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1835 Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá' (`Beloved of Martyrs'), in Isfahán. Isfahan; Iran Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs
1837 Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá' (`King of Martyrs'), in Isfahán. Isfahan; Iran Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs
1844. 11 Aug The Báb sends Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivers a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
  • The Shaykh's rejection of the claim leads to violent debate. Mullá `Alí is taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he is sent to Istanbul. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
Istanbul; Turkey; Iraq; Baghdad; Najaf; Karbala Bab, Life of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafi; Ulama; Martyrs; Martyrdom; Mulla Hasan Gawhar; Persecution
1945 Feb - Mar The Báb returns to Búshihr. He sends Quddús to Shíráz with a letter addressed to His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí who embraces his Nephew's Cause, the first, after the Letters of the Living, to do so. The Báb also entrusts Quddús with a treatise for him entitled dhasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications') and promises him his impending martyrdom. (He gave his life as on of the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, see 1850 19 or 20 Feb.) [B77–8; DB142–3; MS2, GPB9-10]
  • B77 and GPB10 say the Báb arrived in Búshihr in February - March.
  • SSBH1p23 and BBRSM216 say 15 May, 1845.
  • Before leaving on pilgrimage the Báb had stated that He would return to Karbalá and asked His followers to congregate there. An explanation in part for the large following that have gathered there is the messianic expectation associated with the year 1261, a thousand years after the Twelfth Imám's disappearance in 260 A.H.. This gathering is perceived as a threat by the authorities. [BBRSM15, 45, 216; DB157–8; SBBH1p23, 32]
  • The Báb changes His plan to meet His followers in Karbalá and instructs them to go to Isfahán instead. A number abandon Him, regarding this as badá', `alteration of divine will'. [BBRSM16; DB158; MH125; SBBH23]
  • Some speculate that He did not go to Karbalá to avoid conflict and sedition. Many Bábís had gone to Karbalá armed in preparation for holy war, `jihád'. [BBRSM21–2; SBBH1:23]
Bushihr; Iran; Shiraz Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Quddus; Uncles; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Dhasail-i-Sabih (Seven Qualifications); Martyrs; First believers
1846 Summer The Báb bequeaths all His possessions to His mother and His wife and reveals a special prayer for His wife to help her in times of sorrow He tells his wife of His impending martyrdom. He moves to the house of His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. He tells the Bábís in Shíráz to go to Isfahán. [GPB14; KB21–2; TB103–5, LTDT13] Shíráz; Isfahán; Iran; Persia Bab; mother; wife; prayer; martyrdom; uncle; Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali; Babi
1846. Dec Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí dies in Istanbul naval dockyards. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. Istanbul; Turkey Mulla Ali Bastami; Martyrs; Firsts, Other
1847. Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]

Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]

  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
Tihrán; Tehran; Qazvín; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Mulla `Abdu'llah; murder; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Shaykh Salib-i-Karimi; Babis; execute; execution; martyrdom; shrine; Imam-Zadih Zayd; Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi; death; prison; Mulla Tahir-i-Shirazi; Mulla Ibrahim-i-Maballati
1849. 2 Feb Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn leads a charge of 313 men that again routs the king's army. He is struck in the chest by a bullet and dies. His body is carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís are also wounded, about 40 of whom die. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]

  • Mullá Husayn is 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
  • See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
  • See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
  • See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
  • See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
  • Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
  • It takes the army 45 days to reassemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
Persia; Iran Mulla Husayn; Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Martyrs; Shaykh Tabarsi
1849. 10 May The end of the siege of the fort at Shaykh Tabarsí. Two hundred and two Bábís are tricked into leaving the shrine. [BW18:381]
  • DB400 says they accompanied Quddús.

  • They are not conducted to their homes as promised but are set upon by the Prince's soldiers. Some are killed, others sold into slavery. The fortifications around the shrine are razed to the ground. [DB403–4; MH283]
  • See DB414–29 for a list of the martyrs of Tabarsí.
Iran Shaykh Tabarsi; Martyrs; Quddus
1849. 16 May Quddús is tortured and, in the public square, he is struck down with an axe, dismembered and burnt. [B176; BBD191; BW18:381; DB409–13; MH283–4]

  • As he dies he begs God's forgiveness for his foes. [DB411; MH284]
  • His remains are gathered and buried by a friend. [B176; DB413]
  • See GPB49–50 for the rank and titles of Quddús.
Barfurush; Iran Quddus; Martyrs
1849. c. Jun - Jul The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learns of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He is so overcome with grief that He is unable to write or dictate for a period of six months. [DB411, 430] Chihriq; Iran; Persia Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Prison; Shaykh Tabarsi; Martyrs; Quddus; Tablets of Visitation
1850. 19 or 20 Feb Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís are executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]

  • See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
  • Three of the victims are so eager to be martyrs that they ask the executioner if they can be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
  • Their bodies are left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
  • See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
  • The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
  • See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia seven; Martyr; seven goats; Islam; Qá'im; Bábí; Grand Vizier; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil
1850. 16 May Martyrdom of Shaykh Muhammad-i-Túb-Chí in Zanján, the first of the martyrs. [BBR115; DB542–3] Zanján; Iran; Persia Martyrdom; Shaykh Muhammad-i-Tub-Chi
1850. 29 Jun Vahíd is martyred in Nayríz. [B182; BW18:381; DB495, 499; GPB42; RB1:265]

  • See DB494 for details of his martyrdom.
  • His body is dragged through the streets to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. [RB1:265]
  • See SDH13 for a respectful opinion of Vahíd expressed by an enemy of the Cause, one of the army chiefs who had fought against Vahíd.
Nayríz; Tabríz; Iran; Persia Vahid; martyrdom; Bab
1850. 8 Jul The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, is taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, throws himself at the feet of the Báb and asks to go with Him. [B153; DB507]

  • That night the Báb asks that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offers to do this but is restrained by the others. The Báb promises that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
Tabriz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Martyrdom of; Turbans; Barracks; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Martyrs
1850. 9 Jul Martyrdom of the Báb

In the morning the Báb is taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]

  • The warrants are already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
  • Anís's stepfather tries to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son is also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remains unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]
At noon the Báb and Anís are suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz in Sarbazkhaneh Square. They are shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men. [B157; DB512]
  • When the smoke clears the Báb is gone and Anís is standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, is found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
  • See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.
The Báb and Anís are suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, has been found to undertake the execution. After the volley, the bodies of the Báb and Anís are shattered. [B158; DB514]
  • See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
  • The face of the Báb is untouched. [B158]
  • At the moment the shots are fired a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remains dark from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
  • See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.
At night, the bodies are thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. [B159; TN27]
Tabriz; Iran Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Life of; Holy days; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Sam Khan; - Basic timeline
1852 16 – 22 Aug A large number of Bábís are arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number are executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]

Eighty–one, of whom 38 are leading members of the Bábí community, are thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]

Tihran; Iran Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Martyrs; Persecution; Imprisonments; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on
1852 16 – 27Aug The martyrdom of Táhirih in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
  • She is martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she has provided for the purpose. Her body is lowered into a well which is then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
Tihran; Iran Tahirih; Martyrs
1852. Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís are arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

Many Bábís are tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís are martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes are gouged in his body and nine lighted candles are inserted. He joyfully dances to the place of his execution. His body is hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions are so severe that the community is nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappears from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
Mílán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Bábí; arrest; torture; prison; Sháh; Mahmud Khán; Kalántar; martyr; Sulaymán Khán
1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál.

  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink is given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
  • They were also assisted by Isfandíyár, the family's black servant that had been emancipated in 1839 on the order of Bahá'u'lláh. This man's life was in great danger. At one time they had 150 policemen looking for him but he managed to evade capture. They thought that if they questioned (tortured) Isfandíyár he would reveal Bahá'u'lláh's nefarious plots. [SoW Vol IX April 28, 1918 p38-39]
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, is attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties are plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. The attempt failed but His health was impaired for years following. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100, GPB72]
Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá flees to Tákur and goes into hiding. He eventually goes to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
Tihran; Takur; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Attempts on; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Prison; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; Martyrs; Poison; Chains; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); - Basic timeline
1853. 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245] Nayriz; Shiraz; Iran; Persia Babi; prisoner; martyr; Islam; Prophecies; Qaim
1862. c. 1862 Bahá'u'lláh sends a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refuses to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3] Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Rings; Shawls; Gifts; Shahr-Banu; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Abdul-Baha, Life of
1863. 9 May Bahá'u'lláh and His party leave Firayját for Istanbul although at this point the destination is unknown to the exiles. [CH57, GPB156; SA235]

  • The journey takes 110 days. [GPB156]
  • For the details of the journey see BKG176–96; GPB1567; SW13:277.
  • See BKG180 for a map of the journey.
  • They pass through the following:
    
