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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1890. Aug-Sep Mullá Hasan and his two brothers are arrested and beaten in Sarcháh, Bírjand. [BW18:383] Sarcháh; Bírjand Mulla Hasan
1899 Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí and others carry to the Holy Land the marble casket made by the Bahá'ís of Mandalay to hold the remains of the Báb. [BW10:517] Haifa; Mandalay Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for
1902 28 Nov Construction begins on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of `Ishqábád with the laying of its cornerstone. [BFA2:116-17]
  • BBRXXX says this was 12 December. The discrepancy may lie in the use of two different calendars.< /li>
  • The foundation stone is laid in the presence of General Subotich, governor-general of Turkistan. [BFA2:116–17; GPB300; see discussion of Krupatkin vs Subotich in whitmore_city_love] Also see BBR442-443 for the account of a Russian official, A D Kalmykov who says it was General Subotich.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá commissions Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the Vakílu'd-Dawlih, son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán, to be in charge of the project. [AB109]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineates the general design and a Russian architect, Volkov, plans and executes the details of the construction. [AB109–10]
  • A meeting hall and some of its dependencies had been built before 1900.
  • Its dependencies include two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds. [BBD122; BBR442; BBRSM:91]
  • For a Western account of this see BBR442–3.
  • See jacket of BBR for a photograph of work on the Temple.
Quick Facts
Location: In the heart of the city of `Ishqábád
Foundation Stone: Late 1902 by General Subotich, the governor-general of Turkistan who had been delegated by the Czar to represent him.
Construction Period: Initial step had been undertaken during the lifetime of Bahá’u’lláh. Superstructure: 1902 – 1907. External Ornamentation: 1919
Site Dedication: No record of a dedication ceremony on completion of the building can be found although the external ornamentation was completed in 1919 it is probable that the building had been in use for some years by this time.
Architects: `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design. More specific design was by Usád ‘Ali]í-Akbar Ranná and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction under the supervision of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán. [AB109]
Dependencies: two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds
Expropriation: 1928
Lease period: 1928 – 1938
Seizure; 1938 the building was turned into an art gallery
Earthquake: 1948
Demolition: 25 August 1963 the Universal House of Justice announced that it had been demolished by the authorities and the site cleared.
References: AB109, BW14p479-481, GPB300-301, CEBF236, EB266-268, MF126-128
Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; General Subotich; Krupatkin; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Haji Siyyid Muhammad; Volkov; Haziratul-Quds; Z****
1907 `Abdu'l-Bahá starts to move His family to the house that He has designed and built in the German colony at the foot of Mount Carmel in Haifa. [BBD107; DH145]
  • Laura Clifford Barney helped to purchase the land for the house and to pay for its construction. [DH145]
  • Some members of the family occupy it as early as February 1907, if not before. [DH145; GBF56]
Haifa House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Laura Clifford Barney; Land purchases; Architecture
1909 21 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá lays the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
  • See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
  • The Shrine is a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
  • The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb is a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
  • For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
Mount Carmel; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma); Chicago; United States Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for; Marble; Gifts
1920 Apr Louis Bourgeois is selected as the architect for the Chicago House of Worship. [DP94; GPB303; SBBH1:145]
  • For details of the designs and selection process see DP76-100.
  • See CT159 for the source of inspiration for the design.
Wilmette; Chicago; United States Louis Bourgeois; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Architecture; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architects
1920 27 Apr The design for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar at Wilmette, Illinois, was finally chosen by the forty-nine delegates present at the Twelfth Annual Convention of Bahá'í Temple Unity, being held at the Hotel McAlpin, New York. Excavation at the site began on the 24th of September and construction commenced on the 20th of December. New York; United States; Wilmette Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture find reference
1929 14 Feb Work begins on the three additional chambers of the Shrine of the Báb after the rock had been excavated from behind the building during the previous year. [DH154]
  • Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí, the builder who had completed the repairs on the House of Bahá'u'llah in Baghdad was chosen to be in charge of the work.
  • Originally the centre room had been separated by wooden walls and doors. These were removed and replaced by archways. [SETPE1p164]
  • These rooms, when completed, are used as the International Bahá’í Archives. There is a second repository of the archives at this time near the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GPB347]
Haifa Bab, Shrine of; International Bahai Archives; Haji Mahmud Qassabchi
1930 19 Aug Louis Jean-Baptiste Bourgeois, designer of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in Wilmette, passes away in that city. He was born in Saint-Célestin-de-Nicolet, Quebec on March 19, 1856. [DP145]
  • For details of his life see DP76–86.
Wilmette; United States Louis Bourgeois; Architects; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1932 15 Jul The Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahíyyih Khánum, ‘outstanding heroine of the Bahá’í Dispensation’ passes away in Haifa about one hour after midnight. [BW5:169; GPB108]
  • Her passing marks the end of the Heroic Age of the Faith. [BBD102; WOB98]
  • She is comparable in rank to Sarah, Ásíyih, the Virgin Mary, Fátimih and Táhirih. [GPB347]
  • Shoghi Effendi is in Switzerland and immediately goes to Italy to commission a memorial for her grave. [DH156]
  • For Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá revealed in her honour see BW5:171–3.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see BW5:174–9.
  • For Marjory Morten’s obituary of her see BW5:181–5.
  • The design of the monument for the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf is a symbol of the Bahá’í administrative order. [CB298]
  • See also Bahíyyih Khánum and Gail, Khánum, The Greatest Holy Leaf; BBD42; CB121–2, 305; DH156–61; GBF65–8; PP144–8.
Haifa Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Heroic Age; Marjory Morten; In Memoriam; Monument Gardens; Architecture
1940 Marcia Atwater, from the United States, arrives in Santiago, Chile, as the first long-term pioneer. Santiago; Chile Marcia Atwater; First travel teachers and pioneers
1940 1 Mar May Bolles Maxwell passes away in Buenos Aires. [BBD153; BW8:631 TG49]
  • Shoghi Effendi awards her the honour of a ‘martyr’s death’ and a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW8:631; MA38]
  • She was the first Bahá'í on European soil and the "mother" of both the French and the Canadian Bahá'í communities. [PP149]
  • For the story of her life see BW17:437–8.
