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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1850. 8 Jul The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, is taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, throws himself at the feet of the Báb and asks to go with Him. [B153; DB507]

  • That night the Báb asks that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offers to do this but is restrained by the others. The Báb promises that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
Tabriz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Martyrdom of; Turbans; Barracks; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1850. 9 Jul Martyrdom of the Báb

In the morning the Báb is taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]

  • The warrants are already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
  • Anís's stepfather tries to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son is also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remains unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]
At noon the Báb and Mirza Muhammad-Ali Zunuzi, known as Anis are suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz in Sarbazkhaneh Square. They are shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men in succession. [B157; DB512]
  • When the smoke clears the Báb is gone and Anís is standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, is found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
  • See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.
The Báb and Anís are suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, has been found to undertake the execution. After the volleys, the bodies of the Báb and Anís are shattered and melded together. [B158; DB514]
  • See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
  • The face of the Báb is untouched. [B158]
  • At the moment the shots are fired a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remains dark from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
  • See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.
At night, the bodies are thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. The bodies were removed and hidden under cover of darkness. [B159; TN27]
Tabriz; Iran Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Remains of; Holy days; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Sam Khan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1853. 12 Jan Bahá'u'lláh and His family depart for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh is accompanied by His wife Navváb, (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate and so was left behind with the grandmother of Àsíyih Khánum. They are escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108]
  • CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
  • ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
  • This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
  • See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's black servant, Isfandíyár, who had managed to evade capture during this dark period, after he had paid all the debts to various merchants, went to Mazandaran where he was engaged by the Governor. Years later when his master made a pilgrimage to Iraq Isfandíyár met Bahá'u'lláh and stated his preference to return to His service. Bahá'u'lláh said that he owed his master a debt of gratitude and could not leave his employ without his permission. It was not granted and Isfandíyár returned to Mazandaran and stayed with the Governor until his passing. [PUP428; SoW IX 28 April, 1918 p38-39]
  • Also see A Gift of Love Offered to the Greatest Holy Leaf (compiled and edited by Gloria Faizi, 1982), by Hand of the Cause Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, which includes a brief summary of the character of Isfandiyar and his services to the Holy Family on pages 14-16.
Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Mirza Musa; Mirza Mihdi; Mirza Muhammad-Quli; Isfandiyar; Russian officials; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1853. 21 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrive in Khániqayn, just across the Iraqi border, where they rest in a beautiful orchard to observe Naw-Rúz. [BKG105]
  • The Governor of Tehran had sent soldiers with the party of exiles to the frontier where they were met by Turkish soldiers who escorted them to Baghdád. [Ch47]
Khaniqayn; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Naw-Ruz
1862 10 May The Persian ambassador requests that the Ottomans move the Bábís farther from Persia. Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
1863. c. Jan 1863 The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, receives the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order is ignored by the governor, who is sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders will be received and similarly ignored before the governor is compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131] Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Grand Viziers; Ali Pasha
1863. 26 Mar Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. [BKG154; GPB147; RB1:228; SA163]

  • The Tablet is recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
  • See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
  • See RB1:228–44 and SA163–5 for descriptions of the Tablet and analyses of its content.
  • Immediately after it is chanted Bahá'u'lláh orders the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. [GBP147; RB1:228–9; SA163]
  • The party has not yet left when a messenger arrives from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the invitation to go to Constantinople. [RB1:229; SA163]
Mazraiy-i-Vashshash; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Lawh-i-Mallahul-Quds (Tablet of the Holy Mariner); Naw-Ruz; Mirza Áqa Jan; Namiq Pasha; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1863. 27 Mar Bahá'u'lláh meets the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news. At first he summons Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]

  • See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
  • See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
  • See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
  • Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Baghdád, the Persian Consul had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68]
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Ottoman citizenship
    1863. 9 May Bahá'u'lláh and His party leave Firayját for Istanbul although at this point the destination is unknown to the exiles. [CH57, GPB156; SA235]

    • The journey takes 110 days. [GPB156]
    • For the details of the journey see BKG176–96; GPB1567; SW13:277.
    • See BKG180 for a map of the journey.
    • They pass through the following:

