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Search for tag "Arrests"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1844. 11 Aug The Báb sends Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivers a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
  • The Shaykh's rejection of the claim leads to violent debate. Mullá `Alí is taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he is sent to Istanbul. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
Istanbul; Turkey; Iraq; Baghdad; Najaf; Karbala Bab, Life of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Ulama; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykhism; Firsts, Other; Trials; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases; Letters of the Living
1845. c. 16 Apr Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí is removed from his prison cell in Baghdád and taken to Istanbul, where he is sentenced to hard labour in the imperial naval dockyard. Istanbul; Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq Mulla Ali Bastami; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1845. 23 Jun The governor of Fárs, Husayn Khán, has Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib arrested, tortured and expelled from Shíráz. [B78; BBR69; BW18:380; DB145–8; GPB11, BBR1pxxviii]
  • Note: B78 says that Mullá Abú-Tálib was not among the group.
  • Note: DB146 note2 says "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D."
  • The London Times of November 1st and November 19, 1945 reports that this took place on the 23rd of June. [B76, BBR1p69,82]
  • The governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán orders that the Báb be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [B84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11]
  • Búshihr,
  • The Báb leaves Búshihr for Shíráz on an unknown date. [B 105]
Fars; Iran; Shiraz; Iran; Bushihr Governors; Husayn Khan; Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; Husayn Khan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1845. 30 Jun The Báb meets the soldiers of the governor of Fárs who had been sent to arrest Him at Dálakí, some 40 miles northeast of the city. He is escorted to Shíráz. [B84, 105; BBR170; BBRSM216; DB148–9; GPB11; TN6, SBBH1pxxv111]
  • DB150 says the Báb travelled `free and unfettered', `before His escort'.
  • BBRSM16 implies the Báb returned to Shíráz by Himself in July and that He was placed under house arrest on arrival.
Dalaki; Fars; Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1845. 30 Dec The Báb's birthday falls on the first day of the mourning observance for the Imám Husayn. Táhirih, who is in Karbalá with the widow of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, instructs her relatives and the Bábís to dress in bright clothing and joyously celebrate the Báb's birth. This causes a considerable disturbance, even among the Bábís. Táhirih is arrested and expelled from the city. [RR305, SA217] Karbala; Iraq Tahirih; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1846 Summer The Chief Constable, 'Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, is instructed by order of the governor, Hasayn Khán, to break into the house of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí where the Báb had been confined and to arrest Him. He and a follower are taken away along with His books and Writings. It is widely rumoured that He would be executed. He was allowed to return some time later. [LTDT14] Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1847. Oct - Nov Táhirih is accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle and is confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís are arrested. Four, including the assassin, are taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8] Tihran; Iran Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Tahirih; Khusraw Khan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1847. Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]

Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]

  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
Tihran; Qazvin; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Tahirih; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Cemeteries and graves; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1848. early Dec Bahá'u'lláh sets out from Tihrán with 11 companions to reinforce the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí. Nine miles from the fort they are arrested and taken to the town of Ámul, where they are held prisoner in the home of the deputy governor. This is Bahá'u'lláh's second imprisonment. He intervenes to spare His companions the bastinado and He alone receives it.
  • When the governor returns to his home he orders that Bahá'u'lláh and His companions be released and arranges a safe conduct for them to Tihrán. [B174; BBD44; BKG56–60; BW18:381; DB369–76; GPB68; SB7]
  • See BKG57 and DB70 for pictures.
Tihran; Amul; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Shaykh Tabarsi; Arrests; Bastinado
1848. 4 Sep The death of Muhammad Sháh. [BBR153–4]
  • This precipitates the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. [B147; BBD19; BBR156]
  • For details of his life, fall and death, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
  • The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest is rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
Iran Muhammad Shah; Grand Viziers; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Antichrist; Bahaullah, Life of; Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1850. 14 Feb Fourteen Bábís are arrested as a result of the actions of an informer. [BBRSM28; BW18:381] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1852 16 – 22 Aug A large number of Bábís were arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number were executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]

Eighty–one, of whom 38 were leading members of the Bábí community, were thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]

Tihran; Iran Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1852. Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís are arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

Many Bábís are tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís are martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes are gouged in his body and nine lighted candles are inserted. He joyfully dances to the place of his execution. His body is hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions are so severe that the community is nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappears from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
Milan; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shah; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Sulayman Khan
1853. Oct Second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147–51; BBRSM:217; BW18:382; DB642–5]

