Search for tag "Bab, Life of"
|1819. 20 Oct
||Birth of Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad (The Báb), before dawn, in Shíráz. [B32; GH13; DB72]
- The Primal Point (Nuqtiy-i-Úlá). [BBD185]
- The Promised One of Islam, the Qá'im. [BBD188]
- Siyyid-i-dhikr (Lord of Remembrance). [BBD212]
- His mother is Fátimih-Bagum (Zajra Bagum). [B33, 46; KB20; RB2:382]
- His father is Mírzá Muhammad Ridá. [BW4:234–5; LOG351; SE206; TN4]
- He is a direct heir of the House of Háshim and descended thus from Muhammad and through Him from Abraham. [BW8:874]
- Designations of the Báb include `Abdu'dh-dhikr (Servant of the Remembrance), Bábu'lláh (the Gate of God) and Hadrat-i-A`lá (His Holiness the Most Exalted One). [BBD1, 30, 93]
- For biblical reference see LOG378. See RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
- See BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
- See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
- See DB28–30. See DB75 for the extent of His schooling. See DB75 n1 for his education.
- See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
||Bab, Birth of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Fatimih Bagum; Zajra Bagum; Mirza Muhammad Rida; House of Hashim; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Holy days; Twin Holy days; Births and deaths
||Passing of Mírzá Muhammad Ridá, the father of the Báb.
- The Báb is placed in the care of His maternal uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí, Khál-i-A`zam (the Most Great Uncle). He is a leading merchant of Shíráz and is the first, after the Letters of the Living, to embrace the new Cause in that city. He is one of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. [BBD14]
- According to Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, the Báb was still an infant and had not yet been weaned when His father passed away. [DB72]
||Mirza Muhammad Rida; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; Bab, Life of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bab, Basic timeline
|1835 - 1836
||Siyyid 'Ali Muhammad (the Báb) moved to Bushihr to manage his uncles’ business interests in that city. He stayed there for five or six years. [HotD19, DB77note1, B39-41]
||Bab, Life of; Business; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) goes to Najaf and Karbalá where He attends the lectures of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, Shaykh Ahmad's successor. He remains here for about a year. [B42–4; MH25; RB3:254; SBBH15]
- The followers of Shaykh Ahmad number about 100,000 in Iraq alone. [MH25, HotD25]
- BBRSM13 says the Báb went to Najaf and Karbalá in 1839/40.
|Najaf; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||The marriage of Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) in Shíráz to Khadíjih-Bagum (b. 1821) the daughter of Mirzá 'Ali, a merchant of Shiraz. [B46; BBD28, 127; BKG402; RB2:382, DoH107]
- See B80 for a reproduction of the marriage certificate.
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Weddings; Khadijih Bagum; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Birth of Ahmad, son of the Báb. He passes away shortly after he is born. [B46-47]
- DB74 for a picture of his resting-place.
||Ahmad (son of the Bab); Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Dreams; Imam Husayn; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1843 10 Jan
||The Báb dreams that He drinks a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He feels that the Spirit of God has taken possession of His soul. [BBRSM14; DB253, HotD23-24
- His wife had an indication of His calling after having seen Him wrapt in prayer during the night. [HotD27]
||Bab, Life of; Dreams; Blood; Imam Husayn
|1844. c. Apr
||Khadíjih Bagum apparently recognizes her husband as the promised Qá'im `sometime before the Báb declared His mission'. He bids her to keep this knowledge concealed. [DB191–2; KB10–14]
||Khadijih Bagum; Bab, Life of; Qaim
|1844. 22 May
||Declaration of the Báb's Mission
Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad makes His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í.
- See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
- See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
- See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
- See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
- Nabíl-i-A`zam relates that Mullá Husayn was welcomed at the Báb's mansion by Mubárak, His Ethiopian servant. [DB53]
- He reveals the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text will later be translated by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
- Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
- See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
- This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
- This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. ZK320
- The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
- See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
- Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
- He chooses the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn is given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
- In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He takes the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gives the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn is called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
- At His public declaration the Báb declares Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Holy days; Bab, Writings of; Mulla Husayn; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Bab, Life of; Cycles; Ages and Epochs; Heroic age; Qaim; Promised One; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Mubarak; Letters of the Living
|1844 Jul - Aug
||Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, has a vision that leads him to Mullá Husayn and he accepts the Báb. During this period of waiting for the second person to recognize the Báb, He called Mulla Husayn to His house several times. He always comes at night and stays until dawn. [HotD41]. Sixteen others recognize Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 are later designated `Letters of the Living'. [BBD138, B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121, SBBH1:16–17, GPB7-8]
- See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
- See B26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 for a list of the Letters of the Living.