      • Judaydih
      • Dilí-'Abbás
      • Qarih-Tapih
      • Saláhíyyih (stay two nights)
      • Dúst-Khurmátú
      • Táwuq
      • Karkúk (stay two days)
      • Irbíl
      • By the River Záb
      • Bartallih
      • Mosul (stay three days)
      • khú
      • Jazírih
      • Nisíbín
      • Hasan-Áqá
      • Márdiín
      • Díyár-Bakr (stay two days)
      • Ma'dan-Mis
      • Khárpút (stay two or three days)
      • Ma'dan-Nuqrih
      • Dilik-Tásh
      • Sívás
      • Túqát
      • Amasia (stay two days)
      • Iláhíyyih (the last day of the overland journey)
      • Sámsún on the Black Sea. (110 days after departure)
      [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    • For the number of people on the journey see BKG179 (72), GPB156 (26 plus members of His family plus guards), RB2:5–6 (54) and SW13:277 (72).
    • As the party draws close to Sámsún on the Black Sea Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Hawdaj. [BKG195; RB2:6]
    • The party remains in Sámsún for seven days. [GPB157]
    Firayjat; Samsun; Istanbul; Judaydih; Dili-Abbas; Qarih-Tapih; Salahiyyih; Dust-Khurmatu; Tawuq; Karkuk; Irbil; Bartallih; Mosul; Zakhu; Jazirih; Nisibin; Hasan-Aqa; Mardiin; Diyar-Bakr; Madan-Mis; Kharput; Madan-Nuqrih; Dilik-Tash; Sivas; Tuqat; Amasia; Ilahiyyih Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Journeys; Black Sea; Suriy-i-Hawdaj
    1863. 13 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party depart from Sámsún by steamer for Istanbul. [BKG196; GPB157]
    • They touch in Sinope, a port of call on 14 August and in Anyábulí on the 15 August. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    Samsun; Sinope; Anyabuli; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1863. 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrive at Constantinople at noon. [BKG197; GPB157; RB2:1]
    • The band of exiles had been augmented along the journey and new numbered about 70. At first the Governor allotted them space in an inn that was inadequate for their numbers and then 'Abdu'l-Bahá asked the governor that the family have a house apart. Mírzá Yáhyá and his family were invited to share the house. [CH59]
    • See The Baha’i Faith in Turkey or Essays and Notes on Babi and Baha’i History Chapter 4 by John Walbridge
    Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Constantinople

    Bahá'u'lláh resides in Constantinople [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61]

    • See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
    • His arrival in Constantinople and stay of about 5 years marks the first time in history that a Manifestation of God had set foot in the European continent. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 2 June, 1982 addressed To the Friends gathered at the International Conference in Dublin.]
    • Among the works Bahá'u'lláh reveals in Constantinople is Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]
    • News is brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He will be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]
    • Bahá'u'lláh refuses to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yahyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuade Him to go. [BKG201–3]
    • Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz issues an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. [GPB159–60; RB2:57]
    • See BBIC:34, note 68, BKG201 and GPB159 for reasons for the edict. On the same day Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá, a Tablet addressed to the Sultán. When the Grand Vizier peruses it he turns pale. The text of this Tablet is lost. [BKG206; GPB160]
    Istanbul; Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mathnaviyi-i Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala; Grand Viziers; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1863. 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Istanbul for Adrianople. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427]

    • The journey takes twelve days and they pass through the following villages en route: [BKG204; GPB161; The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
      • chik-Chakmachih
      • Buyúk-Chakmachih
      • Salvarí
      • Birkás
      • Bábás
      • Bábá-Iskí

    • See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter is extremely cold and the travellers are not clad for freezing weather.
    Istanbul; Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Winter; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1863. 12 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople

    Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrive in Adrianople. [BKG206; GPB161; RB2:62]

    • This is the furthest point from His native land that Bahá'u'lláh reaches and the first time in known history that a Manifestation of God had lived on the European continent. [BKG217]
    • See BKG218–19, 221–2; GPB161–2 and MRHK179–96 for a description of the houses Bahá'u'lláh lives in during this period.
    • See BKG219–20 for the hardships of the first winter.
    Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey; Europe Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1866. c. Mar 1866 The Most Great Separation

    Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) for Mírzá Yahyá. [CH60, 83, CB84; GBP166]

    • This is the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
    • Bahá'u'lláh directs his amanuensis to take the Tablet to Mírzá Yáhyá. He becomes very angry and a "jealous fire consumed him". He responds by claiming that he is the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [CH60, BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]
    • The announcement that Bahá'u'lláh was the Promised One spread quickly to Iraq and to Persia. The followers were happy for the clarification and glad to be rid of Yáhyá. Only the express command of Bahá'u'lláh prevented them from ridding the world of such nefarious traitor. [CH61]
    • It is believed that Yáhyá's conduct and accusations precipitated the next exile. [CH61]
    Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation; Firsts, other; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1866. 10 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His family withdraw from the house of Amru'lláh, the residence shared with the exiles, and go to the house of Ridá Big. [BKG230; GPB167; RB2:162]

    • He stays in this house for about one year. [GPB168]
    • See BKG235 for a description of the house of Ridá Big.

