Search for tag "Arab"
|1826 27 Jun
||Passing of Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsá'í, the leader of the Shaykhís, in Haddíyyih near Medina near the tomb of Muhammad, at approximately 75 years. He is buried in the cemetery of Baqí` in Medina. [B2; MH20]
- At his passing Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí becomes his designated successor. [BBD12]
- BBD12 says it was 1828 and he was 81 years old
- See CH11 and MH20 for three chief articles of faith of the Shaykhís.
- See BBRSM8 for a brief account of his life.
- See MH22 for a picture.
|Haddiyyih; Medina; Saudi Arabia
||Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykhism; Births and deaths
|1844 30 Sep
||The Báb, Quddús (Hájí Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Barfurúshí) and the Báb's Ethiopian servant, Mubarak, leave Shíráz for Búshihr en route to Mecca. The journey takes ten days. [B57; DB129; MH119]
- DB129 says He left Shíráz during the month of Shavvál, 1260 (14October to 11 November, 1844).
- SBBH1 xxviii shows the departure date as 12 November, 1844.
- Balyuzi, B57 says "in the month of September.
|Iran; Saudi Arabia; Shiraz; Bushihr; Mecca
||Bab, Life of; Quddus; Haji Mulla Muhammad-Aliy-i-Barfurushi; Servants; Mubarak
|1844 2 or 3 Oct
||The Báb departs from Búshihr on His pilgrimage. [B57; MH119, 121, GPB9]
- He instructs His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
- He has been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
- The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah is probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [B69]
- He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
|Karbala; Iraq; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Husayn; Futuh-ar-Rasul
|1844. c. Dec
||The Báb and His companions arrive in Jiddah after a rough sea voyage of two months. There they put on the garb of the pilgrim and proceed to Mecca by camel. [B71; DB129, 132]
- See B69–71 and DB130–1 for a description of the voyage.
- Quddús walks from Jiddah to Mecca. [B71, DB132, GPB9]
|Jiddah; Saudi Arabia; Mecca; Saudi arabia
||Bab; sea voyage; Mecca; Quddus
|1844. 12 Dec
||The Báb arrives in Mecca and performs the rites of pilgrimage in company with 100,000 other pilgrims. [GPB9]
- See B70 and SA107-8 for the timing, rites and significance of the pilgrimage.
|Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Báb; pilgrimage; pilgrim
|1844. 20 - 21 Dec
||The Báb offers 19 lambs as a sacrifice in the prescribed manner, distributing the meat to the poor and needy. [B71; DB133]
||Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Bab; lambs; sacrifice
|1844 c. 20 Dec
||The Báb makes a declaration of His mission by standing at the Ka`bih, holding the ring of the door and repeating three times that He is the Qá'im.
- He makes an open challenge to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmání, known as Muhít, of the Shaykhí school and sends an invitation to the Sharíf of Mecca to embrace the new Revelation. The Sharíf is too busy to respond. [B71-74; BW12:89; DB134–8; GPB9, 89]
|Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Bab; declaration; Ka`bih; Qa'im; Mirza Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmani; Muhit; Shaykhi; Sharif
|1845. 16 Jan
||The Báb arrives in Medina from Mecca. [dhut bíy-i-jiddih]
- He reveals `The Epistle between Two Shrines' en route. [B73–4]
- He stays 27 days. [MS2]
- B75 and DB140 indicate that the Báb arrived 10 January. The Research Department at the Bahá`í World Centre states that the date 16 January accords with the Báb's own writings. [report 20 jan 1994]
|Medina; Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Bab; Epistle between Two Shrines
|1845. 12 Feb
||The Báb leaves Medina for Jiddah. [MS2]
||Medina; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia
|1845. 27 Feb
||The Báb leaves Jiddah. [MS2]
- He disembarks at Muscat and remains there for two months, awaiting news of the outcome of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí's trial. [MS2]
- He sends a letter to the Imám of Muscat. [MS2]
- SBBH23 says the Báb left Jiddah on 4 March.