- See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
- See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih.
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Dreams; Mulla Husayn; Letters of the Living; Quddus; Tahirih; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1844 Jul - Aug
||The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructs them to spread out and teach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36, DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
- To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
- Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
- Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
- See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
- From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja'far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
- See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
- On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
- Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
- See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after the Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
|Kashan; Shiraz; Isfahan; Tihran; Mazandaran; Khurasan; Qum; Iran; Turkey
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Bahaullah; Shahs; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdul-Majid; First believers; Letters of the Living; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1844. 11 Aug
||The Báb sends Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivers a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
- The Shaykh's rejection of the claim leads to violent debate. Mullá `Alí is taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he is sent to Istanbul. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
|Istanbul; Turkey; Iraq; Baghdad; Najaf; Karbala
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Ulama; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykhism; Firsts, Other; Trials; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases; Letters of the Living
|1844 30 Sep
||The Báb receives the letter from Mullá Husayn giving Him details of his journey and meeting with Bahá'u'lláh and others he had contacted.
- Nabíl indicates that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129]
- Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [B57]
- GPB8-9 says He received the letter in the month of Sha'bán, 1260 (16 August to 13 September, 1844).
- See MH119 where the author speculates that if the letter arrived on 16 Ramadan (29 September) and the Báb departed from the port of Búshihr on the 19th of Ramadan (2 October, 1844), He had to have been in Búshihr when He received the letter.
|Shiraz; Bushihr; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Letters of the Living
|1844 30 Sep
||Pigrimage of the Báb
The Báb, Quddús (Hájí Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Barfurúshí) and the Báb's Ethiopian servant, Mubarak, leave Shíráz for Búshihr en route to Mecca. The journey takes ten days. [B57; DB129; MH119]
- DB129 says He left Shíráz during the month of Shavvál, 1260 (14October to 11 November, 1844).
- SBBH1 xxviii shows the departure date as 12 November, 1844.
- Balyuzi, B57 says "in the month of September.
|Iran; Saudi Arabia; Shiraz; Bushihr; Mecca
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Quddus; Servants; Mubarak; Letters of the Living; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1844 2 or 3 Oct
||The Báb departs from Búshihr on His pilgrimage. [B57; MH119, 121, GPB9]
- He instructs His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
- He has been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
- The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah is probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [B69]
- He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
|Karbala; Iraq; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Husayn; Ships
|1844. c. Dec
||The Báb and His companions arrive in Jiddah after a rough sea voyage of two months. There they put on the garb of the pilgrim and proceed to Mecca by camel. [B71; DB129, 132]
- See B69–71 and DB130–1 for a description of the voyage.
- Quddús walks from Jiddah to Mecca. [B71, DB132, GPB9]
|Jiddah; Saudi Arabia; Mecca; Saudi arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Quddus; Ships; Camels
|1844. 12 Dec
||The Báb arrives in Mecca and performs the rites of pilgrimage in company with 100,000 other pilgrims. [GPB9]
- See B70 and SA107-8 for the timing, rites and significance of the pilgrimage.
|Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1844. 20 - 21 Dec
||The Báb offers 19 lambs as a sacrifice in the prescribed manner, distributing the meat to the poor and needy. [B71; DB133]
||Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of
|1844 c. 20 Dec
||The Báb makes a declaration of His mission by standing at the Ka`bih, holding the ring of the door and repeating three times that He is the Qá'im.
- He makes an open challenge to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmání, known as Muhít, of the Shaykhí school and sends an invitation to the Sharíf of Mecca to embrace the new Revelation. The Sharíf is too busy to respond. [B71-74; BW12:89; DB134–8; GPB9, 89]
|Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Kabih; Qaim; Mirza Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmani (Muhit); Shaykhism; Sharif of Mecca; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1845. c. Jan
||Crowds gather in Karbalá in response to the Báb's summons, among them Táhirih. [BI62; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH1:22]
||Bab, Life of; Tahirih
|1845 10 Jan
||The Báb reached Medina. From there He proceeded to Jiddah where He took a boat bound for Búshihr. [B75] (See 16 January below.)
