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1835 Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá' (`Beloved of Martyrs'), in Isfahán. Isfahán; Iran Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn; Mahbubu'sh-Shuhada'; Beloved of Martyrs
1837 Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá' (`King of Martyrs'), in Isfahán. Isfahán; Iran Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan; Sultanu'sh-Shuhada'; King of Martyrs
1844. 11 Aug The Báb sends Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivers a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
  • The Shaykh's rejection of the claim leads to violent debate. Mullá `Alí is taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he is sent to Istanbul. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
Constantinople; Istanbul; Iraq; Baghdád; Najaf; Karbalá Bab; Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami; Shaykhi; Mulla `Ali; Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafi; Shi`i; Sunni; `ulama; martyr; Babi; Mulla Hasan Gawhar; Babism
1945 Feb - Mar The Báb returns to Búshihr. He sends Quddús to Shíráz with a letter addressed to His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí who embraces his Nephew's Cause, the first, after the Letters of the Living, to do so. The Báb also entrusts Quddús with a treatise for him entitled dhasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications') and promises him his impending martyrdom. (He gave is life as on of the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, see 1850 19 or 20 Feb.) [B77–8; DB142–3; MS2]
  • B77 and GPB10 say the Báb arrived in Búshihr in February - March.
  • SSBH1p23 and BBRSM216 say 15 May, 1845.
  • Before leaving on pilgrimage the Báb had stated that He would return to Karbalá and asked His followers to congregate there. An explanation in part for the large following that have gathered there is the messianic expectation associated with the year 1261, a thousand years after the Twelfth Imám's disappearance in 260 A.H.. This gathering is perceived as a threat by the authorities. [BBRSM15, 45, 216; DB157–8; SBBH1p23, 32]
  • The Báb changes His plan to meet His followers in Karbalá and instructs them to go to Isfahán instead. A number abandon Him, regarding this as badá', `alteration of divine will'. [BBRSM16; DB158; MH125; SBBH23]
  • Some speculate that He did not go to Karbalá to avoid conflict and sedition. Many Bábís had gone to Karbalá armed in preparation for holy war, `jihád'. [BBRSM21–2; SBBH1:23]
Búshihr; Iran; Shíráz Bab; Quddus; uncle; Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali; dhasa'il-i-Sab`ih; Seven Qualifications; martyrdom
1846 Summer The Báb bequeaths all His possessions to His mother and His wife and reveals a special prayer for His wife to help her in times of sorrow He tells his wife of His impending martyrdom. He moves to the house of His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. He tells the Bábís in Shíráz to go to Isfahán. [GPB14; KB21–2; TB103–5, LTDT13] Shíráz; Isfahán; Iran; Persia Bab; mother; wife; prayer; martyrdom; uncle; Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali; Babi
1846. Dec Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí dies in Istanbul naval dockyards. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. Constantinople; Istanbul Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami; martyr; Babi
1847. Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]

Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]

  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
Tihrán; Tehran; Qazvín; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Mulla `Abdu'llah; murder; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Shaykh Salib-i-Karimi; Babis; execute; execution; martyrdom; shrine; Imam-Zadih Zayd; Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi; death; prison; Mulla Tahir-i-Shirazi; Mulla Ibrahim-i-Maballati
1849. 2 Feb Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn leads a charge of 313 men that again routs the king's army. He is struck in the chest by a bullet and dies. His body is carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís are also wounded, about 40 of whom die. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]

  • Mullá Husayn is 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
  • See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
  • See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
  • See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
  • See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
  • Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
  • It takes the army 45 days to reassemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
Persia; Iran Mulla Husayn; death; Babis; burial; Mihdi-Quli Mirza; martyred
1849. c. Jun - Jul The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learns of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He is so overcome with grief that He is unable to write or dictate for a period of six months. [DB411, 430] Chihriq; Iran; Persia Bab; prison; massacre; Shaykh Tabarsi; martyr; Quddus; Tablet of Visitation
1850. 19 or 20 Feb Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís are executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]

  • See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
  • Three of the victims are so eager to be martyrs that they ask the executioner if they can be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
  • Their bodies are left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
  • See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
  • The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
  • See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia seven; Martyr; seven goats; Islam; Qá'im; Bábí; Grand Vizier; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil
1850. 16 May Martyrdom of Shaykh Muhammad-i-Túb-Chí in Zanján, the first of the martyrs. [BBR115; DB542–3] Zanján; Iran; Persia Martyrdom; Shaykh Muhammad-i-Tub-Chi
1850. 29 Jun Vahíd is martyred in Nayríz. [B182; BW18:381; DB495, 499; GPB42; RB1:265]

  • See DB494 for details of his martyrdom.
  • His body is dragged through the streets to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. [RB1:265]
  • See SDH13 for a respectful opinion of Vahíd expressed by an enemy of the Cause, one of the army chiefs who had fought against Vahíd.
Nayríz; Tabríz; Iran; Persia Vahid; martyrdom; Bab
1850. 8 Jul The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, is taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, throws himself at the feet of the Báb and asks to go with Him. [B153; DB507]

  • That night the Báb asks that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offers to do this but is restrained by the others. The Báb promises that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
Tabríz; Iran; Persia Bab; turban; sash; barracks; Mirza Muhammad-‘Aliy-i-Zunuzi; Anis; martyr
1850. 9 Jul Martyrdom of the Báb

In the morning the Báb is taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]

  • The warrants are already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
  • Anís's stepfather tries to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son is also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remains unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]

At noon the Báb and Anís are suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz. They are shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men. [B157; DB512]

  • When the smoke clears the Báb is gone and Anís is standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, is found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
  • See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.

The Báb and Anís are suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, has been found to undertake the execution. After the volley, the bodies of the Báb and Anís are shattered. [B158; DB514]

  • See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
  • The face of the Báb is untouched. [B158]
  • At the moment the shots are fired a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remains dark from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
  • See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.

    At night, the bodies are thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. [B159; TN27]

Tabriz; Iran; Persia Martyrdom of the Bab; Life of the Bab; Holy days; Anis; Sam Khan; - Basic timeline
1852 16 – 22 Aug A large number of Bábís are arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number are executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]

Eighty–one, of whom 38 are leading members of the Bábí community, are thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]

Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Babis; arrest; execute; execution; Siyah-Chal; martyrdom
1852. Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís are arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

Many Bábís are tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís are martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes are gouged in his body and nine lighted candles are inserted. He joyfully dances to the place of his execution. His body is hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions are so severe that the community is nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappears from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
Mílán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Bábí; arrest; torture; prison; Sháh; Mahmud Khán; Kalántar; martyr; Sulaymán Khán
1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál.

  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink is given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, is attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties are plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. The attempt failed but His health was impaired for years following. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100, GPB72]
Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá flees to Tákur and goes into hiding. He eventually goes to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
Tihran; Tehran; Takur; Iran; Persia; Baghdad; Iraq Life of Bahaullah; Siyah-Chal; Prison; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; ‘Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; martyr; poison; Chains; Mirza Yahya; - Basic timeline
1853. 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245] Nayríz; Shíráz; Iran; Persia Bábí; prisoner; martyr; Islam; prophecy; Qá'im
1863. 9 May Bahá'u'lláh and His party leave Firayját for Istanbul although at this point the destination is unknown to the exiles. [CH57, GPB156; SA235]

  • The journey takes 110 days. [GPB156]
  • For the details of the journey see BKG176–96; GPB1567; SW13:277.
  • See BKG180 for a map of the journey.
  • They pass through the following:
    
    Judaydih
    Dilí-'Abbás
    Qarih-Tapih
    Saláhíyyih (stay two nights)
    Dúst-Khurmátú
    Táwuq
    Karkúk (stay two days)
    Irbíl
    By the River Záb
    Bartallih
    Mosul (stay three days)
    Zákhú
    Jazírih
    Nisíbín
    Hasan-Áqá
    Márdiín
    Díyár-Bakr (stay two days)
    Ma'dan-Mis
    Khárpút (stay two or three days)
    Ma'dan-Nuqrih
    Dilik-Tásh
    Sívás
    Túqát
    Amasia (stay two days)
    Iláhíyyih (the last day of the overland journey)
    Sámsún on the Black Sea. (110 days after departure) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • For the number of people on the journey see BKG179 (72), GPB156 (26 plus members of His family plus guards), RB2:5–6 (54) and SW13:277 (72).
  • As the party draws close to Sámsún on the Black Sea Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Hawdaj. [BKG195; RB2:6]
  • The party remains in Sámsún for seven days. [GPB157]
Firayjat; Samsun; Istanbul; Judaydih; Dili-'Abbas; Qarih-Tapih; Salahiyyih; Dust-Khurmatu; Tawuq; Karkuk; Irbil; Bartallih; Mosul; Zakhu; Jazirih; Nisibin; Hasan-Áqa; Mardiin; Diyar-Bakr; Ma'dan-Mis; Kharput; Ma'dan-Nuqrih; Dilik-Tash; Sivas; Tuqat; Amasia; Ilahiyyih Life of Bahaullah; Banishment of Bahaullah; journey; Black Sea; Tablet; Suriy-i-Hawdaj
1868. c. Jul Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád are arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.[BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
  • About 70 people are exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
  • See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
  • See BKG183 for a description of the city.
  • See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
  • They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
Baghdád; Mosul King of Martyrs; Beloved of Martyrs; charity fund
1869. Jul Badí` delivers the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He is tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
  • For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
  • For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
  • He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
  • Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
  • For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
  • See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
Írán Badi`; Fakhru'sh-Shuhada' (Pride of Martyrs); Apostle of Baha'u'llah; Shah
1872. 10 Aug Birth of Martha Root, Hand of the Cause and itinerant Bahá'í teacher, in Richmond, Ohio. Richmond; Ohio Martha Root; Hand of the Cause of God
1879. 12 Mar The arrest of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BBD 130] Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan; the `King of Martyrs'; Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn; the `Beloved of Martyrs'
1879. 17 Mar The martyrdom of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BW18:383]
  • Their martyrdom is instigated by Mír Muhammad-Husayn, the Imám-Jum`ih, stigmatized by Bahá'u'lláh as the `she-serpent', who owes the brothers a large sum of money. [GPB200–1, ARG172, SDH104]
  • Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the `Wolf', pronounces the death sentence on the two brothers and the Zillu's-Sultán ratifies the decision. [GPB201]
  • The brothers are put in chains, decapitated and dragged to the Maydán-i-Sháh for public viewing. [GPB201]
  • For Western accounts of their martyrdom see BBR274–6.
  • See SDH112 for the story of the pilgrimage of their families to the Holy Land.
  • See BW11:594 for a picture of the memorial to the King and the Beloved of Martyrs.
Isfahán Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan; the `King of Martyrs'; Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn; the `Beloved of Martyrs'; Mir Muhammad-?usayn; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; the `Wolf'; Zillu's-Sultan
1882 Ibn-i-Asdaq is given the distinction Shahíd Ibn-i-Shahíd (Martyr, son of the martyr) by Bahá'u'lláh. [EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq; Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid (Martyr; son of the martyr)
1883. 15 Apr Birth in Goslar, Germany, of Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns, a prominent German Bahá'í, named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Goslar; Germany Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns; Disciple of `Abdu'l-Baha
1891 19 May The execution of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd. [BBRXXIX, BW18:384]