    Judaydih
    Dilí-'Abbás
    Qarih-Tapih
    Saláhíyyih (stay two nights)
    Dúst-Khurmátú
    Táwuq
    Karkúk (stay two days)
    Irbíl
    By the River Záb
    Bartallih
    Mosul (stay three days)
    Zákhú
    Jazírih
    Nisíbín
    Hasan-Áqá
    Márdiín
    Díyár-Bakr (stay two days)
    Ma'dan-Mis
    Khárpút (stay two or three days)
    Ma'dan-Nuqrih
    Dilik-Tásh
    Sívás
    Túqát
    Amasia (stay two days)
    Iláhíyyih (the last day of the overland journey)
    Sámsún on the Black Sea. (110 days after departure) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • For the number of people on the journey see BKG179 (72), GPB156 (26 plus members of His family plus guards), RB2:5–6 (54) and SW13:277 (72).
  • As the party draws close to Sámsún on the Black Sea Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Hawdaj. [BKG195; RB2:6]
  • The party remains in Sámsún for seven days. [GPB157]
Firayjat; Samsun; Istanbul; Judaydih; Dili-'Abbas; Qarih-Tapih; Salahiyyih; Dust-Khurmatu; Tawuq; Karkuk; Irbil; Bartallih; Mosul; Zakhu; Jazirih; Nisibin; Hasan-Áqa; Mardiin; Diyar-Bakr; Ma'dan-Mis; Kharput; Ma'dan-Nuqrih; Dilik-Tash; Sivas; Tuqat; Amasia; Ilahiyyih Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Journeys; Black Sea; Suriy-i-Hawdaj
1868. c. Jul Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád are arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.[BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
  • About 70 people are exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
  • See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
  • See BKG183 for a description of the city.
  • See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
  • They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution; Charity and relief work; Funds; Firsts, Other
1869. Jul Badí` delivers the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He is tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
  • For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
  • For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
  • He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
  • Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
  • For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
  • See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
Iran Badi (Mirza Buzurg-i-Khurasani); Apostles of Bahallah; Shahs; Martyrs; Persecution; Nasirid-Din Shah; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah)
1872. 10 Aug Birth of Martha Root, Hand of the Cause and itinerant Bahá'í teacher, in Richmond, Ohio. Richmond; Ohio Martha Root; Hand of the Cause of God
1873. Early part Bahá'u'lláh completes the revelation of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248]
  • There is evidence to suggest that at least some of the work was written earlier as confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and there is further evidence to suggest that parts of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17, 248]
  • For the significance of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
  • For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
  • The Law of the Huqúqu'lláh that had first been ordained by the Báb in the Persian Bayán, chapter 19 of unit 5, was reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, verses 227-233 and in the Questions and Answers.
  • At first Bahá'u'lláh declined to accept the Huqúq from the believers stating that the funds were not needed. [Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God p9]
  • "After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas had been revealed in response to the pleas of the friends, Bahá’u’lláh withheld it from publication for some time and even then, when a number of devoted Bahá’ís, having learned of the law, endeavored to offer the Ḥuqúqu’lláh, the payment was not accepted. The Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh show His acute consciousness of the way in which material wealth has been permitted to degrade religion in the past, and He preferred the Faith to sacrifice all material benefits rather than to soil to the slightest degree its dignity and purity. Herein is a lesson for all Bahá’í institutions for all time." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987]
Akka Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Napoleon III; Huququllah; - Basic timeline; Laws (general); House of Udi Khammar; Charters
1873 8 Mar Marriage of `Abdu'l-Bahá to Munírih Khánum in the House of `Abbúd.
  • DH45 says the marriage took place in late August or September 1872.
  • See CH87–90, SES25-26, DH45–6 and RB2:208–9 for details of the wedding.
  • For the story of Munírih Khánum's life see RB2:204–9.
  • She was the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Nahrí by his second wife. [BBD165; GPB130; RB2:204]
  • See BBD 166, BKG340–1, DB208–9 and RB2:203–4 for the story of her conception.
  • See BKG344, MA112–13 and RB2:206–7 for the story of her first marriage.
  • The marriage resulted in nine children, five of whom died in childhood: Husayn Effendi (died 1887, aged two), Mihdí (died aged two-and-a-half), Túbá, Fu'ádiyyih and Rúhangíz. Four daughters grew to adulthood. The oldest of these was Díyá'iyyih, who married Mírzá Hádí Shírází in 1895. Shoghi Effendi was their eldest child. The second daughter, Túbá Khánum, married Mírzá Muhsin Afnán. The third daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Rúhá, married Mírzá Jalál, the son of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, the King of Martyrs. The fourth daughter, Munavvar, married Mírzá Ahmad. [ABMM]
Akka Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Munirih Khanum; Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Nahri; Diyaiyyih Khanum; Mirza Hadi Shirazi; Tuba Khanum; Mirza Muhsin Afnan; Ruha Khanum; Mirza Jalal; Mirza Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Munavvar Khanum; Mirza Ahmad; Genealogy
1879. 12 Mar The arrest of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BBD 130] Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs
1879. 17 Mar The martyrdom of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BW18:383]
  • Their martyrdom is instigated by Mír Muhammad-Husayn, the Imám-Jum`ih, stigmatized by Bahá'u'lláh as the `she-serpent', who owes the brothers a large sum of money. [GPB200–1, ARG172, SDH104]
  • Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the `Wolf', pronounces the death sentence on the two brothers and the Zillu's-Sultán ratifies the decision. [GPB201]
  • The brothers are put in chains, decapitated and dragged to the Maydán-i-Sháh for public viewing. [GPB201]
  • For Western accounts of their martyrdom see BBR274–6.
  • See SDH112 for the story of the pilgrimage of their families to the Holy Land.
  • See BW11:594 for a picture of the memorial to the King and the Beloved of Martyrs.
Isfahan; Iran Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs ; Mir Muhammad-Husayn; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf, The; Zillus-Sultan
1883. 15 Apr Birth in Goslar, Germany, of Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns, a prominent German Bahá'í, named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Goslar; Germany Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
1883. June 21 Thornton Chase appears in Newspaper coverage of poem printed in The Grand Army Magazine, June 1883, "Lo! the Ranks are Thinned and Thinning" United States Thornton Chase; Newspaper articles Thornton Chase in the newspapers
1889. 8 Sep Hájí Muhammad Ridáy-i-Isfahání is martyred in `Ishqábád. [BBRXXIX, 296–7; GPB202]
  • Czar Alexander III sends a military commission from St Petersburg to conduct the trial of those accused of the murder. [AB109; GPB202]
  • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl serves as chief Bahá'í spokesman at the trial. [AB109]
  • Two are found guilty and sentenced to death, six others are ordered to be transported to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
  • Bahá'u'lláh attaches importance to the action as being the first time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for an attack on Bahá'ís. [BBRSM91]
  • The Bahá'í community intercedes on behalf of the culprits and has the death sentences commuted to transportation to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR296–300.
Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Haji Muhammad Riday-i-Isfahani; Czar Alexander III; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Martyrs; Firsts, Other
1891 19 May The execution of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd. [BBRXXIX, BW18:384]

Seven Bahá'ís are executed on the order of the governor of Yazd, Husain Mírzá, Jalálu'd-Dín-Dawlih (the grandson of the shah) and his father Zillu's-Sultán , and at the instigation of the mujtahid, Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivárí. [BW18:384]

  • For their names see BW18:384.
  • For details of the executions see GBP201–2.
  • For Western reports of the episode see BBR301–5.
  • Bahá'u'lláh stated that a representative of Zillu's-Sultán. Hájí Sayyáh, visited Him in 'Akká in the hope of persuading Him to support his plot to usurp the throne. He was promised freedom to practice the Faith should He support him. Hájí Sayyáh was arrested in Tehran in April of 1891 and Zillu's-Sultán, afraid that he would be implicated in the plot to overthrow the king, inaugurated vigorous persecution of the Bahá'ís in Yazd in order to draw attention from himself and prove his loyalty to the crown and to Islam. Had Bahá'u'lláh reported this incident to the Shah, Zillu's-Sultán would have paid dearly for his disloyalty. [BBR357-358]
  • See also RB3:194–6 and SBBH2:77.
  • “The tyrant of the land of Yá (Yazd) committed that which has caused the Concourse on High to shed tears of blood.” Lawḥ-i-Dunyá (Tablet of the World) Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, p. 85
Yazd; Iran Jalalud-Din-Dawlih; Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivari; martyr
1891. 27 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visits Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He stays three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He lives in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby on the foot of Mount Carmel on HaGefen Street. [BKG374; DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh instructs to the Master to arrange the transportation of the remains of the Báb from Persia to the Holy Land and their interment in a mausoleum below the clump of cypress trees at a spot which He indicated with His hand. It is stated that there were 15 tiny cypress trees at that time, each one the size of a finger. See Rob4p363 for a photo of the site indicated. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
  • For a story of the difficulties in obtaining land for access to the site of the Shrine of the Báb see SES79-80.
  • One day He pitches His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visits the monastery. [DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh visits the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
  • He reveals the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH109, 174; MBW63; RB4:352]
  • For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
  • For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
Haifa Bab, Shrine of; Carmelite monastery; Cave of Elijah; Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel); Charters; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; House of Ilyas Abyad; Templars title; title
1891. 3 Oct Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Dihábádí is martyred, one of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd who were killed at the hands of Jalálu’d-Dawlih and Zillu’s-Sultan. [BW18:384] Yazd; Iran Mulla Muhammad-Aliy-i-Dihabadi; Jalalud-Dawlih; Zillus-Sultan; Seven Martyrs of Yazd; Martyrs; Persecution
1893. 17 Jun Áqá Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Muhammadábádí is killed by three men on the orders of two of the `ulamá of Yazd. [BW18:384; GPB296]
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See GPB296 for details of his martyrdom.
Yazd; Iran Aqa Muhammad-Riday-i-Muhammadabadi; Martyrs; Persecution
1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by one of the Qajar courtiers in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
  • See World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p.43 for contribution by Kazem Kazemzadeh on the martyrdom of Varqá and Ruhu'lláh.
  • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22 and World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p29-44.
  • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
  • He was posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
  • See World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p.43 for contribution by Kazem Kazemzadeh on the martyrdom of Varqá and Ruhu'lláh.
  • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
Yazd; Tihran; Iran Mirza Ali-Muhammad Varqa; Ruhullah Varqa; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments posthumously Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Persecution; Martyrs
1896. 24 Jul Four Bahá'ís are executed in Turbat-i-Haydarí on the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:384; BBR405]
  • BBRXXIX says the four Bahá'ís were martyred in August.
  • These four together with Hájí Muhammad Sádiq are known as the Shuhadáy-i-Khamsih (Five Martyrs). [GPB296]
  • Their martyrdom is the result of the assassination of the Sháh, for which the Bahá'ís are erroneously blamed. [GPB296]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR405–6.
Turbat-i-Haydari Haji Muhammad Sadiq; Shuhaday-i-Khamsih; Martyrs
1901 Arthur Pillsbury Dodge publishes his book The Truth of It, the first introductory book on the Bahá'í Faith written by a Western believer. [BFA2:93] Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; The Truth of It
1901 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá writes His Will and Testament over this seven-year period. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
  • It is written in three parts. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
  • It `may be regarded as the offspring resulting from that mystic intercourse between Him Who had generated the forces of a God-given Faith and the One Who had been made its sole Interpreter and was recognized as its perfect Exemplar'. [GPB325]
  • For an analysis of its content and its import see AB484–93 and GPB325–8.
Akka Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Charters
1901 2 Nov Birth of John Robarts, Hand of the Cause of God, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Waterloo; Ontario; Canada John Robarts; Births and deaths
1904 The publication of Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD by Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni and translated by Youness Afroukhteh. A second edition was published in 1917. Iran Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Persecution; Martyrs
1908 `Alí Ádharí is martyred in Kirmán. [BW18:386]

Kirman; Iran Persecution; Martyrs
1909 25 Nov Dr Susan Moody arrives in Tihrán. She and four Persian Bahá'í doctors start the Sehat Hospital. Because the hospital was only accessible to the wealthy she established a private practice that was open to all women regardless of their ability to pay. [BFA2:359-360]
  • She spent two days in 'Akká en route to Persia and 'Abdu'l-Bahá conferred upon her the title Amatu'l-'Alí (Handmaid of the Most High). [BFA2:358]
  • Dr Sarah A. Clock arrives from Seattle in 1911 to assist her followed by Miss Elizabeth Stewart (nurse). [BFA2:361]
Tihran; Iran Susan Moody; Sehat Hospital; Sarah A. Clock; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Social and economic development
1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseilles; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes
1911 5 Sep ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was interviewed by the editor of The Christian Commonwealth, Mr Albert Dawson, and later met with the Rev R. J. Campbell. The Christian Commonwealth was a weekly newspaper. On 13 September it printed, on its front cover, an article which included the interview between ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Rev R. J. Campbell that had taken place on 5 September. The following week the front cover had another article, entitled ‘The Vanishing of the Veil’, about ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s visit to St John’s, Westminster. Other issues also had substantial articles about His visits. [In the Footsteps of the Master p.7] London; United Kingdom First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'; Interviews; Newspaper articles
1912 22 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP43, APD22-24] Washington; DC Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Arthur Parsons; Agnes Parsons
1912 25 Apr Talk to Theosophical Society, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP58]

Message to Esperantists, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP60]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP62, APD46-49]

Washington; DC Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Theosophical Society; Arthur Parsons; Esperanto
1912 6 Aug Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, Dublin, New Hampshire. [PUP247] Dublin; New Hampshire; Arthur Parsons; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
1912 7 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP397]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP400]

Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Arthur Parsons
1912 9 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP411]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP415]

Talk at Bahá’í Banquet, Rauscher’s Hall, Washington, D. C. [PUP418]

Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Arthur Parsons; Rauscher’s Hall
1912 10 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP421]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Hannen 1252 Eighth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. .[PUP425]

Talk at 1901 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP428]

Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Arthur Parsons; Joseph Hannen
1912 21 or 22 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá witnessed His first dramatic performance. It was a mystery Christmas play entitled Eager Heart written by Miss Alice Buckton and performed at the Church House, Westminster before an audience of 1,200. [SoW Vol III no 19 2March1913 p 7, CH154, AB34]
  • He is reported to have said, perhaps on another occasion, "The stage will be the pulpit of the future". [Quoted by Loulie Mathews in The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom, Vol 4, No. 3 (June 1923, p69]
  • Star of the West, Vol. 19 no. 11 Feb1929, p.341 quotes 'Abdu'l-Bahá as saying: "drama is of the utmost importance. It has been a great educational power in the past; it will be so again,". [BW1994-1995p255]
Westminster Drama; Arts; Abdul-Baha, Travels of
1913. 8 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá was given a tour of the Edinburgh College of Arts conducted by the President. (74 Lauriston Place, Edinburgh EH3 9DF) This was followed by a tour of a school in the poorer district, North Canongate School.