||Medina; Jiddah; Bushihr
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Ships
|1845. 16 Jan
||The Báb arrives in Medina from Mecca. [dhut bíy-i-jiddih]
- He reveals `The Epistle between Two Shrines' en route. [B73–4]
- He stays 27 days. [MS2]
- B75 and DB140 indicate that the Báb arrived 10 January. The Research Department at the Bahá`í World Centre states that the date 16 January accords with the Báb's own writings. [report 20 jan 1994]
|Medina; Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Epistle between Two Shrines
|1845. 12 Feb
||The Báb leaves Medina for Jiddah. [MS2]
||Medina; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of
|1845. 27 Feb
||The Báb leaves Jiddah. [MS2]
- He disembarks at Muscat and remains there for two months, awaiting news of the outcome of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí's trial. [MS2]
- He sends a letter to the Imám of Muscat. [MS2]
- SBBH23 says the Báb left Jiddah on 4 March.
|Jeddah; Saudi Arabia; Muscat; Oman
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Trials; Bab, Writings of; Imam of Muscat; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases
|1945 Feb - Mar
||The Báb returns to Búshihr. He sends Quddús to Shíráz with a letter addressed to His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí who embraces his Nephew's Cause, the first, after the Letters of the Living, to do so. The Báb also entrusts Quddús with a treatise for him entitled dhasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications') and promises him his impending martyrdom. (He gave his life as on of the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, see 1850 19 or 20 Feb.) [B77–8; DB142–3; MS2, GPB9-10]
- B77 and GPB10 say the Báb arrived in Búshihr in February - March.
- SSBH1p23 and BBRSM216 say 15 May, 1845.
- Before leaving on pilgrimage the Báb had stated that He would return to Karbalá and asked His followers to congregate there. An explanation in part for the large following that have gathered there is the messianic expectation associated with the year 1261, a thousand years after the Twelfth Imám's disappearance in 260 A.H.. This gathering is perceived as a threat by the authorities. [BBRSM15, 45, 216; DB157–8; SBBH1p23, 32]
- The Báb changes His plan to meet His followers in Karbalá and instructs them to go to Isfahán instead. A number abandon Him, regarding this as badá', `alteration of divine will'. [BBRSM16; DB158; MH125; SBBH23]
- Some speculate that He did not go to Karbalá to avoid conflict and sedition. Many Bábís had gone to Karbalá armed in preparation for holy war, `jihád'. [BBRSM21–2; SBBH1:23]
|Bushihr; Iran; Shiraz
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; Quddus; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Dhasail-i-Sabih (Seven Qualifications); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; First believers
||Quddús meets Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas in Shíráz. Mullá Sádiq, following instructions received in a Tablet from the Báb, sounds the call to prayer using the additional words provided by the Báb. [B78; DB144]
- This provokes a public commotion. [B78; DB145; BBRSM16]
||Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Bab, Life of
|1845. 30 Jun
||The Báb meets the soldiers of the governor of Fárs who had been sent to arrest Him at Dálakí, some 40 miles northeast of the city. He is escorted to Shíráz. [B84, 105; BBR170; BBRSM216; DB148–9; GPB11; TN6, SBBH1pxxv111]
- DB150 says the Báb travelled `free and unfettered', `before His escort'.
- BBRSM16 implies the Báb returned to Shíráz by Himself in July and that He was placed under house arrest on arrival.
|Dalaki; Fars; Shiraz; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1845. c. 7 Jul
||The Báb arrives in Shíráz.
Note: Other estimates for the time of His arrival in Shíráz are from about the 8th to 16th of August based on the fact that Husayn Khán ordered His arrest after the beating of Mullá Sádiq and Quddús. "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D." [DB146n2]
- B105 says it must have taken the Báb another week at least to reach Shíráz;
- SBBH1:24 says He arrived in Shíráz in early July.
- He is publicly interrogated, struck in the face and later released into the custody of His maternal uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. [B85–9; BBRSM216; DB150–1; GPB11]
- Note: DB155 states that after He was released and "regained His home" He was able to celebrate Naw-Rúz that fell on 10 Rabí'u'l-Avval, 1261 (19 March, 1945. This is an error. GPB11 says He was able to "celebrate the Naw-Rúz of that and the succeeding year in an atmosphere of relative tranquillity in the company of His mother, His wife and His uncle.'' This too appears to be in error. If He left Shíráz in September of 1846 He would not have been present In March of 1847.