Seven Bahá'ís are executed on the order of the governor of Yazd, Husain Mírzá, Jalálu'd-Dín-Dawlih (the grandson of the shah) and his father Zillu's-Sultán , and at the instigation of the mujtahid, Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivárí. [BW18:384]

  • For their names see BW18:384.
  • For details of the executions see GBP201–2.
  • For Western reports of the episode see BBR301–5.
  • Bahá'u'lláh stated that a representative of Zillu's-Sultán. Hájí Sayyáh, visited Him in 'Akká in the hope of persuading Him to support his plot to usurp the throne. He was promised freedom to practice the Faith should He support him. Hájí Sayyáh was arrested in Tehran in April of 1891 and Zillu's-Sultán, afraid that he would be implicated in the plot to overthrow the king, inaugurated vigorous persecution of the Bahá'ís in Yazd in order to draw attention from himself and prove his loyalty to the crown and to Islam. Had Bahá'u'lláh reported this incident to the Shah, Zillu's-Sultán would have paid dearly for his disloyalty. [BBR357-358]
  • See also RB3:194–6 and SBBH2:77.
  • “The tyrant of the land of Yá (Yazd) committed that which has caused the Concourse on High to shed tears of blood.” Lawḥ-i-Dunyá (Tablet of the World) Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, p. 85
Yazd Jalalu'd-Din-Dawlih; Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivari; martyr
1891. 3 Oct Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Dihábádí is martyred, one of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd who were killed at the hands of Jalálu’d-Dawlih and Zillu’s-Sultan. [BW18:384] Yazd Mulla Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Dihabadi; Jalalu’d-Dawlih; Zillu’s-Sultan; Seven Martyrs of Yazd
1893. 17 Jun Áqá Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Muhammadábádí is killed by three men on the orders of two of the `ulamá of Yazd. [BW18:384; GPB296]
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See GPB296 for details of his martyrdom.
Yazd Áqa Muhammad-Riday-i-Muhammadabadi; martyr; persecution
1896. 24 Jul Four Bahá'ís are executed in Turbat-i-Haydarí on the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:384; BBR405]
  • BBRXXIX says the four Bahá'ís were martyred in August.
  • These four together with Hájí Muhammad Sádiq are known as the Shuhadáy-i-Khamsih (Five Martyrs). [GPB296]
  • Their martyrdom is the result of the assassination of the Sháh, for which the Bahá'ís are erroneously blamed. [GPB296]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR405–6.
Turbat-i-Haydarí Haji Muhammad Sadiq; Shuhaday-i-Khamsih; The Five Martyrs
1900 7 Dec In New York, nine men were selected to govern the affairs of the Faith. Those serving were Arthur Dodge, Hooper Harris, William Hoar, Andrew Hutchinson, Howard MacNutt, Frank Osborne, Edwin Putnam, Charles Sprague and Orosco Woolson. Among the problems that they had to face was the affect of the disaffection of Kheiralla. [BFA2p36] New York; NY Counsel Board; Arthur Dodge; Hooper Harris; William Hoar; Andrew Hutchinson; Howard MacNutt; Frank Osborne; Edwin Putnam; Charles Sprague; Orosco Woolson
1901 Arthur Pillsbury Dodge publishes his book The Truth of It, the first introductory book on the Bahá'í Faith written by a Western believer. [BFA2:93] Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; The Truth of It
1901 2 Nov Birth of John Robarts, Hand of the Cause of God, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Waterloo; Ontario; Canada John Robarts; Hand of the Cause of God
1904 The publication of Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD by Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni and translated by Youness Afroukhteh. A second edition was published in 1917. Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali Isfahani; Baha'i Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD
1908 `Alí Ádharí is martyred in Kirmán. [BW18:386]

Kirman; Iran persecution; martyr; `Ali Adhari
1909 25 Nov Dr Susan Moody arrives in Tihrán. She and four Persian Bahá'í doctors start the Sehat Hospital. Because the hospital was only accessible to the wealthy she established a private practice that was open to all women regardless of their ability to pay. [BFA2:359-360]
  • She spent two days in 'Akká en route to Persia and 'Abdu'l-Bahá conferred upon her the title Amatu'l-'Alí (Handmaid of the Most High). [BFA2:358]
  • Dr Sarah A. Clock arrives from Seattle in 1911 to assist her followed by Miss Elizabeth Stewart (nurse). [BFA2:361]
Tihrán Dr Susan Moody; Sehat Hospital; Dr Sarah A. Clock; Miss Elizabeth Stewart
1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá stops briefly at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman. [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lilian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Siena; Italy First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'; New York Council; Zillu's-Sultan; Juliet Thompson; Annie Boylan; Boilin' Annie; Horace Holley; Bertha Holley; Hertha Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lilian Kappes
1912 22 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP43, APD22-24] Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Arthur Parsons; Agnes Parsons
1912 24 Apr Talk at Children’s Reception, Studio Hall, 1219 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D.C. [PUP54]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP56, APD37-45]

Washington; DC Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Studio Hall; Andrew Dyer; Arthur Parsons
1912 25 Apr Talk to Theosophical Society, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP58]

Message to Esperantists, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP60]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP62, APD46-49]

Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Arthur Parsons; Esperantists
1912 6 Aug Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, Dublin, New Hampshire. [PUP247] Dublin; New Hampshire; Arthur Parsons; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
1912 7 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP397]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP400]

Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Arthur Parsons
1912 9 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP411]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP415]

Talk at Bahá’í Banquet, Rauscher’s Hall, Washington, D. C. [PUP418]

Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Arthur Parsons; Rauscher’s Hall
1912 10 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP421]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Hannen 1252 Eighth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. .[PUP425]

Talk at 1901 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP428]

Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Arthur Parsons; Joseph Hannen
1912 21 or 22 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá witnessed His first dramatic performance. It was a mystery Christmas play entitled Eager Heart written by Miss Alice Buckton and performed at the Church House, Westminster before an audience of 1,200. [SoW Vol III no 19 2March1913 p 7, CH154, AB34]
  • He is reported to have said, perhaps on another occasion, "The stage will be the pulpit of the future". [Quoted by Loulie Mathews in The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom, Vol 4, No. 3 (June 1923, p69]
  • Star of the West, Vol. 19 no. 11 Feb1929, p.341 quotes 'Abdu'l-Bahá as saying: "drama is of the utmost importance. It has been a great educational power in the past; it will be so again,". [BW1994-1995p255]
Westminster Alice Buckton; Eager Heart; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; drama; stage; Church House; Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom
1913. 8 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá was given a tour of the Edinburgh College of Arts conducted by the President. (74 Lauriston Place, Edinburgh EH3 9DF) This was followed by a tour of a school in the poorer district, North Canongate School.

In the afternoon He spoke to a capacity attendance at Rainy Hall, New College, the Mound, Edinburgh EH1 2LX.

'Abdu'l-Bahá attended a charity performance of Handel's Messiah at St Giles Cathedral. (Royal Mile, Edinburgh EH1 1RE) St. Giles was also known as the High Kirk of Edinburgh. It was Edinburgh's religious focal point for at least 900 years.