  • Shoghi Effendi asks her husband, Sutherland Maxwell, to design her tomb, which is to be a ‘historic centre’ for ‘pioneer Bahá’í activity’. [BW8:642]
  • For an account of the erection of the monument to her see PSBW83–6.
Buenos Aires; Argentina May Maxwell (Bolles); Births and deaths; Names and titles; Sutherland Maxwell; Architecture; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area
1942 Late in the year Shoghi Effendi asks Sutherland Maxwell to design the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210; DH140; GBF103–5] Haifa; Mount Carmel Sutherland Maxwell; Bab, Shrine of; Architecture; Architects
1951 Shoghi Effendi receives the original manuscript of The Kitáb-i-Íqán, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá with some marginal additions by Bahá’u’lláh, and places it in the International Bahá’í Archives. Haifa International Bahai Archives; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude)
1952 26 Mar Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Montreal. (b.14 November, 1874) [DH143; MBW132; PP246]
  • For his obituary see BW12:657–62.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his relationship with Shoghi Effendi and work on the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb see PP236–43.
  • Shoghi Effendi names the southern door of the Báb’s tomb after him in memory of his services.
  • On June 16th, 1952, friends for the Montreal area gather at the grave to place, under the headstone, an alabaster box that had been sent by the Guardian. The box contains a piece of plaster taken from the walls of the prison in Máh-Kú where the Báb had been incarcerated in 1847. Another piece of plaster from the same source had been placed under the first golden tile of the dome of the Shrine of the Báb. The superstructure of the Shrine had been designed by Sutherland Maxwell. [TG55]
Montreal; Canada Sutherland Maxwell; Architects; Fortress of Mah-Ku; Gifts; Relics; Bab, Shrine of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1952 8 Oct Shoghi Effendi announces his decision to launch ‘the fate-laden, soul-stirring, decade-long world-embracing Spiritual Crusade’ in the coming year. [BW12:253–5; MBW411
  • For the objectives of the Crusade see BW12:256–14.
  • Among the goals to be achieved is the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives building. [BBD22; DH168; MBW43]
  • He calls upon the Hands of the Cause to appoint during Ridván 1954 five auxiliary boards to act as their adjuncts or deputies to work with the national spiritual assemblies to execute the projected national plans. [MBW44, BW13p335]
Haifa Ten Year Crusade; International Bahai Archives; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm; NSA
1953 2 May The House of Worship in Wilmette is dedicated in a public ceremony. [BW12:142, BWNS218]
  • For the text of the Guardian’s message of dedication see BW12:141–2.
  • For an account of the event see BW12:154–63.
  • See The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p24-26 for project statistics and a chronology of events.
  • Towards the end of his life in Tehran, Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) had entrusted the original Tablet to his grandson Jamal who in turn, out of the purity of his heart and his devotion to the Faith of God offered it as a gift to Hand of the Cause, Trustee of Huqúq, the son and brother of two illustrious martyrs, Jinab-i-Valiyu'llah Varqá. When Jinab-i-Varqa, according to the instructions of the beloved Guardian, was sent to take part in this dedication ceremony he brought this most precious Tablet as his offering to the archives of the Bahá'ís of the United States. [A Flame of Fire by A.Q. Faizi.]
Quick Facts
Location: Wilmette, Illinois, U.S. Cook County
Foundation Stone: by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 1 May, 1912
Construction Period;The purchase of the site completed: 1914. Design Chosen: 1920. Superstructure: 1921 – 1 May 1931. External Ornamentation: June 1932 -1943. Interior: 1951
Dedication: 1 May 1953
Architects Louis Bourgeois with Alfred Shaw (interior cladding)
Seating: 1,191
Dimensions: 203ft at the base and 191ft high
Cost: $2.6 million
Dependencies: Construction of a home for the aged was began in December, 1957 and inaugurated on 1 February, 1959. It is located about three blocks away.
Note: In GPB349 Shoghi Effendi states that “…this enterprise—the crowning achievement of the Administrative Order of the Faith of Bahá’u’lláh in the first Bahá’í century…”.
References: CEBF236-241,GPB348-353, MDM121-239, The Dawning Place
Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Gifts; Archives; Dedications; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Alfred Shaw; Architects; Z****
1953 8 Sep Jameson and Gale Bond arrive in Arctic Bay in the District of Franklin and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451, SDSC127] Arctic Bay; Franklin Jameson Bond; Gale Bond; Knights of Bahaullah
1953 7 – 15 Oct The Asian Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in New Delhi. [BW12:178]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:178–81.
  • For a report of the conference see BW12:181–8.
  • This is the first international Bahá’í gathering ever to be held in the East. [BW12:181; SBR171]
  • It is attended by 489 Bahá’ís representing 31 countries. [BW 12:181]
  • The design for the International Bahá’í Archives is revealed to the Bahá’ís of the world for the first time at this conference. [DH168]
New Delhi; India; Asia International Bahai Archives; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; First conferences
1954 Jan Jean Sevin arrives in Tuamotu Archipelago and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:457] Tuamotu Archipelago Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
1954 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces that plans for the International Bahá’í Archives have been completed and that steps have been taken to begin its construction. [BBD22–3; DH169; GBF117–8; MBW64] Haifa; Mount Carmel International Bahai Archives
1954 7 Aug Marcia Steward de Matamoros Atwater arrives in the Marshall Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Marshall Islands Marcia Atwater; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
1954 Nov A plot of land of slightly less than half an acre owned by Farah Sprague, a Covenant-breaker, is purchased, overcoming the final obstacle to beginning the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives. [DH169; MBW73–4] Haifa Farah Sprague; Covenant-breakers; International Bahai Archives Was she the Iranian-born wife of Sidney Sprague? See BFA2p155
1954 27 Nov Shoghi Effendi describes the significance of the world administrative centre of the Faith and the ‘structures, which will serve as the administrative seats of such divinely appointed institutions as the Guardianship, the Hands of the Cause, and the Universal House of Justice’ to be ranged along a ‘far-flung arc’. [MBW74] BWC Guardianship; Hands of the Cause; Universal House of Justice, Seat; Arc (World Centre); World Centre
1955 20 Mar Shoghi Effendi announces the commencement of the excavation for the foundations of the International Bahá’í Archives. [MBW75] Haifa International Bahai Archives
1957 Ridván The International Bahá’í Archives is completed. [DH169; GBF63–4; PP264–5]
  • For details of its construction and photographs see BW13:403–33.