    Bahá'u'lláh goes into isolation for two months. He orders that all of the family's goods should be divided. The companions are to choose between Himself and Azal. This has become known as the ‘Most Great Separation'. [BBRSM67; BKG230–2; GPB167–8; RB2:162]

    • See BKG231–2, GPB167 and RB2:163 for the effect of this.
    • See BBRSM59–60 for a description of Azal's leadership.
    Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; House of Amrullah; Rida Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation
    1868. 26 Jul Bahá'u'lláh banished to 'Akká

    Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz issues a firmán condemning Bahá'u'lláh to perpetual banishment. [BKG283–4; GPB179, 186; RB2:401–2]

    • See RB2:402 for a list of those included in the edict.
    • BKG261, GPB181 and RB2:403 indicate that it was not until the party reached Gallipoli that they were informed that their ultimate destination was `Akká.
    • BBD40 says that it was because of the disloyal Mírzá Yahyá's plotting against Bahá`u`lláh that the Turkish authorities condemned Him to perpetual imprisonment in `Akká.
    Edirne; Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq; Gallipoli; Akka Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Khurshid Pasha; Firmans; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868. Aug One morning without warning Bahá'u'lláh's house is surrounded by soldiers. The inhabitants are rounded up and taken to government headquarters. They are told to make ready for their departure for Gallipoli. [BKG255; GPB179; RB2:403]
    • The party was given three days to prepare for the journey. It it had been rumoured that they were to be separated, Bahá'u'lláh to one place, 'Abdu'l-Bahá to another and the friends to still another place. [CH62]
    • One of the companions, Karilá'í Ja'far was so grieved by the threatened separation that he attempted to kill himself. He was prevented from do so but was too ill to travel. Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave until the Governor in Adrianople made a promise to care for him until he was well enough to travel. He joined the friends in 'Akká forty days after their arrival. [CH62, RoB1p97-98]
    • The Consuls of European powers offer assistance to Bahá'u'lláh and are prepared to ask the intervention of their governments. Bahá'u'lláh refuses these offers. [BKG255, 257–8]
    • Western accounts of this incident suggest that Bahá`u`lláh asked for such assistance. [BBR187–91]
    • The next day the goods of the Bahá'ís are sold or auctioned for very low prices. [BKG255, 258]
    • Group and individual photographs are taken of the Bahá'í and Azalí exiles in Adrianople, including one of Bahá'u'lláh.
    Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868. 12 Aug Bahá'u'lláh, His family and companions, escorted by soldiers, set out for Gallipoli. [BKG260; GPB180; RB2:409]
    • En route they pass through the villages of Uzún-Kuprí and Káshánih. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p44]
    Edirne; Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 15 Aug The Bahá'ís imprisoned in Constantinople arrive in Gallipoli to be exiled with Bahá'u'lláh's party. [BKG260] Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 16 Aug They arrive in Gallipoli on the fifth day. [BKG260]
    • GPB180 says it was a four-day journey. CH62 says it took three days of travel by cart and wagon.
    • They remain there for three nights. CH62 says they remained there for a week awaiting replies to telegrams that had been sent to Constantinople. [BKG263; GPB181]
    • BKG261 says they were there for `a few days'.
    Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 21 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Gallipoli on an Austrian-Lloyd steamer. CH62 says it was a Turkish boat. [BKG263; GPB182; RB2:411]
    • There were 72 exiles, 10 soldiers and 2 officers. The journey took 11 days. [CH63]
    • See BKG270 for map of the journey.
    • Towards sunset the same day the steamer touches on Madellí and stops for a few hours. It continues on to Smyrna the same night. [BKG264]
    • Mírzá Yahyá and the four Bahá'ís arrested at Constantinople, including Mishkín-Qalam, are sent to Famagusta in Cyprus. [BKG268; GPB179]
    Gallipoli; Madelli; Smyrna; Famagusta; Turkey; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships; Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile; Cyprus exiles; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868. 22 Aug Soon after sunrise the ship arrives at Smyrna. [BKG264]
    • It stays for two days. [BKG264; GPB182]
    • The illness of Mírzá Áqáy-i-Káshání (Jináb-i-Muníb) necessitates his removal to the hospital. He dies before 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Musá can return to the ship. 'Abdu'l-Bahá makes arrangements with the local funeral director. They hold a simple funeral and burial takes place in Izmír. [CH65, BKG264–5; GPB182]
    • This young and vibrant man arrived in Baghdad before the exile and travelled with the party holding the bridle of the horse of Bahá'u'lláh the whole route, often with 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the other side. When the party reached Constantinople he was instructed to go on teaching trip to Persia and to Iraq, a long and an arduous tour. He rejoined the group in Adrianople just prior to the exile and he was in precarious condition but begged Bahá'u'lláh for permission to be included. It is reported in FAA21 that he died two or three days after the departure of the ship.
    Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Aqay-i-Kashani
    1868. 23 Aug The steamer leaves Smyrna at night for Alexandria, which she gains on a morning two days later. [BKG265] Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey; Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868 26 - 27 Aug The steamer carrying Bahá'u'lláh docks at Alexandria, early in the morning. [BKG265; RB3:6]
    • The exiles change ships, again onto an Austrian-Lloyd ship. [BKG265]
    • Several exiles go ashore to make purchases. One passes by the prison house where Nabíl is detained. Nabíl, watching from the roof of his prison cell, recognizes him. [CH65, BKG265, 267; RB3:6]
    • Nabíl and Fáris Effendi write letters to Bahá'u'lláh which are delivered by a Christian youth. The youth returns with a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh and gifts from `Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Mihdí. [BKG267–8; RB3:6–7]
    • The ship bearing Bahá'u'lláh and the exiles leaves Alexandria for Port Said. [BKG268]
    Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Nabil-i-Azam; Faris Effendi; Gifts; Ships
    1868. 29 Aug In the morning the ship arrives in Port Said. At nightfall it travels on to Jaffa. [BKG268] Port Said; Jaffa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868. 30 Aug The ship arrives at Jaffa at sunset. At midnight the ship leaves for Haifa. [BKG168] Jaffa; Haifa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868. 31 Aug The ship arrives in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
    • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembark and are taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
    • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, throws himself into the sea when he learns he is to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
    A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party is put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
    • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
    The exiles land in `Akká to begin a confinement in the citadel that is to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
    • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
    • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
    • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
    • DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
    • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
    • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
    • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
    • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
    • The first night the exiles are refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
    • Afterwards each prisoner is allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
    • Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
    • Three of the exiles die soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
    • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
    • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
    • At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'bdu'l-Ahad ahead some time before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
    • The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
    • After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letter to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
    Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1868. 3 Sep The firmán of the Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz condemning Bahá'u'lláh to life imprisonment is read out in the Mosque of Al-Jazzár. [BKG284–5; GPB186; RB3:18]
    • See CH64, BKG283–4, 286; GBP186, RB2:402 and RB3:18 for the terms of the edict. They were labelled as malefactors, sowerw of sedition, hardened criminals, enemies of the pure religion of God and of man. The faithful were commanded to shun these outcasts. All of those that did a disservice to the captives might flatter themselves that they "did service to God".
    • See RB3:18–19 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's response.
    • See BKG283–8, RB3:19-20 for conditions of life in the barracks.
    • The local authorities and the clerics did their part to stir up the populus against the exiles. See DH197 and CH239-242 for the story of a man who made an attempt on the life of Bahá'u'lláh.
    • From this time forward Bahá'u'lláh met only with His
    Akka; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firmans; Mosque of Al-Jazzar
    1880. Early 1880s The first Zoroastrians become Bahá'ís, in Persia. [SBBH2:67]
    • For information on these converts see SBBR2:67–93.
    Iran Zoroastrianism; Conversion
    1888 Jamál Effendi, accompanied by Hájí Faraju'lláh-i-Tafrishí, embarks on a long journey to the East visiting Burma, Java, Siam, Singapore, Kashmir, Tibet, Yarqand, Khuqand in Chinese Turkistan, and Afghanistan. [EB123–4; PH22] Burma; Java; Siam; Singapore; Kashmir; Tibet; Yarqand; Khuqand; Chinese Turkistan; Afghanistan Jamal Effendi; Haji Farajullah-i-Tafrishi
    1890 A number of people of the Jewish, Zoroastrian and Buddhist Faiths become Bahá'ís. [BBR248–9; GPB195] Judaism; Jews; Zoroastrianism; Buddhism; Conversion; Interfaith dialogue
    1903 Jun-Jul The Yazd Upheaval. [BBRXXX]
    • See BW18:385–6 for a chronicle of events.
    • This is said to be one of the bloodiest events to take place during the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • For Western responses see BBR385–98 and SBBH1:67.