And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it. (Isaiah 40:5) [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, ABTM297]

Edinburgh `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; St Giles Cathedral; Handel's Messiah; Edinburgh College of Arts; North Canongate School
1913 30 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá travels from Paris to Stuttgart. [AB379]
  • He tells His attendants to wear European dress and to discard their oriental headgear. [AB379]
  • He does not tell the Bahá'ís of Stuttgart of His arrival in advance. [AB379]
Stuttgart; Paris; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
1913 8 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to Stuttgart, then leaves in the evening for Budapest, changing trains in Vienna the next morning. To this date no travel teacher had visited Budapest and there are no resident believers. [ABM316]
  • The trip was made at the invitation of, among others, Mr and Mrs Lipót Stark. the Secretary General of the Theosophical Society, who had given a lecture entitled "The Bahá'i Movement" on the 25th of February, 1912 and the text of the lecture had been published in the Esperanto periodical Teozofia (Theosophical). [SBBR14p110]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá is accompanied by Wilhelm Herrigel to serve to translate into German. [AB384]
Stuttgart; Budapest; Hungary Leopold Stark; Lipót Stark; Wilhelm Herrigel; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
1913 24 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Vienna and returns to Stuttgart, where He arrives in the early hours of the next morning. [AB389] Stuttgart; Vienna `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
1913 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Stuttgart and returns to Paris. [AB391] Stuttgart; Paris `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
1915 Mírzá Husayn-i-Hudá is martyred in Urúmíyyih. [BW18:387] Urúmíyyih; Iran; Mirza Husayn-i-Huda; martyr
1915 11 Oct Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in Freeport, New York. [sBR15]
  • For biographies see BFA1:116-17, SBR1-16 and SW6, 13:100-1.
  • For his obituary see SW6, 19:161-7.
  • Dodge's books include The Truth of It (1901) [SW6, 13:101] and Whence? Why? Wither? (1907). [SW6, 13:101]
Freeport; New York Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; Disciple of `Abdu'l-Baha; In Memoriam
1919 The first Norwegian to accept the Faith, Johanna Christensen-Schubarth, `the mother of the Norwegian Bahá'í Community', becomes a Bahá'í in the United States. [BW12:694-6]. USA Johanna Christensen-Schubarth; the mother of the Norwegian Baha'i Community
1919 26 Apr-1 May The 14 Tablets of the Divine Plan are unveiled in a dramatic ceremony at the Hotel McAlpin in New York, during the `Convention of the Covenant'. [BBD219; PP437; SBBH1:134; SBBH2:135; SBR86; TDPXI]
  • For details of the convention programme, Tablets and talks given see SW10, 4:54-72; SW10, 5:83-94; SW10, 6:99-103, 111-12 SW10, 7:122-7, 138; SW10, 10:197-203; and SW10, 12:2279.
  • Mary Maxwell (Rúhíyyih Khánum) is among the young people who unveil the Tablets. [PP437]
  • Agnes Parsons arrives from her pilgrimage just before the close of the convention and is able to convey the instructions from `Abdu'l-Bahá to arrange a Convention for `the unity of the coloured and white races'. [BW5:413; SBR87]
  • Hyde and Clara Dunn and Martha Root respond immediately to the appeal, the Dunns going to Australia where they open 700 towns to the Faith, and Martha Root embarking on the first of her journeys which are to extend over 20 years. [GPB308; MR88]
  • See also CT138-9.
Hotel McAlpin in New York; Australia Tablets of the Divine Plan; `Convention of the Covenant; Mary Maxwell (Ruhiyyih Khanum); Agnes Parsons; pilgrimage; `Abdu'l-Baha; Hyde and Clara Dunn; Martha Root
1919 22 Jul Martha Root leaves New York on the first of her teaching journeys for the Bahá'í Faith. [MR90] New York Martha Root
1919 c. 4 Aug Martha Root sets foot in South America for the first time, at Para (Belém), Brazil. [MR93; MRHK44]
  • See MR93-100 and MRHK44-59 for her teaching work in Brazil.
South America; Para (Belé; m); Brazil Martha Root
1919 19 Sep Martha Root arrives in Montevideo, Uruguay, the first Bahá'í to visit the country.
  • She spends 12 hours in the city, gives books to two libraries and places an article about the Faith in the newspaper El Dia.
Montevideo; Uruguay Martha Root
1919 20 Sep Martha Root arrives in Argentina, the first recorded visit of a Bahá'í to this country. [MR101]
  • She remains in Buenos Aires until 4 October. [MR101]
  • See MR101-2 and MRHK61-5 for her teaching work in Argentina.
  • See MR103-6 and MRHK66-9 for her journey over the Andes on a mule.
Buenos Aires; Argentina Martha Root; Andes
1919 Oct Martha Root visits Chile, the first Bahá'í to do so.
  • During her four-hour stay in Valparaiso she meets with the Theosophical Society to speak about the Bahá'í Faith.
Chile Martha Root; Theosophical Society
1919 25 Oct Martha Root arrives in Panama, the first Bahá'í to visit the country. She spends one week there. Panama Martha Root
1919 Late Martha Root visits Cuba for one day, the first Bahá'í to do so, and lectures on the Bahá'í Faith. Cuba Martha Root
1920 Mírzá Ibráhím Khán, Ibtiháju'l-Mulk, is martyred in Rasht at the hands of the Jangalís. [BW18:387] Rasht; Iran; Mirza Ibrahim Khan; Ibtihaju'l-Mulk; martyr
1920 Sep The tombs of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in Isfahán are demolished by a mob. [BBR437]
  • For Western responses see BBR437-9.
Isfahán King of Martyrs; the Beloved of Martyrs; Iranian persecution
1921 (in the year) The birth of Eduardo Duarte Vieira, the first African Bahá'í martyr, is born in Portuguese Guinea. Portuguese Guinea; Guinea Bissau; Eduardo Duarte Vieira; martyr; Guinea Bissau
1923 25 Apr Martha Root leaves Osaka for northern China. [PH31]
  • It is her second visit to China and lasts until March 1924. [PH31-2]
China Martha Root
1923 4 Nov The first recorded Bahá'í Feast in China is held in Beijing. [PH33]
  • Martha Root and Agnes Alexander are present. [PH33]
China Feast; Martha Root; Agnes Alexander
1924 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and the Sudan is formed, the first national body in Africa. [BBRSM121; GPB333]

Martha Root gives the first African radio broadcast about the Bahá'í Faith, in Cape Town.

