Search for tag "Bab"
|1819. 20 Oct
||Birth of Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad (The Báb), before dawn, in Shíráz. [B32; GH13; DB72]
- The Primal Point (Nuqtiy-i-Úlá). [BBD185]
- The Promised One of Islam, the Qá'im. [BBD188]
- Siyyid-i-dhikr (Lord of Remembrance). [BBD212]
- His mother is Fátimih-Bagum (Zajra Bagum). [B33, 46; KB20; RB2:382]
- His father is Mírzá Muhammad Ridá. [BW4:234–5; LOG351; SE206; TN4]
- He is a direct heir of the House of Háshim and descended thus from Muhammad and through Him from Abraham. [BW8:874]
- Designations of the Báb include `Abdu'dh-dhikr (Servant of the Remembrance), Bábu'lláh (the Gate of God) and Hadrat-i-A`lá (His Holiness the Most Exalted One). [BBD1, 30, 93]
- For biblical reference see LOG378. See RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
- See BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
- See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
- See DB28–30. See DB75 for the extent of His schooling. See DB75 n1 for his education.
- See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
||Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad, Bab, Primal Point, Promised One, Siyyid-i-dhikr, Lord of Remembrance, Fatimih-Bagum, Zajra Bagum, Mirza Muhammad Rida, House of Hashim, `Abdu'dh-dhikr, Servant of Remembrance, Babu'llah, Gate of God, Hadrat-i-A`la, His Holiness Most Exalted One, Qa'im
||Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) goes to Najaf and Karbalá where He attends the lectures of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, Shaykh Ahmad's successor. He remains here for about a year. [B42–4; MH25; RB3:254; SBBH15]
- The followers of Shaykh Ahmad number about 100,000 in Iraq alone. [MH25]
- BBRSM13 says the Báb went to Najaf and Karbalá in 1839/40.
|Najaf, Karbalá, Iraq
||Siyyid `Ali Muhammad, Bab, Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti, Shaykh Ahmad
||The marriage of Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) in Shíráz to Khadíjih-Bagum. [B46; BBD28, 127; BKG402; RB2:382]
- See B80 for a reproduction of the marriage certificate.
||Siyyid `Ali Muhammad, Bab, marriage, Khadijih-Bagum
||Birth of Ahmad, son of the Báb. He passes away shortly after he is born. [B46]
- DB74 for a picture of his resting-place.
- The Báb dreams that He drinks a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He feels that the Spirit of God has taken possession of His soul. [BBRSM14; DB253]
||Ahmad, son of Bab
||The Báb dreams that He drinks a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He feels that the Spirit of God has taken possession of His soul. [BBRSM14; DB253]
||Bab, dream, blood, Imam Husayn
|1844. c. Apr
||Khadíjih Bagum apparently recognizes her husband as the promised Qá'im `sometime before the Báb declared His mission'. He bids her to keep this knowledge concealed. [DB191–2; KB10–14]
||Khadijih Bagum, Bab, Qa'im
|1844. 22 May
||Declaration of the Báb's Mission
Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad makes His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í. He reveals the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph). The entire text will later be translated by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65; GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17]
- This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
- Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
- See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
- See BBRSM42–3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One could be known.
- This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100]
- The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
- See BBD113, DB383 and MH for information on Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í.
- See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
- Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
- He chooses the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn is given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
- In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He takes the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gives the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn is called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
- At His public declaration the Báb declares Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
||Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad, declaration, Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru'i, Qayyumu'l-Asma', Surih of Joseph, Tahirih, Bab, Babi Qur'an, Baha'u'llah, Adamic Cycle, Baha'i Cycle, Cycle of Fulfillment, Apostolic, Heroic, Primitive, Age, Shi'i Muslim, Babu'l-Bab, Siyyid-i-dhikr, Fort Tabarsi, Jinab-i Bab, Qa'im, Promised One
||Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, has a vision that leads him to Mullá Husayn and he accepts the Báb. Sixteen others recognize Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 are later designated `Letters of the Living'. [B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121; SBBH1:16–17]
- See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
- See B26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 for a list of the Letters of the Living.
- See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
- See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih.
||Declaration, Bab, Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami, Mulla Husayn, Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad, Promised One, Letters of the Living, Quddus, Tahirih
|1844. c. Aug
||The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119]
- The Báb addresses the Letters of the Living, giving each a specific task. [DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
- To Mullá Husayn He assigns the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB857, 97; MH90–2, 102]
- See DB99 for the story of Mullá Ja`far, the sifter of wheat, who is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in the city of Isfahán.
- See MH96 for information on Munírih, future wife of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
- After Isfahán, Mullá Husayn visits Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, about 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101]
- See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–1 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh.
- Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion. [MH110]
- Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
- See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
- On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35]
- Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
- See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb.
|Iran, Persia, Turkey, Káshán, Isfahán, Tihrán, Tehran, Mázindarán, Khurásán, Qum
||Bab, Letters of the Living, Mulla Husayn, Baha'u'llah, Tablet Baha'u'llah, Shah, Mulla Ja`far, sifter of wheat, Munirih, wife `Abdu'l-Baha, Muhammad Shah, Sultan `Abdu'l-Majid, Tablet Bab
|1844. 11 Aug
||The Báb sends Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivers a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1]
- The Shaykh's rejection of the claim leads to violent debate. Mullá `Alí is taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he is sent to Istanbul. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA]
|Constantinople, Istanbul, Iraq, Baghdád, Najaf, Karbalá
||Báb, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, Shaykhí, Mullá `Alí, Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, Shí`í, Sunní, `ulamá, martyr, Bábí, Mullá Hasan Gawhar, Babism
|1844. 9 Sep
||The Báb, Quddús (Hájí Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Barfurúshí) and the Báb's Ethiopian servant, Mubarak, leave Shíráz for Búshihr en route to Mecca. The journey takes ten days. [B57; DB129; MH119]
||Iran, Persia, Saudi Arabia, Shíráz, Búshihr, Mecca
||Báb, Quddús, Hájí Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Barfurúshí, Ethiopian, servant, Mubarak,
|1844 30 Sep
||The Báb receives the letter from Mullá Husayn giving Him details of his journey and meeting with Bahá'u'lláh. [MH118–19]
- Nabíl indicates that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129]
- Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [B57]
- See MH119 for a discussion of this discrepancy.
- Nabíl indicates that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129] Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [B57] See MH119 for a discussion of this discrepancy.
||Bab, Mulla Husayn, Baha'u'llah, letter, pilgrimage
|1844 2 or 3 Oct
||The Báb departs on His pilgrimage. [B57; MH119, 121]
- He instructs His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
- He has been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
- The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah is probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [B69]
- He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
|Karbalá, Iraq, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia
||Bab pilgrimage, Mulla Husayn, Futuh-ar-Ras`ul
|1844. c. Dec
||The Báb and His companions arrive in Jiddah after a rough sea voyage of two months. There they put on the garb of the pilgrim and proceed to Mecca by camel. [B71; DB129, 132]
- See B69–71 and DB130–1 for a description of the voyage.
- Quddús walks from Jiddah to Mecca. [B71, DB132, GPB9]
|Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, Mecca, Saudi arabia
||Bab, sea voyage, Mecca, Quddus
|1844. 12 Dec
||The Báb arrives in Mecca and performs the rites of pilgrimage in company with 100,000 other pilgrims. [GPB9]
- See B70 and SA107-8 for the timing, rites and significance of the pilgrimage.
|Mecca, Saudi Arabia
||Báb, pilgrimage, pilgrim
|1844. 20 Dec
||The Báb offers 19 lambs as a sacrifice in the prescribed manner, distributing the meat to the poor and needy. [B71; DB133]
||Mecca, Saudi Arabia
||Báb, lambs, sacrifice
|1844 c. 20 Dec
||The Báb makes a declaration of His mission by standing at the Ka`bih and repeating three times that He is the Qá'im.
- He makes an open challenge to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmání, known as Muhít, of the Shaykhí school and sends an invitation to the Sharíf of Mecca to embrace the new Revelation. The Sharíf is too busy to respond. [B73–4; BW12:89; DB134–8; GPB9, 89]
|Mecca, Saudi Arabia
||Bab, declaration, Ka`bih, Qa'im, Mirza Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmani, Muhit, Shaykhi, Sharif
|1845. c. Jan
||Crowds gather in Karbalá in response to the Báb's summons, among them Táhirih. [BI62; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH1:22]
|1945 c. 13 Jan
||A fatwá is issued in Baghdád against both Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí and the Báb, condemning the Báb, who is unnamed in the fatwá, to death as an unbeliever.
||fatwa, Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami, Bab
|1845. 16 Jan
||The Báb arrives in Medina from Mecca. [dhut bíy-i-jiddih]
- He reveals `The Epistle between Two Shrines' en route. [B73–4]
- He stays 27 days. [MS2]
- B75 and DB140 indicate that the Báb arrived 10 January. The Research Department at the Bahá`í World Centre states that the date 16 January accords with the Báb's own writings. [report 20 jan 1994]
|Medina, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Epistle between Two Shrines
|1845. 12 Feb
||The Báb leaves Medina for Jiddah. [MS2]
||Medina, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia
|1845. 27 Feb
||The Báb leaves Jiddah. [MS2]
- He disembarks at Muscat and remains there for two months, awaiting news of the outcome of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí's trial. [MS2]
- He sends a letter to the Imám of Muscat. [MS2]
- SBBH23 says the Báb left Jiddah on 4 March.
|Jiddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Muscat, Oman
||Bab, Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami, trial, letter, Imam of Muscat
|1845. c. late Apr/early May
||The Báb returns to Búshihr. He sends Quddús to Shíráz with a letter addressed to His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí who embraces his nephew's Cause. The Báb also entrusts Quddús with a treatise entitled dhasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications') and promises him his impending martyrdom. [B77–8; DB142–3; MS2]
- B77 and GPB10 say the Báb arrived in Búshihr in Feb-Mar; SSBH1:23 says 15 May
- Before leaving on pilgrimage the Báb had stated that He would return to Karbalá and asked His followers to congregate there. An explanation in part for the large following that have gathered there is the messianic expectation associated with the year 1261, a thousand years after the Twelfth Imám's disappearance in ah 260. This gathering is perceived as a threat by the authorities. [BBRSM15, 45, 216; DB157–8; SBBH1:23, 32]
- The Báb changes His plan to meet His followers in Karbalá and instructs them to go to Isfahán instead. A number abandon Him, regarding this as badá' `alteration of divine will'. [BBRSM16; DB158; MH125; SBBH23]
- Some speculate that He did not go to Karbalá to avoid conflict and sedition. Many Bábís had gone to Karbalá armed in preparation for holy war, `jihád'. [BBRSM21–2; SBBH1:23]
|Búshihr, Iran, Shíráz
||Bab, Quddus, uncle, Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali, dhasa'il-i-Sab`ih, Seven Qualifications, martyrdom
||Quddús meets Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas in Shíráz. Mullá Sádiq, following instructions received in a Tablet from the Báb, sounds the call to prayer using the additional words provided by the Báb. [B78; DB144]
- This provokes a public commotion. [B78; DB145; BBRSM16]
||Quddus, Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas, Tablet Bab
|1845. 30 Jun
||The Báb meets the soldiers of the governor of Fárs who had been sent to arrest Him at Dálakí, some 40 miles northeast of the city. He is escorted to Shíráz. [B84, 105; BBR170; BBRSM216; DB148–9; GPB11; TN6]
- DB150 says the Báb travelled `free and unfettered', `before His escort'.