|Jiddah; Jeddah; Saudi Arabia; Muscat; Oman
||Bab; Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami; trial; letter; Imam of Muscat
|1845. Jul and months following
||The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
- He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
- see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
- Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
- After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
- This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
- The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
- Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
- Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
|Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Hidden Imam; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat (Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zanjani); Qayyumul-Asma; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi
|1847 Jul to 1848 Apr
||The people of Máh-Kú show marked hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they are won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregate at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]
At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán keeps the Báb strictly confined and allows no visitors. He has a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He becomes humble and permits the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]
The winter the Báb spends in Máh-Kú is exceptionally cold. [DB252]
Many of the Báb's writings are revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]
- It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
- He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [GPB24]
- He revealed the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5]
- The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
- He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
- In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
- The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
|Mah-Ku; Iran; Persia; Najaf; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Ali Khan; Commentaries; Quran; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bayan; Dalail-i-Sabih (Seven Proofs); Bab, Writings of; Tablet to Muhammad Shah; Muhammad Shah
|1847 c. Aug - Sep
||On her departure from Hamadán Táhirih asks most of the Arab Bábís travelling with her to return to Iraq. [B165; DB273]
Arrived in Qazvín, Táhirih refuses her estranged husband's attempts at reconciliation and lives with her father. Her father-in-law Hájí Mullá Taqí, feels insulted and denounces the Shaykhís and Bábís. [B166; DB2736]
|Hamadán; Qazvín; Mashhad; Khurásán; Shíráz; Máh-Kú; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran Persia
||Tahirih; Arab; Babis; Haji Mulla Taqi; Shaykhis; Mulla Husayn; pilgrimage; Baha'u'llah
||The Báb is taken back to Chihríq, where He remains until June/July 1850. [B147; DB322; TN15]
- B147 says He must have arrived in the first days of August.
- On His return the Báb writes a denunciatory letter to Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. He sends it to Hujjat in Tihrán, who delivers it personally. [B147; DB323; GPB27]
- The Báb completes the Arabic Bayán. [BBR45; GBP25]
|Chihriq; Iran; Persia
||Bab, Life of; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Hujjat; Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan)
|1865. c. 1865
||Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Arabic Tablet of Ahmad (Lawh-i-Ahmad) for Ahmad, a believer from Yazd. [RB2:107]
- See RB2:107–66 for the story of Ahmad.
- See Bahá'í News pg 541 (March 1967) for A Flame of Fire: The Story of the Tablet of Ahmad by A.Q. Faizi. Part 2 of the story is found in the April 1967 edition. It is also found at Bahá'í Library.
- See RB2:119–26 for an analysis of the Tablet.
- Shoghi Effendi states that the Tablet has a special potency and significance. [DG60]
- See "Ahmad, The Flame of Fire" by Darius Shahrokh.
|Edirne; Turkey; Yazd; Iran
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic))
||The passing of Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) in Tehran at the age of 100. He was born in Yazd in 1805. A Flame of Fire
by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi.
||Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Ahmad of Yazd
|1920 21 May
||The execution at Sultánábád of Hájí `Arab by hanging. [BBRXXX, 444-6; BW18:387]
||Haji `Arab; Iranian persecution
|| 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad translated The Dawn-Breakers into Arabic. His translation was published but because of the war it had to be referred to the Publicity Section of the government for approval. From that department it was passed to the high Muslim authorities who determined that it was against the Muslim faith and so should be condemned. The entire publication run was gathered for destruction and upon hearing this 'Abdu'l-Jalíl interviewed all the officers concerned and not only secured the release of the books but obtained official permissions to distribute them in Egypt and abroad. [BW-598-599]
||Dawn-Breakers; Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Translation; Arabic language; Opposition
|1942 25 Jun
||The passing of 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad who was, for many years, the president of the National Spiritual Assembly and a judge in the Civil Courts in Egypt. Through his sustained effort the Declaration of Trust was recognized as valid and legalized in 1934.