  • The new governor of Nayríz, Mírzá Na‘ím-i-Núrí, arrests a large number of Bábís and pillages their properties. The Bábís take to the hills. [BW18:382]
  • See BW18:382 for a chronicle of events.
  • See BBR147–51 for Western accounts.
Nayriz; Iran Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Mirza Naim-i-Nuri; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1853. 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245] Nayriz; Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Prophecies
1862 - 1863 Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí and six other prominent Bahá'ís were arrested in Cairo for being Bahá'ís at the instigation of the corrupt Persian consul, Mírzá Husayn Khán. They were banished to Khartoum, where Haydar-`Alí spent the next 9 years in confinement. [BBR257; BKG250; GBP178, Delight of Hearts 32-66] Egypt Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1866. Dec About a hundred Bahá'ís are arrested in Tabríz following a disturbance in which a Bábí is killed. [BBR251–3; BW18:382] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1867. 11 Jan Three Bahá'ís are executed in Tabríz. Their arrest is precipitated by conflict and rivalry between the Azalís and the Bahá'ís. [BBR252–3; BKG237–8; BW18:382–3; RB2:61]
  • BW18:382 says this was 8 January.
Tabriz; Iran Azali Babis; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1868. c. Jul Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád are arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.[BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
  • About 70 people are exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
  • See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
  • See BKG183 for a description of the city.
  • See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
  • They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Charity and relief work; Funds; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1868. c. 21 Jul Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Shírází is arrested in Egypt and money extorted from him. [BBR257–8; BKG243; GPB178] Egypt Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1870 Násiri'd-Dín Sháh makes a pilgrimage to the shrines in Iraq. In preparation for his visit the Bahá'ís are rounded up, arrested and exiled. [BBR267; BBRSM90; BKG441]
  • See BKG441–3 for details of the exile.
Iraq; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1870 In Zanján, Áqá Siyyid Ashraf is arrested, condemned to death as a Bábí and executed. [BWG470]
  • He is the son of Mír Jalíl, one of the companions of Hujjat who was martyred in Tihrán at the end of the Zanján episode. [BKG470]
  • He was born during the siege at Zanján. [BKG470]
  • His mother was brought to prison to persuade him to recant his faith but she threatened to disown him if he did so. [BBD25; BKG470; ESW73–4; GPB199–200]
  • See G135–6 for Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet concerning Ashraf and his mother.
Zanjan; Iran Ashraf, Aqa Siyyid; Mir Jalil; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution
1875 The `ulamá arouse the rabble against the Bahá'ís in Sidih, Isfahán. Several Bahá'ís are imprisoned, including Nayyir and Síná. [BW18:383] Sidih; Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1876 Six Bahá'ís are arrested in Tihrán and imprisoned for three months and 17 days. [BW18:383] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1880 In the year Martyrdom of seven Bahá'ís in Sultánábád. [BW18:383]
  • Three Bahá'ís are killed on the orders of Siyyid Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mujtahid and a large number of Bahá'ís are thrown into prison. [BW18:383]
  • Sayyidih Khánum Bíbí, an old lady, is sent to Tihrán and is strangled in prison. [BW18:383]
Sultanabad; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1882 In the year Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad Varqá is arrested in Yazd. He is sent to Isfahán where he is imprisoned for a year. [BW18:383] Yazd; Isfahan; Iran Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Varqa
1882 – 1883 The Tihrán Upheaval.
  • A number of leading members of the Tihrán Bahá'í community are arrested and subsequently condemned to death. Some are confined for a period of 19 months in severe circumstances but the death sentences are not carried out. [BBR292–5; BW18:383]
  • This is occasioned by the release of Bahá'u'lláh from strict confinement and the subsequent increase in the number of pilgrims from Iran causing an upsurge of Bahá'í activities, particularly in Tihrán. [BBR292–5]
Tihran; Iran Tihran upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1883 Six Bahá'ís are arrested in Yazd and sent to Isfahán in chains. BW18:383]

Four Bahá'ís are arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and sent to Shíráz where they are bastinadoed. [BW18:383]

Yazd; Isfahan; Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1883. 19 Mar Sixteen Bahá'í traders of the bazaar are arrested in Rasht; three others are brought from Láhíján. [BW18:383] Rasht; Lahijan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1885. 27 Mar 1885 Martyrdom of Mullá `Alíy-i-Námiqí in Námiq, Turbat-i-Haydarí, Khurásán. [BW18:383] Namiq; Turbat-i-Haydari; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1887 Karbalá'í Hasan Khán and Karbalá'í Sádiq were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and imprisoned for two years before being killed in prison. [BW18:383] Sarvistan; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1888. c. Jul-Aug Two Bahá'ís are arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and are sent to Shíráz, where one is imprisoned. [BW18:383] Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1890. Aug-Sep Mullá Hasan and his two brothers were arrested and beaten in Sarcháh, Bírjand. [BW18:383] Sarchah; Birjand; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1894 In the year Green Acre was founded by Sarah J. Farmer in the aftermath of the World Parliament of Religions. [BBRSM:104; BFA2:142–7; BW5:29; GPB261; SBBH1:125]

Two Bahá'ís were arrested and bastinadoed in Níshápúr. One died seven days later, the other two years later. [BW18:384]

Hájí Yárí, a Bahá'í of Jewish background, was arrested and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384]

A Bahá'í in Dastjirdán, Khurásán, Áqá `Abdu'l-Vahháb Mukhtárí, was beaten and expelled from the village. [BW18:384]

Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, were beaten and Bahá'í homes were looted. [BW18:384]

