from 10 countries. [BINS226:4] Asuncion; Paraguay; South America Conferences, International; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences; China
1990 3 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of Guyana announces that the Bahá'ís constitute about five percent of the total population of the country. [BINS228:1]
  • In some towns over 20 percent of the people are Bahá'ís. [BINS228:1]
Guyana; South America National Assembly
1993 29 – 31 Jan The first Latin American Bahá'í Social and Economic Development Seminar takes place in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. [BINS308:2; BW92–3:139] Santa Cruz; Bolivia; Latin America Bahai conferences; Social and economic development conferences; First conferences
2001 Ridván From the Ridván Message: "It is with profound thankfulness and joy that we announce at this auspicious moment the decision to proceed with this last project. During the Five Year Plan, erection of the Mother Temple of South America in Santiago, Chile, will commence and thus fulfill a wish clearly expressed by Shoghi Effendi." [Riḍván 2001 To the Bahá’ís of the World] Santiago; Chile Mother Temple of South America; Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
2001 23 Dec National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States published a full-page advertisement in The New York Times, the statement, entitled The Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace," stated that Bahá'ís believe the American nation will evolve, through tests and trials to become a land of spiritual distinction and leadership, a champion of justice and unity among all peoples and nations, and a powerful servant of the cause of everlasting peace. The 645-word document identified six prerequisites for world peace: universal acceptance of the oneness of humanity; the eradication of racism; the full emancipation of women; the elimination of inordinate disparity between the rich and the poor; an end to unbridled nationalism; and harmony between religious leaders. [BWNS147, Includes text of the statement] New York; NY The Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace; New York Times; Statement; NSA of US
2003 Ridván "In response to the call issued by the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, 185 design concepts have been received from architects and designers around the world for the Mother Temple of South America to be constructed in Santiago." [Riḍván 2003 To the Bahá’ís of the World] Santiago; Chile Mother Temple of South America; Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
2003 May The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the appointment of Siamak Hariri of Toronto, Canada, as architect of the Baha'i Temple to be built near Santiago in Chile. [BWNS223] Santiago; Chile; Toronto; Siamak Hariri; Mother Temple of South America; Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
2010 28 Nov Excavation work began on the new Bahá'í House of Worship for the South American continent, at a location in the hills of Peñalolén, a "commune" within metropolitan Santiago, at the foot of the Andes. [BWNS800] Santiago; Chile; Peñalolén Mother Temple of South America; Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
2013 Ridván "In Santiago, Chile, where the Mother Temple of South America is being erected, the building work continues apace. The concrete construction of the foundations, basement, and service tunnel is complete, as are the columns that will bear the superstructure. The anticipation associated with this project is growing..." [Riḍván 2013 To the Bahá’ís of the World ] Santiago; Chile Mother Temple of South America; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
2014 1 Aug "The erection of the continental House of Worship for South America is moving towards its completion in Chile. The steel-frame superstructure has been almost entirely installed, the placement of the interior translucent stone panels is under way, and the landscaping and the construction of auxiliary facilities are progressing according to schedule. The friends in Santiago, supported by others from throughout the Americas, have been diligently striving to prepare the surrounding population for the emergence of the House of Worship; increasing numbers are participating in the community-building endeavours, and a stream of visitors are being welcomed to the Temple site for prayer and discussion on the practical and spiritual dimensions of the enterprise. Measures are currently being put in place in that country in anticipation of the many demands that are sure to arise once the Temple is inaugurated in 2016." [Message from The Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 to the Bahá’ís of the World] Santiago; Chile Mother Temple of South America; Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