- BBRSM16 implies the Báb returned to Shíráz by Himself in July and that He was placed under house arrest on arrival.
- DB150 says the Báb travelled `free and unfettered', `before His escort'. BBRSM16 implies the Báb returned to Shíráz by Himself in July and that He was placed under house arrest on arrival.
|Dálakí, Fars, Shíráz, Iran, Persia
||Bab, governor, arrest
|1845. c. 7 Jul
||The Báb is publicly interrogated, struck in the face and later released into the custody of His maternal uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. [B85–9; BBRSM216; DB150–1; GPB11]
- Three of the divines of Shíráz passed a verdict of death upon The Báb. But for the intercession of Zahrá Bagum, the sister of the wife of The Báb, Khadíjih-Bagum, the mother of The Báb, Fátimih Bagum, and others, with the Imám-Jum'ih of Shíráz, the Báb would have been executed. [LTDT12]
- B105 says it must have taken the Báb another week at least to reach Shíráz;
- SBBH1:24 says He arrived in Shíráz in early July.
- B105 says it must have taken the Báb another week at least to reach Shíráz; SBBH1:24 says He arrived in Shíráz in early July.
||Bab, uncle, Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali
|1845. Jul and months following
||The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
- He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
- see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
- Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
- After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
- This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
- The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
- Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
- Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
- In Karbalá Táhirih revives the remnant of the Bábí community there. She is considered a part of the radical element of Shaykhí Bábís because she believes that the Shaykhí tradition has been abrogated by the new Revelation. The new Bábí movement causes the Shaykhí leaders to unite in their opposition to the Báb and to redefine the nature of the school, toning down its more controversial teachings and moving back towards mainstream Shí`ísm. [BBRSM16–18]
|Shíráz, Isfahán, Khurásán, Yazd, Kirmán, Nayríz, Iran, Persia, Karbalá, Iraq
||Bab, Mosque Vakil, Hidden Imam, Mulla Husayn, uncle, Babi, Shah, Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi, Vahid, scholar, Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Zanjani, Hujjat, Qayyumu'l-Asma', Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi, learned, Tahirih, Shaykhi, Shi`ism, Karim Khan, Shaykhi, Ishaqu'l-Batil, Crushing Falsehood, Shaykhism
||The birth of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, eldest daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb, and sister of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Tihrán. She is later designated by Shoghi Effendi `the outstanding heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation'. [BBD42; GPB108]
Many Bábís go to Shíráz and meet the Báb. [B 103]
- For a description of her nature see BK42–3.
Táhirih is sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She is lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád. During her time in Iraq she enlists a considerable number of followers and makes a number of enemies among the clergy [B162; DB271]
|Tihrán, Tehran, Shíráz, Iran, Baghdád, Karbalá, Iraq
||Bahiyyih Khanum, Greatest Holy Leaf, daughter Baha'u'llah, Navvab, sister `Abdu'l-Baha, Shoghi Effendi, Baha'i Dispensation, Babi, Bab, Tahirih, Shaykh Muhammad Shibl, Mufti Baghdad
|1846. c. Feb-
|The Sháh had already instructed Manúchihr Khán to send the Báb to Tihrán. The governor, fearing for the safety of the Báb, devises a scheme to have the Báb escorted from Isfahán but returned secretly to his own residence. The Báb remains there for four months with only three of His followers apprised of His whereabouts. These four months are described as having been the calmest in His Ministry. [B113–16; DB209–11, 213; TN9–11]
The governor offers all of his resources to try to win the Sháh over to His Cause but the Báb declines his offer saying that the Cause will triumph through the `poor and lowly'. [B115–16; DB212–13]
- It is during His six-month stay in Isfahán that the Báb takes a second wife, Fátimih, the sister of a Bábí from that city. [RB1:249]
|Tihrán, Tehran, Isfahán, Iran
||Shah, Manuchihr Khan, Bab, wife, Fatimih
||The Báb bequeaths all His possessions to His mother and His wife and reveals a special prayer for His wife to help her in times of sorrow He tells his wife of His impending martyrdom. He moves to the house of His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. He tells the Bábís in Shíráz to go to Isfahán. [GPB14; KB21–2; TB103–5, LTDT13]
||Shíráz, Isfahán, Iran, Persia
||Bab, mother, wife, prayer, martyrdom, uncle, Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali, Babi
||The Chief Constable, 'Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, is instructed by order of the governor, Hasayn Khán, to break into the house of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí where He had been confined and to arrest Him. He and a follower are taken away along with His books and Writings. It is widely rumoured that He would be executed. He was allowed to return some time later. [LTDT14]
|1846. 23 Sep
||The governor, Husayn Khán, threatened by the Báb's rising popularity, orders His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, takes the Báb into custody and escorts Him to the governor's home but finds it abandoned. He takes the Báb to his own home and learns that a cholera epidemic has swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cures the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He has washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigns his post and begs the governor to release the Báb. He agrees on condition the Báb leaves Shíráz. The incident proves to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismisses him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; GPB13; TN9]
- See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán.
- DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son.
|Shíráz, Iran, Persia
||Husayn Khan, governor, Bab, `Abdu'l-Hamid Khan, cholera, epidemic, Shah
|1846. 23–24 Sep
||The Báb departs for Isfahán after a sojourn in Shíráz of less than 15 months. [B105–6; BBRSM216; BW18:380; TN9]
- TN9 says that the Báb left Shíráz `the morning after' the night He saved the children from cholera.
- TN9 says that the Báb left Shíráz `the morning after' the night He saved the children from cholera; B105 says he left `in the last days of September'.
- B105 says he left `in the last days of September'.
|Shíráz, Isfahán, Iran, Persia
||On His approach to the city the Báb writes to Manúchihr Khán, the governor-general of Isfahán, and asks him for shelter. The governor requests that Siyyid Muhammad, the Imám-Jum`ih of Isfahán, accommodate Him. During His stay of 40 days the Báb impresses His host as well as the governor. [B109–10, 13; DB199–202, 208]
- See B108–9 for information on Manúchihr Khán.
|Isfahán, Iran, Persia
||Báb, Manúchihr Khán, governor-general, Siyyid Muhammad, Imám-Jum`ih
|1846. c. Nov
||Manúchihr Khán arranges a meeting between the Báb and the clerics to silence their opposition. After the encounter, about 70 of them meet and issue a death-warrant. [B112–13; DB205–9]
||Manúchihr Khán, Báb, death-warrant
||Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí dies in Istanbul naval dockyards. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation.
||Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, martyr, Bábí
||The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [B116; DB213–14]
- Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informs the Sháh that the Báb is in Isfahán and has been sheltering with Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh orders that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, sets out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [B116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
|Tihrán, Tehran, Isfahán, Iran
||Manúchihr Khán, Báb, Gurgín Khán, Nusayrí horsemen
|1847. 21 Mar
||En route to Tihrán the Báb spends three nights in Káshán in the home of Hájí Mírzá Jání, a noted resident of that city who had realized in a dream that the Báb would be his quest. [B118; DB217–22]
||Tihrán, Tehran, Káshán, Iran, Persia
||Báb, Hájí Mírzá Jání, dream
|1847. 28 Mar
||The Báb and His escort arrive at the fortress of Kinár-Gird, 28 miles from Tihrán. Muhammad Big, the head of the escort, receives a message from Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, the prime minister, telling him to take the Báb to Kulayn to await further instructions. [B119; DB225–6; GPB16]
||Tihrán, Tehran, Kulayn, Iran
||Báb, fortress Kinár-Gird, Muhammad Big, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, prime minister
|1847. 29 Mar
||The Báb arrives in Kulayn where He stays for 20 days. [B120; DB227; TN11]
||Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitate against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr writes to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replies praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
- Among those Táhirih meets in Baghdád is Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
- Táhirih is sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She is accompanied by a number of Bábís; they make a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
- Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
- In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
- B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
- In Kirmánsháh she is respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
- Táhirih arrives in Hamadán. Her father has sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agrees on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
- MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
- In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
|Kázimayn, Baghdád, Iraq, Persia, Iran, Hamadán, Kirmánsháh
||Tahirih, Babi, Siyyid `Ali Bishr, Bab, Mah-Ku, Hakim Masih, Jewish, doctor, Baha'i, Najib Pasha
||The Báb receives a courteous message from the Sháh, who, on the advice of his prime minister, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, assigns Him to the fortress of Máh-Kú in the province of Ádharbáyján. The Báb is taken to Máh-Kú via Tabríz. [B121–2, 124; DB229–32; GPB16; TN11–12]
||Máh-Kú, Ádharbáyján, Tabríz, Iran, Persia
||Báb, Sháh, prime minister, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, fortress Máh-Kú
|1847. 1 Apr
||The Báb receives a letter and gifts from Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán. The letter cheers His heart, which has been despondent since His arrest and departure from Shíráz. [B120; DB227; GPB678]
||Tihrán, Tehran, Shíráz, Iran, Persia
||Báb, letter, gifts, Bahá'u'lláh
|1847 c. 1–17 Apr
||One night the Báb disappears and is found the next morning on the road coming from the direction of Tihrán. A look of confidence has settled on Him and His words have a new power. [B120–1; DB228–9]
||Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia
|1847. c. 17 Apr
||The Báb sends a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]
Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb writes to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learns of this last letter and sends a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declines their assistance. [B124–5; DB235–6]
- See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
|Iran, Persia, Tabríz, Zanján,
||Bab, letter, Shah, prime minister, Bab, Shah, Grand Vizier, Tahirih, Haji Sulayman Khan, Hujjat
|1847 c. May-Jun
||The Báb arrives in Tabríz, en route to Máh-Kú. He remains for 40 days and is well received by the general populace. He spends His time in seclusion, being allowed only two visitors. [B127–8; DB237–40; GPB18; TN12]
||Tabríz, Iran, Persia
||The Báb arrives at the prison fortress of Máh-Kú (the Open Mountain). [B128; BW18:380]
- See B128, BBD142 and DB243–4 for descriptions of Máh-Kú, its environs, fortress and inhabitants.