In the afternoon He spoke to a capacity attendance at Rainy Hall, New College, the Mound, Edinburgh EH1 2LX.

'Abdu'l-Bahá attended a charity performance of Handel's Messiah at St Giles Cathedral. (Royal Mile, Edinburgh EH1 1RE) St. Giles was also known as the High Kirk of Edinburgh. It was Edinburgh's religious focal point for at least 900 years.

And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it. (Isaiah 40:5) [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, ABTM297]

Edinburgh Abdul-Baha, Travels of; St Giles Cathedral; Handel's Messiah; Edinburgh College of Arts; North Canongate School
1913 30 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá travels from Paris to Stuttgart. [AB379]
  • He tells His attendants to wear European dress and to discard their oriental headgear. [AB379]
  • He does not tell the Bahá'ís of Stuttgart of His arrival in advance. [AB379]
Stuttgart; Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of
1913 8 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to Stuttgart, then leaves in the evening for Budapest, changing trains in Vienna the next morning. To this date no travel teacher had visited Budapest and there are no resident believers. [ABM316]
  • The trip was made at the invitation of, among others, Mr and Mrs Lipót Stark. the Secretary General of the Theosophical Society, who had given a lecture entitled "The Bahá'i Movement" on the 25th of February, 1912 and the text of the lecture had been published in the Esperanto periodical Teozofia (Theosophical). [SBBR14p110]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá is accompanied by Wilhelm Herrigel to serve to translate into German. [AB384]
Stuttgart; Budapest; Hungary Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Wilhelm Herrigel
1913 24 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Vienna and returns to Stuttgart, where He arrives in the early hours of the next morning. [AB389] Stuttgart; Vienna Abdul-Baha, Travels of
1913 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Stuttgart and returns to Paris. [AB391] Stuttgart; Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of
1915 Mírzá Husayn-i-Hudá is martyred in Urúmíyyih. [BW18:387] Urúmíyyih; Iran; Mirza Husayn-i-Huda; martyr
1915 11 Oct Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in Freeport, New York. [sBR15]
  • For biographies see BFA1:116-17, SBR1-16 and SW6, 13:100-1.
  • For his obituary see SW6, 19:161-7.
  • Dodge's books include The Truth of It (1901) [SW6, 13:101] and Whence? Why? Wither? (1907). [SW6, 13:101]
Freeport; New York; United States Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
1919 The first Norwegian to accept the Faith, Johanna Christensen-Schubarth, `the mother of the Norwegian Bahá'í Community', becomes a Bahá'í in the United States. [BW12:694-6]. USA Johanna Christensen-Schubarth; the mother of the Norwegian Baha'i Community
1919 26 Apr-1 May The 14 Tablets of the Divine Plan are unveiled in a dramatic ceremony at the Hotel McAlpin in New York, during the `Convention of the Covenant'. [BBD219; PP437; SBBH1:134; SBBH2:135; SBR86; TDPXI]
  • For details of the convention programme, Tablets and talks given see SW10, 4:54-72; SW10, 5:83-94; SW10, 6:99-103, 111-12 SW10, 7:122-7, 138; SW10, 10:197-203; and SW10, 12:2279.
  • Mary Maxwell (Rúhíyyih Khánum) is among the young people who unveil the Tablets. [PP437]
  • Agnes Parsons arrives from her pilgrimage just before the close of the convention and is able to convey the instructions from `Abdu'l-Bahá to arrange a Convention for `the unity of the coloured and white races'. [BW5:413; SBR87]
  • Hyde and Clara Dunn and Martha Root respond immediately to the appeal, the Dunns going to Australia where they open 700 towns to the Faith, and Martha Root embarking on the first of her journeys which are to extend over 20 years. [GPB308; MR88]
  • See also CT138-9.
New York Tablets of the Divine Plan; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Charters; Conventions; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Agnes Parsons; Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; Martha Root
1919 22 Jul Martha Root leaves New York on the first of her teaching journeys for the Bahá'í Faith. [MR90] New York Martha Root
1919 c. 4 Aug Martha Root sets foot in South America for the first time, at Para (Belém), Brazil. [MR93; MRHK44]
  • See MR93-100 and MRHK44-59 for her teaching work in Brazil.
South America; Para (Belé; m); Brazil Martha Root
1919 19 Sep Martha Root arrives in Montevideo, Uruguay, the first Bahá'í to visit the country.
  • She spends 12 hours in the city, gives books to two libraries and places an article about the Faith in the newspaper El Dia.
Montevideo; Uruguay Martha Root
1919 20 Sep Martha Root arrives in Argentina, the first recorded visit of a Bahá'í to this country. [MR101]
  • She remains in Buenos Aires until 4 October. [MR101]
  • See MR101-2 and MRHK61-5 for her teaching work in Argentina.
  • See MR103-6 and MRHK66-9 for her journey over the Andes on a mule.
Buenos Aires; Argentina Martha Root; Andes; First Bahais by country or area
1919 Oct Martha Root visits Chile, the first Bahá'í to do so.
  • During her four-hour stay in Valparaiso she meets with the Theosophical Society to speak about the Bahá'í Faith.
Chile Martha Root; Theosophical Society
1919 25 Oct Martha Root arrives in Panama, the first Bahá'í to visit the country. She spends one week there. Panama Martha Root
1919 Late Martha Root visits Cuba for one day, the first Bahá'í to do so, and lectures on the Bahá'í Faith. Cuba Martha Root
1920 Mírzá Ibráhím Khán, Ibtiháju'l-Mulk, is martyred in Rasht at the hands of the Jangalís. [BW18:387] Rasht; Iran; Mirza Ibrahim Khan; Ibtihaju'l-Mulk; martyr
1920 Sep The tombs of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in Isfahán are demolished by a mob. [BBR437]
  • For Western responses see BBR437-9.
Isfahan; Iran Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution; Cemeteries and graves
1921 (in the year) The birth of Eduardo Duarte Vieira, the first African Bahá'í martyr, is born in Portuguese Guinea. Portuguese Guinea; Guinea Bissau; Eduardo Duarte Vieira; martyr; Guinea Bissau
1923 25 Apr Martha Root leaves Osaka for northern China. [PH31]
  • It is her second visit to China and lasts until March 1924. [PH31-2]
China Martha Root
1923 4 Nov The first recorded Bahá'í Feast in China is held in Beijing. [PH33]
  • Martha Root and Agnes Alexander are present. [PH33]
China Feast; Martha Root; Agnes Alexander
1924 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and the Sudan is formed, the first national body in Africa. [BBRSM121; GPB333]

Martha Root gives the first African radio broadcast about the Bahá'í Faith, in Cape Town.