Haifa International Bahai Archives
1957 May Pouva Murday of Mauritius arrives in the Chagos Archipelago and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. Chagos Archipelago Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
1957 4 Nov Shoghi Effendi passes away in London of coronary thrombosis after a bout of Asian influenza. [CB377; PP446]
  • He was in London to purchase some furniture to complete the interior of the International Archives Building. [PP445]
  • For a tribute to Shoghi Effendi written by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW13:58–226.]
  • See also Rabbání, The Guardian Of The Bahá’í Faith and The Priceless Pearl.
London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; International Bahai Archives; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; - Basic timeline; Appointed arm
1958 21–24 Mar The second Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Sydney, Australia. [BW13:319]
  • Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative and who is the architect of the Mother Temple of Australasia, attends, accompanied by four other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:317]
  • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC72–5.
  • For a report of the conference see BW13:319–21.
Sydney; Australia Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Ten Year Crusade; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects
1961 15 Jan The House of Worship in Kampala is officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a public service attended by 1,500 people. [BW13:715–18; MC15]
  • For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MC2503.
  • For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MC253.
Quick Facts
Location: Northern Kampala, on Dikaaya Hill in Kawempe Division.
Foundation Stone: 26 Jan 1958 (Beneath the stone is a silver box containing the sacred earth from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh and a wooden box containing a piece of the plaster from the Prison Fortress of Máh-Kú where the Báb had been incarcerated.)
Construction Period: Land purchased: 20 April 1954, January 1958 – 14 January 1961
Site Dedication: 14 January 1961 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum brought a gift from the Guardian- a carpet from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh was hung on the inside of the door facing the Qiblih.)
Architect: Charles Mason Remey
Seating: Over 400 (800 for Dedication ceremony)
Dimensions: Dome at its base-44ft. Diameter of inner floor-84ft. Circumference: 265ft yielding 5,550 sqft of floor space. Height of the building-124ft.
Cost: $ ? (initial budget was 42,00 Pounds Sterling)
References: BW13p704-719, CEBF241
Kampala; Uganda Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Architects; Z****
1961 17 Sep The House of Worship in Sydney is officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in two public services, each attended by 900 people. [BW13:732]
  • For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MC309–12.
  • For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MC313.
Quick Facts
Location: Sydney, Australia (Ingleside on the MonaVale Road).
Foundation Stone: 26 Jan 1958 (Clara Dunn and Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, while attending the 2nd International Conference 21-24 March, 1958. A small bag of earth from the inner Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh and a piece of plaster from the room of the Báb in Máh-Kú was deposited under the floor.)
Construction Period: 1957-1961
Site Dedication:16 September 1961 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum brought a gift from the Guardian- a green silk carpet from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.)
Architect C.M. Remey
Seating: 500
Dimensions: 124ft at the base and 130ft high
Cost: Original budget was 120,000 Pounds Sterling
References: BW13:319-322, BW13p720-732 CEBF241
Sydney; Australia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Clara Dunn; Mason Remey; Architects; Z****
1961 autumn/winter The International Bahá’í Archives is opened to Bahá’í pilgrims. [BW13:429; MC20]
  • For details of the Archives building and several pictures see BW13:403–34.
  • Marble for the the International Baha’i Archives building was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
Haifa International Bahai Archives; Pilgrimage; Marble
1964 4 Jul The House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, is dedicated. [BW14:483–4]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW14:485–6.
  • For pictures see BW14:482, 483, 485, 491.
  • For a description of the teaching conference accompanying the dedication see BW14:586–8.
  • See also MC14–15; PP432–4.
Quick Facts
Location: Frankfurt, Germany (near the village of Langenhain in the Taunus Hills)
Foundation Stone: 20 November 1960 by Hand of the Cause Amelia Collins representing the World Centre. She place Sacred Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in the foundations.
Construction Period: 1960-1964
Site Dedication:4 July 1964 Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum represented the Universal House of Justice.
Architect Teuto Rocholl (plans approved by Shoghi Effendi)
Seating: 450 – 600
Dimensions: Diameter at the base: 158ft, Inner diameter: 23m (69ft), Inner height of the dome: 24m (72ft). Height 20.5m (93ft)
Dependencies: A home for the aged.
Note: The construction of this temple was delayed by legal roadblocks instigated by church opposition, both Protestant and Catholic.
References: BW14p483, BW14p483-484, BW18p104, CEBF241
Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Amelia Collins; Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Teuto Rocholl; Architects; Z****
1968 Late in the year Two Chilean Bahá’ís, Aníbal Soto, a telegraph operator in the Chilean Navy and his wife, Norma Soto, are posted to a Chilean base in Antarctica. Antarctica Pioneering
1971 16 Oct The inauguration of Shahyad Tower ("King's Memorial Tower") in Tehran. The tower was built in honour of the shah on the occasion of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian Empire and has become an iconic symbol of the city of Tehran. It has been described as being a tower, an arch, a gate and an obelisk in one and is 50 meters (164 ft) tall and completely clad in some eight thousand blocks of cut marble from Isfahan Province. The main financing was provided by a group of five hundred Iranian industrialists.

After the Revolution in 1979 it was renamed The Azadi Tower (Liberty Tower) and was, in turn, the gathering place of the "rebels" in 1979 and for those protesting the results of the election in 2009.