2016 11 Oct The final newsreel on the construction of the Baha’i House of Worship for South America has been released as the highly-anticipated dedication of the Temple approaches. The video highlights major developments over the past year and the growing connection of the community to the Temple and the activities of service and worship that it has inspired. [Video][Architect Siamak Hariri] Santiago; Chile Mother Temple of South America; Siamak Hariri; Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar

from the main catalogue

  1. `Abdu'l-Bahá's 1912 Howard University Speech: A Civil War Discourse for Interracial Emancipation, by Christopher Buck and Nahzy Abadi Buck (2012). Presentation at Grand Canyon Bahá'í Conference on Abdu'l-Bahá and the Black Intelligentsia, especially W. E. B. Du Bois; his speech to the NAACP; and reproductions of many newspaper clippings covering his visit to Washington, DC. [about]
  2. African Americans in the United States, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Comments about what public role might be played by the Baha'i Faith in America to ameliorate the difficulties faced by African-American males. [about]
  3. Alain Locke: Baha'i Philosopher, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). Biography of one of the important African American intellectuals and his impact on American thought and culture. Includes two letters written by or on behalf of Shoghi Effendi. [about]
  4. Alain Locke, by Christopher Buck, in American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, Supplement XIV (2004). [about]
  5. Alain Locke: 'Race Amity' and the Bahá'í Faith, by Christopher Buck (2007). Presentation in slide format about the "First Black Rhodes Scholar." [about]
  6. Alain Locke, by Christopher Buck, in Pop Culture Universe: Icons Idols Ideas (2013). [about]
  7. Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism, by Christopher Buck, in Search for Values: Ethics in Bahá'í Thought (2004). [about]
  8. Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Derik Smith, in World Order, 38:3 (2008). [about]
  9. Alain Locke: Race Leader, Social Philosopher, Baha'i Pluralist: includes Alain Locke in his Own Words: Three Essays and a poem, by Christopher Buck and Alain Locke, in World Order, 36:3 (2005). Article by Buck, poem "The Moon Maiden" and three essays by Locke introduced by Buck: "The Gospel for the Twentieth Century," "Peace between Black and White in the United States," and "Five Phases of Democracy: Farewell Address at Talladega College." [about]
  10. Alain Locke: Race Leader, Social Philosopher, Bahá'í Pluralist: 94th Annual Commemoration of ‘Abdu'l-Baha's 1912 Visit to Howard University, by Christopher Buck (2006). Available both as audio and PDF, and includes press release. [about]
  11. All is One: Becoming Indigenous and Bahai in Global North America, by Chelsea Horton (2013). Native-American identity, conversion, and community, as viewed through the lens of the Baha'i Faith. For some, converting to the Baha'i Faith accompanied a voyage of self-discovery toward indigenous identity. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
  12. American Indians and the Bahá'í Faith: Ten-Part Comprehensive Bibliography (2017). An extensive bibliography about references to Native Americans in Baha’i sacred writings, in writings by Baha’i authors, in Baha’i periodicals, and in other Baha’i media. [about]
  13. Bahá'í Universalism and Native Prophets, by Christopher Buck, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, 13 (2002). Explores the possibility of including other great religious figures in the Baha'i category of "Manifestations of God" using the Iroquois prophet Deganawida as an example. [about]
  14. Baha'u'llah's Tablet to Badi'u'llah: Parallels to Bahá'í Teachings by Native American Messengers of God, by Donald Addison and Christopher Buck, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Compilation of writings from Native American traditions and analogous texts from Baha'i scripture. [about]
  15. Beyond Red Power: The Alternative Activism of Dorothy Maquabeak Francis, by Chelsea Horton, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:3-4 (2004). Aboriginal activism of the 1960s-1970s, which promoted native spirituality and culture, fostered cross-cultural understanding, but now "Red Power" must encompass both the grassroots and the spiritual realms. [about]