Egypt; Cape Town. National Spiritual Assembly; Martha Root
1926 Martha Roots visits Budapest and teaches the Faith to one of the grandsons of Arminius Vámbéry, Mr. György Vámbéry. He was 21 at the time and passed away some two years later. [www.bahai.hu] Budapest; Hungary Martha Root; Arminius Vambéry; György Vambéry.
1926 28 Jan Martha Root sends a note and a copy of Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era to Queen Marie of Romania. [GBF42; GPB390; MR242] Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania; Esslemont
1926 30 Jan Martha Root meets with Queen Marie of Romania for the first time. [BBR59; GBF42; GPB390; PP107, HEC49]
  • For the details of the meeting and the acceptance of the Faith by Queen Marie see GBP389–96 and MR240–6.
  • This was the first of eight meetings between Martha Root and Queen Marie.
Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie
1926 First week in Feb Martha Root arrives in Bulgaria, the earliest documented visit to that country by a Bahá’í. [MR247]
  • She stays 12 days. [MR247]
  • Bahá’ís had passed through Bulgaria on their way to Turkey, but Martha Root’s visit is the first one documented.
Bulgaria Martha Root
1927 25 Mar Áqá ‘Abdu’l-‘A‘zím, Amínu’l-‘Ulamá’ is martyred in Ardibíl, Iran, by the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:388] Ardibil; Iran Martyrs; Persecution
1927 Apr-May Martha Root journeys through the Baltic States, becoming the first Bahá’í to visit Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (2 May). [MR272–4] Baltic States Martha Root
1927 19 Jun Karbalá’í Asadu’lláh-i-Saqat-furúsh is martyred in Kirmán, Iran. [BW18:388] Kirman; Iran Martyrs; Persecution
1928 Jul The first International Religious Congress for World Peace was held at The Hague. It was attended by Martha Root. [BW3:45] Hague, The; Netherlands Conferences, Peace; Martha Root; First conferences
1929 End of Aug Martha Root arrives in Albania, the first Bahá’í to set foot in the country. [MR317]
  • She obtains an audience with King Zog I and is warmly received by him. [MR319]
  • For Martha Root’s own account of her stay in Albania see MR319–20.
Albania Martha Root; King Zog I
1930 2 Jan Martha Roots meets with King Faisal of Iraq in Baghdad. The King says that a committee has been formed to study the problem and to settle it in such a way as to satisfy all groups interested in the matter. [MRHK149] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Martha Root
1932 23 Nov George Adam Benke passes away in Sofia, Bulgaria.
  • Shoghi Effendi calls him the first European martyr. [LDG1:263; MC359]
  • For his obituary see BW5:416–18.
Sofia; Bulgaria George Adam Benke; martyr
1933 23 Oct Keith Ransom-Kehler dies of smallpox in Isfahán. [BW5:24, 398]
  • For her obituary see BW5:389–410.
  • She is buried near the grave of the King of Martyrs. [BW5:398]
  • For a picture of her grave see BW5:399.
  • Shoghi Effendi names her America’s ‘first and distinguished martyr’. [BW5:398]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevates her to the rank of Hand of the Cause on 28 October, 1933. [BW5:398, MoCxxii]
  • For her mission in Iran see BW5:23–7.
  • See also PP306–7.
  • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 176-181) for a pen portrait of Keith Ransom-Kehler .
Isfahán; Iran; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hand of the Cause; martyr; In Memoriam; Hand appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
1936 Feb Martha Root meets with Queen Marie of Romania for the eighth and last time. [MRHK413] Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie
1939 28 Sep Martha Root, ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh’, passes away in Honolulu. (b. 10 August,1872 Richwood Union County Ohio, USA) [BBD198–9; GPB388; MRHK486; PP105]
  • Photos of her gravesite 1, 2 and 3. Directions to the gravesite.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see GPB386–9.
  • On the 2nd of October Shoghi Effendi announced her appointment to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. [MoCxxii]
  • Shoghi Effendi calls her the ‘archetype of Bahá’í itinerant teachers’, the ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh since ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing’, ‘Leading ambassadress of His Faith’ and ‘Pride of Bahá’í teachers’. [GPB386]
  • From the Guardian...her "acts shed imperishable lustre American Bahá'í Community". [PP106]
  • For her obituary see BW8:643–8.
  • She is buried in the Nuuanu Cemetery, Honolulu.
  • See also Garis, Martha Root: Lioness at the Threshold and Martha Root: Herald of The Kingdom.
  • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 170-175) for a pen-portrait of Martha Root.
  • She was designated a Hand of the Cause of God on the 3rd of October, 1954
Honolulu Martha Root; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Hand appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam
1940 (in the decade) The first Bahá’ís reside in the Belgian Congo (Zaire), Mr Rajah Ali Vahdat and Mme Marthe Molitor. Belgian Congo Rajah Ali Vahdat; Marthe Molitor
1940 1 Mar May Bolles Maxwell passes away in Buenos Aires. [BBD153; BW8:631 TG49]
  • Shoghi Effendi awards her the honour of a ‘martyr’s death’ and a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW8:631; MA38]
  • She was the first Bahá'í on European soil and the "mother" of both the French and the Canadian Bahá'í communities. [PP149]
  • For the story of her life see BW17:437–8.
  • Shoghi Effendi asks her husband, Sutherland Maxwell, to design her tomb, which is to be a ‘historic centre’ for ‘pioneer Bahá’í activity’. [BW8:642]
  • For an account of the erection of the monument to her see PSBW83–6.
Buenos Aires; Argentina May Bolles Maxwell; martyr; Sutherland Maxwell; Disciples of Abdul-Baha
1941 Shaykh Kázim is martyred in Bunáb, Ádharbáyján. [BW18:389] Bunáb; Ádharbáyján Shaykh Kazim; martyr; religious persecution
1942 13 Feb Ustád Habíbu’lláh Mu‘ammarí is martyred in Nayríz, Iran. [BW18:389] Nayriz; Iran Martyr; Persecution
1945 The World Forestry Charter Gathering is founded in Britain by Richard St Barbe Baker. [VV106; WH75] Britain Richard St Barbe Baker; World Forestry Charter Gathering
1947 4 Jul ‘Abbás Sháhídzádih is martyred in Sháhí, Mázandarán, Iran and a fellow Baha’i, Habib Allah Hushmand, is murdered in Sarvistan. [BW18:390, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Shahi; Mazandaran; Iran Martyrs; Persecution
1948 The Bahá’í Temple in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) is damaged by an earthquake. [BBD 122; BW14:480] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes
1948 11 Jan Habíbu’lláh Húshmand is martyred in Sarvistán, Iran. [BW18:390] Sarvistán; Iran Habíbu’lláh Húshmand; martyr; religious persecution
1949 A Bahá’í in Kamshatti, near Calcutta, is martyred by a religious fanatic. [BW11:34] Calcutta martyr; religious persecution
1950 3 Feb Dr Sulaymán Birgís is martyred in Káshán, Iran. [BW18:390]
  • For his obituary see BW12:684–5.
Káshán; Iran Sulaymán Birgís; martyr; religious persecution
1950 9 Jul The Centenary of the Martyrdom of the Báb is commemorated.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the Bahá’ís on this occasion see BW12:191–3.
  • For accounts of commemorations around the world see BW12:205–8.
  • A small group of Bahá’í pilgrims visit the site of the Báb’s martyrdom and other places associated with His life. [BW12:217–26]
  • The columned arcade and parapet of the Shrine of the Báb are completed. [ZK284–5]
Haifa; Mount Carmel; Iran; Worldwide Centenaries; Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Shrine of
1951 Muhammad Kayvani is murdered in Najafabad. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Najafabad persecution; martyrdom
1951 Oct Marthe Jeanne Molitor, the first Belgian Bahá’í to settle in another country, leaves for the Belgian Congo (Zaire) one day after becoming a Bahá’í. Belgian Congo Marthe Jeanne Molitor
1952 26 Aug The martyrdom of Nuri'd-Dín Fath-'Azam near Tehran. [BW12p690-692] Tehran; martyrdom; Nuri'd-Din Fath-'Azam
1953 Áqá Rahmán Kulayní-Mamaqání is martyred in Durúd, Iran. [BW18:390] Durúd; Iran Áqa Rahman Kulayni-Mamaqani; martyrdom
1953 26 Aug Ella Bailey passes away in Tripoli. [BW12:687]
  • She is 88 years old.
  • She is elevated to the rank of the martyrs. [MBW170]
  • For the story of her life see PSBW131–42.
  • For her obituary see BW12:685–8.
Tripoli Ella Bailey; martyr
1953 26 Sep The martyrdom of Rahmán Kulayní Mamaqání. He was stabbed by a ruffian in a mob. [BW12p710-711] Durúd; Iran martyrdom; Rahman Kulayni Mamaqani.
1954 Jan John and Audrey Robarts with their two younger children, Patrick and Tina, leave Toronto for their pioneer post in Mafeking (later Mafikeng), Buchuanaland (later Botswana and formerly Bophuthatswana). Older children Aldham and Gerald pioneered to Nigeria and a homefront post respectively. [LOF485-6]
  • Later the same year he is appointed to the newly established Auxiliary Board by Hand of the Cause of God Músá Banání. They would return to Canada some 13 years later. [LOF486, 491]
Canada; Botswana; Nigeria; Africa John Robarts
1954 Feb John and Audrey Robarts and their son Patrick and young daughter Tina arrive in Mafikeng and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Bechuanaland (Botswana). [BW13:449] Mafikeng; Botswana John Robarts; Knights of Bahaullah
1955 23 May The Bahá’í International Community submits its Proposals for Charter Revision to the United Nations for the Conference for Revision of the UN Charter. [BW13:788, 795–802] New York; United States Bahai International Community; UN Charter; United Nations
1955 28 Jul Seven Bahá’ís are stabbed and beaten to death by a mob in Hurmuzak, Iran. [BW18:391, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
  • Several other Bahá’ís, including women, are beaten and injured; Bahá’í houses and property are damaged. [BW18:391]
  • See also M. Labíb, The Seven Martyrs of Hurmuzak.
  • See entry for 26 September, 2016.
Hurmuzak; Iran Persecution; Martyrs; Seven Martyrs of Hurmuzak
1955 12 Nov Hand of the Cause of God Valíyu’lláh Varqá passes away in Stuttgart.
  • For his obituary see BW13:831–834.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
Stuttgart; Germany Valiyullah Varqa; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause
1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of South East Asia is formed with its seat in Djakarta. [BW13:302]