|Máh-Kú, Iran, Persia
|1847 Jul to 1848 Apr
||The people of Máh-Kú show marked hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they are won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregate at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]
At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán keeps the Báb strictly confined and allows no visitors. He has a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He becomes humble and permits the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]
The winter the Báb spends in Máh-Kú is exceptionally cold. [DB252]
Many of the Báb's writings are revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]
- It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
- He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [GPB24]
- He revealed the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5]
- The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
- He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
- In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
- The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
|Máh-Kú, Iran, Persia, Najaf, Karbalá, Iraq
||Bab, `Ali Khan, Babi, commentary, commentaries, Qur'an, Persian Bayan, Arabic Bayan, Bayan, Dala'il-i-Sab'ih, Seven Proofs, Christian, Muhammad, Tablet Muhammad Shah
||Táhirih sends Mullá Ibráhím Mahallátí to present to the chief mujtahid of Hamadán her dissertation in defence of the Bábí Cause. Mahallátí is attacked and severely beaten.
||Hamadán, Iran Persia
||Táhirih, Mullá Ibráhím Mahallátí, Bábi
|1847 c. Aug-Sep
||On her departure from Hamadán Táhirih asks most of the Arab Bábís travelling with her to return to Iraq. [B165; DB273]
Arrived in Qazvín, Táhirih refuses her estranged husband's attempts at reconciliation and lives with her father. Her father-in-law Hájí Mullá Taqí, feels insulted and denounces the Shaykhís and Bábís. [B166; DB2736]
|Hamadán, Qazvín, Mashhad, Khurásán, Shíráz, Máh-Kú, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran Persia
||Tahirih, Arab, Babis, Haji Mulla Taqi, Shaykhis, Mulla Husayn, pilgrimage, Baha'u'llah
||Táhirih is accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle and is confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís are arrested. Four, including the assassin, are taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8]
||Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia
||Táhirih, assassination, uncle, Bábís, arrested, Khusraw Khán
||Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]
Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]
- See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
- This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
- Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
- He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
- The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
- DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
|Tihrán, Tehran, Qazvín, Iran, Persia
||Baha'u'llah, Mulla `Abdu'llah, murder, Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi, Shaykh Salib-i-Karimi, Babis, execute, execution, martyrdom, shrine, Imam-Zadih Zayd, Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi, death, prison, Mulla Tahir-i-Shirazi, Mulla Ibrahim-i-Maballati
|1848. 20 March
||Mullá Husayn and his companion, walking from Mashhad, arrive at Máh-Kú on the eve of Naw-Rúz. The Báb meets them at the gate and together they celebrate Naw-Rúz, the fourth after the declaration of the Báb. Mullá Husayn stays the night at the fortress. He remains with the Báb for nine days. [B131; DB257, 262; MH138, 143]
- MH137 says Mullá Husayn arrived in Tabríz on 21 March.
- See DB255–7 for story of the dream of `Alí Khán, the prison warden, preceding the arrival of Mullá Husayn at Máh-Kú. From this time on the pilgrims are allowed unrestricted access to the Báb. [DB258]
- The warden requests that the Báb marry his daughter. [DB259; MH143]
|Mashhad, Mah-Ku, Iran
||Mulla Husayn, Bab
|1848. 30 Mar
||Mullá Husayn departs for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
- The Báb tells him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he is to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
- In Tihrán he again meets Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
|Mázindarán, Khuy, Urumiyyih, Maraghih, Milan, Tabriz, Zanjan, Qazvin, Tehran, Iran, Persia
||Mulla Husayn, Baha'u'llah, Báb
|1848. 9 Apr
||The Báb is removed from Máh-Kú.
- Hájí Mírzá Áqásí is alarmed by the developments at Máh-Kú and orders that the Báb be moved to Chihríq. [B131; DB259; GPB1920]
- The Báb's presence in Máh-Kú, so close to the Russian frontier, is also a cause for concern for the Russian government. Prince Dolgorukov, the Russian Minister in Tihrán, asks that He be removed. It is likely that this request was made in 1847 but not carried out until now. [B131; BBR72; TN13]
- The Báb had been in Máh-Kú for nine months. [DB259]
|Mah-Ku, Chihriq, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia
||Báb, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, Russian, Russia, Prince Dolgorukov
|1848. 10 Apr
||The Báb is transferred to the fortress of Chihríq, `Jabal-i-Shadíd' (the Grievous Mountain) into the custody of Yahyá Khán, a brother-in-law of Muhammad Sháh. [BR72; BBRSM216; GPB19]
- He remains here for two years. [BBD55; BBR73; GPB27]
- He is subjected to a more rigorous confinement than He had been at Máh-Kú and the warden is harsh and unpredictable. [B135; DB302]
|Chihríq, Iran, Persia
||Báb, fortress, Chihríq, `Jabal-i-Shadíd', Grievous Mountain, Yahyá Khán, Muhammad Sháh, Máh-Kú
||The presence of the Báb in Chihríq attracts much notice. Eventually Yahyá Khán softens his attitude to the Báb. [B135; DB303]
- Excitement among local people eclipses that of Máh-Kú. [GPB20]
- Many priests and government officials become followers, among them Mírzá Asadu'lláh of Khuy, surnamed Dayyán. [B136; DB303; GPB20]
- So many Bábís come to Chihríq that they cannot all be housed. [B135]
- See B136 for story of the inferior honey.
- A dervish, a former navváb, arrives from India after having seen the Báb in a vision. [B137; DB305; GPB20]
- The Báb reveals the Lawh-i-Hurúfát (Tablet of the Letters) in honour of Dayyán. [DB304; GPB27]
|Chihríq, Iran, Persia, India
||Báb, Yahyá Khán, Máh-Kú, Mírzá Asadu'lláh, Khuy, Dayyán, Bábís, honey, dervish, navváb, Lawh-i-Hurúfát, Tablet Letters
|1848. late spring
||Mullá Husayn goes to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, and realizes that the `hidden treasure' is his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]
Mullá Husayn proceeds to Mashhad and builds a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús take up residence in it and begin to teach the Bábí religion.
- See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
- Among those who come to the Bábíyyih is Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
- See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
|Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, Mashhad, Iran, Persia
||Mullá Husayn, Quddús, hidden treasure, Bábíyyih, Bábí, Centre, Center, Sám Khán
|1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul
||The Conference of Badasht
Bahá'u'lláh, who hosts and directs the event, rents three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]
The conference coincides with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July.
It is held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]
- `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
- B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb. It is attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
- Each day Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet, and on each believer He confers a new name. Each day an Islamic law is abrogated. [DB293; GPB32]
- See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
- Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
|Badasht, Tabríz, Sháhrúd, Chihríq, Iran, Persia
||Conference Badasht, Baha'u'llah, Quddus, Tahirih, Bab, Bayan
||After three months in Chihríq, the Báb is taken under escort to Tabríz for trial. [B137; BW18:380; TN14]
- En route He stops in Urúmíyyih where the governor tests the Báb by offering Him an unruly horse to ride. The local people take away His bath water. [B138; BBR74; DB309–11]
- A sketch of the Báb is made there and later two copies of the portrait are made in water colour. The sketch and one of the water colours are now in the International Archives. [B138–9]
|Chihríq, Tabríz, Urúmíyyih, Iran, Persia
||Báb, trial, horse, sketch, portrait
|1848. c. 17 Jul
||The Bábís leave Badasht for Mázindarán. They are attacked by a mob of more than 500 outside the village of Níyálá. [B170–1; BKG46–7; BW18:380; DB298; GPB68]
- Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr with Táhirih. He entrusts her into the care of Shaykh Abú-Turáb-i-Ishtahárdí, to be taken to a place of safety. [BKG48; DB299]
- Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr `in easy stages'. By September He is in Bandar-Jaz. [BKG48]
|Badasht, Mázindarán, Níyálá, Núr, Bandar-Jaz, Iran, Persia
||Babis, attack, Baha'u'llah, Tahirih, Shaykh Abu-Turab-i-Ishtahardi
|1848. last week
|The Báb arrives in Tabríz and is brought before a panel of which the 17-year-old Crown Prince Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá is the president. The Báb publicly makes His claim that He is the Qá'im. This claim has also been announced to those gathered at Badasht. [B140–7; BBR157; BBRSM23, 216; BW18:380; DB314–20; GPB21–2; TN14]
- This constitutes the formal declaration of His mission. [GPB22]
- The purpose of the public forum is to force the Báb to recant His views; instead He takes control of the hearing and embarrasses the clergy. After considerable argument and discussion, they decide He is devoid of reason. [GPB22]
- The Báb is bastinadoed. [B145; BBD44; DB320; GPB22; TN14–15] This is the first formal punishment He receives. [BBRSM20]
- He is first attended by an Irish physician, Dr William Cormick, to ascertain His sanity and later to treat Him for a blow to the face that occurred during the bastinado. Cormick is the only Westerner to meet and converse with Him. [B145; BBR74–5, 497–8 DBXXXIL–XXXIII]
- The clergy issue a fatwa or legal pronouncement against the Báb condemning Him to death for heresy, but to no purpose as the civil authorities are unwilling to take action against Him. [BBRSM19–20]
- For an account of the life of Dr. William Cormick see Connections by Brendan McNamara.
|Tabríz, Badasht, Iran, Persia
||Bab, Crown Prince, Nasiri'd-Din Mirza, Qa'im, declaration, bastinado, punishment, Irish, physician, Dr William Cormick, fatwa, death, heresy
||Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (first entry dated June 21 1848)|
||Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, are joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
- Their numbers swell into hundreds, possibly 300 and beyond. [B172; BKG50]
- The Black Standard is raised on the plain of Khurásán. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
- The Black Standard will fly for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
- See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
- See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
|Mázindarán, Badasht, Khurásán, Iran, Persia
||Mullá Husayn, Bábís, Black Standard, prophecy, death, Muhammad Sháh
|1848 c. Jul
||Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]
Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.
Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]
|Sárí, Tehran, Tihrán, Mashhad, Mázindarán, Iran, Persia, Karbalá, Iraq
||Quddus, arrest, Mirza Muhammad-Taqi, Tahirih, Mahmud Khan, Kalantar, Mulla Husayn, Shah, pilgrimage, Tablet, Bab, Black Standard, green turban, new name, Siyyid `Ali
||The Báb is taken back to Chihríq, where He remains until June/July 1850. [B147; DB322; TN15]
- B147 says He must have arrived in the first days of August.
- On His return the Báb writes a denunciatory letter to Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. He sends it to Hujjat in Tihrán, who delivers it personally. [B147; DB323; GPB27]
- The Báb completes the Arabic Bayán. [BBR45; GBP25]
|Chihríq, Iran, Persia
||Bab, Haji Mirza Áqasi, Hujjat, Arabic Bayan
|1848. 12 Sep
||The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
- He is 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
- He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
- The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
- For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
- See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
- See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
- See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
- He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
- It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
|Tabríz, Síyáh-Chál', Iran, Persia, Iraq
||Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Báb, Bahá'u'lláh', martyrs, Bábí, Bahá'í, prime minister, Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání
|1848. 12 Oct
||The band of 72 Bábís take refuge in the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí which is located about 14 miles southeast of Bárfurúsh and prepare it for siege. [B173; BBRSM26; BW18:381; DB344–5]
||Bárfurúsh, Iran, Persia
||Bábís, Bábí, shrine, Shaykh Tabarsí
|1848. Oct-May 1849
||The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí.
- See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
- The episode lasts seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
- See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
- See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
- See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
- Bahá'u'lláh visits the fortress and approves the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227]
- He advises Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn sets out immediately and secures the release of Quddús, who has been in detention for 95 days. [B173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
- Quddús arrives towards the end of the year. [B173]
- See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brings the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
- Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
- 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
- The siege begins with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
||Shrine, Shaykh Tabarsi, Babis', Babi, Baha'u'llah, fortress, Mulla Husayn, Quddus
||Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)|
|1848. early Dec
||Bahá'u'lláh sets out from Tihrán with 11 companions to reinforce the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí. Nine miles from the fort they are arrested and taken to the town of Ámul, where they are held prisoner in the home of the deputy governor. This is Bahá'u'lláh's second imprisonment. He intervenes to spare His companions the bastinado and He alone receives it.
- When the governor returns to his home he orders that Bahá'u'lláh and His companions be released and arranges a safe conduct for them to Tihrán. [B174; BBD44; BKG56–60; BW18:381; DB369–76; GPB68; SB7]
- See BKG57 and DB70 for pictures.
|Tihrán, Tehran, Ámul, Iran, Persia
||Bahá'u'lláh, Bábís, Shaykh Tabarsí, arrest, bastinado
|1848. 21 Dec
||The Bábís, led by Quddús, make a mounted attack on the army. All of the officers are killed including `Abdu'lláh Khán. A number of soldiers are drowned as they retreat into the Tálár River. About 430 soldiers are killed but no Bábís; one Bábí is wounded. [BW18:381; DB361–3; MH243–6]
- For the next 19 days the defenders dig a moat. [DB363]
||Bábís, Bábí, Quddús, attack, `Abdu'lláh Khán, Tálár River
|1849. 11 Jan
||Quddús and Mullá Husayn lead a night attack on the encamped army. Two hundred and two Bábís disperse the camp. [BW18:381; BD365; MH254]
DB 368 says this occurred on 21 December 1848.
||Quddus, Mulla Husayn, attack, army, Babis
|1849. 1 Feb
||The well is completed. Mullá Husayn performs his ablutions and puts on clean clothes and the turban of the Báb. [DB379; MH264–6]
||Mullá Husayn, turban, Báb
|1849. 2 Feb
||Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn leads a charge of 313 men that again routs the king's army. He is struck in the chest by a bullet and dies. His body is carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís are also wounded, about 40 of whom die. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]
- Mullá Husayn is 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
- See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
- See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
- See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
- See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
- Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
- It takes the army 45 days to reassemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
||Mulla Husayn, death, Babis, burial, Mihdi-Quli Mirza, martyred
|1849. 26 Apr
||A charge by the forces of Sulaymán Khán is repulsed by 37 Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir. [BW18:381; DB3956]
- A few days later some of the Bábís leave the fort on the promise of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá that they will be returned to their homes. As soon as they are outside the fort they are put to death. [DB396–9]
||Sulaymán Khán, Bábís, Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir
|1849. 10 May
||The end of the siege of the fort at Shaykh Tabarsí. Two hundred and two Bábís are tricked into leaving the shrine. [BW18:381]
- DB400 says they accompanied Quddús.
- They are not conducted to their homes as promised but are set upon by the Prince's soldiers. Some are killed, others sold into slavery. The fortifications around the shrine are razed to the ground. [DB403–4; MH283]
- See DB414–29 for a list of the martyrs of Tabarsí.
||Shaykh Tabarsi, fort, shrine, Babis
|1849. c. Jun-Jul
||The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learns of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He is so overcome with grief that He is unable to write or dictate for a period of six months. [DB411, 430]
- DB430 says he languished in despondency and sorrow for five months.
|Chihríq, Iran, Persia
||Bab, prison, massacre, Shaykh Tabarsi, martyr, Quddus
|1849. 26 Nov
||The Báb sends Mullá Ádí-Guzal to the graves of Quddús and Mullá Husayn to make a pilgrimage on His behalf [DB431]
||Báb, Mullá Ádí-Guzal, grave, Quddús, Mullá Husayn, pilgrimage
|1850. 15 Jan
||Mullá Ádí-Guzal arrives in Mázindarán and carries out the Báb's request. [DB432]
||Mázindarán, Iran, Persia
||Mullá Ádí-Guzal, Báb
|1850. 14 Feb
||Fourteen Bábís are arrested as a result of the actions of an informer. [BBRSM28; BW18:381]
||Bábí, informer, arrest
|1850. 19 or 20 Feb
||Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís are executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]
- See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
- Three of the victims are so eager to be martyrs that they ask the executioner if they can be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
- Their bodies are left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
- See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
- The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
- See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
|Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia
||seven, Martyr, seven goats, Islam, Qá'im, Bábí, Grand Vizier, Prince Dolgorukov, Sheil
|1850. 13 May-
2 Jan 1851 c.
|Zanján upheaval. A quarrel among children escalates into opposition and hostility towards Hujjat. [B185; DB540–1]
- Hujjat had converted a sizeable proportion of the town. Tension mounted between the Bábís and the ‘ulamá. [BBR114]
- See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
- B185–8, 209–13; BBD111, 245; BBR114–26; BBRSM28, 216; DB527–81; GPB44–5; TN245.
|Zanján, Iran, Persia
||Hujjat, Babi, ‘ulama
||Newspaper coverage of the Zanjan Upheaval|
|1850. 19 May
||The Governor sends a mob against Hujjat, which is dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sends to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján is split into two camps. [BW18:381]
- See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
|Tihrán, Tehran, Zanján, Iran, Persia
||Governor, Hujjat, Mír Saláh, Zaynab, Bábí
|1850. Jun c.
||Mírzá Taqí Khán determines to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb is taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [B152; BBR76–7; GPB51]
- His guard takes Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence is noted by American missionaries. [B152; BBR73, 76]
- Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals and His agate rings, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. The secretary is instructed to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to ‘Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
- When the box is opened they find a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word ‘Bahá'. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
|Chihríq, Tabríz, Urúmíyyih, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia
||Mirza Taqi Khan, Bab, American, missionaries, Mulla Baqir, Letters Living, ‘Jinab-i-Baha', Baha'u'llah, Tablet, ‘Baha'
|1850. 21 Jun
||End of the first Nayríz upheaval. [BBRXXIX, 112]
- Vahíd is forced to write to his companions in the fortress to assure them that a settlement has been reached. The Bábís leave the fort, are set upon and killed. [B181; BW18;381]
|Nayríz, Iran, Persia
|1850. 24 Jun
||The severed heads of 13 Bábís arrive in Shíráz from Nayríz. They are raised on lances and paraded through the town. [B182; BW18:381]
||Shíráz, Nayríz, Iran, Persia
||severed head, Bábí
|1850. 29 Jun
||Vahíd is martyred in Nayríz. [B182; BW18:381; DB495, 499; GPB42; RB1:265]
- See DB494 for details of his martyrdom.
- His body is dragged through the streets to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. [RB1:265]
- See SDH13 for a respectful opinion of Vahíd expressed by an enemy of the Cause, one of the army chiefs who had fought against Vahíd.
|Nayríz, Tabríz, Iran, Persia
||Vahid, martyrdom, Bab
|1850 29 Jun
||The Báb arrives in Tabríz. [BBR76]
|1850 29 Jun
||The Báb arrives in Tabríz. [BBR76]
- BBRXXIX says He arrived on 19 June.
|1850. 8 Jul
||The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, is taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, throws himself at the feet of the Báb and asks to go with Him. [B153; DB507]
- That night the Báb asks that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offers to do this but is restrained by the others. The Báb promises that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
|Tabríz, Iran, Persia
||Bab, turban, sash, barracks, Mirza Muhammad-‘Aliy-i-Zunuzi, Anis, martyr
|1850. 9 Jul
||Martyrdom of the Báb
In the morning the Báb is taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]
- The warrants are already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
- Anís's stepfather tries to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son is also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remains unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]
At noon the Báb and Anís are suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz. They are shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men. [B157; DB512]
- When the smoke clears the Báb is gone and Anís is standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, is found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
- See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.
The Báb and Anís are suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, has been found to undertake the execution. After the volley, the bodies of the Báb and Anís are shattered. [B158; DB514]
- See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
- The face of the Báb is untouched. [B158]
- At the moment the shots are fired a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remains dark from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
- See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.