- Three of the divines of Shíráz passed a verdict of death upon The Báb. But for the intercession of Zahrá Bagum, the sister of the wife of The Báb, Khadíjih-Bagum, the mother of The Báb, Fátimih Bagum, and others, with the Imám-Jum'ih of Shíráz, the Báb would have been executed. [LTDT12]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1845. Jul and months following
||The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
- He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
- see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
- Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
- After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
- This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
- The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
- Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
- Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
|Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Hidden Imam; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi
|1846 (In the year)
||Many Bábís go to Shíráz and meet the Báb. [B103]
||Bab, Life of
|1846 c. Feb - Mar
||The Sháh had already instructed Manúchihr Khán to send the Báb to Tihrán. The governor, fearing for the safety of the Báb, devises a scheme to have the Báb escorted from Isfahán but returned secretly to his own residence. The Báb remains there for four months with only three of His followers apprised of His whereabouts. These four months are described as having been the calmest in His Ministry. [B113–16; DB209–11, 213; TN9–11]
The governor offers all of his resources to try to win the Sháh over to His Cause but the Báb declines his offer saying that the Cause will triumph through the `poor and lowly'. [B115–16; DB212–13]
|Tihran; Isfahan; Iran
||Shah; Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||The Báb bequeaths all His possessions to His mother and His wife and reveals a special prayer for His wife to help her in times of sorrow He tells his wife of His impending martyrdom. He moves to the house of His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. He tells the Bábís in Shíráz to go to Isfahán. [GPB14; KB21–2; TB103–5, LTDT13]
||Shiraz; Isfahan; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Prayer; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali
||The Chief Constable, 'Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, is instructed by order of the governor, Hasayn Khán, to break into the house of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí where the Báb had been confined and to arrest Him. He and a follower are taken away along with His books and Writings. It is widely rumoured that He would be executed. He was allowed to return some time later. [LTDT14]
||Bab, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1846. 23 Sep
||The governor, Husayn Khán, threatened by the Báb's rising popularity, orders His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, takes the Báb into custody and escorts Him to the governor's home but finds it abandoned. He takes the Báb to his own home and learns that a cholera epidemic has swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cures the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He has washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigns his post and begs the governor to release the Báb. He agrees on condition the Báb leaves Shíráz. The incident proves to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismisses him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; GPB13; TN9]
- See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán.
- DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son.
||Husayn Khan; Governors; Bab, Life of; Abdul-Hamid Khan; Epidemics; Muhammad Shah; Shahs
|1846 23 – 24 Sep
||The Báb departs for Isfahán after a sojourn in Shíráz of less than 15 months. [B105–6; BBRSM216; BW18:380; TN9, SBBR1pxxviii]
- TN9 says that the Báb left Shíráz `the morning after' the night He saved the children from cholera.
- B105 says he left `in the last days of September'.
|Shiraz; Isfahan; Iran
||Bab, Life of
|1846 Sep - Oct
||On His approach to the city the Báb writes to Manúchihr Khán, the governor-general of Isfahán, and asks him for shelter. The governor requests that Siyyid Muhammad, the Imám-Jum`ih of Isfahán, accommodate Him. During His stay of 40 days the Báb impresses His host as well as the governor. [B109–10, 13; DB199–202, 208]
- See B108–9 for information on Manúchihr Khán.
- It is during His six-month stay in Isfahán that the Báb takes a second wife, Fátimih, the sister of a Bábí from that city. [RB1:249]
||Bab, Life of; Manuchihr Khan; Governor-generals; Siyyid Muhammad (Imam-Jumih)
|1846 c. Nov
||Manúchihr Khán arranges a meeting between the Báb and the clerics to silence their opposition. After the encounter, about 70 of them meet and issue a death-warrant. [B112–13; DB205–9]
||Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of; Death-warrant
|1847. Feb - Mar
||The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [B116; DB213–14]
- Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informs the Sháh that the Báb is in Isfahán and has been sheltering with Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh orders that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, sets out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [B116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
|Tihran; Isfahan; Iran
||Manuchihr Khan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bab, Life of; Gurgin Khan; Nusayri horsemen; Horses
|1847. 21 Mar
||En route to Tihrán the Báb spends three nights in Káshán in the home of Hájí Mírzá Jání, a noted resident of that city who had realized in a dream that the Báb would be his guest. [B118; DB217–22]
||Tihran; Kashan; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Haji Mirza Jani; Dreams
|1847. 28 Mar
||The Báb and His escort arrive at the fortress of Kinár-Gird, 28 miles from Tihrán. Muhammad Big, the head of the escort, receives a message from Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, the prime minister, telling him to take the Báb to Kulayn to await further instructions. [B119; DB225–6; GPB16]
||Tihran; Kulayn; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Fortress Kinar-Gird; Muhammad Big; Haji Mirza Aqasi
|1847. 29 Mar
||The Báb arrives in Kulayn where He stays for 20 days. [B120; DB227; TN11]
||Bab, Life of
|1847 Spring - Summer
||Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitate against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr writes to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replies praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
- Among those Táhirih meets in Baghdád is Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
- Táhirih is sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She is accompanied by a number of Bábís; they make a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
- Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
- In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
- B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
- In Kirmánsháh she is respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
- Táhirih arrives in Hamadán. Her father has sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agrees on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
- MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.