The architect, Hossein Amanat was only 24 years old and a recent graduate when he won the competition for the project. In addition to having a remarkable career in designing buildings for commercial, educational and residential use, he is the architect for such Bahá'í projects as the Universal House of Justice Building, the Centre for the Study of the Holy Texts, the International Teaching Centre and the Mashriqu’l-Adhka in Samoa. He left Iran in 1978 and took up residence in Vancouver in 1980. [Hossein Amanat website]

Tihran; Iran Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Architecture; Architects
1972 29 Apr The House of Worship in Panama is dedicated in a series of ceremonies held throughout the day attended by Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Ugo Giachery and Dhikru’lláh Khádem and four thousand Bahá’ís. [BW15:634; VV14]
  • For the history of the House of Worship see BW15:643–6.
  • For statistics on the House of Worship see BW15:647–9.
Quick Facts
Location: Panama City, Panama (On the Cerro Sonsonate (Singing Hill), a few miles north of Panama City)
Foundation Stone: 8 October 1967 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
Construction Period: 1969-1972
Site Dedication: 29 April, 1972 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
Architect Peter Tillotson
Seating: 550
References: BW14p493, BW15p632-649
Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Ugo Giachery; Dhikrullah Khadem; Peter Tillotson; Architects; Z****
1973 18 Sep Husayn Amánat is appointed architect of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. [BW16:133; DH172; VV37] Haifa Universal House of Justice, Seat; Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Architecture; Architects
1974 7 Feb The construction of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice is initiated with the acceptance of the design conceived by architect Husayn Amánat. [BW17:73] Haifa Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Universal House of Justice, Seat; Architecture
1975 Mar The only Bahá’í to visit the continent in the 1970s, John R. Peiniger, an Australian, is stationed in Antarctica for a brief time. Antarctica John R. Peiniger
1975 5 Jun Excavation of the site of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice begins. [BW16:133; BW18:465]
  • See BW16:399–404 for an article on the Seat by architect Husayn Amánat.
  • See BW17:301 for the significance of the seat.
Haifa; BWC Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Universal House of Justice, Seat; Architecture; Architects
1984 1 Sep The House of Worship in Apia, Western Samoa, the Mother Temple of the Pacific, is dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause Dr Ugo Giachery, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II and more than a thousand Bahá’ís from 45 countries. [BW19:100–1; VV64]
  • For a report of the dedication see BW19:552–3.
  • For the text of the address of His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II see BW19:556.
  • For pictures see BW19:553 and VV64.
  • Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
Quick Facts
Location: Apia, Samoa (9km south of the city)
Foundation Stone: Laid by Malietoa Tanumafili II and Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum on 27 January 1979. She placed a small casket of Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in a niche in a stone.
Period: 1980-1984
Site Dedication:1 September 1984
Architect Husayn Amanat
Seating: 500 - 700
Dimensions: Top of the dome to ground: 28m (92ft)
Cost: $6.5m
References: BW16p488-489, BW17p371-374, BW18p104, 585-588, BW19p547-557,
Apia; Western Samoa; Pacific; Chiampo; Italy Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ugo Giachery; Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Dedications; Marble; Husayn Amanat; Malietoa Tanumafili II; Architects; Z****
1986 24 Dec The House of Worship in New Delhi, India, is dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and more than 8,000 Bahá’ís from 114 countries. [AWH47; BINS161; BW19:102 BW20p732-733, VV92]
  • See VV93–4 for pictures.
  • Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
Quick Facts
Location: New Delhi, India (Bahapur (Abode of Light))
Foundation Stone: 17 October 1977 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
Construction Period: April 1980 - December 1986
Site Dedication:24 December 1986 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum placed a silver casket containing Dust from the Shrines of Bahá’u’lláh and the Báb into the crown of the Prayer Hall arch facing ‘Akká)
Architect/Project Manager: Faribourz Sahbá
Seating: 1200
Dimensions: Inner buds are 34.3m high, the outer leaves are 15.4m wide and 22.5m high.
Cost: $10m
References: BW16p486-487, BW17p368-370, BW18p103-104, 571-584, BW19p559-568, BW20p731-753
New Delhi; India; Chiampo; Italy Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Marble; Faribourz Sahba; Architects; Z****
1987 31 Aug The Universal House of Justice calls for the erection of the remaining three buildings along the arc at the Bahá’í World Centre—the Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts, the Seat of the International Teaching Centre and the International Bahá’í Library—as well as an expansion of the International Archives building and the creation of 19 monumental terraces from the foot of Mount Carmel to its crest. [AWH50–4, 90; BBD21; VV96] Mount Carmel Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; International Teaching Centre, Seat; International Bahai Library; International Bahai Archives; Terraces; Arc project
1988 24 – 25 Sep The first annual Bahá’í Studies Conference of Spain is held in Barcelona. [BINS192:5] Barcelona; Spain Bahai Studies; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; First conferences
1989. 10 Oct The Bahá'í World Centre received official approval by the Local Town Planning Committee and City Council of Haifa of the Town Planning Scheme for the initiation of the Projects on Mt Carmel. Haifa Arc Project find reference
1990 Mar The Haifa District Town Planning Commission approves the plan submitted by the World Centre for the building projects on Mount Carmel. [AWH76] Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel. BWC Arc project
1990 23 May The work started on the project to reinforce and extend the main terrace of the Shrine of the Báb. This was the initial step in the work to have the Terraces extend from the foot of the ridge of the mountain. [Ridván Message 1992, AWH83, 102] World Centre; Akka; Haifa; Israel; BWC Terraces; Arc project; Bab, Shrine of
1991 Sep The ground was broken for the construction of the Centre for the Study of the Texts and for the Extension to the International Archives Building. [Ridván Message 1992] Haifa; BWC Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; International Bahai Archives; Arc project
1993 10 – 12 Apr The first Bahá'í Congress of Catalunya takes place in Barcelona. [BW92–3:146] Barcelona; Catalunya; Spain
1994 Jul 20 – 25 The European Bahá'í Youth Council sponsors five regional ‘Shaping Europe' conferences, in Berlin, Bucharest, St Petersburg, Barcelona and Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. [BINS323:3–5; BW94–5:177–8, 189] Berlin; Germany; Bucharest; Romania; St Petersburg; Russia; Barcelona; Portugal; Wolverhampton; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
1995 May 14 The Universal House of justice representative Mr ‘Alí Nakhjavání begins his tour of major Bahá'í communities to discuss the significance of the Arc projects on Mount Carmel. BWC Ali Nakhjavani; Arc project Find ref
1996 Ridván The terraces below the Shrine of the Báb are completed and open to pilgrims. World Centre; BWC Bab, Shrine of; Terraces; Arc project Find ref
2001 8 - 17 Jan Inauguration of the International Teaching Centre Building. BWC International Teaching Centre, Seat; Arc project
2001 14 – 16 Jan The inauguration of the International Teaching Centre Building at the World Centre with the meeting of the Institution of the Counsellors. Board members arriving from 172 countries attended. Construction of the International Teaching Centre Building began in 1987 and was completed in October 2000. [BWNS131] BWC International Teaching Centre, Seat; Arc project
2001 22 May At dusk, the opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb, a project begun ten years ago that has transformed the ancient barren face of the mountain into 19 majestic terraced gardens cascading down the length of the mountain.