Egypt; Cape Town. National Spiritual Assembly; Martha Root
1926 Martha Roots visits Budapest and teaches the Faith to one of the grandsons of Arminius Vámbéry, Mr. György Vámbéry. He was 21 at the time and passed away some two years later. [www.bahai.hu] Budapest; Hungary Martha Root; Arminius Vambéry; György Vambéry.
1926 28 Jan Martha Root sends a note and a copy of Bahá’u’lláh and the .New Era to Queen Marie of Romania. [GBF42; GPB390; MR242] Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie; Bahá’u’lláh and the .New Era
1926 30 Jan Martha Root meets with Queen Marie of Romania for the first time. [BBR59; GBF42; GPB390; PP107, HEC49]
  • For the details of the meeting and the acceptance of the Faith by Queen Marie see GBP389–96 and MR240–6.
  • This was the first of eight meetings between Martha Root and Queen Marie.
Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie
1926 First week in Feb Martha Root arrives in Bulgaria, the earliest documented visit to that country by a Bahá’í. [MR247]
  • She stays 12 days. [MR247]
  • Bahá’ís had passed through Bulgaria on their way to Turkey, but Martha Root’s visit is the first one documented.
Bulgaria Martha Root
1927 25 Mar Áqá ‘Abdu’l-‘A‘zím, Amínu’l-‘Ulamá’ is martyred in Ardibíl, Iran, by the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:388] Ardibíl; Iran Áqá ‘Abdu’l-‘A‘zím; Amínu’l-‘Ulamá’; martyrdom; religious persecution
1927 Apr-May Martha Root journeys through the Baltic States, becoming the first Bahá’í to visit Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (2 May). [MR272–4] Baltic States Martha Root
1927 19 Jun Karbalá’í Asadu’lláh-i-Saqat-furúsh is martyred in Kirmán, Iran. [BW18:388] Kirmán; Iran Karbalá’í Asadu’lláh-i-Saqat-furúsh; martyrdom; religious persecution
1928 Jul The first International Religious Congress for World Peace was held at The Hague. It was attended by Martha Root. [BW3:45] The Hague International Religious Congress for World Peace; Martha Root
1929 End of Aug Martha Root arrives in Albania, the first Bahá’í to set foot in the country. [MR317]
  • She obtains an audience with King Zog I and is warmly received by him. [MR319]
  • For Martha Root’s own account of her stay in Albania see MR319–20.
Albania Martha Root; King Zog I
1930 2 Jan Martha Roots meets with King Faisal of Iraq in Baghdad. The King says that a committee has been formed to study the problem and to settle it in such a way as to satisfy all groups interested in the matter. [MRHK149] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Martha Root
1932 23 Nov George Adam Benke passes away in Sofia, Bulgaria.
  • Shoghi Effendi calls him the first European martyr. [LDG1:263; MC359]
  • For his obituary see BW5:416–18.
Sofia; Bulgaria George Adam Benke; martyr
1933 23 Oct Keith Ransom-Kehler dies of smallpox in Isfahán. [BW5:24, 398]
  • For her obituary see BW5:389–410.
  • She is buried near the grave of the King of Martyrs. [BW5:398]
  • For a picture of her grave see BW5:399.
  • Shoghi Effendi names her America’s ‘first and distinguished martyr’. [BW5:398]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevates her to the rank of Hand of the Cause on 28 October, 1933. [BW5:398, MoCxxii]
  • For her mission in Iran see BW5:23–7.
  • See also PP306–7.
  • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 176-181) for a pen portrait of Keith Ransom-Kehler .
Isfahán; Iran; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hand of the Cause; martyr; In Memoriam; Hand appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
1936 Feb Martha Root meets with Queen Marie of Romania for the eighth and last time. [MRHK413] Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie
1939 28 Sep Martha Root, ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh’, passes away in Honolulu. (b. 10 August,1872 Richwood Union County Ohio, USA) [BBD198–9; GPB388; MRHK486; PP105]
  • Photos of her gravesite 1, 2 and 3. Directions to the gravesite.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see GPB386–9.
  • On the 2nd of October Shoghi Effendi announced her appointment to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. [MoCxxii]
  • Shoghi Effendi calls her the ‘archetype of Bahá’í itinerant teachers’, the ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh since ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing’, ‘Leading ambassadress of His Faith’ and ‘Pride of Bahá’í teachers’. [GPB386]
  • From the Guardian...her "acts shed imperishable lustre American Bahá'í Community". [PP106]
  • For her obituary see BW8:643–8.
  • She is buried in the Nuuanu Cemetery, Honolulu.
  • See also Garis, Martha Root: Lioness at the Threshold and Martha Root: Herald of The Kingdom.
  • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 170-175) for a pen-portrait of Martha Root.
  • She was designated a Hand of the Cause of God on the 3rd of October, 1954
Honolulu Martha Root; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Hand appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam
1940 (in the decade) The first Bahá’ís reside in the Belgian Congo (Zaire), Mr Rajah Ali Vahdat and Mme Marthe Molitor. Belgian Congo Rajah Ali Vahdat; Marthe Molitor
1940 13 Jan María Teressa Martín de López (Irizarry), from Puerto Rico, becomes a Bahá’í in the Dominican Republic while on a visit. She is the first Puerto Rican Bahá’í and the first person to become a Bahá’í in the Dominican Republic.
  • For the story of her life see BW8:631–42.
Dominican Republic María Teressa Martín de López
1940 1 Mar May Bolles Maxwell passes away in Buenos Aires. [BBD153; BW8:631 TG49]
  • Shoghi Effendi awards her the honour of a ‘martyr’s death’ and a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW8:631; MA38]
  • She was the first Bahá'í on European soil and the "mother" of both the French and the Canadian Bahá'í communities. [PP149]
  • For the story of her life see BW17:437–8.
  • Shoghi Effendi asks her husband, Sutherland Maxwell, to design her tomb, which is to be a ‘historic centre’ for ‘pioneer Bahá’í activity’. [BW8:642]
  • For an account of the erection of the monument to her see PSBW83–6.
Buenos Aires; May Bolles Maxwell; martyr; Sutherland Maxwell; Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Baha; Mother of the French Baha'i community; Mother of the Canadian Baha'i community
1941 Shaykh Kázim is martyred in Bunáb, Ádharbáyján. [BW18:389] Bunáb; Ádharbáyján Shaykh Kazim; martyr; religious persecution
1942 13 Feb Ustád Habíbu’lláh Mu‘ammarí is martyred in Nayríz, Iran. [BW18:389] Nayríz; Iran Ustád Habíbu’lláh Mu‘ammarí; martyr; religious persecution
1945 The World Forestry Charter Gathering is founded in Britain by Richard St Barbe Baker. [VV106; WH75] Britain Richard St Barbe Baker; World Forestry Charter Gathering
1947 4 Jul ‘Abbás Sháhídzádih is martyred in Sháhí, Mázandarán, Iran and a fellow Baha’i, Habib Allah Hushmand, is murdered in Sarvistan. [BW18:390, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Sháhí; Mázandarán; Iran ‘Abbas Shahidzadih; martyr; religious persecution
1948 11 Jan Habíbu’lláh Húshmand is martyred in Sarvistán, Iran. [BW18:390] Sarvistán; Iran Habíbu’lláh Húshmand; martyr; religious persecution
1949 A Bahá’í in Kamshatti, near Calcutta, is martyred by a religious fanatic. [BW11:34] Calcutta martyr; religious persecution
1950 3 Feb Dr Sulaymán Birgís is martyred in Káshán, Iran. [BW18:390]
  • For his obituary see BW12:684–5.
Káshán; Iran Sulaymán Birgís; martyr; religious persecution
1950 9 Jul The Centenary of the Martyrdom of the Báb is commemorated.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the Bahá’ís on this occasion see BW12:191–3.
  • For accounts of commemorations around the world see BW12:205–8.
  • A small group of Bahá’í pilgrims visit the site of the Báb’s martyrdom and other places associated with His life. [BW12:217–26]
  • The columned arcade and parapet of the Shrine of the Báb are completed. [ZK284–5]
Centenary of the Martyrdom of the Báb; Shrine of the Báb
1951 Muhammad Kayvani is murdered in Najafabad. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Najafabad persecution; martyrdom
1951 Oct Marthe Jeanne Molitor, the first Belgian Bahá’í to settle in another country, leaves for the Belgian Congo (Zaire) one day after becoming a Bahá’í. Belgian Congo Marthe Jeanne Molitor
1952 Jun Aaron (‘Arthur’) B. Wellesley Cole, a Sierra Leonean barrister, returns to Sierra Leone from England, the first Bahá’í to enter the country. Sierra Leon Aaron (‘Arthur’) B. Wellesley Cole
1952 26 Aug The martyrdom of Nuri'd-Dín Fath-'Azam near Tehran. [BW12p690-692] Tehran; martyrdom; Nuri'd-Din Fath-'Azam
1953 Áqá Rahmán Kulayní-Mamaqání is martyred in Durúd, Iran. [BW18:390] Durúd; Iran Áqa Rahman Kulayni-Mamaqani; martyrdom
1953 Jul Arthur and Ethel Crane arrive in Key West and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW16:453] Key West Arthur Crane; Ethel Crane; Knight of Baha’u’llah
1953 Aug Edythe MacArthur arrives in the Queen Charlotte Islands (now Haida Gwaii) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Queen Charlotte Islands Edythe MacArthur; Knight of Baha’u’llah
1953 26 Aug Ella Bailey passes away in Tripoli. [BW12:687]
  • She is 88 years old.
  • She is elevated to the rank of the martyrs. [MBW170]
  • For the story of her life see PSBW131–42.
  • For her obituary see BW12:685–8.
Tripoli Ella Bailey; martyr
1953 26 Sep The martyrdom of Rahmán Kulayní Mamaqání. He was stabbed by a ruffian in a mob. [BW12p710-711] Durúd; Iran martyrdom; Rahman Kulayni Mamaqani.
1953 Oct Edmund (‘Ted’) Cardell arrives in Windhoek and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for South West Africa (Namibia). [BW13:456]
  • He is later joined by his wife Alicia and the first German Bahá’ís to pioneer to Africa, Martin and Gerda Aiff and their children.
Windhoek; West Africa (Namibia) Edmund (‘Ted’) Cardell; Knight of Baha’u’llah; Martin Aiff; Gerda Aiff
1954 Jan John and Audrey Robarts with their two younger children, Patrick and Tina, leave Toronto for their pioneer post in Mafeking (later Mafikeng), Buchuanaland (later Botswana and formerly Bophuthatswana). Older children Aldham and Gerald pioneered to Nigeria and a homefront post respectively. [LOF485-6]
  • Later the same year he is appointed to the newly established Auxiliary Board by Hand of the Cause of God Músá Banání. They would return to Canada some 13 years later. [LOF486, 491]
Canada; Bechuanaland John Robarts; Audrey Robarts; Aldham Robarts; Gerald Robarts; Patrick Robarts; Tina Robarts
1954 Feb John and Audrey Robarts and their son Patrick and young daughter Tina arrive in Mafikeng and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Bechuanaland (Botswana). [BW13:449] Mafikeng; Bechuanaland (Botswana) John Robarts; Audrey Robarts; Patrick Robarts; Knight of Baha’u’llah
1954 Apr The arrival of Knight Martin Manga to Northern Territories Protectorate (Now part of Ghana) [BWNS249] Northern Territories Protectorate; Ghana; Africa Knight; Martin Manga
1954 Apr Martin Manga arrives in the Northern Territories Protectorate, Australia, and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Northern Territories Protectorate; Australia Martin Manga; Knight of Baha’u’llah