Eliot; Maine; United States; Nishapur; Hamadan; Dastjirdan; Khurasan; Faran; Khurasan Sarah Farmer; Green Acre; Haji Yari; Aqa Abdul-Vahhab Mukhtari; World Parliament of Religions; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia)
1896 In the year Bahá'ís in Hisár, Khurásán were persecuted and imprisoned. [BW18:384] Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1896 In the year Mullá Hasan Khazá'í was arrested in Khúzistán. [BW18:384] Khuzistan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1896. Jun - Jul Several Bahá'ís were beaten and four were imprisoned in Turbat-i-Haydarí when two mujtahids stirred up the townspeople against them. [BW18:384] Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1897 In the year Fifteen Bahá'ís were arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They were taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]

Three Bahá'ís were arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]

The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán were looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]

Saysan; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Nayriz; Hamadan; Iran Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1897. Feb Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Mamaqán, Ádharbáyján. Three were bastinadoed and three were imprisoned in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Mamaqan; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1898 Several Bahá'ís were arrested and imprisoned in Qazvín. [BW18:384]

Hájí Muhammad was set upon and killed in Hisár, Khurásán. BW18:384]

Qazvin; Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1898. Apr Nine Bahá'ís attending a Ridván meeting were arrested, beaten and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384] Hamadan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1903 8 Jun Bahá'ís in Maláyir, Hamadán, are attacked, beaten and imprisoned. Two are killed. [BW18:385] Malayir; Hamadan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1906 Oct-Nov Several Bahá'ís in Sangsar and Shahmírzád are killed or injured by bullets; six Bahá'ís are arrested. [BW18:386] Sangsar; Shahmirzad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1917 17 Feb A mob in Najafábád disinters the bodies from two Bahá'í graves. A general agitation against Bahá'ís follows. The Bahá'ís are boycotted in the bazaar and public baths and 32 are arrested. [BW18:387] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
1920 Oct Mírzá Mustafá is killed at Farúgh, Fárs, and other Bahá'ís are imprisoned. [BW18:387] Farugh; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1924 9 Mar Two Bahá'ís are imprisoned for several months in Marághih, Iran, after two mullás stir up trouble against the Bahá'ís. [BW18:388] Maraghih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1924 2 Apr Bahá'ís in Turbat-i-Haydarí, Iran, are attacked; some are arrested and imprisoned and others are forced to leave the town permanently. [BW18:388] Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1928 Oct A newspaper campaign of opposition to the Bahá’ís begins in Turkey. [BBR474]
  • Several Bahá’ís are arrested as a result and a close investigation of Bahá’í affairs in Turkey is made by the judiciary and the police. [BBR474]
Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1932 Nov A number of Bahá’ís are arrested in Adana, Turkey. [BBR474] Adana; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1932 2 Dec By now there are 15 Bahá’ís under arrest in Adana, Turkey. [BBR474] Adana; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1933 6 Feb By this date there are about 50 Bahá’ís under arrest in Adana, Turkey. [BBR475; PP317] Adana; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1933 End Mar The 50 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Adana are released. [BBR475] Adana; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1935 The persecution against the Bahá’ís in Iran continues. [BW18:389]
  • Meetings in the Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán are banned.
  • A number of Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh are arrested and imprisoned.
  • The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák is arrested.
  • Bahá’ís in Qazvín are arrested and harassed.
  • A Bahá’í in Záhidán is arrested.
Iran; Tihran; Bandar Shah; Arak; Qazvin; Zahidan Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; LSA
1937 The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran continues throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Many Bahá’ís employed in the police force, army and government departments are dismissed.
  • Six members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Ahváz are arrested.
  • Bahá’ís closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days in Bandar Sháh are arrested.
  • All Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Bírjand, Arák and other towns are prohibited by police order.
  • Five Bahá’í families are attacked in their homes in Cham-tang, near Hindíyán. They are severely beaten and forced to leave the village.
Iran; Ahvaz; Bandar Shah; Kirmanshah; Birjand; Arak; Cham-tang Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; LSA; Holy days
1937 May Several prominent Bahá’ís are arrested in Yazd. [BW18:389]
  • They are imprisoned in Tihrán for four years; one dies in prison. [BW18:389]
Yazd; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1937 May All Bahá’í activities and institutions are banned in Germany by order of the Gestapo owing to the Faith’s ‘international and pacifist teachings’. [BBRSM185]
  • PP305 says this was June.
  • Bahá’í books, archives and records are confiscated and a number of Bahá’ís are later tried and imprisoned. [BBRSM185]
Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; World War II
1937 Jul Nine Bahá’ís are imprisoned in Sangsar, Khurásán, Iran, for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days. [BW18:389]
  • They are imprisoned for two months. [BW18:389]
Sangsar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Holy days
1938 Persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Bahá’ís marrying without a Muslim ceremony were investigated, including several hundred in Tihrán alone. Most were imprisoned pending trial and were imprisoned for six to eight months afterwards and fined.
  • Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Záhidán, Mashhad and other towns were harassed by the police.
Iran; Tihran; Kirmanshah; Zahidan; Mashhad Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
1938 5 Feb Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union are persecuted by the authorities. [BBR473, BW8p87-90, 179-81, BW14p479-481, SETPE1p155]
  • Five hundred Bahá'í men are imprisoned in Turkistán. [Bw8p89]
  • Many Persian Bahá'ís living in various cities of the Soviet Union are arrested, some are sent to Siberia, others to Pavladar in northern Kazakhstan and yet others to Iran. [BW8p87, 179, 184]
  • Six hundred Bahá'í refugees-women, girls, children and a few old men, go to Iran, most to Mashhad. [BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í Temple in Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) is confiscated and turned into an art gallery. [BDD122, BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í schools are ordered closed. [BW8p89]
  • Spiritual Assemblies and all other administrative institutions in the Caucasus are ordered dissolved. [BW8p89]
Soviet Union; Caucasus; Turkistan; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Kazakhstan; Iran; Mashhad Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Persecution, Soviet Union; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai schools; LSA
1941 Jan Nine Bahá’ís are arrested in Sangsar, Khurásán, Iran, and banished to other towns for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days. BW18:389] Sangsar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Holy days
1950 Sep - Oct Four Bahá’ís in Iran are arrested on trumped-up charges. The trial lasts until 1954, when the accused are given prison sentences. [BW18:390] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