    • For details of the martyrdom of Hájí Mírzáy-i-Halabí-Sáz during the upheaval see RB2:358–66.
    • For the effect on Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background see SBBH2:80.
    Yazd; Iran Yazd upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zoroastrianism
    1907 31 Aug Anglo-Russian Convention relating to Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet, was signed in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The convention brought shaky British–Russian relations to the forefront by solidifying boundaries that identified respective control in the three countries. It delineated spheres of influence in Persia, stipulated that neither country would interfere in Tibet’s internal affairs, and recognized Britain’s influence over Afghanistan. [AY47-48] St Petersburg; Russia; Iran; Afghanistan; Tibet Iran, General history; History (general)
    1936 31 Dec Khusraw Bimán (Thábit) passes away in Bombay at the age of 103 or 104. [I:56]
    • He is the first Zoroastrian to accept the Faith in India. [I:44–6]
    • For the story of his life see I:39–60.
    Mumbai (Bombay); India Khusraw Biman; In Memoriam; First believers by background; Zoroastrianism; Conversion
    1953 Oct Muhammad Mustafá Sulaymán, an Egyptian, arrives in Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. BW13:456]
    • For the story of his life see BW18:768–71.
    Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara) Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 11 Oct Fawzí Zaynu’l-‘Ábidín and his wife, Bahíyyih ‘Alí Sa‘di’d-Dín, and their sons Kamál and Sharíf arrive in Tetuán from Egypt and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Spanish Morocco. [BW13:456]
    • For the story of Fawzí Zaynu’l-‘Ábidín’s life see BW16:544–6.
    Tetuan; Spanish Morocco Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 17 May The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Elise Lynelle (then Schreiber) in Bata, Spanish Guinea, now Equatorial Guinea. [BWNS330] Bata; Spanish Guinea; Equatorial Guinea Elise Schreiber (later Lynelle); Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1955 The first person to become a Bahá’í in Spanish Sahara, ‘Abdu’l-Salam Salím Al-Sbintí, enrols. Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara) First Bahais by country or area
    1968 26 – 31 Aug The centenary of the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh in the Holy Land is commemorated at the World Centre. [BW15:81–4]
    • For details of the commemoration, the pilgrimage to follow and pictures see BW15:81–6.
    Haifa; BWC; Israel Centenaries; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Afghanistan is formed with its seat in Kabul. [BW15:243]
    • For picture see BW15:151.
    Kabul; Afghanistan NSA
    1973 5 Jun The Universal House of Justice asks the Bahá’ís to commemorate on the Feast of Núr the one hundredth anniversary of Bahá’u’lláh’s departure from ‘Akká and move to Mazra‘ih. [VV21] Centenaries; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1977 11 Jun The centenary of the termination of Bahá’u’lláh’s confinement in ‘Akká is commemorated at the World Centre. [BW17:64] Haifa; BWC Centenaries; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1979 The National Spiritual Assembly of Afghanistan is disbanded owing to persecution of the Bahá’ís and the political instability of the country. Afghanistan Persecution, Afghanistan; Persecution, Other; Persecution; NSA
    1987 The first conference on the production of Bahá’í literature in Spanish is held in Argentina. Argentina Literature; Translation; Firsts, Other; Spanish
    1993. 6 Jan The Universal House of Justice announces the appointment of the International Panel of Spanish Translations of Bahá'í Literature. The panel initially consisted of three competent and experienced believers: Mr. Nabil Perdu of Spain, Mr. Conrad Popp of Chile, and Mrs. Migdalia Diez of Puerto Rico. This group was made responsible for producing authorized Spanish versions of the Bahá’í Writings suitable for all the Spanish-speaking Bahá’ís of the world. [Message from the Universal House of Justice] BWC Spanish translation; Translation
    2006 31 Jul The announcement of the publication of The Tabernacle of Unity. This publication of the Bahá'í World Centre contains five tablets - letters - written by Bahá'u'lláh to individuals of Zoroastrian background in the 1800s. As such, these tablets provide important insights into the interrelatedness of religion. [BWNS466] BWC Tabernacle of Unity (book); Zoroastrianism; Bahaullah, Writings of; Interfaith dialogue; Manikchi Limji Hataria; Translation; Publications; BWNS
    2007 24 May The passing of Hadi Rahmani-Shirazi in the United Kingdom.
    • pioneered to Afghanistan at the Guardian's behest
    • served on the National Spiritual Assembly and the Auxiliary Board in the Cradle of the Faith
    • served as the executive director of the Nawnahalan Company
    • among first appointed to institution of the Counsellors created by the Universal House of Justice in June 1968
    • relocated to the United Kingdom in the early 1980s
    • contributed greatly to the development of the Institution of Huququ'llah through his services as a Deputy. [UK BAHA'I NEWS EMAIL SERVICE message from the National Spiritual Assembly nsa@bahai.org.uk 24 May 2007]
    United Kingdom; Afghanistan; Iran Hadi Rahmani-Shirazi; Nawnahalan Company; Counsellors; Huququllah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths

    from the main catalogue

    1. Absolute Poverty and Utter Nothingness, by Rodney H. Clarken, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). Bahá’u’lláh’s ideas of poverty as detachment, and nothingness as selflessness. Cites some commonalities in concepts of detachment and nothingness from Buddha, Confucius, Jesus, Muhammad and Socrates as five of the greatest philosophers or prophets. [about]
    2. African religions; miracles; strange phenomena, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Five questions: the religion of Santeria; relationship to Sabaeanism; Yoruba-based new world religions; visions and miracles of the Virgin Mary and Fatima; UFOs, aliens, and genetic engineering. [about]
    3. Bahá'í Approach to Cosmopolitan Ideas in International Relations, The, by Nalinie N. Mooten (2005). Link to document offsite. [about]
    4. Bahá'í Approach to Cosmopolitan Ideas in International Relations, The, by Nalinie Mooten (2006). A Bahá’í approach to the cosmopolitan tradition in International Relations theory, and what contributions the Bahá’í model can offer to this growing tradition. [about]
    5. Bahá'í Contribution to Cosmopolitan International Relations Theory, The, by Nalinie Mooten, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
    6. Bahá'í Faith in India, The: A Developmental Stage Approach, by William Garlington, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2 (1997). [about]
    7. Bahá'í Faith in Malwa, The: A Study of a Contemporary Religious Movement, by William Garlington (1975). A broad overview of Baha'i history in general and in India in particular. Examination of present-day activities, sociological frameworks of village life, and development of local Baha'i administrative orders. [about]
    8. Baha'u'llah as Zoroastrian saviour, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). Examines the Baha'i view of Zoroastrianism to understand tensions between scholarship and "messiahship" and topics such as proof texts and prophecy. [about]
    9. Bahá'u'lláh's "Most Sublime Vision", by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
    10. Baha'u'llah's prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
    11. Baha'u'llah's Tablet to Mánikchí Sáhib: Introduction and provisional translation, by Ramin Neshati, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
    12. Brothers and Sisters: Buddhism in the Family of Chinese Religion, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). The endurance of Confucianism for 2,000 years is partly because Buddhism and Taoism were content to play a subordinate role and not infringe upon the "Chinese Great Tradition"; implications of Buddhism's role in relation to new religions in China. [about]
    13. Buddha, Krishna, Zoroaster and Related Subjects, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). A compilation on the status of Buddha, Krishna, Zoroaster and other figures. [about]
    14. Celestial Fire: Bahá'u'lláh as the Messianic Theophany of the Divine Fire in Zoroastrianism, by Farshid Kazemi, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Heat is used as a symbol of the dynamic nature of motion and existence, and in a tablet to the Zoroastrians, Baha'u'llah says that fire is a symbol of the Primal Will personified in the Manifestations. This paper explores such symbolism in the Gathas. [about]
    15. Chinese Religions: Evolution, Compatibility and Adaptability - A Historical Perspective, by Kow Mei Kao, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). Case study of the history of Chinese civilization through the formation of the three major religions in imperial China: Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism; their compatibility, adaptability, and mutual influences in their early development. [about]
    16. Common Teachings from Chinese Culture and the Bahá'í Faith: From Material Civilization to Spiritual Civilization, by Albert Cheung, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). An examination of the similarities in belief between the Baha'i Faith and traditional Chinese culture. [about]
    17. Concept of 'Light' in Iranian Religion, The, by Moojan Momen (2003). [about]
    18. Concept of the Manifestation of God in Chinese Symbolism: An Inter-civilizational Hermeneutic Study, by Amrollah Hemmat, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:1-2 (2016). Seemingly incompatible symbols can point to a common underlying meaning, connecting worldviews and perspectives often considered incommensurable. There are elements of the Chinese tradition that resonate deeply with the Bahá’í concept of Manifestation. [about]
    19. Conversion of Religious Minorities to the Bahá'í Faith in Iran: Some Preliminary Observations, by Susan Maneck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:3 (1990). Conversion patterns of Zoroastrians and Jews in the period 1877-1921. [about]
    20. Daily Lessons Received at Akka: January 1908, by Helen S. Goodall and Ella Goodall Cooper (1979). Includes translations of three Tablets of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    21. Der Messianismus des frühen 19. Jahrhunderts und die Entstehung der Baha'i Religion, by Kamran Ekbal, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Entstehung der Bahá'í Religion, eds. Johann Christoph Bürgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). On the resurgence of a millenarianistic climate in the 19th century from China through the Middle-East to the USA. It highlights the millenniarist mood in Iran at the time of the beginnings of the Babi and Bahai religions. [about]