  • Its area of jurisdiction is Borneo, Indo-China, Indonesia, Malaya, Sarawak, Siam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Philippines, Dutch New Guinea, Mentawei Islands, Cocos Islands, Portuguese Timor and Brunei.
Djakarta NSA
1957 Oct The third contingent of Hands of the Cause of God is appointed: Enoch Olinga, William Sears, John Robarts, Hasan Balyuzi, John Ferraby, Collis Featherstone, Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí. [GBF111; MBW127; PP254, 442; SS47]
  • See TG160 for the story of how Enoch Olinga reacted to the news of being appointed a Hand of the Cause of God
Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Enoch Olinga; William Sears; John Robarts; Hasan Balyuzi; John Ferraby; Collis Featherstone; Rahmatullah Muhajir; Abul-Qasim Faizi
1963 25 Aug The Universal House of Justice announces the demolition by the Soviet authorities of the House of Worship in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) owing to earthquake damage. [BBD122; BW14:479–81]
  • For a picture of the damaged Temple see BW14:481.
Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Indonesia is formed with its seat in Djakarta. Djakarta NSA
1966 11 Mar Eduardo Duarte Vieira is arrested in Portuguese Guinea on a charge of subversive political activity following a period of increasing pressure and harassment instigated by the clergy. He had been detained, maltreated and brutally beaten on several occasions since becoming a Bahá’í. [BW14:390] Portuguese Guinea; Guinea Bissau; Eduardo Duarte Vieira; religious persecution
1966 31 Mar While in the custody of the Portuguese authorities Eduardo Duarte Vieira dies in prison in Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea Bissau) after twenty days of torture. He is named the first African martyr. [BW14:390, BW16:568]
  • For his obituary see BW14:389–90.
  • For the messages to his wife and children he scratched on a biscuit box see BW14:390–1.
Portuguese Guinea Eduardo Duarte Vieira; religious persecution; martyr
1966 29 Sep Frances A. Foss, the first pioneer on St Maarten, arrives in Philipsburg. Philipsburg; St Maarten Frances A. Foss; pioneer
1966 12 Dec The Hand of the Cause John Robarts departed Africa from Cape Town after a stay of nearly 13 years. They were recalled from their pioneer post by the Universal House of Justice to help Canada win the goals of the Nine Year Plan. The objective was to raise 154 local assemblies by 1973 but the count had fallen from 68 to only 50, eighteen less than the number won during the Ten Year Plan and 104 short of the objective.LNW158 Cape Town; South Africa; Canada John Robarts; Hands of the Cause
1967. 24 - 26 Mar The Arctic Policy Conference was held in Toronto. Present were 16 attendees, Hand of the Cause John Robarts, representatives of the National Spiritual Assembly, the Auxiliary Board, the National Pioneer Committee and individuals involved in the teaching work in the Arctic. It was decided to establish Bahá'í houses in Frobisher Bay in the District of Franklin, Baker Lake in the District of Keewatin and Yellowknife in the District of Mackenzie. [SDSC278]
  • Photo of Bahá'í House in Baker Lake.
Toronto; Frobisher Bay; Baker Lake; Yellowknife John Robarts; Bahai centres
1970 The first Gypsy in Spain to become a Bahá’í, Maria Camacho Martinez, enrols in Sabadell. Sabadell; Spain Maria Camacho Martinez
1976 24 Apr The passing of Mark George Tobey (b. December 11, 1890 Centerville, Wisconsin – d. April 24, 1976 Basel, Switzerland) [Bahá'í News page 341, Wiki, VV119]
  • He had been introduced to the Faith by Bernard Leach. [OPOP223]
  • Another version is that In 1918 Mark Tobey came in contact with Juliet Thompson and posed for her. During the session Tobey read some Bahá'í literature and accepted an invitation to Green Acre where he converted. [Seitz, William Chapin (1980). Mark Tobey. Ayer Publishing. p. 44]
  • Tobey was one of the twentieth century’s most cosmopolitan of artists. An inveterate traveler—he eventually settled in Basel, Switzerland—he was always better known in Europe than in his homeland. His mature ‘white writing’ works are made up of pulsing webs of lines inspired by oriental calligraphy, explicitly acknowledged the direct influence of the Baha’i Faith on his painting. It has been said that Tobey “made line the symbol of spiritual illumination, human communication and migration, natural form and process, and movement between levels of consciousness.” He often stated, “that there can be no break between nature, art, science, religion, and personal life".
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg248 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Mark Tobey.
  • For his obituary see BW17:401–4.
  • Towards the end of his life, Tobey was the recipient of some of the highest distinctions that the European art scene of his time could bestow. He won the gold medal at the Venice Biennale in 1958—the first American painter to do so since 1895. In 1961, a major retrospective of his work was held at the Louvre in Paris, an unprecedented achievement for a living and American artist.
  • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies, Volume 26, number 4 – Winter 2016 p94 for an article by Anne Gordon Perry entitled Anne Gould Hauberg and Mark Tobey: Lives Lived for Art, Cultivated by Spirit.
  • An exhibition, Mark Tobey: Threading Light showed at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 6 May to 10 September 2017 and at the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, 4 November 2017–11 March 2018.
Centerville; Wisconsin; United States Basel; Switzerland In Memoriam; Mark Tobey; Bernard Leach; Anne Gould Hauberg; Arts; Painting
1979. 24 Oct The publication of the compilation Inspiring the Heart by the Universal House of Justice. This ]compilation was published as a book by the Baha'i Publishing Trust of the United Kingdom in 1981. [Messages63-86p430] BWC Inspiring the Heart
1980 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Twenty–four Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW18:229–30]
  • BW18:291–2 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:293–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:275–81.
  • Twelve Bahá’ís disappear and are presumed dead. [BW19:235]
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:339–41, 415–17.
Iran martyr; religious persecution; United Nations; BIC
1981 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Forty–six Bahá’ís are executed and two assassinated. [BW18:292–3; BW19:230–1]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:277–8, 281–4.
  • For excerpts from the wills of some of the martyrs see BW18:284–9.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:341–5, 417–20.
Iran martyr; religious persecution; United Nations; BIC
1981 27 Dec Eight of the nine members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran are executed. [BI13; BW19:43] Iran martyr; NSA; religious persecution
1982 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Thirty–two Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232]
  • BW18:293–4 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:345–52, 420–4.
  • See the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 January 1982 for a summation of the steps taken by the coordinated Bahá'í community to expose the crimes of the Iranian regime and to bring pressure to have the persecutions stop.
Iran religious persecution; martyr; United Nations BIC
1983 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92; BW19:177–226]
  • Twenty–nine Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232–3]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:352–6, 424–5.
Iran religious persecution; martyr; United Nations; BIC
1983 18 Jun In Shiraz, ten Bahá'í women ranging in age from 17 to 57, were hanged. All of the women had been tortured and interrogated in the months prior to their execution. The youngest of these martyrs was Mona Mahmudnizhad, a 17-year-old schoolgirl who had been beaten on the soles of her feet, kissed the hands of her executioner and placed the hangman's rope around her own throat. The names of the others executed were Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih, 28, Ruya Ishraqi, a 23-year-old veterinary student, Shahin Dalvand, 25, a sociologist; Izzat Janami Ishraqi, 57, a homemaker; Mahshid Nirumand, 28, who had qualified for a degree in physics but had it denied her because she was a Bahá'í, Simin Sabiri, 25; Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi, 30, a nurse; Akhtar Thabit, 25, also a nurse; Nusrat Ghufrani Yalda'i, 47, a mother and member of the local Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly. [Hanged for teaching “Sunday school”]
  • For the story of the martyrs see BW19:180–7 and VV56.
  • For their obituaries see BW19:596–607.
  • For pictures of the martyred women see BW19:240–1.
Shiraz; Iran Martyrs; Mona Mahmudnizhad; Persecution
1984 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • Thirty Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:233-4]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments and other actions taken, see BW19:44–6.
Iran religious persecution; martyr; United Nations
1985 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • Seven Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:234]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community see BW19:39.
Iran religious persecution; martyr
1986 Community-based Bahá’í health care programmes are launched in Kenya, Uganda and Swaziland, spearheaded by Dr Ethel Martens of Canada. Kenya; Uganda; Swaziland; Ethel Martens
1986 The Bahá’í Association for Arts (BAFA) is formed with its base in the Netherlands. Netherlands Baha’i Association for Arts (BAFA)
1986 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • One Bahá’í, 15-year-old Paymán Subhání, is killed. [BW19:225–6, 234]
  • For his picture see BW19:246.
  • For the actions taken by the Bahá’í international Community see BW19:38.
Iran religious persecution; martyr; BIC
1987 autumn The Post Office of the United Kingdom issues a commemorative stamp honouring Bernard Leach, Bahá’í and world-renowned potter. [BINS173:8] United Kingdom Bernard Leach; Stamps; Artists; Arts
1988 ‘Arts for Nature’, a fund-raising programme held to benefit the work of the World Wide Fund for Nature, is held in London with the collaboration of the Bahá’í International Community. [AWH61; VV106] London; United Kingdom Bahai International Community; Arts; Nature; World Wide Fund for Nature; Environment