1953 25 Mar Enayat Sohaili, an Iranian, arrives in Mozambique from India, the first Bahá’í pioneer to the country. [BW13:290]
  • He is imprisoned and deported in June 1953. [BW13:290]
Mozambique Enayat Sohaili; Pioneers; Persecution, Mozambique; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; First travel teachers and pioneers
1955 18–22 Jan Five Bahá’ís are arrested and beaten in Hisár, Khurásán, Iran; four of these are dragged around the town; Bahá’í houses are attacked, looted and set on fire. [BW18:390] Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
1957 Bahá’í activity in Czechoslovakia is banned by the authorities, several members of the Prague community are arrested and Vuk Echtner is imprisoned for two years. Prague; Czechoslovakia Persecution, Czechoslovakia; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1959 Mar A number of Bahá’ís, members of the local spiritual assembly, are arrested in Ankara, Turkey. [MC306]
  • The incident receives wide coverage in the press and the Bahá’ís are eventually released from prison. [MC306]
  • A court case is subsequently brought against the Bahá’ís by the public prosecutor, who claims that the Faith is a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land, and lengthy litigation follows. [MC306–7]
Ankara; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; LSA; Court cases
1960 Aug All Bahá’í activity in Egypt is prohibited by Presidential Decree No 263 issued by President Nasser of the United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria). Bahá’ís are interrogated, arrested, fined and imprisoned and their property confiscated. [BBRSM174; MC228]
  • See message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of Egypt dated 21 December 2006.
Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1961 17 Jan Following the arrest of Bahá’ís in Turkey in March 1959 and the subsequent court case, the Turkish court receives the findings of three outstanding religious scholars that the Bahá’í Faith is an independent religion. [MC308]
  • For details of the history of the case see MC306–8..
Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
1961 15 Jul The Turkish court declares the Bahá’í Faith to be a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land.
  • The Bahá’ís are ‘forgiven’, released and the case against them dropped. [MC308]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly decides to appeal the decision to a higher court and national spiritual assemblies are asked to make representations to the Turkish ambassadors in their respective countries. [MC308]
Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights; NSA
1962 12 Apr Four Bahá’ís are arrested in Nador, Morocco. [BW13:289; BW14:97]
  • Eventually 14 Bahá’ís in total are arrested: 7 in Nador, 2 in Fez and 5 in Tetuan. [MC17]
  • For an outline of the situation as it developed over 20 months see MC16–19.
Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
1963 (In the year) In Angola, Antonio Francesco Ebo and seven other Bahá’ís were arrested and imprisoned in a penal colony off the coast of southern Angola.
  • They remained in confinement for eight years.
Angola Persecution, Angola; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1964 Four new believers in Cambodia are arrested and imprisoned as the Bahá’í Faith is not formally recognized and the Bahá’ís do not have permission to teach it. Cambodia Persecution, Cambodia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1966 11 Mar Eduardo Duarte Vieira is arrested in Portuguese Guinea on a charge of subversive political activity following a period of increasing pressure and harassment instigated by the clergy. He had been detained, maltreated and brutally beaten on several occasions since becoming a Bahá’í. [BW14:390] Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau); Guinea Bissau Eduardo Duarte Vieira; Persecution, Guinea Bissau; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1968 26 Jan A Moroccan Bahá’í is arrested, tried and convicted on the charges of having abused the sacredness of Islám and using deceptive methods to convert people to another religion; he is sentenced to three years’ imprisonment. [BW15:172] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
1968 9 Oct The widowed mother of seven children is sentenced to six months’ imprisonment in Morocco for refusing to deny her faith. [BW15:172]
  • Despite the efforts of national spiritual assemblies to secure justice for her through their embassies and cables to the King of Morocco, she is made to serve the entire sentence. [BW15:172]
Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
1970 12 Nov Bahá’ís in the Central African Republic are arrested at a meeting to commemorate the anniversary of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh and Bahá’í activities are banned when a disaffected Bahá’í denounces the Faith as a political movement to the authorities. [BW15:207] Central African Republic Persecution, Central African Republic; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
1973 Dec A teenaged Muslim student defended the Bahá’í Faith in a school in Baghdád, causing her arrest and the arrest of three Bahá’í girl students. [BW16:138]
  • Over the next months nearly 50 Bahá’ís were arrested. [BW16:138]
Baghdad; Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1974 4 Mar Following the arrest of more than 50 Bahá’ís in Iraq, their trial opens and the Bahá’ís are exonerated. [BW16:138]
  • The Revolutionary Council is dissatisfied with this result and the case is ordered to be reopened in a military court, with the death sentence requested for all the detainees. [BW16:138]
Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
1975 In Indonesia several Bahá’ís are arrested, given light sentences and released for violating the 1962 and 1972 bans on Bahá’í activity. [BW19:41]
  • A few months later four Bahá’ís are sentenced to five years’ imprisonment; they remain in prison for the full five years. [BW19:41]
Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
1975 Jan A Bahá’í is arrested in Iraq and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16:138] Iraq Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
1975 Sep c. In Iraq, a young Bahá’í is detained, interrogated, beaten and asked to recant his faith when he specifies his religion on a form. [BW16:138]
  • When he refuses to recant his faith he is tried by a revolutionary court and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16.138]
Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
1979 Mar Yúsif Subhání, a well-known Bahá’í businessman, is imprisoned in Tihrán. [BW18:278] Iran; Tihran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1979 24 May Shaykh Muhammad Muvahhid, a well-known Bahá’í, is kidnapped in Tihrán. [BW18:254, 294] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1979 Sep Revolutionary committees in Shahsavár, ‘Ábádán and Tabríz, Iran, order the arrest of Bahá’ís. [BW18:255]
  • Among those arrested are members of local spiritual assemblies.
  • [BW18:255]
  • Bahá’í homes in Tabríz are raided and literature seized. [BW18:255]
Shahsavar; Abadan; Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
1980 Feb The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran enters a new, more dangerous phase. [BW18:255]
  • Prominent Bahá’ís are abducted. [BW18:256]
  • The homes of members of the National Spiritual Assembly are raided. [BW18:256]
Iran NSA; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1980 Apr Eight Bahá’ís are arrested in Tabríz; five are released after signing an agreement not to take part in Bahá’í administrative activities. [BW18:256]
  • Two of the others, members of the local assembly, are put on trial and executed on 14 July 1982. [BW18:256]
Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1980 21 Aug The members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran were arrested. They disappeared without trace and are presumed dead. [BW19:43, 235] Iran NSA Iran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths
1981 5 Dec The Bahá'í cemetery in Tehran was seized "by order of the Revolutionary Court. Five caretakers and eight temporary workers were arrested and the cemetery was closed. [Mess63-86p510]