At night, the bodies are thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. [B159; TN27]
|Tabríz, Iran, Persia
||Martyrdom, Bab, Anis, Sam Khan, Christian, colonel, Armenian
|1850. 10 Jul
||The Russian Consul has an artist make a sketch of the body of the Báb. [B159; DB518; TN28]
- See BBR43 for details of the drawing made by Consul Bakulin.
||Russian, Consul, Bakulin, sketch, Báb,
||The Faith of the Báb has spread to two countries at this point, Iran and Iraq. [MBW147]
- B148–60, 202–3; BBD147; BBR77–82; DB510–17; GPB49–55; TN26–7.
|Iran, Persia, Iraq
||Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers summer 1850
|1850. Aug c.
||Mullá Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání (Hájí Amín), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí.
||Mulla Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani, Haji Amin, Hand Cause, Babi
|1850. early Dec
||Hujjat is wounded in the arm. His companions lay down their arms and rush to his assistance. The royal forces take advantage of the lull to breach the fortifications. [B187; BBR121; DB569]
- About 100 women and children are taken captive. They are left exposed in the open for 15 days without food, shelter or appropriate clothing. [BBR121; DB569–70]
- The remaining Bábís, about 140, shelter in Hujjat's residence under fierce attack. [BBR121]
The bombardment of the fortress is stepped-up and Hujjat's house particularly targeted. Hujjat's wife and baby are killed. [B187; DB572–3]
||Hujjat, wounded, killed, Babis
||Mullá Zaynu'l-'Abidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín), a prominent mujtahid, becomes a Bábí, in Najafábád.
||Mulla Zaynu'l-'Abidin, Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin, mujtahid, Babi
|1851 2 Jan c.
||End of the Zanján upheaval. [BW18:382]
- With the death of Hujjat the Bábí resistance weakens. A general assault by the royal forces ends the siege. [B187; BBR122; BW18:382; DB573–4]
- See B187 and DB574–7 for the fate of the survivors.
- See B187 and DB577–9 for the fate of Hujjat's body.
- About 1,800 Bábís were killed during the upheaval. [DB580, 598]
|Zanján, Iran, Persia
||death, Hujjat, Babi
|1851. 2 Mar
||Four Bábís brought from Zanján are execute in Tihrán. [BW18:382]
||Tihrán, Tehran, Zanján, Iran, Persia
|1851. 28 Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh arrives in Karbalá via Baghdád on His pilgrimage. [BKG67; DB593; GPB70]
- See BKG68 and DB593–4 for those who became Bábís in Karbalá in this period.
|Karbalá, Baghdád, Iraq
||Bahá'u'lláh, pilgrimage, Bábís
|1851 5 Oct
||Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí, the Báb's amanuensis, had been sent from the Báb's side in Chihríq to live in Karbilá at a time just before the incident at Shaykh Tabarsí when all available believers were being dispatched to assist Quddús. Here, the Báb told him, he would meet the promised Husayn. Although he had never met Bahá'u'lláh before, on this day he recognized Him as He walked by the inner courtyard of the Shrine of the Imám Husayn. [BKG67–8]
- There is a Shíh tradition that, in the Latter Days, 'Alí would re-appear twice, once before Muhammad and once after Husayn. The Báb's name was 'Alí-Muhammad and Bahá'u'lláh's name was Husayn-Alí, hence the prophecy was fulfilled. Shaykh Hasan wants to proclaim the advent of the Promised One however Bahá'u'lláh advises him that it is not yet time.[OPOP163, DB31-33]
||Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi, Bab, amanuensis, Baha'u'llah, Imam Husayn, shrine
|1852 16–22 Aug
||A large number of Bábís are arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number are executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]
Eighty–one, of whom 38 are leading members of the Bábí community, are thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]
The martyrdom of Táhirih in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
- She is martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she has provided for the purpose. Her body is lowered into a well which is then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
- See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
|Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia
||Babis, arrest, execute, execution, Siyah-Chal, martyrdom, Tahirih, Ílkhani garden
|1852 22 Aug –7 Aug
||After the initial executions, about 20 or more Bábís are distributed among the various courtiers and government departments to be tortured and put to death. [BBR135–6 BW18:382]
||In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís are arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]
Many Bábís are tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]
- See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
- See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís are martyred.
- See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes are gouged in his body and nine lighted candles are inserted. He joyfully dances to the place of his execution. His body is hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
- The persecutions are so severe that the community is nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappears from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
|Mílán, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia
||Bábí, arrest, torture, prison, Sháh, Mahmud Khán, Kalántar, martyr, Sulaymán Khán
||Bahá'u'lláh has a vision of the Maiden, who announces to Him that He is the Manifestation of God for this Age. [BBD142–3, 212; BKG823 ESW11–12, 21 GPB101–2; KAN62]
- This experience compares to the episode of Moses and the Burning Bush, Zoroaster and the Seven Visions, Buddha under the Bodhi tree, the descent of the Dove upon Jesus and the voice of Gabriel commanding Muhammad to ‘cry in the name of thy Lord'. [GPB101]
- The Báb repeatedly gave the year nine as the date of the appearance of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. The Declaration of the Báb took place in AH 1260; year nine was therefore AH 1269, which began in the middle of October when Bahá'u'lláh had been in prison for about two months. [CB46–7]
||Baha'u'llah, vision, maid, angels, Manifestation, Moses, Burning Bush, Zoroaster, Seven Visions, Buddha, Bodhi tree, Dove, Jesus, Gabriel, Muhammad, Bab, Declaration
||CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
- ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
- This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
- See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
||Bahá'u'lláh, Báb, Muhammad, Moses, Abraham, exile
|1853. 26 Mar
||Five Bábís, acting on their own initiative, murder the governor of Nayríz, providing the spark for the second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147]
||Nayríz, Iran, Persia
||Bábís, upheaval, murder, governor
||Second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147–51; BBRSM:217; BW18:382; DB642–5]
- The new governor of Nayríz, Mírzá Na‘ím-i-Núrí, arrests a large number of Bábís and pillages their properties. The Bábís take to the hills. [BW18:382]
- See BW18:382 for a chronicle of events.
- See BBR147–51 for Western accounts.
|Nayríz, Iran, Persia
||upheaval, Mírzá Na‘ím-i-Núrí, Bábí
|1853. 31 Oct
||Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245]
||Nayríz, Shíráz, Iran, Persia
||Bábí, prisoner, martyr, Islam, prophecy, Qá'im
|1853. 24 Nov
||The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrive in Shíráz. More Bábís are executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads are later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382]
||Shíráz, Nayríz, Tihrán, Tehran, Ábádih, Iran, Persia
|1854 10 Apr-1856 19 Mar
||Bahá'u'lláh suddenly leaves Baghdád and goes to Kurdistán. [BKG115; DB585; GPB120]
Bahá'u'lláh lives for some time as a dervish in a cave on the mountain of Sar-Galú. He takes the name Darvísh Muhammad-i-Írání to conceal His true identity. [BBD214–15; BBRSM:60–1; BKG116–19; GPB120–1; TN38–9]
- Before He left, Bahá'u'lláh asked His family to look after Mírzá Yahyá during His absence. [CB70–1; CH50–1]
- This action compares to Moses' going out to the desert of Sinai, to Buddha's retreat to the wilds of India, to Christ's walk in the wilderness and to Muhammad's withdrawal to the hills of Arabia. [BKG114]
- Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Hamadání was His only companion. Áqá Abu'l-Qásim was killed on a journey to collect money and provisions. [BKG116–17]
- "It was this period of voluntary seclusion, following shortly after the execution of the Báb in 1850, which bequeathed to history irrevocable proof that Bahá'u'lláh and not His half-brother, Subhi-Ezel, was in reality the one celebrated by the Báb and for whom the Bábí Movement was the spiritual preparation. Tor by this act of voluntary retirement, Bahá'u'lláh gave Sebhi-Ezel unhampered opportunity to exercise the spiritual leadhership over the Bábís which the latter claimed as his right. The result, however, demonstrated Subhi-Ezel's utter incapacity to maintain unity among the Bábís, inspire them with faith and confidence sufficient to meet their many difficulties and guide them along lines of true future progress. Nother but the return of Bahá'u'lláh could re-quicken the flames of their ardour or supply them with the more universal principles of conduct and faith required to transform the Bábí Movement into a world religion." [BW2Surveyp33]
- It was during this time that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the poem Qasídiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqá'íyyih. It was composed of 2,000 couplets but Bahá'u'lláh allowed only 127 to be preserved. [BBD215; BKG118; GPB123]
- See BKG114, GPB117–19 and K1250 for reasons for Bahá'u'lláh's retirement.
- Before and during His absence no fewer than 25 people claimed to be the One promised by the Báb. [BBRSM29, 59; EB269; GPB125]
- See BKG115–19 and GPB120 for Bahá'u'lláh's activities while in Kurdistán.
- See KI248–51 for Bahá'u'lláh's own account of the episode.
- See BKG119–22 and GPB124–6 for the condition of the Bábí community in Baghdád during this period.
- The son born to Navváb shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád became ill and died during Bahá'u'lláh's absence. [CB71; CH51–2]
- SBBR2:1–28 for Bahá'u'lláh's contact with Súfís.
- BW16:528 for an account of Daoud Toeg, who visited the caves of Sar-Galú and photographed them.
||Baha'u'llah, dervish, cave, Sar-Galu, Darvish, Muhammad-i-Írani, Moses, Sinai, Buddha, Christ, Muhammad, Áqa Abu'l-Qasim-i-Hamadani, poem, Qasidiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqa'iyyih, Bab, Babi, son, Navvab Mirza Yahya, Sufi, Daoud Toeg, cave, Sar-Galu
||The dismissal of Mírzá Áqá Khán, the prime minister who had directed the persecution of the Bábís that followed the attempt on the life of the Sháh.
||Mírzá Áqá Khán, prime minister, Bábí, Sháh
|1861. c. 1861
||‘Abdu'l-Bahá writes the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14]
Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266]
Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, meets Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and becomes a follower. [BKG18]
|Baghdád, Iraq, Mashhad, Iran, Persia
||‘Abdu'l-Bahá, Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, commentary, Islam, Hidden Treasure, ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá, Hájí Ákhúnd, Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, Hand Cause, Bábí, Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání, Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq, Ibn Asdaq, Bahá'u'lláh
||Bahá'u'lláh reveals The Kitáb-i-Íqán, ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]
- The Tablet is revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
- It is revealed in the course of two days and two nights. [BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
- The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. [BKG165; RB1:159]
- It is probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
- For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
Some Bábís are imprisoned in Tihrán. [BW18:382]
‘Abdu'l-‘Alí Khán-i-Marághi'í is killed in Tihrán on the order of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. [BW18:382]
|Baghdád, Iraq, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia
||Bahá'u'lláh, Kitáb-i-Íqán, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, Bábí, prison, death, ‘Abdu'l-‘Alí Khán-i-Marághi'í, Násiri'd-Dín Sháh
||Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a cousin of the Báb, lives in Shanghai during this period. This is the first record of a Bábí or Bahá'í living in China. [PH24]
- From 1870 he lived in Hong Kong dealing as a merchant and was joined by his brother, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn. [PH24]
|Shanghai, Hong Kong, China
||Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, cousin, Báb, Bábí, Bahá'í, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn
||Mírzá Yahyá flees Baghdád, travelling to Mosul in disguise. [BKG158; RB252–5]
- Bahá'u'lláh advised him to go to Persia to disseminate the writings of the Báb. [RB1:252–3]
- Mírzá Yahyá abandoned the writings of the Báb and travelled surreptitiously to Constantinople. [ESW167–8; RB1:255]
- See ESW167 and RB1:253–4 for Yahyá's movements.