  • See the message To the Believers Gathered for the Events Marking the Completion of the Projects on Mount Carmel.
  • The nineteen Canadian believers who had the extraordinary blessing of being present in the Holy Land for the official opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb are: Dr. Akouete Akakpo-Vida, Mr. Riel Aubichon, Mr. Garrett Brisdon, Mrs. Pearl Downie, Mrs. Nellie Ironeagle, Mrs. Aghdas Javid, Mr. Joseph Kowtow, Mrs. Joo Jong Kung, M. Fréderic Landry, Ms. Giselle Melanson, Mr. Borna Noureddin, Mr. James Patrick, Mrs. Valerie Pemberton-Piggott, Mlle. Cindy Poitras, Mrs. Janice Schlosser, Mlle. Caroline Simon, Mrs. Doris Toeg, Mrs. Linda Wilkinson and Mme. Elizabeth Wright. In addition, several students from the Maxwell International Bahá'í School were present as members of the delegations from their home countries.
  • The event was attended by some 4,500 people, 3,300 of them Bahá'ís, as representative of more than 200 countries and territories. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 1]
  • For the statement read at the official opening of the flight of terraces see Ruhi 8.3 page 93.
Haifa; BWC Bab, Shrine of; Terraces; Dedication; Arc project
2003 Ridván "In response to the call issued by the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, 185 design concepts have been received from architects and designers around the world for the Mother Temple of South America to be constructed in Santiago." [Riḍván 2003 To the Bahá’ís of the World] Santiago; Chile Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture
2003 May The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the appointment of Siamak Hariri of Toronto, Canada, as architect of the Baha'i Temple to be built near Santiago in Chile. [BWNS223] Santiago; Chile; Toronto Siamak Hariri; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects
2011 3 May Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi and Mrs. Mahvash Sabet were transported to Qarchak prison, some 45 kilometres from Tehran where the conditions were even worse than those at Rajaei Shahr Prison. [BWNS821] Qarchak; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Qarchak prison; Rajaei Shahr Prison; Prisons Conflict with below
2011 20 May Fariba Kamalabadi and Mahvash Sabet are returned to Evin Prison in Tehran. They had spent a brief spell in appalling conditions at Qarchak prison, (from 3 May) some 45 kilometers from Tehran. [BIC Evin]
  • The five men are still being held under close scrutiny in a wing of Gohardasht prison, reserved for political prisoners. [BIC Report]
Tihran; Iran Yaran; Evin Prison; Gohardasht Prison; Qarchak prison; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Prisons
2011 25 May Fariba Kamalabadi and Mahvash Sabet were transferred from appalling conditions at Qarchak prison to Evin prison in Tehran. [BWNS826] Qarchak; Iran; Tihran Qarchak prison; Evin prison; Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Prisons
2014 14 Sep Some 500 people attend the unveiling of the design of the first local Baha’i House of Worship in Norte del Cauca, Colombia [BWNS1020]
  • Julian Gutierrez Chacon is the architect for the House of Worship.
  • The relationship between the environment of the region and the community is also expressed in the design of the House of Worship, which was inspired by the shape of the cocoa pod, a plant that grows abundantly in Colombia and is integral to the identity of the landscape and the lives and economy of the people.
  • See BWNS for pictures.
Agua Azul; Norte del Cauca; Colombia Mashriqul-Adhkar, Colombia; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects BWSN1153
2015 17 July Some 300 people attend the unveiling of the design of the first local Baha’i House of Worship in Battambang, Cambodia [BWNS 1062]
  • See BWNS for pictures.
Battambang; Cambodia Mashriqul-Adhkar, Cambodia; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture
2016 11 Oct The final newsreel on the construction of the Baha’i House of Worship for South America has been released as the highly-anticipated dedication of the Temple approaches. The video highlights major developments over the past year and the growing connection of the community to the Temple and the activities of service and worship that it has inspired. [Video][Architect Siamak Hariri] Santiago; Chile Siamak Hariri; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture
2016 13 - 16 Oct The public dedication of the Mother Temple of South America in Santiago, Chile. The opening ceremonies were attended by over 5,000 people from 110 countries. Live video coverage of the public opening ceremony was provided on the Baha'i World News Service website for approximately 90 minutes and the video recording has been made available at that website.

The Mashriqu’l-Adhkár (Dawning-Point of God’s Remembrance) is located outside of Santiago in Peñalolen, a commune whose name means "reunion of brothers" in the local language. [BWNS1128].

The temple was built in the foothills of the Andes, between mountains and city. The 2,415 square-metre edice (26,000-square-feet) is essentially one large room with nine doors made of bronze. The interior is surrounded by a dome that is made up of nine elements – called petals. These begin wide at the bottom of the building and then narrow upward to meet in a spiral at the top, separated by crescent-shaped windows and a round window at the top. The outer surfaces of these petals are made of 32-millimetre-thick panels of cast glass, which have a ruddy, milky quality to them; the inner surfaces are made of smooth Portuguese marble. Both layers are translucent. Each of the nine wings of the building has two surfaces – one of cast glass and one of stone both of which rest on the steel structure. Each of those two surfaces has more than 1,000 separate components in more than 150 different shapes categorized as droops, slumps, bullnoses, shoulders, elbows, or spines. Each piece, which had to be crafted in three dimensions, was shaped using digital models. [BWNS1126]

  • Canadian architect, Siamak Hariri, began work on the $20-million project in 2003. [BWNS1127] The landscape architect was Juan Grimm, one of the most well-known landscapers of Latin America.