The Baha’i cemetery, known as “Golestan-i-Javid” – the Eternal Garden – was confiscated. Ten years later, the City of Tehran demolished the cemetery in order to build the Khavaran Cultural Complex. In accordance with Shi’a jurisprudence, the conversion for the purpose of so-called “improvement” of a cemetery is only permissible after 30 years, but in this case only ten years had passed. The construction of the Khavaran Cultural Centre required deep excavation and the disinterment of more than 1,000 bodies. The design for the sunken yard and the vast basement of this complex was in reality a modern solution to the doctrinal problem of cleansing the soil of the “contamination” of the “unclean” remains of Bahá'ís. During the excavation and recycling of the soil, the remains of the “non-believer” Bahá'ís were apparently used in the foundation for the road and a new overpass. [Iran Press Watch 11 June 2018]

Tihran; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Golestan-i-Javid; Eternal Garden; Khavaran Cultural Complex; Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
1982 23 Oct Authorities arrested 45 Baha’is in Shiraz on the order of the prosecutor. On October 30 another 40 Baha’is were arrested. In all cases, they were arrested simply because of their religious beliefs. Some were later released but many of those arrested were subjected to interrogation and excruciating torture. The interrogations and torture were carried out to extract information about Baha’i organizations and to force prisoners to renounce their faith and convert to Islam.
The Revolutionary Court of Shiraz sent 22 of those arrested to the gallows. The executions began on January 1, 1983, with the killing of Hedayatollah Siavoshi. The last of the group to die was Soheil Houshmand on June 28, 1983. The oldest among the executed Baha’is was Abdolhossein Azadi, 66, and the youngest was Mona Mahmoudinejad, a high school student of 17. The entire Eshraghi family — father, mother and daughter — were executed. Also executed were a mother and son, Nosrat and Bahram Yaldaie, and a young couple, Jamshid and Tahereh Siavoshi. Yadollah, the father of 17-year-old Mona Mahmoudinejad, was also killed. Ahmad Sabet Sarvestani was the only one among them who died in prison as a result of torture before he could be hanged. [Iran Press Watch 19466]
Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Deaths; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Mona Mahmudnizhad; Youth
1983 Mar Five local and two pioneer Bahá’ís are arrested, interrogated and held briefly in prison in Mauritania. [BW19:49]
  • The National Assembly is dissolved. [BW19:49]
Mauritania NSA; Persecution, Mauritania; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1983 Dec Bahá’ís were arrested in Mohammadieh and Casablanca, Morocco. [BW19:49]
  • The Bahá’ís in Mohammadieh were convicted of violating the ban on Bahá’í meetings, were sentenced to two years’ imprisonment but were released. [BW19:49]
Mohammadieh; Casablanca; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1984 Four Bahá’ís, one of whom had already spent five years in prison, are imprisoned in Indonesia, convicted of membership in a banned religious organization, with teaching the Bahá’í Faith and with insulting Islám. [BW19:42]
  • The prison terms range from one to five years. [BW19:42]
Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Persecution
1984 Jun A Bahá’í in Tetuan, Morocco, is arrested and sentenced to three years imprisonment for violating the 1983 ban on Bahá’í meetings. [BW19:49]
  • An appeal to the Supreme Court is unsuccessful. [BW19:49]
Tetuan; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1985 23 Feb Forty–one Bahá’ís from various parts of Egypt are arrested, charged with offences against laws introduced in 1960 banning activities of Bahá’í institutions. [BW19:41, 283]
  • For an account of the event, its aftermath and the press campaign surrounding it see BW19:283–7.
Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
1985 7 May The court hearings open on the cases of the Bahá’ís arrested in Egypt in February on charges of disregarding the 1960 ban on Bahá’í activity. [BW,9:285]
  • The cases are adjourned until 7 October to allow time for the defence lawyer to study the files numbering about a thousand pages. [BW19:285]
Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
1987 23 Sep Three members of the Yaran-e Iran, Mr. Jamaluddin Khanjani, Mr. Hasan Mahboobi and Mr. Changeez Fanaeyan, along with two other Bahá'í citizens, were arrested. After spending 59 days in jail, they were released on November 11th. One of the two Baha’is arrested with the Yaran, Mr. Bahman Samandari, was jailed and later executed in March of 1991. Authorities announced that his incarceration and execution was in connection to the 1987 case. Mr. Hasan Mahboobi was killed in a hit-and-run accident as he was heading to a meeting of the Yaran in August 1992. After the release of the Yaran-e Iran until their next arrest in May 2008, the Iranian government was in close contact with them and had complete and detailed knowledge of all Baha’i activities. On that basis Baha’is were able to refute the charges of “illegal activities” or “illegal organization” against the security of the nation. [Iran Press Watch 10561] Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1995 Sep The arrest and imprisonment of Mr. Zabihullah Mahrami in Yazd because of his adherence to the Baha'i. He was given a life sentence. [http://planetbahai.org/resources/news/news0304/renews031604z.html] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1997 4 Jul Masha'llah Enayati, a 63-year-old man, died in custody while in prison in Isfahan after being severely beaten. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1998 21 Jul Mr. Ruhu'llah Rawhani, a 52-year-old medical supplies salesman was hanged in Mashhad solely for religious reasons. Later that morning, Mr. Rawhani's family was summoned to collect his body and required, despite their protests, to complete the burial within one hour, under the supervision of Government intelligence agents.
  • In 1984, Mr. Rawhani was arrested and imprisoned for more than a year. According to an account given by Mr. Rawhani's relatives in the Australian Bahá'í News, Mr. Rawhani was tortured during his first imprisonment. He was arrested a second time about four years ago. The charge was apparently related to his work in the conduct of purely religious activities, such as prayer meetings and children's classes. He was released after 24 hours.
  • Mr. Rawhani was arrested for a third time in September 1997 and placed in solitary confinement in Mashhad. He had been accused of "converting" a woman from Islam to the Bahá'í Faith. The woman, however, denied that she had converted; she explained that her mother was a Bahá'í and that she herself had been raised as a Bahá'í. She was not arrested.
  • The killing of Mr. Rawhani was the first government execution of a Bahá'í in Iran in six years, and, coupled with the widespread arrest of some 32 Bahá'í educators in fourteen different cities throughout Iran in late September and early October. From the Daily Telegraph, August 2nd 1998. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
Mashhad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; persecution, Persecution, Education
2001 14 Jan Sixteen Baha'is were arrested in the southern Egyptian city of Sohag. The charges brought against them concerned their membership in the Bahá’í Faith. [Message from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada dated the 19th of January, 2001] Sohag; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
2006 19 May Iranian security officials arrested 54 Bahá'ís in the city of Shiraz who were involved in a community service project, many of them in their teens and early 20's. They were not charged and all but three were released within six days. It was the largest mass arrest of Bahá'ís since the 1980's. [New York Times 1 June, 2006] Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Youth
2008 5 Mar Mahvash Sabet – a schoolteacher and mother of two and a member of the national-level administrative group for Iran, the Yaran – was arrested having been summoned to Mashhad to discuss some matters regarding a Bahá'í burial. She subsequently spent 175 days in solitary confinement. On the 26th of May she was moved to Evin prison in Tehran. [BWNS Special Report]
This arrest marked a new wave of persecution of the Bahá'í Faith in Iran.
Mashhad; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Evin prison; BWNS; Mahvash Sabet
2008 14 May The six men and women, Mr. Jamaloddin Khanjani, Mr. Afif Naeimi, Mr. Saeid Rezaie, Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli, Mr. Vahid Tizfahm. and Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi, all members of the national-level group that helped see to the minimum needs of Bahá’ís in Iran were arrested in their homes in Tehran. Mrs. Kamalabadi, Mr. Khanjani, and Mr. Tavakkoli have been previously arrested and then released after periods ranging from five days to four months. [BWNS632, Report] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; BWNS
2008 The arrest of the Baha’i leadership took place in the context of a severely and rapidly escalating systemic campaign of attacks against the Bahá'í community that included the creation and circulation of lists of Bahá'ís with instructions that the activities of the members of the community be secretly monitored; dawn raids on Bahá'í homes and the confiscation of personal property; a dramatic increase over the previous two months in the number of Bahá'í s arrested; daily incitement to hatred of the Bahá'í s in all forms of government-sponsored mass media; the holding of anti-Bahá'í symposia and seminars organized by clerics and followed by orchestrated attacks on Bahá'í homes and properties in the cities and towns where such events are held; destruction of Bahá'í cemeteries throughout the country and demolition of Bahá'í holy places and shrines; acts of arson against Bahá'í homes and properties; debarring of Bahá'ís from access to higher education and, increasingly, vilification of Bahá'í children in their classrooms by their teachers; the designation of numerous occupations and businesses from which Bahá'ís are debarred; refusal to extend bank loans to Bahá'ís; sealing Bahá'í shops; refusing to issue or renew business licenses to Bahá'ís; harassment of landlords of Bahá'í business premises to get them to evict their tenants; and threats against Muslims who associate with Bahá'ís. [Iran Press Watch 1109] Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution; Human rights