1988 30 Jun - 3 Jul The Bahá’í Arts Council, Canada, holds the first arts festival, ‘Invitation 88: A Festival of the Human Spirit’ at the University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario. [BINS179:2] London; Ontario; Canada Baha’i Arts Council
1989 Three International Music Festivals are held in Africa. [BINS215] Africa Festivals, Music; Music; Arts
1989 15 Dec A World Forestry Charter Gathering organized by the Offices of Public Information in London and New York takes place in London. [AWH75; BINS214:1–2]
  • It commemorates the centenary of the birth of Richard St Barbe Baker, the Bahá’í environmentalist who founded the Gatherings in 1945.
London Richard St Barbe Baker; World Forestry Charter Gathering
1991 18 Jun The passing of Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, John Aldham Robarts at Rawdon, Quebec. He was born in Waterloo, Ontario 2nd of November, 1901. [VV124]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • Bahá’í World, Vol. 20, 1986-1992, “In Memoriam,” pp. 801-9.
  • For his obituary see BINS250:10.
  • For picture see VV124.
  • For the story of how he came to learn of the Faith see SBR137.
Rawdon; Quebec Hands of the Cause; Knights of Bahaullah; John Robarts; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1992 18 Mar The martyrdom of Mr. Bahman Samandari in the Evin prison in Tehran. Mr. Samandari was executed with no advance notice and in the absence of due process. A 52 year-old businessman from a distinguished Bahá'í family, he was buried secretly on 20 March 1992 and his family was not notified until 5 April 1992. This was the first execution in three and one-half years. It belied the public position taken by the Iránian government that the Bahá'ís were not being persecuted for their religious beliefs. [AWH118-9, VV126] Tihran; Iran Persecution; Martyrs; Evin Prison
1992 1 - 14 Jun Bahá'ís from many countries participate in the United Nations Conference on the Environment (UNCED), known as the Earth Summit, and the Global Forum for non-governmental organizations in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [BINS272:1–3; BW92–3:124; VV110]
  • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement at the Earth Summit see BW92–3:177–89.
  • For the text of the statement of' the Bahá'í International Community read at the plenary session see BW92–3:191–2.
  • For pictures see BW92–3:179, 183, 186.
Rio de Janeiro; Brazil Earth Summit; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; United Nations; Environment
1993 29 Apr - 2 May The Seventh Bahá'í International Convention at the World Centre. Those elected to the Universal House of Justice were: Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, Mr. Glenford Mitchell, Mr. Adib Taherzadeh, Mr. Ian Semple, Mr. Peter Khan, Mr. Houshman Fatheazam, Mr. Hooper Dunbar, Mr. Farzam Arbab and Mr. Douglas Martin. [BINS295, BW93-4p51-58]
  • Hugh Chance and David Ruhe announce their retirement. Mr. Chance served since 1963 and Dr. Ruhe since 1968. [BINS295, BS93-4p57]
  • For a report of the Convention see BW93–4:51–8.
  • For pictures see BW93–4:52, 53, 54, 57.
BWC Universal House of Justice, Election of; Universal House of Justice, Members of; International conventions; Conventions; Ali Nakhjavani; Glenford Mitchell; Adib Taherzadeh; Ian Semple; Peter Khan; Houshman Fatheazam; Hooper Dunbar; Farzam Arbab; Douglas Martin; Hugh Chance; David Ruhe
1993 23 May The following is a list of Counsellors appointed to the International Teaching Centre for a five-year term: Mr. Kiser Barnes, Mr. Hartmut Grossmann, Mrs. Lauretta King, Mrs. Joan Lincoln, Mr. Shapoor Monadjem, Mr. Donald Rogers, Mr. Fred Schechter, Mrs. Kimiko Schwerin, Mrs. Joy Stevenson. Retiring members were: Mr. Mas'úd Khamsí and Mr. Peter Vuyiya. [From a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 13th of May, 1993] BWC Universal House of Justice; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; Kiser Barnes; Hartmut Grossmann; Lauretta King; Joan Lincoln; Shapoor Monadjem; Donald Rogers; Fred Schechter; Kimiko Schwerin; Joy Stevenson; Masud Khamsi; Peter Vuyiya
1994 May 22 The first Bahá'í Children and Youth Conference of Martinique is held in Fort-de-France, attended by 22 people. [BINS318:4–5] Fort-de-France; Martinique Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
1998 6 - 8 Nov The 2nd International Conference of the Environment Forum was held in the Netherlands with wide electronic participation on the themes of sustainable consumption and the Earth Charter. The first theme of the conference, sustainable consumption, was introduced by a keynote address on "Sustainable Consumption and True Prosperity" by Arthur Dahl. [ iefworld.org/conf2.htm ] Netherlands Arthur Dahl; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Environment; Conferences, International; Environment; International Environment Forum
2000 22 Aug The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Audrey Robarts (née FitzGerald) in her 96th year. She is buried with her husband, Hand of the Cause of God John Robarts, in the Ecumenical Cemetery in Rawdon who predeceased her on the 18th of June, 1991. Rawdon,Quebec Audrey Robarts; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
2000 19 Sep In a ceremony, the final earth samples from 26 nations were deposited in the Peace Monument, which was built by the Bahá'í International Community and the Bahá'í Community of Brazil in 1992 for the 1992 Earth Summit. Designed by the renowned Brazilian sculptor Siron Franco, the five-meter concrete and ceramic monument is located near the entrance to the Santos Dumont Airport in Rio de Janeiro, just north of Flamengo Park and the site of the 1992 Global Forum, the parallel conference of non-governmental organizations held during the 1992 Earth Summit, which was formally known as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. [BWNS85] Rio de Janeiro; Brazil Earth Summit; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; United Nations; Environment; Peace Monument; Monuments; Earth
2002 26 Jun – 2 Jul In commemoration of the Second Bahá'í World Congress 23-26 November in 1992 in New York, a Festival of the Arts is celebrated in that same city. The project is an independent initiative of Global Music, Inc., a Bahá'í-owned company, and associated individuals. It is not under the sponsorship of any Bahá'í institution. The centerpiece event is held at Carnegie Hall featuring a 550-voice choir under the direction of Mr. Tom Price and known as the Voices of Baha. It is composed of Bahá'ís from some 24 countries. [BWNS162] New York; United States Bahai World Congresses; Arts; Music; Carnegie Hall; Tom Price; Voice of Baha; Choirs
2003 28 Apr The retirement of Mr. Ali Nakhjavani and Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam from the Universal House of Justice. Both had served since the inception of the Universal House of Justice in 1963. They are replaced by Mr. Hartmut Grossmann and Dr. Firaydoun Javaheri. [BWNS208] BWC Ali Nakhjavani; Hushmand Fatheazam; Retirement; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Hartmut Grossmann; Firaydoun Javaheri
2003 29 Apr The election of the Universal House of Justice by postal ballot by 1,544 electors from 178 countries. Chosen were Hartmut Grossmann and Firaydoun Javaheri to replace retiring members Mr. Nakhjavani, 83, and Mr. Fatheazam, 79 and re-elected were Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Hooper Dunbar, Peter Khan, Douglas Martin, Glenford Mitchell and Ian Semple. [One Country Vol.15 Issue1, BWNS207] BWC UHJ; Hartmut Grossmann; Firaydoun Javaheri; Farzam Arbab; Kiser Barnes; Hooper Dunbar; Peter Khan; Douglas Martin; Glenford Mitchell; Ian Semple
2005 21 Mar The announcement of the retirement of Mr. Ian Semple and Mr. Douglas Martin from the Universal House of Justice. Mr. Semple served since 1963 and Mr. Martin was elected in 1993. [BWNS359] BWC Ian Semple; Douglas Martin
2005 21 Mar The election of Dr. Payman Mohajer and Mr. Paul Lample to the vacancies on the Universal House of Justice. They fill the vacancies created by the departure at Naw-Ruz of Mr. Ian Semple and Mr. Douglas Martin, owing to age and the related needs of the Faith. [BWNS358] BWC Payman Mohajer; Paul Lample; Ian Semple; Douglas Martin; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Universal House of Justice, Election of
2008 23 Apr The retirement of Universal House of Justice members Mr. Hartmut Grossmann and Mr. Glenford E. Mitchell. Mr. Grossmann served from 2003 and Mr. Mitchell was elected in 1982. [BWNS622] BWC Hartmut Grossmann; Glenford Mitchell; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Retirement
2016 26 Sep The murder of Farhang Amiri in Yazd. BWNS1133
  • See also Iran Wire4167.
  • In a message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís in Iran dated the 19th of October, 2016, it states
    And at the age of sixty-three, that pure soul, that radiant and magnanimous soul, offered up his life in absolute meekness, hoisted the ensign of martyrdom and attained his Beloved's presence in the realms above, and in the Abha Kingdom joined the company of the other martyrs of this Faith--among whom number his own noble father and six other relatives who, sixty-one years ago in Hurmuzak, near Yazd, sacrificed their lives in the path of the Blessed Beauty.
  • A group of extremists murdered Amiri’s father, Hedayatollah Daftari, and six others in the village of Hormozak in Yazd province more than 60 years ago. At the time, Farhang was 13 months old. See entry for July 28th, 1955 for The Seven Martyrs of Hurmuzak.
  • See a paper by Kamyar Behrang entitled "Extrajudicial killings supported by law and Islamic jurisprudence" for an explanation of how a Bahá'í might be murdered with near impunity in Iran.
Hurmuzak; Yazd; Iran Martyrdom; Farhang Amiri
2017 Jul The men who admitted to stabbing and killing Farhang Amiri, a 63-year-old father of four children, in September 2016 in Yazd on the street outside his home in public view were sentenced by a court in Yazd. The two brothers immediately admitted to have been motivated by religious hatred. The older brother was sentenced to just 11 years in prison and two years away from home. The court justified the sentence by stating that according to the Islamic penal code, the accused and the victim are not equal for the general purpose of retributive justice. This astonishing provision clearly and deliberately deprives non-Muslims of the legal right to seek justice on equal-footing with the country's Muslim majority.