1954 11 Apr Bula Mott Stewart arrives in Swaziland and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Swaziland Bula Mott Stewart; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
1955 23 May The Bahá’í International Community submits its Proposals for Charter Revision to the United Nations for the Conference for Revision of the UN Charter. [BW13:788, 795–802] New York; US Baha’i International Community; UN Charter
1955 28 Jul Seven Bahá’ís are stabbed and beaten to death by a mob in Hurmuzak, Iran. [BW18:391, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
  • Several other Bahá’ís, including women, are beaten and injured; Bahá’í houses and property are damaged. [BW18:391]
  • See also M. Labíb, The Seven Martyrs of Hurmuzak.
  • See entry for 26 September, 2016.
Hurmuzak; Iran religious persecution; Martydom
1955 12 Nov Hand of the Cause of God Valíyu’lláh Varqá passes away in Stuttgart.
  • For his obituary see BW13:831–834.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
Stuttgart; Germany Valiyu’llah Varqa; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent
1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of South East Asia is formed with its seat in Djakarta. [BW13:302]
  • Its area of jurisdiction is Borneo, Indo-China, Indonesia, Malaya, Sarawak, Siam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Philippines, Dutch New Guinea, Mentawei Islands, Cocos Islands, Portuguese Timor and Brunei.
Djakarta NSA
1957 Oct The third contingent of Hands of the Cause of God is appointed: Enoch Olinga, William Sears, John Robarts, Hasan Balyuzi, John Ferraby, Collis Featherstone, Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí. [GBF111; MBW127; PP254, 442; SS47]
  • See TG160 for the story of how Enoch Olinga reacted to the news of being appointed a Hand of the Cause of God
Haifa Hands of the Cause; Enoch Olinga; William Sears; John Robarts; Hasan Balyuzi; John Ferraby; Collis Featherstone; Rahmatullah Muhajir; Abul-Qasim Faizi
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Indonesia is formed with its seat in Djakarta. Djakarta NSA
1966 11 Mar Eduardo Duarte Vieira is arrested in Portuguese Guinea on a charge of subversive political activity following a period of increasing pressure and harassment instigated by the clergy. He had been detained, maltreated and brutally beaten on several occasions since becoming a Bahá’í. [BW14:390] Portuguese Guinea; Guinea Bissau; Eduardo Duarte Vieira; religious persecution
1966 31 Mar While in the custody of the Portuguese authorities Eduardo Duarte Vieira dies in prison in Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea Bissau) after twenty days of torture. He is named the first African martyr. [BW14:390, BW16:568]
  • For his obituary see BW14:389–90.
  • For the messages to his wife and children he scratched on a biscuit box see BW14:390–1.
Portuguese Guinea Eduardo Duarte Vieira; religious persecution; martyr
1966 29 Sep Frances A. Foss, the first pioneer on St Maarten, arrives in Philipsburg. Philipsburg; St Maarten Frances A. Foss; pioneer
1966 12 Dec The Hand of the Cause John Robarts departed Africa from Cape Town after a stay of nearly 13 years. They were recalled from their pioneer post by the Universal House of Justice to help Canada win the goals of the Nine Year Plan. The objective was to raise 154 local assemblies by 1973 but the count had fallen from 68 to only 50, eighteen less than the number won during the Ten Year Plan and 104 short of the objective.LNW158 Cape Town; South Africa Hand of the Cause John Robarts
1970 The first Gypsy in Spain to become a Bahá’í, Maria Camacho Martinez, enrols in Sabadell. Sabadell; Spain Maria Camacho Martinez
1976 24 Apr The passing of Mark George Tobey (b. December 11, 1890 Centerville, Wisconsin – d. April 24, 1976 Basel, Switzerland) [Bahá'í News page 341, Wiki, VV119]
  • He had been introduced to the Faith by Bernard Leach. [OPOP223]
  • Another version is that In 1918 Mark Tobey came in contact with Juliet Thompson and posed for her. During the session Tobey read some Bahá'í literature and accepted an invitation to Green Acre where he converted. [Seitz, William Chapin (1980). Mark Tobey. Ayer Publishing. p. 44]
  • Tobey was one of the twentieth century’s most cosmopolitan of artists. An inveterate traveler—he eventually settled in Basel, Switzerland—he was always better known in Europe than in his homeland. His mature ‘white writing’ works are made up of pulsing webs of lines inspired by oriental calligraphy, explicitly acknowledged the direct influence of the Baha’i Faith on his painting. It has been said that Tobey “made line the symbol of spiritual illumination, human communication and migration, natural form and process, and movement between levels of consciousness.” He often stated, “that there can be no break between nature, art, science, religion, and personal life".
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg248 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Mark Tobey.
  • For his obituary see BW17:401–4.
  • Towards the end of his life, Tobey was the recipient of some of the highest distinctions that the European art scene of his time could bestow. He won the gold medal at the Venice Biennale in 1958—the first American painter to do so since 1895. In 1961, a major retrospective of his work was held at the Louvre in Paris, an unprecedented achievement for a living and American artist.
  • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies, Volume 26, number 4 – Winter 2016 p94 for an article by Anne Gordon Perry entitled Anne Gould Hauberg and Mark Tobey: Lives Lived for Art, Cultivated by Spirit.
  • An exhibition, Mark Tobey: Threading Light showed at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 6 May to 10 September 2017 and at the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, 4 November 2017–11 March 2018.
Centerville; Wisconsin; Basel; Switzerland; In Memoriam; Mark Tobey; Bernard Leach; Anne Boyles; Anne Gordon Perry; Anne Gould Hauberg; Peggy Guggenheim Collection; Addison Gallery of American Art
1979. 24 Oct The publication of the compilation Inspiring the Heart by the Universal House of Justice. This ]compilation was published as a book by the Baha'i Publishing Trust of the United Kingdom in 1981. [Messages63-86p430] BWC Inspiring the Heart
1980 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Twenty–four Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW18:229–30]
  • BW18:291–2 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:293–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:275–81.
  • Twelve Bahá’ís disappear and are presumed dead. [BW19:235]
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:339–41, 415–17.
Iran martyr; religious persecution; United Nations; BIC
1980 The publication of Stories from the Delight of Hearts - The Memoirs of Hají Mírzá Haydar-Alí was translated by A Q Faizi and published by Kalimat in 1980. Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Abul-Qasim Faizi; Stories from the Delight of Hearts
1981 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Forty–six Bahá’ís are executed and two assassinated. [BW18:292–3; BW19:230–1]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:277–8, 281–4.
  • For excerpts from the wills of some of the martyrs see BW18:284–9.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:341–5, 417–20.
Iran martyr; religious persecution; United Nations; BIC
1981 27 Dec Eight of the nine members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran are executed. [BI13; BW19:43] Iran martyr; NSA; religious persecution
1982 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Thirty–two Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232]
  • BW18:293–4 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:345–52, 420–4.
Iran religious persecution; martyr; United Nations BIC
1983 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92; BW19:177–226]
  • Twenty–nine Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232–3]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:352–6, 424–5.
Iran religious persecution; martyr; United Nations; BIC
1983 18 Jun In Shiraz, ten Bahá'í women ranging in age from 17 to 57, were hanged. All of the women had been tortured and interrogated in the months prior to their execution. The youngest of these martyrs was Mona Mahmudnizhad, a 17-year-old schoolgirl who had been beaten on the soles of her feet, kissed the hands of her executioner and placed the hangman's rope around her own throat. The names of the others executed were Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih, 28, Ruya Ishraqi, a 23-year-old veterinary student, Shahin Dalvand, 25, a sociologist; Izzat Janami Ishraqi, 57, a homemaker; Mahshid Nirumand, 28, who had qualified for a degree in physics but had it denied her because she was a Bahá'í, Simin Sabiri, 25; Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi, 30, a nurse; Akhtar Thabit, 25, also a nurse; Nusrat Ghufrani Yalda'i, 47, a mother and member of the local Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly. [Hanged for teaching “Sunday school”]
  • For the story of the martyrs see BW19:180–7 and VV56.
  • For their obituaries see BW19:596–607.
  • For pictures of the martyred women see BW19:240–1.
Shiraz; Iran Baha'i; martyr; Mona Mahmudnizhad; Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih; Ruya Ishraqi; Shahin Dalvand; Izzat Janami Ishraqi; Mahshid Nirumand; Simin Sabiri; Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi; Akhtar Thabit; Nusrat Ghufrani Yalda'i
1984 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • Thirty Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:233-4]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments and other actions taken, see BW19:44–6.
Iran religious persecution; martyr; United Nations
1985 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • Seven Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:234]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community see BW19:39.
Iran religious persecution; martyr
1986 Community-based Bahá’í health care programmes are launched in Kenya, Uganda and Swaziland, spearheaded by Dr Ethel Martens of Canada. Kenya; Uganda; Swaziland; Ethel Martens
1986 The Bahá’í Association for Arts (BAFA) is formed with its base in the Netherlands. Netherlands Baha’i Association for Arts (BAFA)
1986 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • One Bahá’í, 15-year-old Paymán Subhání, is killed. [BW19:225–6, 234]
  • For his picture see BW19:246.
  • For the actions taken by the Bahá’í international Community see BW19:38.
Iran religious persecution; martyr; BIC
1988 ‘Arts for Nature’, a fund-raising programme held to benefit the work of the World Wide Fund for Nature, is held in London with the collaboration of the Bahá’í International Community. [AWH61; VV106] London BIC; Arts for Nature; World Wide Fund for Nature
1988 30 Jun - 3 Jul The Bahá’í Arts Council, Canada, holds the first arts festival, ‘Invitation 88: A Festival of the Human Spirit’ at the University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario. [BINS179:2] London; Ontario; Canada Baha’i Arts Council
1989 15 Dec A World Forestry Charter Gathering organized by the Offices of Public Information in London and New York takes place in London. [AWH75; BINS214:1–2]