- He made an important contribution in translating into Arabic. Among his accomplishments were The Dawn-Breakers, Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era, Laws of Personal Status and Rules of Procedure.
- In 1941 he employed the Declaration of Trust as an instrument to induce the Ministry of Civil Defence to grant permission to build the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Cairo. While supervising this project in the intense heat he fell ill and died suddenly after an operation.
- Shoghi Effendi appointed him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the day of his passing. [MoC597-599]
||In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Abdul Jalil Bey Saad; Declaration of Trust; Haziratul-Quds; Dawn-Breakers; Esslemont; Arabic language; Translation
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Arabian Peninsula is formed.
- For picture see BW15:151.
from the main catalogue
- Ahmad-i-Yazd, by Richard Francis (1993). Life of the recipient of the Arabic Tablet of Ahmad. [about]
- Arabic Bayan, The: From A.L.M. Nicolas' French translation, by Báb, The (1980). [about]
- Arabic Grammar of the Bab, The, by William F. McCants (2002). Muslim detractors of the Bab have often criticized his grammar. Did the Bab make grammatical errors due to a poor knowledge of the language, or did he intentionally coin a new grammar? [about]
- Arabic, Proper pronunciation of, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Discusses whether there are specific dialects and "manners" to use in speaking Arabic. [about]
- Báb's Bayan, The: An Analytical Survey, by Muhammad Afnan, in World Order, 31:4 (2000). Analysis of the Bayan and its contents: fundamental beliefs and worldview, moral principles, laws, administration of society, and future expectations. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in the Arabic Speaking Middle East, The: Part 1 (1753-1863), by Ramsey Zeine, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
- Bahá'í Glossary: Persian and Arabic words appearing in the Bahá'í Writings, by Marzieh Gail (1957). The first published glossary of Baha'i terms and names. [about]
- Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
- Bayan (Bayán-i-Farsí and Bayán-i-'Arabí), The: Letters and Letters of the Living, by Universal House of Justice and Iraj Ayman (1994). [about]
- Bayan (Bayán-i-Farsí and Bayán-i-'Arabí), The: Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Brent Poirier and Christopher Buck (1997). [about]
- Conservation and Restoration of Calligraphy by Mishkín Qalam, The, by Shingo Ishikawa and Patrick Ravines (2004). Three versions of a paper explaining the procedure for preserving manuscripts at the Baha'i World Centre, using the example of calligraphy by Mishkín Qalam. Includes high-resolution sample of Qalam's artwork. [about]
- Diacritics and transliteration, by Jonah Winters (2002). [about]
- Diacritics; meaning of "Self-subsisting", by Universal House of Justice (1993). Two disparate topics: the translation style adopted by the Guardian and other considerations related to literary style and the sacred writings, and the meaning of the term "self-subsisting." [about]
- Dictionaries: English-Arabic (1810). Links to Google Books and Archive.org for online versions of many English-Arabic dictionaries. [about]
- Essays and Notes on Babi and Baha'i History, by John Walbridge, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies, 6:1 (2002). Includes: culture of Iran; Baha'i Faith in Iran; in Turkey; uprising in Zanjan; Babi martyrs; Islamic/Baha'i philosophy; dreams; Islamic personal names; Arabic language [about]
- Family of Vahid Darabi, The, by Ahang Rabbani (2004). Ancestry and history of many Babis involved in the Nayriz uprising, 1850. [about]
- Glossary of Arabic and Persian Transliteration (2016). Comprehensive list of names and terms encountered in Baha'i history, with accents and underlines, and definitions. [about]
- Guide to Pronunciation, A, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Pronunciation of Persian and Arabic words, clearly explained and enunciated for a non–Persian-speaking audience. [about]
- Ibn 'Arabi's Joseph: Imagination as Holy Communion, by Todd Lawson (2010). [about]
- Index to Ad'iyyih-i-Hadrat-i-Mahbúb (1994). Index of the contents of an Arabic and Persian Baha'i collection of prayers and scripture. [about]