2008 3 Jun Mrs. Mahvash Sabet and Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi were permitted to make short phone calls to their families. Later it was confirmed that Mr. Jamaloddin Khanjani, Mr. Afif Naeimi, Mr. Saeid Rezaie, Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Mr. Vahid Tizfahm also have made brief phone calls to their families. [BIC Report] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
2008 20 Jun The Bahá’is were also persecuted on account of their faith prior to the armed conflict under the regime of President Ali Abdullah Saleh. Four Bahá'ís were arrested in Sana'a on the accusation of proselytizing. The three Bahá’is of Iranian origin who were arrested are Mr. Zia'u'llah Pourahmari, Mr. Keyvan Qadari, and Mr. Mr. Behrooz Rohani . A fourth Bahá’i, Mr. Sayfi Ibrahim Sayfi, was also arrested and faces the possibility of deportation to Iraq. [BWNS651] Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; BWNS
2013 Mar The publication of the report entitled Violence with Impunity: Acts of Aggression Against Iran's Bahá'í Community published by the Bahá'í International Community. The report documents a rising tide of violence directed against the Iranian Bahá'í community - and the degree to which attackers enjoy complete impunity from prosecution or punishment. From 2005 through 2012, for example, there were 52 cases where Bahá'ís have been held in solitary confinement, and another 52 incidents where Bahá'ís have been physically assaulted. Some 49 incidents of arson against Bahá'í homes and shops, more than 30 cases of vandalism, and at least 42 incidents of cemetery desecration were also documented. [BWNS972] Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Justice; Bahai International Community; BWNS
2013 28 Oct The release of the video Violence with Impunity: Acts of Aggression Against Iran's Bahá'í' Community based on the report of the same name. [BWNS972] Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Justice; Bahai International Community; BWNS
2013 3 Dec Mr. Hamed Kamal Muhammad bin Haydara (sometimes referred to in the media as "Hamed Merza Kamali Serostani ") is arrested in al-Mukalla, capital of Hadramout province in eastern Yemen. It is suggested that he was arrested on the orders of Mr. Khaled al-Mawari, the Chief Prosecutor who was involved in the unwarranted arrest and detention of another member of the Yemeni Baha'i community. The family of Hamed bin Haydara had lived in Socotra since 1945, when his father arrived on the Yemeni island from Iran as a doctor under British colonial rule and was granted Yemeni citizenship.
The National security Office raided his home and seized laptops and documents. Reports indicated that he has been tortured (beaten and electrocuted).
According to Baha'i estimates, there are about 2,000 Baha'is in Yemen [BIC website, Reuters]
Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
2014 3 Oct Hamed bin Haydara had been held at an undisclosed location since his arrest by National Security Forces on the 3rd of December, 2013. During this time he was held in prolonged solitary confinement, severely tortured and electrocuted and forced to sign documents while blindfolded. In September of 2014 NGOs discovered where he was detained and tortured and so the National Security was forced to relocate him to the Criminal Investigation Detention Centre in the Central Prison in Sana'a. [Defending Bahá'í Rights facebook page] Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Hamed bin Haydara
2016 10 Aug Armed, officers masked in balaclavas from Yemen’s National Security Bureau (NSB) intelligence agency, which works hand in hand with the armed Houthi authorities, (also knowns as Ansar Allah) stormed a Bahá’í youth educational workshop in Sana’a. The event was part of a nine day, cross country moral and educational program for Bahá’í youth organized by the Baha’i-run Nida Foundation for Development. Sixty-five people were arrested including 14 women and six people under 18 without an arrest warrant. Half were Baha'is and, currently, it is believed some fourteen remain in prison, including young mothers. Further arrests were carried out later and within a week all but 10 of those who had been incarcerated had been released.
Among those detained are Nadim Tawfiq Al-Sakkaf, (British Council’s country manager in Yemen), his brother Nader Tawfiq Al-Sakkaf and Kaiwan Mohamed Ali Qadri. [UN Human Rights 4 Oct 2016, BWNS1118, publicaffairs.bahai.us, UN Human Rights, Defending Bahá'í Rights facebook page]
Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Youth; BWNS
2016. 27 Nov Nadim al-Sakkaf and his brother Nader, who were detained from August 10th, are unexpectedly released from prison in Sana'a. Their release, it is believed, was in no small part due to the relentless advocacy of their wives Ruhiyeh al-Sakkaf and Nafheh al-Sakkaf. Their friend Kaiwan Mohamed Ali Qadri, who was arrested in the same raid, remains in custody. [Religion News Service 20161129]