  • The Universal House of Justice was represented by Counsellor Antonella Demonte from the International Teaching Centre.
  • Message from the Universal House of Justice.
  • Pictures
  • Day 1
  • Day 2
  • Day 3
Quick Facts
Location: Santiago, Chile
Foundation Stone:
Construction Period: 2013 – October 2016
Site Dedication:13-16 October 2016
Architect Siamak Hariri
Landscape Architect; Juan Grimm
Dimensions: 2,415 square-metre (26,000 square-feet)
Cost: approximately $30m
References: BWNS800, BWNS921, BWNS940, BWNS959, BWNS982, BWNS1123, BWNS1125, BWNS1055, BWNS1199
Santiago; Chile Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Siamak Hariri; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Juan Grimm; Counsellors; Z****
2017 18 Jun The plan for the design of the Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar in Tanna was announced. Ashkan Mostaghim of mostaghim & associates, a firm from Sydney, Australia, has been chosen as the Temple’s architect. His design was on the shortlist for the Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar in Santiago. [BWNS1175] Tanna; Vanuatu Mashriqul-Adhkar, Vanuatu; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Ashkan Mostaghim
2017 1 - 2 Sep The opening of Cambodia’s first “Local House of Worship” in Battambang, just over two years after the design of the building was unveiled in July 2015.

The Mashriqu’l-Adhkar was designed by Phnom Penh-based architect Tang Sochet Vitou. It is situated on a 9 hectare property of which 1.5 hectares is used for the temple, an administrative building as well as gardens and ponds. The temple is a frequent topic of conversation among the local population. Even before its completion, it has galvanized action towards the betterment of the community and brought neighbours together. it will help provide for the spiritual needs of Cambodia’s growing Baha’i community which, according to the Ministry of Cult and Religion’s most recent annual report, numbers about 12,000 although some adherents say the figure may now be closer to 20,000. Baha’i communities were first recorded in the kingdom in the 1920s and since 1992 they have grown steadily with the help of aid workers and Asian immigrants.

In a letter dated 18 December 2014, the Universal House of Justice explained that a Baha’i House of Worship is a “collective centre of society to promote cordial affection” and “stands as a universal place of worship open to all the inhabitants of a locality irrespective of their religious affiliation, background, ethnicity, or gender and a haven for the deepest contemplation on spiritual reality and foundational questions of life, including individual and collective responsibility for the betterment of society.”

The dedication was marked by a two-day conference bringing together over 2,500 people from Battambang and every other region of Cambodia. A number of Cambodian dignitaries attended along with representatives of Baha’i communities in Southeast Asia. The Universal House of Justice was represented by Ms. Sokuntheary Reth who serves on the Continental Board of Counsellors in Asia. [BWNS1185, BWNS1187, BWNS1189, BWNS1190 (slide show), BWNS1191 (video), BWNS1192]

Battambang; Cambodia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Cambodia; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Firsts, Other
2018 18 Jan In response to growing interest in the persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran, a website was launched by the Bahá’í International Community providing a glimpse into several decades of discriminatory treatment against the Bahá’ís in that country. The website, named Archives of Bahá’í Persecution in Iran, made available, for the first time, thousands of official documents, reports, testimonials, and audio-visual material, revealing documentary evidence of years of relentless oppression. BWC; Iran Websites; Internet; Archives; Publications; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai International Community

from the main catalogue

  1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Commentary on the Qur'ánic Verses Concerning the Overthrow of the Byzantines: The Stages of the Soul, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). [about]
  2. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
  3. Accessing literature on the Bahá'í Faith: Emerging search technologies and recent results, by Graham Hassall, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Survey of search technologies that can be used to find documentation on the Bahá'í religion, and a summary of results of such searches for the period 2003-2006. [about]
  4. Action Research, by Rhett Diessner, in Converging Realities, 1:1 (2000). The purpose of action research is "transformative action," action that makes a difference in the life-worlds of both the researcher and the researched. [about]
  5. Arc Project: 1987 Open Letter, by Universal House of Justice (1987). Status of the Arc Project (Baha'i World Center), 1987. [about]
  6. Arc Project: 1991 Open Letter, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Status of the Arc Project (Baha'i World Center), 1991. [about]
  7. Arc Project: 1994 Open Letter, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Status of the Arc Project (Baha'i World Center), 1994. [about]
  8. Arc Project: A Poetic Experience, The: Pioneering Over Four Epochs, Section VIII Poetry, by Ron Price, in Pioneering Over Four Epochs: An Autobiographical Study and a Study in Autobiography, Section VIII: Poetry (2006). In the late 1980s I began to write more and more poetry as the construction projects on Mt. Carmel proceeded and the unfolding magnificence of the Terraces came more and more into view at the Baha'i World Centre [about]
  9. Archeology of the Kingdom of God, The, by Jean-Marc Lepain (2015). Analysis of the spiritual worlds as depicted in philosophical and religious texts, from ancient the Greek to Jewish, Christian and Muslim thought, contrasted with the theosophy, metaphysics, anthropology, and hermeneutics of Baha'u'llah and 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
  10. Archives, Bahá'í: Guidance Regarding, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
  11. Archives, Bahá'í: Preserving and Safeguarding the Sacred Texts, by Universal House of Justice, in Andalib, 12:48 (1993). Includes estimated numbers of Tablets revealed, and numbers of Tablets archived at the Baha'i World Center; prepared by the Archives Office on behalf of the House. [about]
  12. Art and Architecture: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Fariburz Sahba, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:3 (1997). [about]
  13. Arts and Architecture, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
  14. Bahá'í Classification Schemes, by William P. Collins (2001). Explanation of the expanded filing scheme for Baha'i topics used at the Baha'i World Centre Library, and outlines of two other classification schemes which could be adopted by private Baha'i archives. [about]