The younger man was sentenced to half of his brother’s sentence for aiding in the murder. [BWNS1182]

Yazd; Iran Farhang Amiri; martyr
2017. 17 Dec The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the passing of former House member Mr. Hartmut Grossmann.

"...he poured out his life in uninterrupted service to the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, as a teacher, pioneer, and member of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Germany (1963-1969) and Finland (1977-1980), the Continental Board of Counsellors in Europe, (1980-1988) the International Teaching Centre (1988-2003) and, ultimately, of the Universal House of Justice (2003-2008)." [BWNS1228]

He was the son of Hand of the Cause of God Hermann Grossmann (1899-1968). He was predeceased by his wife Ursula. [BWNS622; Bahá'í Chronicles]

Germany Hartmut Grossmann; In Memoriam; Births and deaths

from the main catalogue

  1. 1970-1995: Newspaper articles archive (1970). Collection of newspaper articles from 1970-1995. [about]
  2. 1996: Newspaper articles archive (1996). Collection of newspaper articles from 1996. [about]
  3. 1997: Newspaper articles archive (1997). Collection of newspaper articles from 1997. [about]
  4. 1998: Newspaper articles archive (1998). Collection of newspaper articles from 1998. [about]
  5. 1999: Newspaper articles archive (1999). Collection of newspaper articles from 1999. [about]
  6. 20,000 Martyrs, Source of Statements about, by Universal House of Justice (1984). Two letters from the Research Department: one from 1984 identifies the source of the statement that 20,000 Bábís were martyred, and one from 2005 says that this source has not actually been found. [about]
  7. 2000: Newspaper articles archive (2000). Collection of newspaper articles from 2000. [about]
  8. 2001: Newspaper articles archive (2001). Collection of newspaper articles from 2001. [about]
  9. 2002: Newspaper articles archive (2002). Collection of newspaper articles from 2002. [about]
  10. 2003: Newspaper articles archive (2003). Collection of newspaper articles from 2003. [about]
  11. 2004: Newspaper articles archive (2004). Collection of newspaper articles from 2004. [about]
  12. 2005: Newspaper articles archive (2005). Collection of newspaper articles from 2005. [about]
  13. A Última Heterodoxia, by Ana Cristina Leonardo (2006). Article published in Expresso, a very influential newspaper in Portugal. A positive article towards the Faith. [about]
  14. `Abdu'l-Bahá's 1912 Howard University Speech: A Civil War Discourse for Interracial Emancipation, by Christopher Buck and Nahzy Abadi Buck (2012). Presentation at Grand Canyon Bahá'í Conference on Abdu'l-Bahá and the Black Intelligentsia, especially W. E. B. Du Bois; his speech to the NAACP; and reproductions of many newspaper clippings covering his visit to Washington, DC. [about]
  15. 'Abdul Baha Talks to Kate Carew of Things Spiritual and Mundane, by Kate Carew, in New York Tribune (1912). [about]
  16. Achieving Universal Participation of Older Adults: An Exploration of Its Challenges and Spiritual Foundations, by Catherine Bigonnesse and Jean Marc Bigonnesse, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:4 (2015). On involving older adults in the process of participation in society; some of the root causes of ageism, such as avoiding the topic of death and a materialistic view of the soul; the role of older adults in the process of community building. [about]
  17. Alí Bastámí, Mullá, by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 1 (1985). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
  18. Ali Bastami, Mulla, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
  19. Alí Bastámí, Mullá, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the second disciple to recognize the Báb, and the first Bábí martyr. [about]
  20. Art and Architecture: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Fariburz Sahba, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:3 (1997). [about]
  21. Arte, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu’l-Bahá. Spanish translation of English "Compilation on the Arts." [about]
  22. Artist, Seeker and Seer: A vocabulary and a perspective for the appreciation and creation of art inspired by the Bahá'í Writings, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Bahá'í Studies, 10 (1982). Imagery and metaphors from the Baha'i Writings guide the appreciation and creation of art. They demonstrate that criticism vs creativity, logic vs. passion, and historicity vs. poetry have already been brought to a state of unity. [about]
  23. Arts: Compilation from other compilations, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
  24. Arts and Architecture, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
  25. Arts and Crafts, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). [about]
  26. Arts, Importance of in Promoting the Faith, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). [about]
  27. Australian Bahá'í Studies: Vol. 2 (2000). The complete issue of volume 2. Some papers were delivered at the 18th annual ABS conference "The Creative Inspiration: Arts and Culture in the Bahá’í Faith" (Melbourne, September 1999). [about]
  28. Babi Attempt on the Life of the Shah, 1852: Coverage in the New York Times, by New York Times, in New York Times (1852). Five brief newspaper reports, among the earliest known references to the Báb in an American publication. [about]
  29. Babi Concept of Holy War, The, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 12:2 (1982). An influential and controversial article, one of the first academic examinations of Babi history. Discusses Islamic jihad, Babi jihad, martyrdom, and political struggles. [about]
  30. Babi Martyrs, Some, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes bios of Shaykh Salih Karimi, Mulla Abd al-Karim Qazvini, the Farhadis of Qazvin, the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, and others. [about]
  31. Bábís of Nayriz, The: History and Documents, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 2 (2006). Extensive collection of historical documents: autobiographies, narratives, genealogies and chronologies, the transition from the Babi to the Baha'i community, provisional translations, and a list of Babi martyrs. [about]
  32. Bahá'í Faith in Iran, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes essay "Three Clerics and a Prince of Isfahan: background to Bahá'u'lláh's Epistle to the Son of the Wolf" and bios of Ayatollah Khomeini and Zill al-Sultan. [about]
  33. Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD, by Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali Isfahani (1917). A memoir by Abdu'l-Baha, erroneously credited to Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali, published in English as a 28-page book in 1904 and 1917, covering events from March-September 1903. [about]
  34. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
  35. Bahá'u'lláh and the Fourth Estate, by Roger White, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Baha'u'llah's response to the martyrdom of seven Baha'is in Yazd in May, 1891, and his relationship with the media. [about]
  36. Bahá'u'lláh's Influence on the New York School of Painting: The "Unapprehended Inspiration" of Newman and Rothko, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). [about]
  37. Beautiful Flight toward the Light, The: Reflections on an Artist's Life, by Robin M. Chandler, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). Subjective reflections about the nature of creativity from the author's own point of view, training and experiences as a social scientist and as an artist. [about]
  38. Building Creative Communities: Approaching the arts as social & economic development through professionalizing, training, and networking internationally, by Robin M. Chandler, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). On the Global Arts Training Institute, a model for building professionalism in the arts which can be implemented in Bahá’í communities and incorporated into teaching plans to develop the next generation of artists. [about]
  39. Charter for Bahá'í Schools, A, by Stephen Waite and National Spiritual Assembly of India, in Bahá'í National Review, 128 (1990). Basic principles which may guide the development of Bahá'í schools and other educational projects [about]
  40. Chosen Highway, The, by Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield (Sitarih Khanum) (1940). [about]
  41. Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 1 (1850-1853), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
  42. City of the Heart, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2004). Literal and metaphorical references to "heart." [about]
  43. "Come Back, Africa": First commercial film mentioning the Bahá'í Faith, by Greg Watson (2013). Context of a 1959 African documentary/drama film in which the Baha'i Faith is discussed. [about]
  44. Concealment and Burial of the Báb, by Peter Terry, in A Most Noble Pattern: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb (2012). This chapter from A.-L.-M. Nicolas' seminal biography Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Bab (1905) tells the story of the death and burial of the Bab, compiled from the reports of several eye-witnesses consulted by the author. [about]
  45. Concepts of Spirituality in The Works of Robert Houle and Otto Rogers with Special Consideration to Images of the Land , by Nooshfar B. Afnan (2000). The attitude of native Canadians toward the land and the prairies, as expressed through the work of two artists, their spiritual iconography, and Baha'i teachings regarding nature. [about]
  46. Considerations in Setting Sacred Text to Music for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Arts Dialogue (1996). [about]
  47. Creative Inspiration: Symbolism and Seeing, by Karel Fontaine, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). Examples of visual art which demonstrate the creative impulse at work, together with the symbolism inherent in the pieces. [about]
  48. Creativity and Spirituality: Are They Related?, by Negin Sanaei, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). Short essay on utilizing our talent and appreciating the importance of the imagination. [about]
  49. Crystallizations: 20 Works by Bahá'í Artists, ed. Ross Woodman: Review, by Shirin Sabri, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:1 (1999). [about]
  50. Dancing in the Haziratu'l-Quds, by Universal House of Justice (1987). Recreational dancing in a temple is not appropriate, but cultural and devotional dancing is acceptable. [about]
  51. Dawn-Breakers: Nabil's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Nabil-i-A'zam (1932). The extensive and preeminent history of Babism and the early Baha'i Faith, by Nabil-i-A'zam [aka Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí, aka Nabíl-i-Zarandí]. [about]
  52. Days of Remembrance: Selections from the Writings of Baha'u'llah for Baha'i Holy Days, by Bahá'u'lláh (2017). Forty-five selections revealed for, or relating to, nine Bahá’í Holy Days. [about]
  53. Deaths of Two Iranian Bahá'ís, 1997, by Universal House of Justice and National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). Reports from the Universal House of Justice and the NSA of the United States on the deaths of Masha'llah Enayati and Shahram Reza'i. [about]
  54. Dichotomies of Charles Dickens still hold true today, The, by Ted Slavin, in St. Catharines Standard (2011). On the state of the present-day world, which swings between the extremes of unprecedented achievements and unimaginable horrors. [about]
  55. Dress for Mona, A: Abridged one-act version, by Mark Perry (2002). The story of Mona Mahmudnizhad. [about]
  56. Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Shii and Babi Religions, by Jonah Winters (1997). Religious and cultural meanings of martyrdom/witnessing, and their role in Babi history. [about]
  57. Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers, summer 1850 (1850). Very brief newspaper mentions about the rise of the Bábí movement: Tioga Eagle (Wellsborough, Pennsylvania) 1850-08-21; Church and State Gazette (Middlesex, London) 1850-07-19; Nevada State Journal 1871-12-23. [about]
  58. Efforts to preserve the remains of the Bab: Four historical accounts, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Accounts by Mirza Hasan Adib Taliqani, Fadil Mazandarani, ‘Abdu’l-Husayn Avarih, and Aqa Husayn ‘Ali Nur. [about]
  59. Emergence of a Bahá'í Consciousness in World Literature: The Poetry of Roger White, by Ron Price (2002). A study of White's verse with a short biography and an analysis of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  60. Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Biography of Siyyid Ismail of Zavarih, by Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
  61. European Bahá'í Youth Conference in Innsbruck, by Universal House of Justice (1983). Challenges facing European Baha'i Youth, followed by consolation to Baha'i youth in light of the 1983 martyrdoms of young Baha'is in Iran. [about]
  62. Evolution, Diagram Illustrating the True Story of, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Explanation of the chart Cycle of Life prepared by Lua Getsinger. [about]
  63. Explanation of Spiritual Evolution as Taught from the Bahá'í Teachings, by Lua Getsinger and Edward C. Getsinger (1899). Chart "Cycle of Life" allegedly drawn on Abdu'l-Baha's behalf (1899) to refute reincarnation; accompanying text quoting Lua's pilgrim's notes by Curtis Kelsey (1958); a letter from the Universal House of Justice (1997); and a talk by Lua Getsinger (1911). [about]
  64. Fadil-i-Mazandarani, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Was Fadil-i-Mazandarani declared a Hand of the Cause of God, and on determining if there were other Hands. [about]
  65. Fiftieth Anniversary of The Master: Performance piece, by Jim Wood (1968). An artistic piece appropriate for play at the commemoration of the ascension of 'Abdu'l-Baha. Produced, performed, and narrated by Jim Wood; also read by Deborah Buttrey. [about]
  66. First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith (2013). Six versions of the first public mentions in English of the Bábís, from November 1845. [about]
  67. Four Levels of Detachment in Doris Lessing's Shikasta, The, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:3-4 (2004). [about]
  68. Further extracts concerning the remains of the Bab in Tehran, by Fadl Mazandarani and Avarih. Two brief excerpts [about]
  69. Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb, by Nader Saiedi: Review, by Jack McLean (2009). Review of the book, expanded into an essay on the Bab's ethics, laws, and use of symbolism. [about]
  70. Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb, by Nader Saiedi: Review, by Stephen Lambden, in The Journal of the American Oriental Society, 130:2 (2010). Though limited in scholastic accuracy, this book will be appreciated by those seeking an introduction to the life and writings of the Bab, and is a worthwhile volume that contributes significantly to the neglected field of Babi-Bahá'í studies. [about]
  71. Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb, by Nader Saiedi: Review, by Robert Stockman, in Nova Religio, 14:1 (2010). [about]
  72. Gillespie, Dizzy, by Barry Kernfeld, in American National Biography Online (2000). [about]
  73. God's Heroes: A Drama in Five Acts, by Laura Clifford Barney (1910). A play based on events in the lives of the early Babis, with a focus on Tahirih. [about]
  74. Groovin' High: The Life of Dizzy Gillespie, by Alyn Shipton (2001). Roughly 2-3 page excerpt from book. [about]
  75. Groovin' High: The Life of Dizzy Gillespie, by Alyn Shipton: Review, by Brad Pokorny, in One Country, 11:2 (1999). [about]
  76. Hands of the Cause of God: Personal Recollections, by Bill Washington (2014). Recollections of A.Q. Faizi, A.A. Furútan, Clara Dunn, Rúhíyyih Khánum, Ugo Giachery, Leroy Ioas, Enoch Olinga, Rahmátu’lláh Muhajir, Bill Sears, Agnes Alexander, John Robarts, Collis Featherstone, and Jalal Khazeh. [about]
  77. Hindu Concept of God, The: Unity in Diversity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). The fundamental unity behind Hindu concepts of God and those found in the Semitic traditions, and the principle of unity in diversity, allow Hindu and Baha'i beliefs to come together and further their common goal of uniting the world's religions. [about]
  78. Human Responses to Life Stress and Suffering, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, in Bahá'í Studies Notebook, 3:1-2 (1983). Includes the experiences of Bahá'í martyrs. [about]
  79. Human Rights Watch on Persecution of Baha'is in Iran, by Reuters (1997). Two articles covering a report by Human Rights Watch on the treatment of the Baha'is and other minorities in Iran. [about]
  80. Human Station in the Bahá'í Faith: Selected Sections: Philosophy and Knowledge of the Divine, by Ali Murad Davudi (2013). A collection of talks by the Bahá’í teacher and philosopher Dr. A. M. Dávúdí on selected philosophical topics, including one on the subject of the non-political nature of the Bahá’í Faith and non-involvement in partisan politics. [about]