  16. Black Roses in Canada's Mosaic: Four Decades of Black History, by Will C. van den Hoonaard and Lynn Echevarria-Howe (1994). Survey of African-Americans in Canada, their activities in the Baha'i community, and statistical information. [about]
  17. Champions of Oneness: Louis Gregory and His Shining Circle, by Janet Ruhe-Schoen: Review, by Lex Musta, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies (2016). [about]
  18. Claiming legitimacy: Prophecy narratives from northern aboriginal women, by Julie Cruikshank, in The American Indian Quarterly (1994). Includes a discussion of Angela Sidney, a Tagish elder who was very active in the Baha'i Faith, and who believed that there is not necessary any conflict between Anglicanism, Baha'i, and indigenous shamanism. [about]
  19. Comparison of the Seven Valleys and the American Indian Peace Shield, by Nina Bailey (1999). Comparison study between the spiritual teachings of the ancient Native American Indian Peace Shield and the spiritual journey described by Bahá'u'lláh in The Seven Valleys [about]
  20. Concepts of Spirituality in The Works of Robert Houle and Otto Rogers with Special Consideration to Images of the Land , by Nooshfar B. Afnan (2000). The attitude of native Canadians toward the land and the prairies, as expressed through the work of two artists, their spiritual iconography, and Baha'i teachings regarding nature. [about]
  21. Diné Becoming Baha'i: Through the Lens of Ancient Prophecies, by Linda S. Covey (2011). Some Diné (Navajo) convert to the Baha'i Faith because it fulfills their ancient prophecies, its institutions provide autonomy and empower the Diné people, and Baha'i values of cultural diversity allow Diné to practice their traditional ways. [about]
  22. Encouragement, Challenges, Healing, and Progress: The Bahá'í Faith in Indigenous Communities, by Alfred Kahn, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:3 (2016). On the challenges of community-building among Indigenous people, written from the perspective of a childhood spent among Baha'i pioneers on Native American land, and on reconciling traditional views with global Baha'i teachings. [about]
  23. God & Apple Pie: Religious Myths and Visions of America, by Christopher Buck (2015). Introduction by J. Gordon Melton (Professor of American Religious History, Baylor University), and two sample chapters: "Native American Myths and Visions of America" and "Black Muslim Myths and Visions of America." [about]
  24. Indian Nations and National Spiritual Assemblies, by Universal House of Justice (2002). American Indian nations are not fully sovereign and thus do not have their own National Spiritual Assemblies. [about]
  25. Integracion de la mujer en el desarrollo enocomico y social de America Latina y el Caribe, La, by Bahá'í International Community. Revisión y evaluación crítica de algunos aspectos de la condición de la mujer en la region, incluso su integración en el mercado laboral, mujeres jefes de familia y el papel de la mujer en el comercio en el Caribe. [about]
  26. Interracial "Bahá'í Movement" and the Black Intelligentsia, The: The Case of W. E. B. Du Bois, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Religious History, 36:4 (2012). Du Bois’s encounters with the Baha’i religion from 1910 to 1953, his connection to the New York Baha’i community, and discussion of segregated Baha’i meetings in Tennessee in 1937. [about]
  27. Many Messengers of God, A Native American Perspective: Deganawidah The Peacemaker, by Paula Bidwell (2011). Collection and analysis of proofs from the Baha'i Writings about prophets from indigenous cultures. Includes illustrated slide-show presentation of the paper. [about]
  28. Message to the Indian and Eskimo Bahá'ís of the Western Hemisphere, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1969). An overview of the Baha'i Faith, written to the native Inuit and First Nations peoples of North America. [about]
  29. Messengers of God in North America, Revisited: An Exegesis of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet to Amír Khán, by Christopher Buck and Donald Addison, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). The indigenous peoples of the Americas have their own claim to wisdom tradition, which derive from Messengers of God to First Nations. This principle is anchored in the Tablet to Amír Khán Áhan. [about]
  30. Native Bahá'ís: Bios of past and contemporary Bahá'ís of native ancestry (2014). Links to photographs and information from the 1910s to the present about Native Baha'is, both from the United States, Canada, Hawaii, and Alaska, and indigenous Baha'is elsewhere around the world. [about]