  • It commemorates the centenary of the birth of Richard St Barbe Baker, the Bahá’í environmentalist who founded the Gatherings in 1945.
London Richard St Barbe Baker; World Forestry Charter Gathering
1990 The Bahá'í International Community, through the Office of the Environment in collaboration with other environmental organizations, re-instituted the annual World Forestry Charter Gathering that had be founded in 1945 by Richard St. Barbe Baker. [AWH75] [VV106] Baha'i International Community; World Forestry Charter Gathering; Richard St. Barbe Baker
1991 18 Jun The passing of Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, John Aldham Robarts at Rawdon, Quebec. He was born in Waterloo, Ontario 2nd of November, 1901. [VV124]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • Bahá’í World, Vol. 20, 1986-1992, “In Memoriam,” pp. 801-9.
  • For his obituary see BINS250:10.
  • For picture see VV124.
  • For the story of how he came to learn of the Faith see SBR137.
Rawdon; Quebec Hand of the Cause of God; Knight of Baha'u'llah; John Aldham Robarts; John Robarts; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
1992 18 Mar The martyrdom of Mr. Bahman Samandari in the Evin prison in Tehran. Mr. Samandari was executed with no advance notice and in the absence of due process. A 52 year-old businessman from a distinguished Bahá'í family, he was buried secretly on 20 March 1992 and his family was not notified until 5 April 1992. This was the first execution in three and one-half years. It belied the public position taken by the Iránian government that the Bahá'ís were not being persecuted for their religious beliefs. [AWH118-9, VV126] Iran martyrdom; Mr. Bahman Samandari
1992 1 - 14 Jun Bahá'ís from many countries participate in the United Nations Conference on the Environment (UNCED), known as the Earth Summit, and the Global Forum for non-governmental organizations in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [BINS272:1–3; BW92–3:124; VV110]
  • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement at the Earth Summit see BW92–3:177–89.
  • For the text of the statement of' the Bahá'í International Community read at the plenary session see BW92–3:191–2.
  • For pictures see BW92–3:179, 183, 186.
Rio de Janeiro; Brazil United Nations Conference on the Environment; Earth Summit; Global Forum
1993 29 Apr - 2 May The Seventh Bahá'í International Convention at the World Centre. Those elected to the Universal House of Justice were: Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, Mr. Glenford Mitchell, Mr. Adib Taherzadeh, Mr. Ian Semple, Mr. Peter Khan, Mr. Houshman Fatheazam, Mr. Hooper Dunbar, Mr. Farzam Arbab and Mr. Douglas Martin. [BINS295] [BW93-4p51-58]
  • Hugh Chance and David Ruhe announce their retirement. Mr. Chance served since 1963 and Dr. Ruhe since 1968. [BINS295] [BS93-4p57]
  • For a report of the Convention see BW93–4:51–8.
  • For pictures see BW93–4:52, 53, 54, 57.
BWC; Election of the Universal House of Justice; Mr. Ali Nakhjavani; Mr. Glenford Mitchell; Mr. Adib Taherzadeh; Mr. Ian Semple; Mr. Peter Khan; Mr. Houshman Fatheazam; Mr. Hooper Dunbar; Mr. Farzam Arbab; Mr. Douglas Martin; Hugh Chance; David Ruhe
1993 23 May The following is a list of Counsellors appointed to the International Teaching Centre for a five-year term: Mr. Kiser Barnes, Mr. Hartmut Grossmann, Mrs. Lauretta King, Mrs. Joan Lincoln, Mr. Shapoor Monadjem, Mr. Donald Rogers, Mr. Fred Schechter, Mrs. Kimiko Schwerin, Mrs. Joy Stevenson. Retiring members were: Mr. Mas'úd Khamsí and Mr. Peter Vuyiya. [From a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 13th of May, 1993] UHJ; Counsellor; International Teaching Centre; Kiser Barnes; Hartmut Grossmann; Lauretta King; Joan Lincoln; Shapoor Monadjem; Donald Rogers; Fred Schechter; Kimiko Schwerin; Joy Stevenson; Mas'úd Khamsí; Peter Vuyiya
1993 Oct The Australian Bahá'í community and the Arrente Aboriginal tribe co-sponsor an intercultural celebration of indigenous peoples, ‘Heart of Australia Calling' in Alice Springs to mark UN International Year for the World's Indigenous Peoples. [BW93–4:90] Alice Springs; Australia Heart of Australia Calling'; UN International Year for the World's Indigenous Peoples
1994 May 22 The first Bahá'í Children and Youth Conference of Martinique is held in Fort-de-France, attended by 22 people. [BINS318:4–5] Fort-de-France; Martinique Baha'i Children and Youth Conference of Martinique
1998 6 - 8 Nov The 2nd International Conference of the Environment Forum was held in the Netherlands with wide electronic participation on the themes of sustainable consumption and the Earth Charter. The first theme of the conference, sustainable consumption, was introduced by a keynote address on "Sustainable Consumption and True Prosperity" by Arthur Dahl. [ iefworld.org/conf2.htm ] Netherlands Arthur Dahl; International Conference of the Environment Forum; Environment
2000 22 Aug The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Audrey Robarts (née FitzGerald) in her 96th year. She is buried with her husband, Hand of the Cause of God John Robarts, in the Ecumenical Cemetery in Rawdon who predeceased her on the 18th of June, 1991. Rawdon,Quebec Audrey Robarts; Knight of Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam
2000 19 Sep In a ceremony, the final earth samples from 26 nations were deposited in the Peace Monument, which was built by the Bahá'í International Community and the Bahá'í Community of Brazil in 1992 for the 1992 Earth Summit. Designed by the renowned Brazilian sculptor Siron Franco, the five-meter concrete and ceramic monument is located near the entrance to the Santos Dumont Airport in Rio de Janeiro, just north of Flamengo Park and the site of the 1992 Global Forum, the parallel conference of non-governmental organizations held during the 1992 Earth Summit, which was formally known as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. [BWNS85] Rio de Janeiro; Brazil Rio Summit; Brazil; Global Forum; Earth summit; Siron Franco; Santos Dumont Airport; 1992 Global Forum; United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; United Nations; Environment
2002 6 June City Montessori School in Lucknow, India wing the UNESCO Peace Education award in recognition of its efforts to promote the universal values of education for peace and tolerance and to renew the principles of secularism at a time when these values and principles are increasingly being challenged. The school was founded by Mr. Jagdish Gandhi and his wife Bharti in 1959 with only 5 students and has since earned a reputation for a high level of academic excellence — and for a distinctive program of moral and spiritual education. In 1999 the Guinness Book of World Records recognized City Montessori School as the world's largest school by enrollment. The school had some 22,000 students that year. In 2002 it had 26,000 students in grade levels ranging from pre-primary to college and in 2010-11 enrolment was 39,437. In 2014-14 it was over 47,000. Technically speaking, CMS is not so much a school as a school district, with some 20 branches spread throughout Lucknow. [CMS site, BWNS165, BWNS146, One CountryVol.14,Issue 1] Lucknow; India; UNESCO Peace Education award; UNESCO; Jagdish Gandhi; Bharti Gandhi; School; City Montessori School
2002 26 Jun – 2 Jul In commemoration of the Second Bahá'í World Congress 23-26 November in 1992 in New York, a Festival of the Arts is celebrated in that same city. The project is an independent initiative of Global Music, Inc., a Bahá'í-owned company, and associated individuals. It is not under the sponsorship of any Bahá'í institution. The centerpiece event is held at Carnegie Hall featuring a 550-voice choir under the direction of Mr. Tom Price and known as the Voices of Baha. It is composed of Bahá'ís from some 24 countries. [BWNS162] New York; NY Second Baha'i World Congress; Festival of the Arts; Global Music; Inc.; Carnegie Hall; Tom Price
2003 29 Apr The election of the Universal House of Justice by postal ballot by 1,544 electors from 178 countries. Chosen were Hartmut Grossmann and Firaydoun Javaheri to replace retiring members Mr. Nakhjavani, 83, and Mr. Fatheazam, 79 and re-elected were Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Hooper Dunbar, Peter Khan, Douglas Martin, Glenford Mitchell and Ian Semple. [One Country Vol.15 Issue1, BWNS207] BWC UHJ; Hartmut Grossmann; Firaydoun Javaheri; Farzam Arbab; Kiser Barnes; Hooper Dunbar; Peter Khan; Douglas Martin; Glenford Mitchell; Ian Semple
2005 21 Mar The announcement of the retirement of Mr. Ian Semple and Mr. Douglas Martin from the Universal House of Justice. Mr. Semple served since 1963 and Mr. Martin was elected in 1993. [BWNS359] BWC Ian Semple; Douglas Martin
2005 21 Mar The election of Dr. Payman Mohajer and Mr. Paul Lample to the vacancies on the Universal House of Justice. They fill the vacancies created by the departure at Naw-Ruz of Mr. Ian Semple and Mr. Douglas Martin, owing to age and the related needs of the Faith. [BWNS358] BWC Dr. Payman Mohajer; Mr. Paul Lample; Mr. Ian Semple; Mr. Douglas Martin
2008 23 Apr The retirement of Universal House of Justice members Mr. Hartmut Grossman and Mr. Glenford E. Mitchell. Mr Grossmen served from 2003 and Mr. Mitchell was elected in 1982. [BWNS622] BWC Mr. Hartmut Grossman; Mr. Glenford Mitchell
2016 26 Sep The murder of Farhang Amiri in Yazd. BWNS1133
  • See also Iran Wire4167.
  • In a message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís in Iran dated the 19th of October, 2016, it states
    And at the age of sixty-three, that pure soul, that radiant and magnanimous soul, offered up his life in absolute meekness, hoisted the ensign of martyrdom and attained his Beloved's presence in the realms above, and in the Abha Kingdom joined the company of the other martyrs of this Faith--among whom number his own noble father and six other relatives who, sixty-one years ago in Hurmuzak, near Yazd, sacrificed their lives in the path of the Blessed Beauty.
  • A group of extremists murdered Amiri’s father, Hedayatollah Daftari, and six others in the village of Hormozak in Yazd province more than 60 years ago. At the time, Farhang was 13 months old. See entry for July 28th, 1955 for The Seven Martyrs of Hurmuzak.
  • See a paper by Kamyar Behrang entitled "Extrajudicial killings supported by law and Islamic jurisprudence" for an explanation of how a Bahá'í might be murdered with near impunity in Iran.
Hurmuzak; Yazd; Iran Martyrdom; Farhang Amiri
2017 Jul The men who admitted to stabbing and killing Farhang Amiri, a 63-year-old father of four children, in September 2016 in Yazd on the street outside his home in public view were sentenced by a court in Yazd. The two brothers immediately admitted to have been motivated by religious hatred. The older brother was sentenced to just 11 years in prison and two years away from home. The court justified the sentence by stating that according to the Islamic penal code, the accused and the victim are not equal for the general purpose of retributive justice. This astonishing provision clearly and deliberately deprives non-Muslims of the legal right to seek justice on equal-footing with the country's Muslim majority.