|Kazimayn; Baghdad; Iraq; Mah-Ku; Iran; Hamadan; Kirmanshah
||Tahirih; Bab, Life of
||The Báb receives a courteous message from the Sháh, who, on the advice of his prime minister, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, assigns Him to the fortress of Máh-Kú in the province of Ádharbáyján. The Báb is taken to Máh-Kú via Tabríz. [B121–2, 124; DB229–32; GPB16; TN11–12]
||Mah-Ku; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Shah; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Fortress of Mah-Ku; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1847. 1 Apr
||The Báb receives a letter and gifts from Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán delivered to His Hands by Mulla Muhammad-Mihdiy-i-Kandi. The letter cheers His heart, which has been despondent since His arrest and departure from Shíráz. [B120; DB227; GPB678]
||Tihran; Shiraz; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Gifts; Bahaullah, Writings of
|1847 c. 1 – 17 Apr
||One night the Báb disappears and is found the next morning on the road coming from the direction of Tihrán. A look of confidence has settled on Him and His words have a new power. [B120–1; DB228–9]
- Had He and Bahá'u'lláh met secretly? See SLH51 para96.
||Bab, Life of
|1847. c. 17 Apr
||The Báb sends a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]
Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb writes to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learns of this last letter and sends a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declines their assistance. [B124–5; DB235–6]
- See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
|Tabriz; Zanjan; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Shah; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime ministers; Grand Viziers; Tahirih; Haji Sulayman Khan; Hujjat
|1847 c. May - Jun
||The Báb arrives in Tabríz, en route to Máh-Kú. He remains for 40 days and is well received by the general populace. He spends His time in seclusion, being allowed only two visitors. [B127–8; DB237–40; GPB18; TN12]
||Bab, Life of; Mah-Ku
||The Báb in Máh-Kú
The Báb arrives at the prison fortress of Máh-Kú (the Open Mountain). [B128; BW18:380]
- See B128, BBD142 and DB243–4 for descriptions of Máh-Kú, its environs, fortress and inhabitants.
||Bab, Life of; Mah-Ku; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1847 Jul to 1848 Apr
||The people of Máh-Kú show marked hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they are won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregate at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]
At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán keeps the Báb strictly confined and allows no visitors. He has a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He becomes humble and permits the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]
The winter the Báb spends in Máh-Kú is exceptionally cold. [DB252]
Many of the Báb's writings are revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]
- It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
- He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [GPB24]
- He revealed the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5]
- The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
- He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
- In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
- The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
|Mah-Ku; Iran; Najaf; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Ali Khan; Commentaries; Quran; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bayan; Dalail-i-Sabih (Seven Proofs); Bab, Writings of; Tablet to Muhammad Shah; Muhammad Shah; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1848. 20 March
||Mullá Husayn and his companion, walking from Mashhad, arrive at Máh-Kú on the eve of Naw-Rúz. The Báb meets them at the gate and together they celebrate Naw-Rúz, the fourth after the declaration of the Báb. Mullá Husayn stays the night at the fortress. He remains with the Báb for nine days. [B131; DB257, 262; MH138, 143]
- MH137 says Mullá Husayn arrived in Tabríz on 21 March.