    22. Development of the Bahá'í Faith in Malwa, The: 1941-1974, by William Garlington, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1999). A socio-cultural examination of Bahá'í mass teaching as experienced in Central India. [about]
    23. Dialogue Among Civilizations: Ancient and Future, Transitions and Potentials, by Theo A. Cope, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). Many ideas in Chinese civilization resonate with Bahá'í thought. The I Ching highlights differences between western and eastern philosophy, the notion of embodiment in the Confucian view of the noble person, and transforming material to spiritual. [about]
    24. Explanation of a Zoroastrian Prophecy: Length of the "Bahá'í Cycle", by Karl Weaver (2017). Review of certain concepts in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, ancient astrology, and modern astronomical findings to shed light on Abdu'l-Baha's interpretation of a prophecy by Zoroaster about the sun being brought to a standstill. [about]
    25. Fasting among Zoroastrians, Manicheans, and Bahais, by Jamsheed K. Choksy, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 9 (1999). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    26. Five Questions: Loss of Voting Rights, Mani, Magi, Five-Pointed Star, Joseph Smith, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:3-4:4 (1991). Responses to various questions. Closes with quotations on Confucianism and Genesis. [about]
    27. Food, Justice, and the Baha'i Faith, by Paul Fieldhouse (2005). PhD Dissertation tests the claim that "food," both literal and metaphorical, provides a practical way through which Bahá’ís can articulate and achieve their ethical goals. [about]
    28. From Adam to Bahá'u'lláh: The Idea of a Chain of Prophecy, by Zaid Lundberg, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
    29. From Adrianople to Akka, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, in Conqueror of Hearts (1968). A talk to the Oceanic Conference, Palermo, Sicily, on the exile journeys of Baha'u'llah. [about]
    30. From Iran East and West, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 2 (1984). [about]
    31. Further Comments on a Passage of the Lawh-i-Hikmat, by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). A study of Pre-Islamic sources on the relation of Greek Philosophers and Jewish sages. [about]
    32. Future of Confucianism, The, by Yeo Yew Hock, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). The history of Confucianism, its teachings, a critique of its place in the modern world, its future, and its survival into the 21st century. [about]
    33. Gnostic Apocalypse and Islam, by Todd Lawson: Review, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 18 (2012). [about]
    34. Hindu Concept of God, The: Unity in Diversity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). The fundamental unity behind Hindu concepts of God and those found in the Semitic traditions, and the principle of unity in diversity, allow Hindu and Baha'i beliefs to come together and further their common goal of uniting the world's religions. [about]
    35. Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith, by Moojan Momen (1990). An attempt to explore the relationship between Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith and to explain the Bahá'í Faith to those who are from a Hindu background. [about]
    36. Journey Motif in the Bahá'í Faith, The: From Doubt to Certitude, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22 (2012). The process of individual spiritual growth lies at the heart of human purpose. Bahá’u’lláh speaks about the collective spiritualization of humanity — creating new patterns of community and social relations — as the "journey" of the human body politic. [about]
    37. Language of the Heart, The: Parallels between Chinese and Bahá'í Approaches to the Spiritual Self, by Sim Tze Hong, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). Parallels between Chinese and Confucian thought vs. Bahá'í teachings about the spiritual self, the nature of the heart, the pathway to perfection, the knowledge of oneself, and symbolism in language like "open heart" and "use heart." [about]
    38. Lifetime with Bahá'u'lláh, A: Events in Baghdad, Istanbul, Edirne and ‘Akká while in the Company of Bahá'u'lláh, by Aqa Husayn Ashchi, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 14 (2007). One-third of a lengthy primary-source history, annotated by translator. [about]
    39. List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Babi studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
    40. Map of Stages in Baha'u'llah's Successive Exiles from Tihran to Akka, by Muhammad Labib (1968). Map of Stages in Baha'u'llah's Successive Exiles from Tihran to Akka, compiled and designed by Muhammad Labib in 1968, includes an extensive list of which tablets Baha'u'llah revealed and where. [about]
    41. Map of the Travels of Baha'u'llah (1991). The progressive exiles of Baha'u'llah through the Middle East. [about]
    42. Messianic Expectations in Nineteenth Century Christian and Islamic Communities, by Ahang Rabbani (2006). The phenomenon of messianism and its manifestations in early-modern American Christianity and in Iranian Islam. [about]