  15. Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
  16. Bahá'í Teachings, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Authenticity of Statements; Mathnavi; Quranic quotations; Marriage Prayer; 'Sun' and 'Moon'; Hands of the Cause; Night of Power; Khatt-i-Badi; Sarcophagus for Baha'u'llah; International Baha'i Library Building; Lunar Calendar and Holy Days; Leiden, Kings. [about]
  17. Baron Rosen's Archive Collection of Bábí and Bahá'í Materials, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
  18. Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
  19. Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts 2 (Continued from Page 499), by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
  20. Circumpolar Regions (Arctic): History of the Baha'i Faith, by Will C. van den Hoonaard (1994). [about]
  21. Compiler's Notes: Barstow Collection, by Thellie Lovejoy (2000). Introduction to and description of the Dwight Barstow archive. [about]
  22. Conservation and Restoration of Calligraphy by Mishkín Qalam, The, by Shingo Ishikawa and Patrick Ravines (2004). Three versions of a paper explaining the procedure for preserving manuscripts at the Baha'i World Centre, using the example of calligraphy by Mishkín Qalam. Includes high-resolution sample of Qalam's artwork. [about]
  23. Creation: The Nature of God and the Creation of the Universe in Bahá'í Cosmology, by Keven Brown (2003). [about]
  24. Development of Precast Exposed Aggregate Concrete Cladding, The: The Legacy of John J. Earley and the Implications for Preservation Philosophy, by Jenna Cellini (2008). Architectural use of concrete and different concrete types, with many references to the Baha'i temple in Wilmette. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
  25. Development of the Babi/Bahá'í Communities, The: Exploring Baron Rosen's Archives, by Youli A. Ioannesyan (2013). 19th-century private letters and diplomatic correspondence from a prominent Russian scholar, one of the first to study the rise of the Babis. Excerpt from book: contents and Introduction. (Offsite.) [about]
  26. Digital Archiving at the Bahá'í World Centre Library, by Bahá'í International Archives, in Scriptum, 8 (1999). A paper written by staff at the Bahá'í World Centre Library (and approved for publication) about organization and methods of electronic-media archiving, as of 1999. [about]
  27. Dutch Library Holdings (2000). Complete list of items relating to Babi or Baha'i studies housed in the three principle libraries in the Netherlands. [about]
  28. Dwight Barstow Collection (2000). List of 478 translated tablets and other English documents from the library of American collector Dwight Barstow. [about]
  29. Eshraghieh and Mahmoud Rabbani Collection, by Bosch Bahá'í School library (1998). Arabic and Persian books, tablets, and manuscripts held at the Bosch Baha'i School library. [about]
  30. European Bahá'í Archives Workshop (2001). Essays and handouts from a workshop on preservation of source material. Includes forms for archivists, historians, local and national assemblies, archiving methods, oral history guidelines, organizational schemes, and compilations from the Writings. [about]
  31. Evolution, Diagram Illustrating the True Story of, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Explanation of the chart Cycle of Life prepared by Lua Getsinger. [about]
  32. Finding a Trace of the Traceless Friend: Reflection on Bahá'í Scholarship as a Journey in the Valley of Search, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Prerequisites of search; independent investigation and the role of the heart, culture and tradition; dealing with distractions; exclusivity of search and sacrificing; seeking truth in every soul; and the standard of Majnún — seek her everywhere. [about]
  33. Greatest Holy Leaf's Unparalleled Role in Religious History and the Significance of the Arc, the Site of Her Resting Place, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Biography of Abdu'l-Baha's sister, who acted as his "deputy, His representative and vicegerent, with none to equal her." Her burial place on Mount Carmel determined the location of the Arc and the later buildings of the World Centre. [about]
  34. Homeward Bound, by Ron Price, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). Reflections on the meaning of home and community, classical Greek culture, and the "new home" embodied in Mt. Carmel. [about]
  35. Illustrated description of a design in the Persian-Indian style of architecture for the first Mashrak-el-Azkar (Bahai temple) to be erected in America, by Charles Mason Remey (1920). Expanded version of a portion of Remey's earlier Mashrak-el-Azkar [Mashriqu'l-Adhkár]: Descriptive of the Bahai temple, with photographs of Temple models. [about]
  36. Iranian National Bahá'í Archives (INBA) index (1996). A title/content catalogue of the 105 volumes of the Iranian National Baha'i Archives Manuscript Collection. [about]
  37. Juan Cole manuscript and book collection: Shaykhi, Babi, and Baha'i texts (1997). Manuscripts and books in Cole's library and selected Iranian National Baha'i Archive contents. [about]
  38. Letters to and from US Presidential Archives (1984). A collection of correspondence circa 1984 from and to archivist David Piff concerning Baha'i-related holdings. Also included is some correspondence between offices of the presidents and the US National Spiritual Assembly and the BIC. [about]
  39. Letters Written on Behalf of the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Three questions: Letters Written on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi; Status of Research Department Memoranda; Bahá'í Writings Based in Fact? [about]
  40. Mashrak-el-Azkar: Descriptive of the Bahai temple, by Charles Mason Remey (1917). Preliminary designs for the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkár to be built in America, showing nine varying treatments in different styles of architecture; includes discussions of the Ashkhabad temple and Baha'i history, and a 1908 letter to Star of West. [about]
  41. Mashriqu'l-Adhkar: Sacred Architecture and the Bahá'í faith, by Kenneth B. Sewell (1992). The nature of Baha'i architecture, the spiritual intentions of the unique design of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, sacred geometry, and the author's original building design. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
  42. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
  43. Methods and qualities of the seekers of Reality in Some Answered Questions in the light of Bahá'í Scriptures, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). [about]
  44. Missing Dimension in the Built Environment, The: A Challenge for the 21st Century, by Leo R. Zrudlo, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1990). [about]
  45. Monarchy, The Future of: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2002). [about]