- See DB255–7 for story of the dream of `Alí Khán, the prison warden, preceding the arrival of Mullá Husayn at Máh-Kú. From this time on the pilgrims are allowed unrestricted access to the Báb. [DB258]
- The warden requests that the Báb marry his daughter. [DB259; MH143]
|Mashhad; Mah-Ku; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Bab, Life of
|1848. 30 Mar
||Mullá Husayn departs for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
- The Báb tells him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he is to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
- In Tihrán he again meets Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
|Mazandaran; Khuy; Urumiyyih; Maraghih; Milan; Tabriz; Zanjan; Qazvin; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Life of
|1848. 9 Apr
||The Báb is removed from Máh-Kú.
- Hájí Mírzá Áqásí is alarmed by the developments at Máh-Kú and orders that the Báb be moved to Chihríq. [B131; DB259; GPB1920]
- The Báb's presence in Máh-Kú, so close to the Russian frontier, is also a cause for concern for the Russian government. Prince Dolgorukov, the Russian Minister in Tihrán, asks that He be removed. It is likely that this request was made in 1847 but not carried out until now. [B131; BBR72; TN13]
- The Báb had been in Máh-Kú for nine months. [DB259]
|Mah-Ku; Chihriq; Tihran; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Russia; Prince Dolgorukov; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1848. 10 Apr
||The Báb in Chihríq
The Báb is transferred to the fortress of Chihríq, `Jabal-i-Shadíd' (the Grievous Mountain) into the custody of Yahyá Khán, a brother-in-law of Muhammad Sháh. [BR72; BBRSM216; GPB19]
- He remains here for two years. [BBD55; BBR73; GPB27]
- He is subjected to a more rigorous confinement than He had been at Máh-Kú and the warden is harsh and unpredictable. [B135; DB302]
||Bab, Life of; Chihriq; Yahya Khan; Muhammad Shah; Mah-Ku; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul
||The Conference of Badasht
Bahá'u'lláh, who hosts and directs the event, rents three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]
The conference coincides with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July.
It is held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]
- `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
- B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb. It is attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
- Each day Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet, and on each believer He confers a new name. Each day an Islamic law is abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
- See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
- Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
|Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran
||Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Veils; Women; Womens rights; Gender; Equality; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Letters of the Living
||After three months in Chihríq, the Báb is taken under escort to Tabríz for trial. [B137; BW18:380; TN14]
- En route He stopped in Urúmíyyih for ten days where the governor, Malik-Qásim Mírzá, tested the Báb by offering Him an unruly horse to ride to the public bath. The horse remained docile under the Bab's control and was the same when He came out and rode him on the return. The local people were certain that they had witnessed a miracle and broke into the bath to procure His bath water. [B138; BBR74; DB309–11, EB86-87]
- A sketch of the Báb was made by local artist Aqa Bala Bayg from which he made a full-scale black and white portrait. Later Bahá'u'lláh directed that Aqa Bala Bayg make two copies of the portrait in water colour. The sketch and one of the water colours are now in the International Archives. [EB87; B138–9, Juhúrú'l-Haqq by Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázindarání p.48 quoted in World Order Winter 1974-95 p41]
- See Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image by Denis MacEoin.
- See "The Bab in the World of Images" by Bijan Masumian and Adib Masumian. [Baha'i Studies Review, Volume 19, Number 1, 1 June 2013, pp. 171-190(20)]
|Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Portraits; Bab, Portrait of; Aqa Bala Bayg Naqqash-bashi; Horses; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1848. last week
|Trial of the Báb
The Báb arrives in Tabríz and is brought before a panel of which the 17-year-old Crown Prince Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá is the president. The Báb publicly makes His claim that He is the Qá'im. This claim has also been announced to those gathered at Badasht. [B140–7; BBR157; BBRSM23, 216; BW18:380; DB314–20; GPB21–2; TN14]
- This constitutes the formal declaration of His mission. [GPB22]
- The purpose of the public forum is to force the Báb to recant His views; instead He takes control of the hearing and embarrasses the clergy. After considerable argument and discussion, they decide He is devoid of reason. [GPB22]
- The Báb is bastinadoed. [B145; BBD44; DB320; GPB22; TN14–15] This is the first formal punishment He receives. [BBRSM20]
- He is first attended by an Irish physician, Dr William Cormick, to ascertain His sanity and later to treat Him for a blow to the face that occurred during the bastinado. Cormick is the only Westerner to meet and converse with Him. [B145; BBR74–5, 497–8 DBXXXIL–XXXIII]
- The clergy issue a fatwa or legal pronouncement against the Báb condemning Him to death for heresy, but to no purpose as the civil authorities are unwilling to take action against Him. [BBRSM19–20]
- For an account of the life of Dr. William Cormick see Connections by Brendan McNamara.
|Tabriz; Badasht; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Nasirid-Din Shah; Qaim; Bastinado; William Cormick; Fatwa; Conference of Badasht; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (first entry dated June 21 1848)|
||The Báb is taken back to Chihríq, where He remains until June/July 1850. [B147; DB322; TN15]
- B147 says He must have arrived in the first days of August.