  31. Native Messengers of God in Canada?: A Test Case for Bahá'í Universalism, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). Explores the possibility of including other great religious figures in the Baha'i category of "Manifestations of God" using the Iroquois prophet Deganawida as an example. [about]
  32. Native Messengers of God in Canada? A test case for Bahá'í universalism, by Christopher Buck: Commentary, by William P. Collins, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). [about]
  33. Navajo Tradition, The: Transition to the Bahá'í Faith, by Linda S. Covey, in Images, imaginations, and beyond: proceedings of the 8th Native American Symposium, November 2009, ed. Mark B. Spencer (2010). Examines three reasons behind the conversion of some Navajo to Baha'i in the early 1960s: fulfillment of prophecy, cultural empowerment and autonomy, and protection of traditional practices. [about]
  34. Necessary History, A: Teaching On and Off The Reservations, by Linda S. Covey, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:3 (2016). On the early Bahá’í literature directed toward Native Americans; history of Bahá’í conversion activities with Indigenous populations; and the work conducted by the Central States Regional American Indian Teaching. [about]
  35. North American Indian Prophecies, by Lee Brown (1986). Talked delivered at the 1986 Continental Indigenous Council, Tanana Valley Fairgrounds, Fairbanks, Alaska. [about]
  36. Numinous Land, The: Examples of sacred geometry and geopiety in formalist and landscape paintings of the prairies, by Kim Ennis (2012). Includes many references to the Baha'i Faith and its influence on contemporary artists. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
  37. Public Discourse on Race: Abdu'l-Bahá's 1912 Howard University Speech, by Christopher Buck (2012). Presentation at Louhelen Bahá’í School on ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and the black intelligentsia, his views of the Civil War and the Emancipation Proclamation, and his message to African Americans and the "Whites." [about]
  38. Return to Tyendinaga: The Story of Jim and Melba Loft, Bahá'í Pioneers: Review, by Lee Brown (2013). History of the first Aboriginal believers in Canada, who moved from Michigan to pioneer in the Tyendinaga First Nation in Ontario in 1948. [about]
  39. Ridván 1996 (Four Year Plan) - To the Followers of Bahá'u'lláh in North America: Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the United States: Bahá'í Era 153, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Country-specific portion of the annual message to the Bahá'ís of the world: North America. [about]
  40. Ridván 1996 (Four Year Plan) - To the Followers of Bahá'u'lláh (in Latin America and the Caribbean): Bahá'í Era 153, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Country-specific portion of the annual message to the Bahá'ís of the world: South America. [about]
  41. Robert Hayden, by Christopher Buck, in Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature, Vol. 2, ed. Jay Parini (2004). The first African American poet-laureate of the United States (as Library of Congress "Consultant in Poetry"). [about]
  42. Robert Hayden's “American Journal”: A Multidimensional Analysis, by Christopher Buck, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2 (2008). [about]
  43. Sabaeans and African-based Religions in the Americas, The, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview of the religion of the Sabaeans [aka Sabeans], and some indigenous practices in the southern Americas such as Yoruba, Santeria, and Brazilian Candomble. [about]
  44. Servants of the Glory: A Chronicle of Forty Years of Pioneering, by Adrienne Morgan and Dempsey Morgan (2017). Memoirs of a black couple from the United States who lived and spread the Bahá’í Faith in across parts of east Asia and Africa in the 1950s-1980s. Text by Dempsey Morgan, poems by Adrienne Morgan. Link to document offsite. [about]
  45. Tabla de 'Abdu'l-Bahá a Amír Khan, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2007). [about]
  46. Tablet to Amir Khan and Tablet of the Holy Mariner, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Three letters about Abdu'l-Baha'is Tablet to Amír Khán; one letter about the Tablet of the Holy Mariner, the "Call of God," and Native American Prophets; short note from David Ruhe about Deganawida. [about]
  47. Universities as the Gatekeepers of the Intellectual Property of Indigenous People's Medical Knowledge, by Chris Jones Kavelin, in Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, Volume 37 (2008). While this article is inspired by Baha'i principles, it has no mention of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
 
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