The younger man was sentenced to half of his brother’s sentence for aiding in the murder. [BWNS1182]

Yazd; Iran Farhang Amiri; martyr

from the main catalogue

  1. 1970-1995: Newspaper articles archive (1970). Collection of newspaper articles from 1970-1995. [about]
  2. 1996: Newspaper articles archive (1996). Collection of newspaper articles from 1996. [about]
  3. 1997: Newspaper articles archive (1997). Collection of newspaper articles from 1997. [about]
  4. 1998: Newspaper articles archive (1998). Collection of newspaper articles from 1998. [about]
  5. 1999: Newspaper articles archive (1999). Collection of newspaper articles from 1999. [about]
  6. 20,000 Martyrs, Source of Statements about, by Universal House of Justice (1984). Two letters from the Research Department: one from 1984 identifies the source of the statement that 20,000 Bábís were martyred, and one from 2005 says that this source has not actually been found. [about]
  7. 2000: Newspaper articles archive (2000). Collection of newspaper articles from 2000. [about]
  8. 2001: Newspaper articles archive (2001). Collection of newspaper articles from 2001. [about]
  9. 2002: Newspaper articles archive (2002). Collection of newspaper articles from 2002. [about]
  10. 2003: Newspaper articles archive (2003). Collection of newspaper articles from 2003. [about]
  11. 2004: Newspaper articles archive (2004). Collection of newspaper articles from 2004. [about]
  12. 2005: Newspaper articles archive (2005). Collection of newspaper articles from 2005. [about]
  13. 275 Years of the Creative and Performing Arts: 1740-2015: Pioneering Over Four Epochs, Section VIII Poetry, by Ron Price, in Pioneering Over Four Epochs: An Autobiographical Study and a Study in Autobiography (2006). Music, theatre, dance, dramaturgy, the graphic arts, cartooning, the performing arts, film, publishing, galleries, museums, and the visual arts have played an important part in the life of humankind--and in my poetry. [about]
  14. A Última Heterodoxia, by Ana Cristina Leonardo (2006). Article published in Expresso, a very influential newspaper in Portugal. A positive article towards the Faith. [about]
  15. `Abdu'l-Bahá's 1912 Howard University Speech: A Civil War Discourse for Interracial Emancipation, by Christopher Buck and Nahzy Abadi Buck (2012). Presentation at Grand Canyon Bahá'í Conference on Abdu'l-Bahá and the Black Intelligentsia, especially W. E. B. Du Bois; his speech to the NAACP; and reproductions of many newspaper clippings covering his visit to Washington, DC. [about]
  16. 'Abdul Baha Talks to Kate Carew of Things Spiritual and Mundane, by Kate Carew, in New York Tribune (1912). [about]
  17. Achieving Universal Participation of Older Adults: An Exploration of Its Challenges and Spiritual Foundations, by Catherine Bigonnesse and Jean Marc Bigonnesse, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:4 (2015). On involving older adults in the process of participation in society; some of the root causes of ageism, such as avoiding the topic of death and a materialistic view of the soul; the role of older adults in the process of community building. [about]
  18. Art and Architecture: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Fariburz Sahba, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:3 (1997). [about]
  19. Arte, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu’l-Bahá. Spanish translation of English "Compilation on the Arts." [about]
  20. Artist, Seeker and Seer: A vocabulary and a perspective for the appreciation and creation of art inspired by the Bahá'í Writings, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Bahá'í Studies, 10 (1982). Imagery and metaphors from the Baha'i Writings guide the appreciation and creation of art. They demonstrate that criticism vs creativity, logic vs. passion, and historicity vs. poetry have already been brought to a state of unity. [about]
  21. Arts: Compilation from other compilations, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
  22. Arts and Architecture, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
  23. Arts and Crafts, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). [about]
  24. Arts, Importance of in Promoting the Faith, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). [about]
  25. Babi Attempt on the Life of the Shah, 1852: Coverage in the New York Times, by New York Times, in New York Times (1852). Five brief newspaper reports, among the earliest known references to the Báb in an American publication. [about]
  26. Bábís of Nayriz, The: History and Documents, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 2 (2006). Extensive collection of historical documents: autobiographies, narratives, genealogies and chronologies, the transition from the Babi to the Baha'i community, provisional translations, and a list of Babi martyrs. [about]
  27. Bahá'u'lláh's Influence on the New York School of Painting: The "Unapprehended Inspiration" of Newman and Rothko, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). [about]
  28. Building Creative Communities: Approaching the arts as social & economic development through professionalizing, training, and networking internationally, by Robin M. Chandler, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). On the Global Arts Training Institute, a model for building professionalism in the arts which can be implemented in Bahá’í communities and incorporated into teaching plans to develop the next generation of artists. [about]
  29. Charter for Bahá'í Schools, A, by Stephen Waite and National Spiritual Assembly of India, in Bahá'í National Review, 128 (1990). Basic principles which may guide the development of Bahá'í schools and other educational projects [about]
  30. City of the Heart, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2004). Literal and metaphorical references to "heart." [about]
  31. "Come Back, Africa": First commercial film mentioning the Bahá'í Faith, by Greg Watson (2013). Context of a 1959 African documentary/drama film in which the Baha'i Faith is discussed. [about]
  32. Concealment and Burial of the Báb, by Peter Terry, in A Most Noble Pattern: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb (2012). This chapter from A.-L.-M. Nicolas' seminal biography Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Bab (1905) tells the story of the death and burial of the Bab, compiled from the reports of several eye-witnesses consulted by the author. [about]
  33. Considerations in Setting Sacred Text to Music for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Arts Dialogue (1996). [about]
  34. Creative Inspiration: Symbolism and Seeing, by Karel Fontaine, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). Examples of visual art which demonstrate the creative impulse at work, together with the symbolism inherent in the pieces. [about]
  35. Crystallizations: 20 Works by Bahá'í Artists, ed. Ross Woodman: Review, by Shirin Sabri, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:1 (1999). [about]
  36. Dawn-Breakers: Nabil's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Nabil-i-A'zam (1932). The extensive and preeminent history of Babism and the early Baha'i Faith, by Nabil-i-A'zam [aka Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí, aka Nabíl-i-Zarandí]. [about]
  37. Dichotomies of Charles Dickens still hold true today, The, by Ted Slavin, in St. Catharines Standard (2011). On the state of the present-day world, which swings between the extremes of unprecedented achievements and unimaginable horrors. [about]
  38. Dress for Mona, A: Abridged one-act version, by Mark Perry (2002). The story of Mona Mahmudnizhad. [about]
  39. Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Shii and Babi Religions, by Jonah Winters (1997). Religious and cultural meanings of martyrdom/witnessing, and their role in Babi history. [about]
  40. Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers, summer 1850 (1850). Very brief newspaper mentions about the rise of the Bábí movement: Tioga Eagle (Wellsborough, Pennsylvania) 1850-08-21; Church and State Gazette (Middlesex, London) 1850-07-19; Nevada State Journal 1871-12-23. [about]
  41. Efforts to preserve the remains of the Bab: Four historical accounts, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Accounts by Mirza Hasan Adib Taliqani, Fadil Mazandarani, ‘Abdu’l-Husayn Avarih, and Aqa Husayn ‘Ali Nur. [about]
  42. Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Biography of Siyyid Ismail of Zavarih, by Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
  43. Explanation of Spiritual Evolution as Taught from the Bahá'í Teachings, by Lua Getsinger and Edward C. Getsinger (1899). Chart "Cycle of Life" allegedly drawn on Abdu'l-Baha's behalf (1899) to refute reincarnation; accompanying text quoting Lua's pilgrim's notes by Curtis Kelsey (1958); a letter from the Universal House of Justice (1997); and a talk by Lua Getsinger (1911). [about]
  44. Fiftieth Anniversary of The Master: Performance piece, by Jim Wood (1968). An artistic piece appropriate for play at the commemoration of the ascension of 'Abdu'l-Baha. Produced, performed, and narrated by Jim Wood; also read by Deborah Buttrey. [about]
  45. First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith (2013). Six versions of the first public mentions in English of the Bábís, from November 1845. [about]
  46. Four Levels of Detachment in Doris Lessing's Shikasta, The, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:3-4 (2004). [about]
  47. Further extracts concerning the remains of the Bab in Tehran, by Fadl Mazandarani and Avarih. Two brief excerpts [about]
  48. Gillespie, Dizzy, by Barry Kernfeld, in American National Biography Online (2000). [about]
  49. God's Heroes: A Drama in Five Acts, by Laura Clifford Barney (1910). A play based on events in the lives of the early Babis, with a focus on Tahirih. [about]
  50. Groovin' High: The Life of Dizzy Gillespie, by Alyn Shipton (2001). Roughly 2-3 page excerpt from book. [about]
  51. Groovin' High: The Life of Dizzy Gillespie, by Alyn Shipton: Review, by Brad Pokorny, in One Country, 11:2 (1999). [about]
  52. Hands of the Cause of God: Personal Recollections, by Bill Washington (2014). Recollections of A.Q. Faizi, A.A. Furútan, Clara Dunn, Rúhíyyih Khánum, Ugo Giachery, Leroy Ioas, Enoch Olinga, Rahmátu’lláh Muhajir, Bill Sears, Agnes Alexander, John Robarts, Collis Featherstone, and Jalal Khazeh. [about]
  53. Hindu Concept of God, The: Unity in Diversity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). The fundamental unity behind Hindu concepts of God and those found in the Semitic traditions, and the principle of unity in diversity, allow Hindu and Baha'i beliefs to come together and further their common goal of uniting the world's religions. [about]
  54. Human Responses to Life Stress and Suffering, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, in Bahá'í Studies Notebook, 3:1-2 (1983). Includes the experiences of Bahá'í martyrs. [about]
  55. Human Rights Watch on Persecution of Baha'is in Iran, by Reuters (1997). Two articles covering a report by Human Rights Watch on the treatment of the Baha'is and other minorities in Iran. [about]