On learning that Bahá'u'lláh is to leave Baghdád, large numbers visit Him. The house is too small for the purpose. Najíb Páshá puts his garden-park, Najíbíyyih, at Bahá'u'lláh's disposal. [RB1:259]
|Baghdád, Mosul, Iraq, Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey, Iran, Persia
||Mírzá Yahyá, Báb, Najíb Páshá, garden, Najíbíyyih
|1863. 22 Apr
||Thirty–one days after Naw-Rúz, which in this year falls on 22 March, Bahá'u'lláh leaves His house for the last time and walks to the Najíbíyyih Garden, afterwards known as the Garden of Ridván (Paradise).
On this day Bahá'u'lláh declares His mission to a few of His disciples. [RB1:260, 262]
- ‘Of the exact circumstances … we, alas, are but scantily informed.' [BKG173; GPB153]
- For such details as are known, see BKG173–5 and GPB153.
- For the import of the event, see BKG169–73; G27–35; GBP153–5.
- This initiates the holy day of the First Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 21 April. [BBD196]
- This marks the end of the dispensation of the Báb and of the first epoch of the Heroic or Apostolic Age of the Bahá'í dispensation. [BBD72, 79]
On the same day Bahá'u'lláh makes three important statements to His followers:
- He forbids the use of the sword.
- He states that no other Manifestations will appear before one thousand years. This is later reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Badí‘ and in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
- He states that, as from this moment, all the names and attributes of God are manifested within all created things, implying the advent of a new Day. [RB1:278–80]
On the afternoon of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival at the Garden He reveals the Lawh-i-Ayyúb for Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí. [SA239]
During the 12 days in the Ridván Garden Bahá'u'lláh confides to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá that He is ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. [CH82]
- See CH82–3 for the effect of this announcement on ‘Abdu'l-Bahá.
|Najíbíyyih Garden, Iraq
||Naw-Rúz, Bahá'u'lláh, Garden Ridván, táj, Báb, Bahá'í, Heroic Age, Apostolic Age, Kitáb-i-Badí‘, Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Lawh-i-Ayyúb, Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá
|1864. 27 Mar
||Birth of A. L. M. Nicolas, who later becomes an important European scholar on the life and teachings of the Báb, in Rasht. [BBR516]
||Rasht, Iran, Europe
||A. L. M. Nicolas, Báb
||French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau publishes Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement. [BBR17]
Mírzá Kazem-Beg of St Petersburg University publishes Bab Babidy, the first Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion. [BBR26]
||French, Joseph Comte de Gobineau, Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, Bábí, Mírzá Kazem-Beg, Petersburg University, Bab Babidy
|1866. c. Mar 1866
||Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) for Mírzá Yahyá. [CB84; GBP166]
- This is the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
- Mírzá Yahyá responds by claiming that he is the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]
Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Bahá in honour of Khátún Ján, a believer and close friend of Táhirih. [RB2:171, 179]
- It was probably revealed just before He took up residence in the house of Ridá Big. [RB2:171]
- This is the first Tablet in which Bahá'u'lláh uses the term ‘people of Bahá' to refer to His followers, to distinguish them from the ‘people of the Bayán'. [RB2:179]
|Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey
||Bahá'u'lláh, Súriy-i-Amr, Súrih Command, Mírzá Yahyá, Báb, Lawh-i-Bahá, Khátún Ján, Táhirih, Ridá Big, Tablet, people Bahá, people Bayán
||About a hundred Bahá'ís are arrested in Tabríz following a disturbance in which a Bábí is killed. [BBR251–3; BW18:382]
||Tabríz, Iran, Persia
||Bahá'í, arrest, Bábí
|1867. Sep-Aug 1868
Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]
- See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí‘.
Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station is foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177]
- See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.
In this period the extent of the Faith is enlarged, with expansion in the Caucasus, the establishment of the first Egyptian centre and the establishment of the Faith in Syria. [GPB176]
The greeting Alláh-u-Abhá' supersedes the Islamic salutation and is simultaneously adopted in Persia and Adrianople. [BKG250; GPB176]
The phrase ‘the people of the Bayán', which now denotes the followers of Mírzá Yahyá, is discarded and is supplanted by the term ‘the people of Bahá. [BKG250; GBP176]
Nabíl-i-A‘zam is despatched to Iraq and Iran to inform the Bábís of the advent of Bahá'u'lláh. He is further instructed to perform the rites of pilgrimage on Bahá'u'lláh's behalf in the House of the Báb and the Most Great House in Baghdad. [BKG250; EB224; GPB176–7]
- For details of his mission see EB224–7.
- On hearing Nabíl's message, the wife of the Báb, Khadíjih Khánum, immediately recognizes the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB225]
- For the rites of the two pilgrimages performed by Nabíl see SA113–15.
Bahá'u'lláh addresses a Tablet to Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí and Jamál-i-Burújirdí in Tihrán instructing them to transfer secretly the remains of the Báb from the Imám-Zádih Ma‘súm, where they were concealed, to some other place of safety. [GPB177]
The first pilgrimages to the residence of Bahá'u'lláh take place. [GPB177]
Persecutions begin anew in Ádharbáyján, Zanján, Níshápúr and Tihrán. [GPB178]
|Adrianople, Egypt, Syria, Ádharbáyján, Zanján, Níshápúr, Tehrán, Baghdad, Iraq, Iran, Persia, Turkey
||Baha'u'llah, Suriy-Muluk, Surih Kings, Shoghi Effendi, Tablet, Kitab-i-Badi‘, Munajathay-i-Siyam, Prayers for Fasting, Napoleon III, Lawh-i-Sultan, Nasiri'd-Din Shah, Suriy-i-Ra'is, Suriy-i-Ghusn, Tablet of the Branch, ‘Abdu'l-Baha, Caucasus, Allah-u-Abha', Bayan, Mirza Yahya, pilgrimage, Baha, Nabil-i-A‘zam, Babi, Nabil, Khadijih Khanum, Mulla ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi, Jamal-i-Burujirdi, shrine, Imam-Zadih Ma‘sum
|1878 to 1881
||The First Trustee of the Huqúqu'llah was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad.
- His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
- He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
- He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb and transferring it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it stayed until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment.
- Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
- He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
|Iran, Yazd, Baghdad, Tehran
||Trustee of the Huququ'llah, Jinab-i-Shah Muhammad, Aminu'l-Bayan, Trustee of the Bayan, Remains of the Bab, Mosque of Imamzadih Zayd
||Bahá'u'lláh visits Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
- He stays three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
- He lives in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby. [BKG374; DH186]
- It is during this visit that Bahá'u'lláh points out to `Abdu'l-Bahá the site for the Shrine of the Báb. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
- One day He pitches His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visits the monastery. [DH186]
- Bahá'u'lláh visits the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
- He reveals the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH174; MBW63; RB4:352]
- For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
- For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
|Haifa, House of Ilyás Abyad
||Shrine of the Bab, Carmelite monastery, cave of Elijah, Lawh-i-Karmil
||`Abdu'l-Bahá instructs that the remains of the Báb be brought from their hiding place in Tihrán to the Holy Land. [BBD209]
||Remains of the Bab, Haji Muhammad
||Miss Olive Jackson of Manhattan becomes the first black American woman Bahá'í. [BFA1:126–7
The Consulting Assembly of Tihrán, a forerunner of the National Spiritual Assembly, is established. [EB175–6]
Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí and others carry to the Holy Land the marble casket made by the Bahá'ís of Mandalay to hold the remains of the Báb. [BW10:517]
- Four Hands of the Cause are permanent members; nine others are elected by special electors appointed by the Hands. [EB175–6]
|Manhattan, New New York City, Tihrán, Mandalay
||Miss Olive Jackson, Thornton Chase, The Serpent, Consulting Assembly of Tihrán, National Spiritual Assembly, Hands of the Cause of God, Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí, remains of the Báb
|1900 Early part
||`Abdu'l-Bahá begins to build the foundations of the Shrine of the Báb. [CB223]
||Shrine of the Bab
||Six rooms of the Shrine of the Báb are completed. [GBF103]
- See BBD8 and DH103–4 for information on Mullá Abu-Tálib, the master mason from Bákú, Ádharbáyján, who worked on the Shrine.
|Haifa, Bákú, Adharbáyján,
||Shrine of the Bab, Mulla Abu-Talib
|1909 21 Mar
||`Abdu'l-Bahá lays the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
- See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
- The Shrine is a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
- The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb is a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
- For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
|Mount Carmel, Rangoon, Chicago
||Shrine of the Bab, marble sarcophagus, Baha'i Convention, Corinne True, Baha'i Temple Unity, Temple
|1912 23 May
||The Bahá'ís of Cambridge, Massachusetts, celebrate `Abdu'l-Bahá's birthday with a cake bearing 68 candles. `Abdu'l-Bahá addresses the group on the importance of the Báb at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Francis W. Breed,
367 Harvard Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [239D:72; AB199, PUP138]
||Bab, `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour, Francis Breed
|1921 29 Nov
||The funeral of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:115]
- For details of the funeral see AB464-74; BW1:23-6; BW15:115-19; GPB312-14; and SW12, 17:259-67.
- For Western and newspaper accounts see AB474-80; BBR347-9; BW1:26-8; and BW15:119-20.