  46. Myanmar: History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Rose Ong and Chek Woo Foo (2008). Text and photos of the history of Baha'i activities in Burma and Myanmar, 1878-1995. [about]
  47. Mysteries of Alast: The Realm of Subtle Entities and the Primordial Covenant in the Babi-Bahá'í Writings, by Farshid Kazemi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 15 (2009). One of the more esoteric concepts in Shi'i and Shaykhi thought is the "realm of subtle entities," 'ālam-i dharr, a sort of pre-existence for the archetype of humanity, which is relevant to free will and the seven stages of creation. [about]
  48. Number of tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh, by Robert Stockman and Juan Cole (1999). Informal accounting of the number of writings of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
  49. Pause to Reflect on Dustbins, A: Records of [A.L.M. Nicolas] Found amongst a Pile of Thrown-Away Writings, by Mahmoud Rouh-ol-Amini, in Ganjineh Asnad, 3:39/4:40 (2001). Brief discussion in Persian of papers of Nicolas found in the trash in Paris, with reflections on things discarded, written by Mahmoud Rouholamini. Includes background by Yves Monteil, who discovered the papers (1998) and scanned the later article (2001). [about]
  50. Perfection and Refinement: Towards an Aesthetics of the Bab, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The writings of the Bab have implications for the "plastic" arts; significance for native traditions; relevance to the performing arts; and the concept of refinement which comes across in both the person and the writings of the Báb. [about]
  51. Persian/Arabic Bahá'í Books in the Library of Ahang Rabbani (1999). Private library of Persian and Arabic sacred writings and other Baha'i-related material. [about]
  52. "Phoenix Schedule" for the Dewey '200s', Suggested in particular for Bahá'í Libraries, A, by Paul Gerard, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). On the structure and limitations of the Dewey Decimal Scheme, with a detailed expanded subset for Baha'i material. [about]
  53. Prayers and rituals in the Bahá'í Faith: Introduction to A Tablet to Jináb-i-Mullá 'Alí-Akbar fí Ardi'l-Álif, by Julio Savi and Faezeh Mardani, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
  54. Primary Source Texts, Access to, by Universal House of Justice and Susan Maneck (1998). One scholar's query why the Baha'i World Centre's copies of primary sources in Babi and Baha'i history are not available for study, followed by the House's response. [about]
  55. Publishing, Bahá'í, Memorandum on: Materials to be Deposited with the Bahá'í World Centre Library, by Bahá'í International Archives and Universal House of Justice (1998). Overview of Literature Review, publishing, translations, and details of the requirement of sending copies of all materials to the World Center archives. [about]
  56. Recollections of Pilgrimage: Nine Days with the Guardian in 1957, by Bill Washington (2014). Lengthy account of 9 days in the Holy Land. Appendixes include list of items in the Archives, stories told by other pilgrims, and discussion of the Ten-Year Plan. [about]
  57. Research Department, Functions of; Etymologies of three terms, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Two questions: (1) what is the function of the Research Department, and (2) etymologies of the three terms "world of exemplars," "'álam," and "barzakh." [about]
  58. Searchable online catalogues for US National Bahá'í Library and Louhelen Library, by Roger M. Dahl and Lewis Walker (2014). Overview of and links to online catalogues for two American Baha'i archives. [about]
  59. Seasons of the Soul: Reflections on "The Seven Valleys of Bahá'u'lláh" - The Valley of Search, by Hedi Moani, in The Family: Our Hopes and Challenges (1995). [about]
  60. Secret of Divine Civilization translation, capital punishment, and other quesions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On the capitalization of pronouns, reference to "we Muslims," works of Abdu'l-Baha revealed during the time of Baha'u'llah, the first person to recognize Baha'u'llah, and designer of the temple in Ishqabad. Includes a compilation on capital punishment. [about]
  61. Selections from the Bahá'í Writings and from Shaykh Ahmad on the Seven Stages of Creation (2008). Collection of quotations from The Bab, Baha'u'llah, and Shaykh Ahmad, with footnotes, on the 7 stages of Divine action: Will, Determination, Destiny, Decree, Permission, Term, and Book. [about]
  62. Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys, by Bahá'u'lláh (1991). [about]
  63. Seven Valleys and the Scientific Method, The, by Robert Sarracino, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
  64. Shoghi Effendi: Recollections, by Ugo Giachery (1973). Biography of Shoghi Effendi from the close standpoint of the author's personal experiences. Short excerpt from book; Part 1 only. [about]
  65. Six-Year Plan, 1986, by Universal House of Justice (1986). Outline of Baha'i goals for 1986-1992, and collection of letters from the House. [about]
  66. soc.religion.bahai: Complete Archives (1992). Link to an 18-year archive of the first moderated Baha'i newsgroup. [about]
  67. St. Petersburg 19th Century Orientalist Collection of Materials on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths, The: Primary and Other Sources, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
  68. Symbolic Profile of the Bahá'í Faith, A, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4 (1998). [about]
  69. Tablet of the True Seeker: Personal Commentary and Reflections, by Ted Brownstein (1998). Commentary on the Kitab-i-Iqan. [about]
  70. Texts, Sacred, Numbers and Classifications of, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2002). Three letters, from 2002, 2010, and 2013, about numbers of Sacred Texts catalogued by the Baha'i World Center and their classification into "authenticated," "revised," and "transcribed." [about]
  71. Thoughts on the Establishment of a Permanent Bahá'í Studies Center and Research Institute, Some, by Stephen Lambden, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Present state and future possibilities of Baha'i studies and academic curricula, and answers to various objections. Includes short compilation on the importance of scholarship. [about]
  72. Wondrous New Day, A: The Numerology of Creation and 'All Things' in the Badí' Calendar, by Robin Mihrshahi (2004). Symbolism in the Baha'i-era calendar, some Shaykhí origins of the Báb’s cosmology and ontology, and how these Shaykhí concepts find symbolic expression in the structure and organization of the Badí‘ calendar. [about]
  73. World Baha'i Institute in New York, by Nima Yadollahpour (2002). An architectural proposal for a Baha'i complex in Manhattan, designed structurally and mathematically based on the Seven Valleys. [about]
  74. Writings, Bahá'í: Importance of collecting and safeguarding, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). [about]
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