Photos of the four can be found on the same page.

Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
2017 19 Apr Houthi-Saleh political security officers arrested Walid Ayyash, Mahmood Humaid, and Badi'u'llah Sanai, all members of the Baha’i community, at a checkpoint near the city border of Hudiedah. Sanai was released one week later, but was re-arrested in May. All three remain detained, their whereabouts unknown. [UN News Centre 22 May 2017]

In total over 25 Baha’is, including many prominent members of the Baha’i community who assist with organization of community affairs at the national level were arrested around the time. In October it was reported that eight Baha’is were still detained but the place of detention was not known. [BWNS1215]

Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; BWNS
2017 Sep Arrests of Baha’is in Yemen has drawn international censure which led to a United Nations resolution, Titled “Human Rights, Technical Assistance and Capacity-building in Yemen”. It was introduced by Egypt on behalf of the Arab Group and supported by the entire UN Human Rights Council—calling for the immediate release of all Baha’i detainees. The Council is the principal human rights body at the UN and is composed of 47 members who are elected by the General Assembly based on equitable geographic distribution.

At the time of the resolution there were seven Baha’is in prison in Yemen, most of whom are held in undisclosed locations and one of which has been detained for nearly four years due to repeatedly postponed court-hearings. Arrest warrants had been issued for over a dozen others, while a number of families had been forced to leave their homes. Developments in Yemen indicated that the authorities’ prosecution of individuals had broadened in scope to be against the Baha’i community in general and that efforts were being made to turn public opinion against all of the Baha’is under the premise that they are secretly plotting to stir unrest in Yemen.

The resolution establishes a Group of Eminent International and Regional Experts tasked with monitoring and reporting on the situation on human rights in Yemen. It is also mandated to carry out a comprehensive examination of all alleged violations and abuses of international human rights in the country. [BIC News 3 October 2017, UN Human Rights Council – 36th Session, Agenda Item 10]

Geneva; Switzerland; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; United Nations; Human Rights
2017 18 - 22 Oct The Iranian Baha’i community was targeted during the bicentenary period. Between 18 and 21 October, some 19 individuals were arrested in Kermanshah, Tehran, and Birjand, and the homes 25 Baha’is were raided. Twenty-six Baha’i-owned shops around the country were sealed off by authorities because the owners observed the Holy Day on 21 October. These closures occurred in Shiraz, Marvdasht, Gorgan, and Gonbad. [BWNS1215] Iran; Kermanshah; Tihran; Birjand; Shiraz; Marvdasht; Gorgan; Gonbad Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahaullah, Birth of; BWNS
2017 22 Oct Yemeni security forces raided a Baha’i gathering in Sana’a opening fire on the small group of people assembled to commemorate the bicentenary of the birth of Baha’u’llah. The attack occurred in the family home of prominent tribal leader Walid Ayyash, who had been abducted in April and whose whereabouts were unknown. The attackers were reportedly in four cars and an armored vehicle which they used to break down the front door of the house. They arrested Mr. Ayyash’s brother, Akram Ayyash.
This event proved unequivocally the extent of Iran’s role in the persecution of the Baha’is in Yemen, especially in Sana’a, which is under the control of Iranian-backed militias. Similar attacks occurred in Iran during the period of celebration of the bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'úlláh. [BWNS1215]
Sanaa; Yemen; Iran Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahaullah, Birth of; BWNS
2018 19 Mar The release of Mr. Vahid Tizfahm from the Rajaee Shahr Prison in Karaj after having completed his 10-year sentence. He was the sixth of the seven Bahá'í leaders to be released from prison.
At this time the 10 year term of the remaining prisoner, Mr Afif Naeimi, had two months yet to serve. Due to a serious illness he was released to the custody of his family while receiving medical treatment under the proviso that he would return to prison when deemed medically fit. [BWNS1245, Iran Press Watch, 29 March, 2018, Iran Press Watch 30 March, 2018]
  • For his personal history see Iran Watch 11557.
  • According to BIC, there were 97 Baha'is in prison as of 1 March. [Middle East Eye Tuesday 20 March 2018 12:39 UTC]
Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Human rights; Court cases; BWNS; Vahid Tizfahm; Z****

from the main catalogue

  1. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
  2. Significance of some Sites Mentioned in Memorials of the Faithful, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). Abdu'l-Baha cited many villages and cities: the Most Great House in Baghdád; the ruins of Madaen which Baha'u'llah visited many times; Sheikh Tabarsi's tomb; the city of Mosul which is built on the ruins of the ancient city of Nineveh. [about]
 
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