- For eulogies to `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB481-2, BW1:28-9 and BW15 120-1.
- Ten thousand people attend `Abdu'l-Bahá's funeral. [v7]
- For a number of pictures of the funeral procession see SW12, 91:290, 292-8.
- Bahíyyih Khánum looks for instructions on where to bury `Abdu'l-Bahá and, finding none, entombs Him in a vault next to the one where the remains of the Báb lie. [AB464; GBF14]
- The Faith has spread to 35 countries. [MBW61; PP391]
- The Bahá'í property at Bahjí does not exceed a thousand square metres; the Bahá'í property on Mount Carmel is about ten thousand square metres. [PP267]
- Also see Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; Blomfield, The Chosen Highway; Honnold, Vignettes from the Life of `Abdu'l-Bahá; SW12, 15:245 and several following issues.
|Haifa; Bahjí; Mount Carmel
||`Abdu'l-Baha; Bahiyyih Khanum; Shrine of the Bab
|1923 (in the year)
||Charles Mason Remey makes preliminary plans for a monumental domed superstructure for the Shrine of the Báb. [BW6:723]
||Charles Mason Remey; Shrine of the Bab
||Work begins on the three additional chambers of the Shrine of the Báb after the rock had been excavated from behind the building during the previous year. [DH154]
- Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí, the builder who had completed the repairs on the House of Bahá'u'llah in Baghdad was chosen to be in charge of the work.
- Originally the centre room had been separated by wooden walls and doors. These were removed and replaced by archways. [SETPE1p164]
- These rooms, when completed, are used as the International Bahá’í Archives. There is a second repository of the archives at this time near the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GPB347]
||Shrine of the Bab, International Baha’i Archives.Haji Mahmud Qassabchi
||The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and damaged by fire. [BBD108; BW18:389]
||House of the Bab, religious persecution
|1942 – early
||The publication in Iran of The Political Confessions or Memoirs of Prince Dolgoruki (or, simply, Dolgorukov's Memoirs). The book contends that the Bábí Faith was simply a plot to destabilize Iran and Islam. [www.iranpresswatch.org/2009/02/sole-targets-of-conspiracism/comment-page-1/]
- See Religious Contentions in Modern Iran, 1881-1941 by Dr Mina Yazdani where she posits that "The process of Othering the Bahā’īs had at least three components; 1) religious, carried on by the traditionalist theologians; 2) institutional and formal, sanctioned by the state; and 3) political, the result of a joint and gradual process in which Azalīs, former Bahā’īs and reformist theologians all played a role. This process reached its culmination with the widespread publication of The Confessions of Dolgoruki which resulted in a fundamental paradigm shift in the anti-Bahā’ī discourse. With the widespread impression of Bahā’īs as spies of foreign powers, what up to that point constituted a sporadic theme in some anti-Bahā’ī polemics now became the dominant narrative of them all, including those authored by traditionalist clerics. Consequently, as Iran entered the 1940s, the process that would transform Islamic piety to political ideology was well under way."
||Political, Confession, Memoir, Prince Dolgoruki, Dolgorukov, Babi, Islam
|1942 Late in the year
||Shoghi Effendi asks Sutherland Maxwell to design the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210; DH140; GBF103–5]
||Sutherland Maxwell, Shrine of the Báb
|1944 22 May
||Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb.
- For a survey of the growth and development of the Bahá’í Faith in the hundred years since its inception see BW10:142–9.
- Celebrations are held in many parts of the world:
- Britain [BW10:188–201]
- India [BW10:202–8]
- Egypt [BW10:208–17]
- Iraq [BW10:217–22]
- Australia [BW 10:222–8]
- Latin America [BW10:228–33]
- The end of the celebrations marking this occasion signal the end of the First Epoch of the Formative Age. [BBD79; CF5; PP390]
||Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb, Formative Age
|1944 22–23 May
||The Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb is celebrated at the House of the Báb in Shíráz. [BW10:181]
- Ninety delegates to the national convention and members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran assemble discreetly for the occasion.
- For details of this event and the caution with which the arrangements for it are made see BW10:181–3.
- The Guardian sends the Persian Bahá’ís a lengthy letter detailing how the observance and the week-long festivities to follow are to be made. [BW10:183]
- For details of the events see BW10:183–8.
||Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb, House of the Báb, national convention, NSA
|1944 22–23 May
||The Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb is commemorated in the Holy Land. [BW10:150]
- For a description of this event by Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW10:150–7.
- For press accounts see BW10:156–7.
||Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb
|1944 23 May
||Shoghi Effendi unveils the model of the Shrine of the Báb at the centenary celebration of the Declaration of the Báb in Haifa. [BBD210; BW10:154, 157; DH140; GBF104; PP239–40; UD166]
- BW10:157 suggests this was 24 May
||Shrine of the Báb, Declaration of the Báb
|1944 Nov (mid)
||God Passes By, a history of the first century of the Bábí and Bahá’í Faiths and the only full-sized book by Shoghi Effendi, is published. BBRSM137; CB308–9; GPBXI]
- Shoghi Effendi intended the book to be a gift to the Bahá’ís of the West on the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of the Declaration of the Báb but conditions in the United States delayed its publication. [GT79–80; PP224]
- For how Shoghi Effendi wrote the book see GBF95–6 and PP222–4.
||Shoghi Effendi, Declaration of the Báb
|1946 11 Apr
||Shoghi Effendi instructs Sutherland Maxwell to set plans in motion for the first stages of the building of the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [GBF104–5]
||Sutherland Maxwell, Shrine of the Báb
||Contracts are placed in Italy for the rose Baveno granite columns for the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210; DH140]
- The first shipment of stone reaches Haifa on 23 November 1948.
- For details of securing the contract and cutting the stone see SE68–83.
||Shrine of the Báb
||Construction begins on the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210]
||Shrine of the Bab
|1950 9 Jul
||The Centenary of the Martyrdom of the Báb is commemorated.
- For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the Bahá’ís on this occasion see BW12:191–3.
- For accounts of commemorations around the world see BW12:205–8.
- A small group of Bahá’í pilgrims visit the site of the Báb’s martyrdom and other places associated with His life. [BW12:217–26]
- The columned arcade and parapet of the Shrine of the Báb are completed. [ZK284–5]
||Centenary of the Martyrdom of the Báb, Shrine of the Báb
|1952 4 Mar
||Shoghi Effendi describes plans for a marble colonnade to encircle the Shrine of the Báb as an intermediate step to building a superstructure for the Shrine and sends his ideas to Italy for scale drawings and estimate. [SE133–4]
||Shrine of the Báb
|1952 26 Mar
||Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Montreal. (b.14 November, 1874) [DH143; MBW132; PP246]
- For his obituary see BW12:657–62.
- Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
- For his relationship with Shoghi Effendi and work on the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb see PP236–43.
- Shoghi Effendi names the southern door of the Báb’s tomb after him in memory of his services.
- On June 16th, 1952, friends for the Montreal area gather at the grave to place, under the headstone, an alabaster box that had been sent by the Guardian. The box contains a piece of plaster taken from the walls of the prison in Máh-Kú where the Báb had been incarcerated in 1847. Another piece of plaster from the same source had been placed under the first golden tile of the dome of the Shrine of the Báb. The superstructure of the Shrine had been designed by Sutherland Maxwell. [TG55]
||Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause, Shrine of the Bab, In Memoriam, Appointment Hand - First Contingent
||The octagonal second component of the Shrine of the Báb is completed.
||Shrine of the Báb
|1953 29 Apr
||In a moving ceremony, Shoghi Effendi places a silver box containing a fragment of plaster from the ceiling of the Báb’s cell in Máh-Kú under a tile in the golden dome of the Shrine of the Báb. [BW12:239; ZK285]
||Shrine of the Bab
||The superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb is completed. [BBD210; CB324–5; PP235; ZK85–6]
||Shrine of the Bab
|1954 26 Apr
||President of Israel Ben Zvi and his wife visit the Shrines on Mount Carmel, the first official visit paid by a head of a sovereign state to the Shrines of the Báb and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. [GBF139–140; MBW68; PP2923]
||Ben Zvi, Shrine of the Báb
|1955 23 Apr
||Ramadán begins. Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí Falsafí makes an inflammatory speech against the Bahá’ís from a mosque in Tihrán. [BW18:390]
- This is broadcast on national radio and stirs up the people against the Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
- Beatings, killings, looting and raping go on for several weeks, usually incited by the local ‘ulamá. [BW18:390–1; MC16–17; ZK215–6]
- The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and damaged by a mob led by Siyyid Núru’d-Dín, a mujtahid.
|Tihrán, Shíráz, Iran
||Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí Falsafí, House of the Báb, Siyyid Núru’d-Dín, religious persecution
||Persecutions against the Bahá’ís continue throughout Iran. BW18:391]
- Many Bahá’ís are beaten, including women and children.
- Bahá’í houses and shops are looted and burned.
- Bahá’ís employed in government service are dismissed.
- Bodies of dead Bahá’ís are disinterred and mutilated.
- Young Bahá’í women are abducted and forced to marry Muslims.
- Several Bahá’í women are publicly stripped and/or raped.
- Crops and orchards belonging to Bahá’ís are looted and destroyed.
- Bahá’í children are expelled from schools.
- The House of the Báb in Shíráz is damaged.
||religious persecution, House of the Báb in Shíráz
|1962 28 Jun
||President Tubman of Liberia visits the Shrine of the Báb.
- This is the second official visit of a head of state and is notable in that Liberia is the first black republic on the continent of Africa. [BW13:400]
- See BW13:400 for picture.
||Shrine of the Báb, President Tubman
||Revolutionary Guards in Iran occupy the House of the Báb in Shíráz and neighbouring Bahá’í properties, explaining that it is a temporary measure intended to protect the building. [BW17:79]
||House of the Bab, religious persecution
|1979 8–10 Sep
||The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and substantially demolished by a crowd accompanied by 25 Revolutionary Guards apparently under the clergyman in charge of the local religious endowments department. [BBD108; BI11; BW18:253]
||House of the Báb, religious persecution
||Work on the demolition of the House of the Báb in Shíráz is resumed and the building almost razed to the ground. [BW18:255]
||religious persecution, House of the Bab
||The site of the House of the Báb, destroyed by a mob in 1979, is made into a road and public square. [BBD108]
||House of the Báb
|1982 15 Jul
||In commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahá’ís at the World Centre pray at midnight at the Shrine of the Báb and at the tomb of the Greatest Holy Leaf, commemoration services are held in many parts of the world. [BW18:53, 102]
- For a list of references to the Greatest Holy Leaf found in English-language works see BW18:55–6.