- On His return the Báb writes a denunciatory letter to Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. He sends it to Hujjat in Tihrán, who delivers it personally. [B147; DB323; GPB27]
- The Báb completes the Arabic Bayán. [BBR45; GBP25]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Hujjat; Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1849. c. Jun - Jul
||The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learns of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He is so overcome with grief that He is unable to write or dictate for a period of six months. [DB411, 430]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Prison; Shaykh Tabarsi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Quddus; Tablets of Visitation; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1849. 26 Nov
||The Báb sends Mullá Ádí-Guzal to the graves of Quddús and Mullá Husayn to make a pilgrimage on His behalf [DB431]
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Adi-Guzal; Cemeteries and graves; Quddus; Mulla Husayn; Pilgrimage
|1850. 15 Jan
||Mullá Ádí-Guzal arrives in Mázindarán and carries out the Báb's request. [DB432]
||Mulla Adi-Guzal; Bab, Life of
|1850. Jun c.
||Mírzá Taqí Khán determines to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb is taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [B152; BBR76–7; GPB51]
- His guard takes Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence is noted by American missionaries. [B152; BBR73, 76]
- Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals and His agate rings, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. The secretary is instructed to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to ‘Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
- When the box is opened they find a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word ‘Bahá'. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
|Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Tihran; Iran
||Mirza Taqi Khan; Bab, Life of; Missionaries; Mulla Muhammad Baqir-i Tabrizi; Letters of the Living; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Relics; Greatest Name; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1850 29 Jun
||At some point near the end of His life the Báb consigns His remaining papers, His seal, His qalam-dán (pencil-box) and His last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní with instructions to deliver them to Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí should something happen to Himself. In HIs last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Aií Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". [CH49)
||Bab, Life of; Mirza Abdul-Karim Qazvini; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1850 29 Jun
||The Báb arrives in Tabríz. [BBR76]
- BBRXXIX says He arrived on 19 June.
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1850. 8 Jul
||The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, is taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, throws himself at the feet of the Báb and asks to go with Him. [B153; DB507]
- That night the Báb asks that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offers to do this but is restrained by the others. The Báb promises that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Martyrdom of; Turbans; Barracks; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1850. 9 Jul
||Martyrdom of the Báb
In the morning the Báb is taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]
At noon the Báb and Mirza Muhammad-Ali Zunuzi, known as Anis are suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz in Sarbazkhaneh Square. They are shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men in succession. [B157; DB512]
- The warrants are already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
- Anís's stepfather tries to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son is also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remains unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]
The Báb and Anís are suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, has been found to undertake the execution. After the volleys, the bodies of the Báb and Anís are shattered and melded together. [B158; DB514]
- When the smoke clears the Báb is gone and Anís is standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, is found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
- See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.
At night, the bodies are thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. The bodies were removed and hidden under cover of darkness. [B159; TN27]
- See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
- The face of the Báb is untouched. [B158]
- At the moment the shots are fired a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remains dark from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
- See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.
||Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Remains of; Holy days; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Sam Khan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1850. 10 Jul
||The Russian Consul has an artist make a sketch of the body of the Báb. [B159; DB518; TN28]
- See BBR43 for details of the drawing made by Consul Bakulin.