  56. Human Station in the Bahá'í Faith: Selected Sections: Philosophy and Knowledge of the Divine, by Ali Murad Davudi (2013). A collection of talks by the Bahá’í teacher and philosopher Dr. A. M. Dávúdí on selected philosophical topics, including one on the subject of the non-political nature of the Bahá’í Faith and non-involvement in partisan politics. [about]
  57. Humanity of Evil, The: Bahá'í Reflections on the film The Act of Killing, by Bernardo Bortolin Kerr (2014). The theology of evil throughout history and in Baha'i thought; ways in which people de-humanize and become alienated from their own selves; on forgiveness and merciful love in the face of justice and punishment. [about]
  58. "I am all the Prophets": The Poetics of Pluralism in Bahá'í Texts, by Juan Cole, in Poetics Today, 14:3 (1993). Literary analysis of a passage from Tablet of Blood (Súriy-i-Damm) in which Bahá'u'lláh identifies Himself with all the past Prophets and their sufferings, depicting himself mortally wounded on the field of battle, like Imám Husayn. [about]
  59. In search of Martha Root: An American Bahá'í feminist and peace advocate in the early twentieth century, by Jiling Yang (2007). Early life of Root, her four world teaching trips from 1919 to 1939 with a focus on peace advocacy, and gender and identity reflections on Tahirih. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
  60. Joycean Modernism in a Nineteenth-Century Qur'an Commentary?: A Comparison of The Báb's Qayyūm Al-Asmā' with Joyce's Ulysses, by Todd Lawson, in Erin and Iran: Cultural Encounters between the Irish and the Iranians, ed. H. E. Chehabi and Grace Neville (2015). Comparison of the formal structure of the two works and themes such as time; oppositions and their resolution; relation between form and content; prominence of epiphany; manifestation, advent and apocalypse; and the theme of heroism, reading and identity. [about]
  61. Knowledge, Certitude and the Mystical Heart: The Hidden Essence of God's Word, by LeRoy Jones, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
  62. Letter to Mrs A.M. Bryant re interment of the remains of The Bab on Mt. Carmel, by May Woodcock and A.M. Bryant (1909). Brief description of the interment of the remains of the Bab on Mt. Carmel on 21 March 1909. [about]
  63. Maps and charts in Baha'i World volumes (2010). List of all inserts and maps included in volumes of the Bahá'í World books. [about]
  64. Martha Root's gravesite in Honolulu, driving directions. Written directions to the resting place of Martha Louise Root, in Honolulu Hawaii [about]
  65. Martyrdom, by Todd Lawson, in Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World: Oxford Islamic Studies Online (2008). Overview of the history of and sacred texts about martyrdom in Islam, with a passing mention of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  66. Martyrdom in Jihad, by Jonah Winters (1997). Unlike Judeo-Christianity, Islam does not contain a core of martyrdom. Rather, it occurs in three disparate areas: war/jihad, asceticism, and Shi'ism. I examine the relationship between jihad and martyrdom and their classical and contemporary meanings. [about]
  67. Message from Abdu'l-Baha, Head of the Baha'is, A, in New York Times (1912). News article of Abdu'l-Baha's tour. Includes scanned image of various newspaper clippings and photographs of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
  68. Military Metaphor in Bahá'í Sacred Literature, The, by Jack McLean (2005). Martial symbology is common in the Baha'i Writings, especially those of Shoghi Effendi, yet the Writings are expressly pacifistic. This article examines the apparent contradiction. [about]
  69. Music, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). [about]
  70. Music Lyrics, Singing, and Dancing at Feast, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Baha'is may incorporate music, singing, and dancing into the spiritual portions of the community devotional meetings. [about]
  71. Music Reviews: Five New Recordings of Bahá'í Music, by Simon Mawhinney, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). Reviews of Songs of the Ancient Beauty, Lift up Your Hearts and Sing, The Prince of Peace, Here at Black Mesa, and From the Sweet-Scented Streams of Eternity. [about]
  72. Music Reviews, by Simon Mawhin ney, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). Reviews of recordings by Baha'i artists Geoff and Michaela Smith; Chris Ruhe; Kamran, Khodjasteh, and Averill; Ben Koen and the Unity Ensemble; and Merz. [about]
  73. Music, Devotions, and Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History, volume 4 (1987). An in-depth examination of the development of music and hymns within American Baha'i devotional life, some history of the Chicago community, and the architecture and construction of the Wilmette temple. Includes sheet music and design plans. [about]
  74. Mystic Cup, The: Essential Mystical Nature of the Bahá'í Faith, by LeRoy Jones, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). [about]
  75. Mystical content and symbology of Bahá'u'lláh's Four Valleys, by David Langness, in Seeker's Path (1997). Symbology of the Four Valleys, and a brief overview of a four-stage spiritual growth model. [about]
  76. Nonpartisan Engagement in Public Affairs: A Critical Analysis of the Bahá'í Approach to Dialogue, Democracy, and Diplomatic Relations, by Bui Tyril (2009). How to address the dilemma of protesting human rights abuses in Iran while remaining non-partisan. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
  77. Nudity in Art, by Universal House of Justice (2008). There is no objection to artists depicting the human body from nude models, nor to Bahà’is acting as models; the main consideration is the intention of the artist. [about]
  78. Numinous Land, The: Examples of sacred geometry and geopiety in formalist and landscape paintings of the prairies, by Kim Ennis (2012). Includes many references to the Baha'i Faith and its influence on contemporary artists. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
  79. Objectives and Tasks of Ten-Year Spiritual Global Crusade of the Bahá'í World Faith, by Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954) (1956). [about]
  80. Papel de la educación, los medios de información y las artes en el desarrollo social, El, by Bahá'í International Community. El papel de la educación, los medios de información [about]
  81. Picture Gallery of Early British Bahá'ís (1998). Published in honor of the UK Baha'i Centenary, 1998/99. [about]
  82. Pioneering, Language, Arts, Example of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Pioneering; Serving parents; Serving where need is; Gardens; International Auxiliary Language; Arabic pronunciation; study of Persian; Some references in Writings of Baha'u'llah; Folk art; External affairs; Daily living; Abdu'l-Baha as divine exemplar. [about]
  83. Police Forces Bearing Arms, Bahá'í Enlistment in, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 3:4 (1995). Two letters from the House on joining armed police forces, e.g. the Ulster Defence Regiment and the police force in Northern Ireland, and whether they would be allowed to bear arms. Also discussion of consummating marriage, and marrying an atheist. [about]
  84. Prince of Martyrs, The: A brief account of the Imam Husayn, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi (1977). The story of the Third Imam, whose death in the year 680 became a pivotal event for Shi'i Islam. [about]
  85. Reincarnation, The Return, and the "Cycle of Life" Chart, by Edward C. Getsinger (1916). The concepts Reincarnation and Return in the context of pilgrims' recollections of the words of 'Abdul-Baha, with tablets translated by Ali Kuli Khan, and on Lua Getsinger's "Spiritual Evolution" chart. [about]
  86. Remains of the Bab in Tehran, The, by Ahang Rabbani (1997). Brief bio of Aqa Husayn-'Ali Nur and an extract from Khatirat Muhajiri Az Isfahan, "Memoirs of a Refugee from Isfahan," discussing the history of these remains. Includes biographical notes. [about]
  87. Remember Bill Sears: musical meditations, by William Sears. Four musical pieces accompanying selections from the speeches of Sears. [about]
  88. Research Department, Functions of; Etymologies of three terms, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Two questions: (1) what is the function of the Research Department, and (2) etymologies of the three terms "world of exemplars," "'álam," and "barzakh." [about]
  89. Rewriting the Script: Some thoughts on gender roles and the Bahá'í Teachings, by Sonja van Kerkhoff (2000). A collection of visual and physical art exploring these themes. [about]
  90. Sailor's Problem, The, by Ben Roskams (1995). A short play about unity featuring Sherlock Holmes. [about]
  91. Salaam Cinema: On Mohsen Makhmalbaf, by Adina Hoffman, in The Nation (2013). An Iranian director's ongoing meditations on the nature of illusion and reality, truth and consequences. Includes a review of The Gardener, a documentary about the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  92. Significance of the Day of the Martyrdom of the Bab, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2004). [about]
  93. Tablet Concerning the Day of the Martyrdom of His Holiness, the Exalted One: Le Tablette Concernant l'Anniversaire du Martyre de Sa Sainteté, Exaltée, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Ayyam-i-Tis'ih [The Nine Days] (1981). Three translations: a French version by Rochan Mavaddat, an English rendering from the French by Peter Terry, and an English translation from the original Persian by Khazeh Fananapazir. [about]
  94. Tablet to The Times of London, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, by Adib Taherzadeh, Vol. 4 (1987). Short tablet calling newspapers to investigate the Truth. [about]
  95. Tahirih, The Pure, Iran's Greatest Woman, by Martha L. Root (1938). Life Story of Tahirih, the Heroine of the Faith of the Bab, 1938 Edition [about]
  96. We can do without fences built by prejudice, by Ted Slavin, in St. Catharines Standard (2011). Just as a windstorm knocks down fences, struggles can unite strangers and overcoming barriers will improve communities. [about]
  97. When the Saints Come Marching In: The Art of Bahá'í Biography, by Sidney Edward Morrison and Frank Lewis, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). Comments on hagiography, including reviews of nine popular Baha'i biographies. Includes response "In Praise of Saints" by Frank Lewis (from dialogue 1:3). [about]
  98. Wildfire: Reflections on Music, Drama, and Dance, by Istvan Dely (2006). [about]
  99. Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
  100. Wrathful God of Martin Luther and Baha'u'llah: Tablet of Ahmad-i-Farsi and Martin Luther (A comparison), by Roberta Law (1998). Comparison of the theologies of Baha'u'llah's Tablet of Ahmad (Persian) and early Protestantism. [about]
  101. "Yá Alláhu'l-Mustagháth": Original Source, Correct Transliteration and Translation, by Universal House of Justice (2001). [about]
 
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