- For a list of works published to commemorate this anniversary see BW18:57–8.
- For an article about her life and service see BW18:68–73.
- Five international conferences and their satellites, held in June, August and September, are dedicated to her memory. [BW18:102]
||commemoration of fiftieth anniversary of passing of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, Shrine of the Báb
|1990 23 May
||The work started on the project to reinforce and extend the main terrace of the Shrine of the Báb. This was the initial step in the work to have the Terraces extend from the foot of the ridge of the mountain. [Ridván Message 1992, AWH83, 102]
||World Centre, Akká, Haifa, Israel
||terraces, Shrine Bab
|1991 17 Jun
||The contracts were signed for the second phase of construction for the terraces to the Shrine of the Báb.
||Shrine of the Báb terraces
|1993 29 Apr - 2 May
||The Seventh Bahá'í International Convention at the World Centre. Those elected to the Universal House of Justice were: Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, Mr. Glenford Mitchell, Mr. Adib Taherzadeh, Mr. Ian Semple, Mr. Peter Khan, Mr. Houshman Fatheazam, Mr. Hooper Dunbar, Mr. Farzam Arbab and Mr. Douglas Martin. [BINS295] [BW93-4p51-58]
- Hugh Chance and David Ruhe announce their retirement. Mr. Chance served since 1963 and Dr. Ruhe since 1968. [BINS295] [BS93-4p57]
- For a report of the Convention see BW93–4:51–8.
- For pictures see BW93–4:52, 53, 54, 57.
||Election of the Universal House of Justice, Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, Mr. Glenford Mitchell, Mr. Adib Taherzadeh, Mr. Ian Semple, Mr. Peter Khan, Mr. Houshman Fatheazam, Mr. Hooper Dunbar, Mr. Farzam Arbab, Mr. Douglas Martin, Hugh Chance, David Ruhe
|2000 17-21 Dec
||The first International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Bábí-Bahá’í Faiths was held in Jerusalem with about 90 persons in attendance. [BWNS84]
||International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Babi-Baha’i Faiths
|2001 22 May
||At dusk, the opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb, a project begun ten years ago that has transformed the ancient barren face of the mountain into 19 majestic terraced gardens cascading down the length of the mountain.
- The nineteen Canadian believers who had the extraordinary blessing of being present in the Holy Land for the official opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb are: Dr. Akouete Akakpo-Vida, Mr. Riel Aubichon, Mr. Garrett Brisdon, Mrs. Pearl Downie, Mrs. Nellie Ironeagle, Mrs. Aghdas Javid, Mr. Joseph Kowtow, Mrs. Joo Jong Kung, M. Fréderic Landry, Ms. Giselle Melanson, Mr. Borna Noureddin, Mr. James Patrick, Mrs. Valerie Pemberton-Piggott, Mlle. Cindy Poitras, Mrs. Janice Schlosser, Mlle. Caroline Simon, Mrs. Doris Toeg, Mrs. Linda Wilkinson and Mme. Elizabeth Wright. In addition, several students from the Maxwell International Bahá'í School were present as members of the delegations from their home countries.
- The event was attended by some 4,500 people, 3,300 of them Bahá'ís, as representative of more than 200 countries and territories. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 1]
- For the statement read at the official opening of the flight of terraces see Ruhi 8.3 page 93.
||Shrine of the Bab terraces
|2003 29 Apr
||The election of the Universal House of Justice by postal ballot by 1,544 electors from 178 countries. Chosen were Hartmut Grossmann and Firaydoun Javaheri to replace retiring members Mr. Nakhjavani, 83, and Mr. Fatheazam, 79 and re-elected were Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Hooper Dunbar, Peter Khan, Douglas Martin, Glenford Mitchell and Ian Semple. [One Country Vol.15 Issue1, BWNS207]
||UHJ, Hartmut Grossmann, Firaydoun Javaheri, Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Hooper Dunbar, Peter Khan, Douglas Martin, Glenford Mitchell, Ian Semple
|2008 30 Apr
||The election of the Universal House of Justice at the 10th International Bahá'í' Convention. Those elected are Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Peter Khan, Hooper Dunbar, Firaydoun Javaheri, Paul Lample, Payman Mohajer, Shahriar Razavi, and Gustavo Correa.
||Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Peter Khan, Hooper Dunbar, Firaydoun Javaheri, Paul Lample, Payman Mohajer, Shahriar Razavi, Gustavo Correa
||After more than two years of extensive restoration work the Shrine of the Báb is complete. The project required the restoration and conservation of the interior and exterior of the original 1909 structure, as well as measures to strengthen the Shrine against seismic forces. An entirely new retrofit design – combining concrete, steel and carbon fibre wrap technology – was needed for the whole building, from its foundation and original masonry to its octagon, drum and dome. More than 120 rock anchors were fixed into the mountain behind newly fortified retaining walls. [BWNS816]
||Shrine of the Bab, restoration
||The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the retirement of Dr. Farzam Arbab and Mr. Kiser Barnes. Mr. Arbab was first elected in 1993 and Mr. Barnes was elected in 2000. [BWNS948]
||Dr. Farzam Arbab, Mr. Kiser Barnes, Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes
|2016 7 May
||The passing of Jenabe Esslemont Caldwell, 89 in Wailuku, Hawaii. (b. August 7, 1926 in Butte, Montana). He and his wife Elaine were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for pioneering to the Aleutian Islands in July, 1953 where they started a king crab and salmon cannery. They sponsored the Bahá’í singing group Windflower that toured Europe, including the United Kingdom, in the 1980s. He was the author of the books: The Story of the Bab & Baha'u'llah>,From Night to Knight, Follow the Instructions and Reflections. He is well-known for his mass teaching successes. [Bahaikipedia]
||Butte, Montana, Aleutian Islands, Wailuku, Hawaii.
||Jenable Caldwell, Elaine Caldwell, Knight of Baha'u'llah, Aleutian Islands, Windflower, From Night to Knight, Follow the Instructions, Reflections, The Story of the Bab & Baha'u'llah, mass teaching,
from the main catalogue
- Báb and the Bábí Religion, The, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani, in Letters & Essays 1886-1913 (1985). A general overview of Babi history and thought, written in Arabic in 1896. [about]
- Bab und Babis, by Arminius (Armin) Vambery, in Meine Wanderungen und Erlebnisse in Persien (1867). Lengthy discussion of the Babis, by a Hungarian Jew who later met Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Báb's Bayan, The: An Analytical Survey, by Muhammad Afnan, in World Order, 31:4 (2000). Analysis of the Bayan and its contents: fundamental beliefs and worldview, moral principles, laws, administration of society, and future expectations. [about]
- Baron Rosen's Archive Collection of Bábí and Bahá'í Materials, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Bayan (Bayán-i-Farsí and Bayán-i-'Arabí), The: Letters and Letters of the Living, by Universal House of Justice and Iraj Ayman (1994). [about]
- Concealment and Burial of the Báb, by Peter Terry, in A Most Noble Pattern: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb (2012). This chapter from A.-L.-M. Nicolas' seminal biography Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Bab (1905) tells the story of the death and burial of the Bab, compiled from the reports of several eye-witnesses consulted by the author.
- Dervish of Windsor Castle, The: The Life of Arminius Vambery, by Lory Alder and Richard Dalby (1979). Two-paragraph discussion of Curzon and the Babis. [about]
- Development of the Babi/Bahá'í Communities, The: Exploring Baron Rosen's Archives, by Youli A. Ioannesyan (2013). 19th-century private letters and diplomatic correspondence from a prominent Russian scholar, one of the first to study the rise of the Babis. Excerpt from book: contents and Introduction. (Offsite.) [about]
- Epistle of Sayyid 'Alí Muhammad 'the Báb' to Sultan Abdulmecid, by Necati Alkan, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). The Bab's Tablet to Sultan Abdulmecid and some notes on early Bábís in the Ottoman Empire. [about]
- God's Heroes: A Drama in Five Acts, by Laura Clifford Barney (1910). A play based on events in the lives of the early Babis, with a focus on Tahirih. [about]
- Hierarchy Authority and Eschatology in Early Babi Thought, by Denis MacEoin, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Evolution of the Bab's theology and prophetology. [about]
- Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer and Nicola Towfigh, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Two pages on a prophecy concerning the advent of Man Yuzhiruhu'llah. [about]
- Marriage certificates of The Bab and Baha'u'llah, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 5 (1932-1934) (1934). Marriage certificates of The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Mírzá Yahyá Azal, Designation of in the Writings of the Báb, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Persian Rival to Jesus, and His American Disciples, The, by Robert P. Richardson, in The Open Court, 29:8 (1915). History and teachings of the Bábi and Bahá'í religions and contemporary American disagreements, from an unsympathetic outsider's perspective. Followed by three letters-to-the-editor from three subsequent issues. Needs a second proofreading. [about]
- "Point" and "Letter" in the Writings of the Báb, by Muhammad Afnan, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). [about]
- Readings from the Writings of The Báb, by Muhammad Afnan (2012). Link to audio recordings of a descendant of the Báb reading from two of his most important works, Qayyúm al-Asmá' "Surah to the Kings" and the Bayán-i-farsí (Persian Bayán). [about]
- (Report to the) American Oriental Society / A New Prophet, by Austin Wright, in The Literary World, 228:8 (1851). First paper on Bábí history, from a letter to the American Oriental Society, published in multiple newspapers, including translation into German. Includes preface by Steven Kolins. [about]
- Texts, Sacred, Numbers and Classifications of, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2002). Three letters, from 2002, 2010, and 2013, about numbers of Sacred Texts catalogued by the Baha'i World Center and their classification into "authenticated," "revised," and "transcribed." [about]
- Will and Testament of The Báb, by Báb, The, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). One-page scan of a document commonly, though inaccurately, referred to as the "Will and Testament." [about]
- Tags are simplified spellings, minus all accents and punctuation, used to find documents on a similar topic but with various titles.
- Searches are matched to any part of a tag: searching for mashr will also return Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, or Egyptian will also return Egypt.
- 1- and 2-letter words will not be searched.
- While all documents on this website will hopefully one day be tagged, so far we've only applied a few tags to the main Collection.
However, most events in the Chronology are now tagged.