- Ios, the Shepherd Boy: Some Parables Concerning the Laws of the Spiritual Life, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Star of the West, 13:7 (1922). Five short stories by Abdu'l-Baha told to Lua Getzinger, as recalled by May Maxwell, illustrating the spiritual life. [about]
- Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): Notes on the Style of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Suheil Badi Bushrui (1995). [about]
- Laws of the Bayán reflected in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas (2008). List of 32 laws from the Báb's Persian Bayán or the Arabic Bayán which also appear in Bahá'u'lláh's book of laws. [about]
- Lost in Translation, by Brian Whitaker, in Guardian (UK) (2002). Transcribing Arabic into the Roman alphabet is fraught with difficulty. And in an age of electronic text, search engines and databases, the problem is only going to get worse. [about]
- New Religions and Religious Movements: The Common Heritage, by Moshe Sharon, in Studies in Modern Religions and Religious Movements and the Bábí Bahá'í Faiths (2004). Excerpt from longer document including two short sections "Names and Letters - The Bab" and "The Letter bá'" [about]
- New World Transliterator: Macintosh Font for Transliteration of Persian and Arabic, by Christopher Buck (1993). Transliteration software (TrueType font for Mac). [about]
- Oriental Words in Bahá'í Literature, Transliteration, and Pronunciation, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Guide to spelling and pronunciation of Arabic and Persian words encountered in Baha'i history and writings. [about]
- Persian and Arabic names, by Hasan M. Balyuzi and Marzieh Gail, in The Báb (1973). Explanations of the elaborate system of Persian names and titles used in the nineteenth century. [about]
- Persian, Arabic, and Provisional Translations, by Iraj Ayman and Robert Stockman (1999). Words relating to the titles of Baha'i Writings, "Pure" Persian and "Pure" Arabic, and information on provisional translations. [about]
- References to the Bahá'í Faith in the U.S. State Department's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, by United States Department of State (1991). Excerpts from the State Department's annual compilation of Country Reports on Human Rights Practices on discrimination against the Baha'i Faith and persecution of its adherents in twenty countries. [about]
- Report of the Transliteration Committee, by G. T. Plunkett, in The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1895). The 10th Orientalist Congress in Geneva, 1894, produced the system of transliteration later approved by Shoghi Effendi.
- Scripture as Literature: Sifting through the layers of the text, by Frank Lewis, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Literary and religious antecedents to some of the styles and genres of Baha'i scripture. [about]
- Seeing Double: The Covenant and the Tablet of Ahmad, by Todd Lawson, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). The Tablet of Ahmad is believed to have special potency. "Seeing double" means both looking at the words of Scripture, and looking in the direction beyond the words, as indicated by the context. This paper also discusses the meaning of Covenant in Islam. [about]
- Surah of the Arabs, by Bahá'u'lláh (2017). Tablet revealed in the early `Akká period to the Bahá'ís of Arab extraction living in Iráq. [about]
- Tabla de Ahmad, by Bahá'u'lláh. Spanish translation of Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic). [about]
- Tablet of Ahmad and Tablet of the Holy Mariner, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Date of publications of translations of the Tablet of Ahmad and the Tablet of the Holy Mariner. [about]
- Tablet of Ahmad, Arabic (Lawh-i-Ahmad): Analysis of Figurative Language in the Tablet of Ahmad, by Ruhiyyih Skrenes (1998). Introductory analysis of the metaphors and symbols used in Baha'u'llah's Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic). [about]
- Tablet of Ahmad, Arabic (Lawh-i-Ahmad): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Tablet of the Universe, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Makátib-i 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Volume 1 (1997). A theological description of reality, with reference to Ptolemy and Al-Farabi. [about]
- Tablet of Visitation for Vahid-i Darabi, by Bahá'u'lláh. Tablet for the leader of the 1850 uprising at Nayriz. [about]
- Transliteration, by Moojan Momen (1991). [about]