    43. Messianic Roots of Babi-Bahá'í Globalism, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). Contrast of the continuity between the globalism of the Bab’s Qayyum al-asma’ and Baha’u’llah’s globalism, verses breaks between the two, e.g. the abandoning of jihad as a means of promoting a globalisation process. [about]
    44. Monotheistic Religion in Africa: The Example of the Swazi People, by Margaret Pemberton-Pigott and Crispin Pemberton-Pigott, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). Similarities between the Baha'i Faith and the ancient traditional beliefs of the Swazi people of Southern Africa. [about]
    45. Mysticism East and West, by Fargang Jahanpour, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
    46. Obituary: Alessandro Bausani (1921-1988), by Heshmat Moayyad, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). [about]
    47. Permanence of Change, The: Contemporary Sociological and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Hoda Mahmoudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18 (2008). Sociohistorical changes of the Axial Age and the Renaissance, sociological views on modernity and its contemporary challenges, and key features of modernity as identified in the Bahá’í writings as "the universal awakening of historical consciousness." [about]
    48. Persian Stronghold of Zoroastrianism, A, by Mary Boyce (1977). Brief mention of Baha'i converts to Zoroastrianism in Yazd. [about]
    49. Procrustes' Bed: The Insufficiency of Secular Humanism, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Secular humanism’s inability to accommodate the universal presence of religion in human nature undermines its claim to be a viable world-view for mankind and diminishes its internal coherence. [about]
    50. Reconciliation of Races and Religions, The, by Thomas Kelly Cheyne (1914). Early history of the Babi and Baha'i movements, life stories of their participants, and their contemporary religious context. [about]
    51. Science and Religion in Chinese Culture, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). Religion lies at the root of philosophy and civilization during the Tang (618-907) and Sung (960-1279) dynasties. Cultural achievements during these periods were influenced by Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism, but modern sciences did not develop. [about]
    52. Spiritual Footprints in the Sands of Time, by Kevin Brogan, in Solas, 3 (2003). The covenantal relationship between God and humankind; the lives of the founders of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism; the societies in which these religions developed; and some of their common features. [about]
    53. Tabernacle of Unity, The: Bahá'u'lláh's Responses To Mánikchi Sáhib, by Bahá'u'lláh (2006). [about]
    54. Tablet of Patience (Surih Sabr): Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh and Selected Topics, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). This significant Tablet from Ridvan 1863 covers the Seal of the Prophets, appearance and presence of God, resurrection, and the Qayyum al-Asma. Includes context of Baha'u'llah's life and troubles during this period. [about]
    55. Tablet to Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Concerning the Questions of Manakji Limji Hataria: Baha'u'llah on Hinduism and Zoroastrianism, by Bahá'u'lláh (1995). Introduction to, article about, and translation of the Tablet to Maneckji. [about]
    56. Tablet to the Zoroastrians, by Bahá'u'lláh (1997). [about]
    57. Tablets Revealed by Abdul Baha Abbas to the East and West, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1908). An early collection of Tablets by 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    58. Time and the Containment of Evil in Zoroastrianism, by Susan Maneck (1997). Basic beliefs of Zoroastrianism, the concept of time in Zoroastrianism, and Zoroastrianism in a Baha'i context. [about]
    59. Unique Eschatological Interface, A: Baha'u'llah and Cross-Cultural Messianism, by Christopher Buck, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Baha'i History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Tracing themes of messianism through the Occidental religions. [about]
    60. Women and Religious Change: A case study in the colonial migrant experience, by Miriam Dixson, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). The story of Margaret Dixson, and one woman's growth from Anglicanism, via numerology and astrology, to commitment to the world ideals of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
    61. Word Bahá, The: Quintessence of the Greatest Name, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). History of the concept of the Greatest Name and its place in Bahá'í theology. [about]
    62. Zoroaster: The Prophet of Ancient Iran and His Book, the Zend Avesta, by Ali-Kuli Khan (1945). [about]
    63. Zoroaster: Baha'u'llah's Ancestor, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Overview of Zoroastrianism, its place in the history of revelation, and its writings. [about]
    64. Zoroaster, Date of, by Universal House of Justice (1979). Clarifications re the dates and bio information Baha'i texts give for the prophet Zoroaster. [about]
    65. Zoroastrianism, Reference to, in All Things Made New, by Universal House of Justice (1999). A reference to the Zoroastrian text Dinkird, or "Acts of the Religion" (dín-kird) in John Ferraby's All Things Made New, and on the authenticity of the Zoroastrian scriptures. [about]
     
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