  81. Humanity of Evil, The: Bahá'í Reflections on the film The Act of Killing, by Bernardo Bortolin Kerr (2014). The theology of evil throughout history and in Baha'i thought; ways in which people de-humanize and become alienated from their own selves; on forgiveness and merciful love in the face of justice and punishment. [about]
  82. "I am all the Prophets": The Poetics of Pluralism in Bahá'í Texts, by Juan Cole, in Poetics Today, 14:3 (1993). Literary analysis of a passage from Tablet of Blood (Súriy-i-Damm) in which Bahá'u'lláh identifies Himself with all the past Prophets and their sufferings, depicting himself mortally wounded on the field of battle, like Imám Husayn. [about]
  83. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 4 (1930-1932) (1932). Ethel Rosenberg, Claudia Stuart Coles, Consul Albert Schwarz. [about]
  84. In search of Martha Root: An American Bahá'í feminist and peace advocate in the early twentieth century, by Jiling Yang (2007). Early life of Root, her four world teaching trips from 1919 to 1939 with a focus on peace advocacy, and gender and identity reflections on Tahirih. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
  85. Joycean Modernism in a Nineteenth-Century Qur'an Commentary?: A Comparison of The Báb's Qayyūm Al-Asmā' with Joyce's Ulysses, by Todd Lawson, in Erin and Iran: Cultural Encounters between the Irish and the Iranians, ed. H. E. Chehabi and Grace Neville (2015). Comparison of the formal structure of the two works and themes such as time; oppositions and their resolution; relation between form and content; prominence of epiphany; manifestation, advent and apocalypse; and the theme of heroism, reading and identity. [about]
  86. Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Bahá'u'lláh (1992). [about]
  87. Knowledge, Certitude and the Mystical Heart: The Hidden Essence of God's Word, by LeRoy Jones, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
  88. Language of the Heart, The: From Dream Language towards Understanding the Language of the Heart, by Wolfgang Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). On the form and style of the language of the heart; ways this language differs from our normal language and thinking as it is developed in the human brain; the language and logic of dreams; effects of heart transplants. [about]
  89. Letter to Martha Root, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1920). A letter to believers in America. [about]
  90. Letter to Mrs A.M. Bryant re interment of the remains of The Bab on Mt. Carmel, by May Woodcock and A.M. Bryant (1909). Brief description of the interment of the remains of the Bab on Mt. Carmel on 21 March 1909. [about]
  91. Letters inscribed upon His sacred scroll: An anthology of poetry by Australian Bahá'ís 1999, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). A collection of 16 poems. [about]
  92. Letters Written on Behalf of the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Three questions: Letters Written on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi; Status of Research Department Memoranda; Bahá'í Writings Based in Fact? [about]
  93. Manifestations of God and the Master: Representation of in Portraits, Photographs, and Dramatic Presentations, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice. Excerpts on the use of imagery of the Central Figures in art, stage, and print. [about]
  94. Maps and charts in Baha'i World volumes (2010). List of all inserts and maps included in volumes of the Bahá'í World books. [about]
  95. Martha Root's gravesite in Honolulu, driving directions. Written directions to the resting place of Martha Louise Root, in Honolulu Hawaii [about]
  96. Martyrdom, by Todd Lawson, in Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World: Oxford Islamic Studies Online (2008). Overview of the history of and sacred texts about martyrdom in Islam, with a passing mention of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  97. Martyrdom in Jihad, by Jonah Winters (1997). Unlike Judeo-Christianity, Islam does not contain a core of martyrdom. Rather, it occurs in three disparate areas: war/jihad, asceticism, and Shi'ism. I examine the relationship between jihad and martyrdom and their classical and contemporary meanings. [about]
  98. Martyrdom of the Bab: An Outline for Researchers, by David Merrick (2017). The events of the Martyrdom of the Bab, including the weeks before and days after, presented through complementary and contrasting accounts with commentary, suitable for anyone investigating the events in detail. [about]
  99. Message from Abdu'l-Baha, Head of the Baha'is, A, in New York Times (1912). News article of Abdu'l-Baha's tour. Includes scanned image of various newspaper clippings and photographs of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
  100. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-86, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
  101. Military Metaphor in Bahá'í Sacred Literature, The, by Jack McLean (2005). Martial symbology is common in the Baha'i Writings, especially those of Shoghi Effendi, yet the Writings are expressly pacifistic. This article examines the apparent contradiction. [about]
  102. Music, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). [about]
  103. Music Lyrics, Singing, and Dancing at Feast, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Baha'is may incorporate music, singing, and dancing into the spiritual portions of the community devotional meetings. [about]
  104. Music Reviews: Five New Recordings of Bahá'í Music, by Simon Mawhinney, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). Reviews of Songs of the Ancient Beauty, Lift up Your Hearts and Sing, The Prince of Peace, Here at Black Mesa, and From the Sweet-Scented Streams of Eternity. [about]
  105. Music Reviews, by Simon Mawhin ney, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). Reviews of recordings by Baha'i artists Geoff and Michaela Smith; Chris Ruhe; Kamran, Khodjasteh, and Averill; Ben Koen and the Unity Ensemble; and Merz. [about]
  106. Music, Devotions, and Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History, volume 4 (1987). An in-depth examination of the development of music and hymns within American Baha'i devotional life, some history of the Chicago community, and the architecture and construction of the Wilmette temple. Includes sheet music and design plans. [about]
  107. Mystery of Martyrdom, The, by Darius Shahrokh and Grace Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Life stories of many early martyrs, and some explanations of what inspires self-sacrifice. [about]
  108. Mystic Cup, The: Essential Mystical Nature of the Bahá'í Faith, by LeRoy Jones, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). [about]
  109. Mystical content and symbology of Bahá'u'lláh's Four Valleys, by David Langness, in Seeker's Path (1997). Symbology of the Four Valleys, and a brief overview of a four-stage spiritual growth model. [about]
  110. Nonpartisan Engagement in Public Affairs: A Critical Analysis of the Bahá'í Approach to Dialogue, Democracy, and Diplomatic Relations, by Bui Tyril (2009). How to address the dilemma of protesting human rights abuses in Iran while remaining non-partisan. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
  111. Nudity in Art, by Universal House of Justice (2008). There is no objection to artists depicting the human body from nude models, nor to Bahà’is acting as models; the main consideration is the intention of the artist. [about]
  112. Numinous Land, The: Examples of sacred geometry and geopiety in formalist and landscape paintings of the prairies, by Kim Ennis (2012). Includes many references to the Baha'i Faith and its influence on contemporary artists. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
  113. Objectives and Tasks of Ten-Year Spiritual Global Crusade of the Bahá'í World Faith, by Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954) (1956). [about]
  114. Papel de la educación, los medios de información y las artes en el desarrollo social, El, by Bahá'í International Community. El papel de la educación, los medios de información [about]
  115. Passionate Artist, The, by Ron Price, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). Essay on the inner life and private character, and the origins of the author's own creative inspiration. [about]
  116. Picture Gallery of Early British Bahá'ís (1998). Published in honor of the UK Baha'i Centenary, 1998/99. [about]
  117. Pioneering, Language, Arts, Example of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Pioneering; Serving parents; Serving where need is; Gardens; International Auxiliary Language; Arabic pronunciation; study of Persian; Some references in Writings of Baha'u'llah; Folk art; External affairs; Daily living; Abdu'l-Baha as divine exemplar. [about]
  118. Poetry in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Writings and Utterances, by Julio Savi and Faezeh Mardani, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). Abdu’l-Bahá mentions at least seven aspects of poetry: inspiration, beauty, eloquence, versified language, novelty, expressivity, depth, and loftiness. He also sets forth clear concepts on the purposes of poetry, which benefit any aspiring poet. [about]
  119. Police Forces Bearing Arms, Bahá'í Enlistment in, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 3:4 (1995). Two letters from the House on joining armed police forces, e.g. the Ulster Defence Regiment and the police force in Northern Ireland, and whether they would be allowed to bear arms. Also discussion of consummating marriage, and marrying an atheist. [about]
  120. Prince of Martyrs, The: A brief account of the Imam Husayn, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi (1977). The story of the Third Imam, whose death in the year 680 became a pivotal event for Shi'i Islam. [about]
  121. Reincarnation, The Return, and the "Cycle of Life" Chart, by Edward C. Getsinger (1916). The concepts Reincarnation and Return in the context of pilgrims' recollections of the words of 'Abdul-Baha, with tablets translated by Ali Kuli Khan, and on Lua Getsinger's "Spiritual Evolution" chart. [about]
  122. Religious Chic, by Zuo Xuan, in Global Times (2010). A portrait of the Baha'is in contemporary China. [about]
  123. Remains of the Bab in Tehran, The, by Ahang Rabbani (1997). Brief bio of Aqa Husayn-'Ali Nur and an extract from Khatirat Muhajiri Az Isfahan, "Memoirs of a Refugee from Isfahan," discussing the history of these remains. Includes biographical notes. [about]
  124. Remember Bill Sears: musical meditations, by William Sears. Four musical pieces accompanying selections from the speeches of Sears. [about]
  125. (Report to the) American Oriental Society / A New Prophet, by Austin Wright, in The Literary World, 228:8 (1851). First paper on Bábí history, from a letter to the American Oriental Society, published in multiple newspapers, including translation into German. Includes preface by Steven Kolins. [about]
  126. Research Department, Functions of; Etymologies of three terms, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Two questions: (1) what is the function of the Research Department, and (2) etymologies of the three terms "world of exemplars," "'álam," and "barzakh." [about]
  127. Rewriting the Script: Some thoughts on gender roles and the Bahá'í Teachings, by Sonja van Kerkhoff (2000). A collection of visual and physical art exploring these themes. [about]
  128. Robert Hayden, by Christopher Buck, in Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature, Vol. 2, ed. Jay Parini (2004). The first African American poet-laureate of the United States (as Library of Congress "Consultant in Poetry"). [about]
  129. Robert Hayden's “American Journal”: A Multidimensional Analysis, by Christopher Buck, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2 (2008). [about]
  130. Rogers, Otto Donald, by Norman Zepp, in The 1998 Canadian Encyclopedia (1997). [about]
  131. Sailor's Problem, The, by Ben Roskams (1995). A short play about unity featuring Sherlock Holmes. [about]
  132. Salaam Cinema: On Mohsen Makhmalbaf, by Adina Hoffman, in The Nation (2013). An Iranian director's ongoing meditations on the nature of illusion and reality, truth and consequences. Includes a review of The Gardener, a documentary about the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  133. Short Chapter in the History of Bâbeeism in Persia, A, by Austin Wright, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Oriental Society (1853). Letter to the American Oriental Society recounting the continuation of Bábísm and attack on the Shah. Follow-up to Wright's first report on Bábí history, from June 1851. [about]
  134. Significance of the Day of the Martyrdom of the Bab, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2004). [about]
  135. Tablet Concerning the Day of the Martyrdom of His Holiness, the Exalted One: Le Tablette Concernant l'Anniversaire du Martyre de Sa Sainteté, Exaltée, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Ayyam-i-Tis'ih [The Nine Days] (1981). Three translations: a French version by Rochan Mavaddat, an English rendering from the French by Peter Terry, and an English translation from the original Persian by Khazeh Fananapazir. [about]
  136. Tablet of [Mount] Carmel (Lawh-i-Karmil): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Peter Terry and Ted Brownstein (1999). [about]
  137. Tablet to Sháh-Muhammad-Amín (Amínu'l-Bayán): Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh and Universal House of Justice (2003). Excerpt of a tablet revealed in honour of the first Trustee of Huquq’u’lláh, surnamed the “Trusted of the Bayán," with introductory letter from the House of Justice. [about]
  138. Tablet to Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandar II, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh (1985). [about]
  139. Tablet to The Times of London, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, by Adib Taherzadeh, Vol. 4 (1987). Short tablet calling newspapers to investigate the Truth. [about]
  140. Tablet to Varqá Regarding the Prince and King of Martyrs, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh with some Historical Background (1985). Short tablet of tribute to the King and Beloved of the Martyrs, from H. M. Balyuzi's Eminent Bahá’ís. [about]
  141. Tablets of the Divine Plan, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1993). [about]
  142. Tahirih, The Pure, Iran's Greatest Woman, by Martha L. Root (1938). Life Story of Tahirih, the Heroine of the Faith of the Bab, 1938 Edition [about]
  143. Themes of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablets of The Divine Plan Illustrated by Scriptural References to the Bible and the Qur'án, by Lameh Fananapazir, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). The Tablets of the Divine Plan, as well as Abdu'l-Baha's Will and Testament and the Tablet of Carmel, are three “Charters” for promotion of the Cause of God, which can also heal the problems facing humanity in its crisis of faith. [about]
  144. Treatise on Persecution of Bahá'ís in 1903, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007). Events in Isfahán and Yazd from March-September 1903. [about]
  145. Varqa and Son: The Heavenly Doves, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). History of the family of Varqa, the only family with the distinction of having a grandfather, a father, and a son all named Hand of the Cause. [about]
  146. We can do without fences built by prejudice, by Ted Slavin, in St. Catharines Standard (2011). Just as a windstorm knocks down fences, struggles can unite strangers and overcoming barriers will improve communities. [about]
  147. What do Baha'is believe about gender?, by Gleibys L. Buchanan, in Washington Post (2011). [about]
  148. When the Saints Come Marching In: The Art of Bahá'í Biography, by Sidney Edward Morrison and Frank Lewis, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). Comments on hagiography, including reviews of nine popular Baha'i biographies. Includes response "In Praise of Saints" by Frank Lewis (from dialogue 1:3). [about]
  149. Wildfire: Reflections on Music, Drama, and Dance, by Istvan Dely (2006). [about]
  150. Will and Testament of Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1992). 'Abdu'l-Baha's Will and Testament consists of three parts - all three written in His own hand. The first one was revealed around 1905 and the second and third sometime around 1907. [about]
  151. Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
  152. World Order of Baha'u'llah: Six Talks on the Various Aspects of, by Ali Nakhjavani (2004). Transcripts of six talks given at a week-long course on the World Order of Baha'u'llah, sponsored by the NSA of Italy. Document includes compilation and outline. (This online version compiled from three different editions of this book.) [about]
  153. Wrathful God of Martin Luther and Baha'u'llah: Tablet of Ahmad-i-Farsi and Martin Luther (A comparison), by Roberta Law (1998). Comparison of the theologies of Baha'u'llah's Tablet of Ahmad (Persian) and early Protestantism. [about]
  154. "Yá Alláhu'l-Mustagháth": Original Source, Correct Transliteration and Translation, by Universal House of Justice (2001). [about]
 
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