||Russian officials; Consuls; Bab, Sketches of; Martyrdom of the Bab; Bab, Life of
|1851 5 Oct
||Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí, the Báb's amanuensis, had been sent from the Báb's side in Chihríq to live in Karbilá at a time just before the incident at Shaykh Tabarsí when all available believers were being dispatched to assist Quddús. Here, the Báb told him, he would meet the promised Husayn. Although he had never met Bahá'u'lláh before, on this day he recognized Him as He walked by the inner courtyard of the Shrine of the Imám Husayn. [BKG67–8]
- There is a Shíh tradition that, in the Latter Days, 'Alí would re-appear twice, once before Muhammad and once after Husayn. The Báb's name was 'Alí-Muhammad and Bahá'u'lláh's name was Husayn-Alí, hence the prophecy was fulfilled. Shaykh Hasan wants to proclaim the advent of the Promised One however Bahá'u'lláh advises him that it is not yet time.[OPOP163, DB31-33]
||Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi; Bab, Life of; amanuensis; Bahaullah, Life of; Imam Husayn; Prophecies
|1864. c. During time in Adrianople
||At some point near the end of His life the Báb consigned His remaining papers, His seal, His qalam-dán (pencil-box) and His last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní with instructions to deliver them to Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí should something happen to Himself. In His last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Aií Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní fulfilled this trust and these items remained in the possession of Bahá'u'lláh until the days of Adrianople. When Mírzá Yáhyá asked permission to see these article Bahá'u'lláh consented but they were never returned. Yahyá kept these items as a support of his claim to leadership asserting that the Báb had given them to him. [CH49]
||Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey
||Bab, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Mirza Abdul-Karim Qazvini; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
|1912 23 May
||The Bahá'ís of Cambridge, Massachusetts, celebrated `Abdu'l-Bahá's birthday with a cake bearing 68 candles. (Significantly, He did not stay for the festivities. He forgave this
time, but had forbidden the celebration of His birthday. Six years
before He had told Khan and other pilgrims that besides Naw-Rúz, the Holy Days were only for the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh,
that His birth on the twenty-second/twenty-third of May was ‘only a coincidence’.) `Abdu'l-Bahá addressed the group on the importance of the Báb at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Francis W. Breed, 367 Harvard Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [239D:72; AB199, PUP138]
in the early evening, He had proceeded to Worcester and addressed
Clark University there. [AY95]
|Worcester; Cambridge MA; Massachusetts; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Birth of; Day of the Covenant; Holy Days; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Bab, Life of; Clark University; Universities
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- Across Asia on a Bicycle: Through Persia to Samarkand, by Thomas Gaskell Allen and William Lewis Sachtleben, in The Century: a popular quarterly, 48:3 (1894). A travelogue through Tabreez, with a short but somewhat hostile history of the Bab. [about]
- Adventures in Biographical Research: John and William Cormick, by Vincent Flannery, in Solas, 4 (2004). Biographical details of the only European known to have met the Bab, William Cormick, and his father John Cormick. [about]
- Afnán Family, The: Some Biographical Notes, by Ahang Rabbani (2007). Genealogy of the Báb and biographies of his descendants; meaning of afnan. [about]
- Autobibliography in the Writings of the Báb: Translation of the Khutba Dhikriyya, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). [about]
- Bab and Babism, by Isaac Adams, in Persia by a Persian: Personal experiences, manners, customs, habits, religious and social life in Persia (1900). Includes Anton Haddad's "A Message from Acca," "A Declaration to the Americans," "Selected Precepts of El-Hak," Pilgrim notes from Lua Getsinger, and letters to America from Mrs. Getsinger, Mrs. Kheiralla, and Mrs. Hearst. [about]
- Báb in Shiraz, The: An Account by Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 16 (2008). Recollections of the early years of the Bab and his family, and the times following his declaration; written by a relative. [about]
- Bab in the World of Images, The, by Bijan Ma'sumian and Adib Ma'sumian, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 19 (2013). History of the portraits drawn of the Bab, especially that of Aqa Bala Bayg of Shishvan, the only artist who actually met the Bab. [about]
- Báb, The: The King of Messengers, by Riaz Ghadimi (2009). A talk by Dr. Riaz Ghadimi, published posthumously in English. [about]
- Bab, The, by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
- Báb, The (ʿAlí Mohammad Shirází), by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Babi Movement, The: A Resource Mobilization Perspective, by Peter Smith and Moojan Momen, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Babism from a sociological standpoint, esp. the place of the Babis in their contemporary cultural and economic classes. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in the Arabic Speaking Middle East, The: Part 1 (1753-1863), by Ramsey Zeine, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
- Baha'u'llah and the New Era, by John E. Esslemont (1980). The classic introductory text on the Baha'i Faith focusing on Baha'i teachings and the lives of the Bab, Baha'u'llah, and Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Baha'u'llah's prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
- Bábís of Persia, The: I. Sketch of Their History, and Personal Experiences amongst Them, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21:3 (1889). Results of Browne's investigations into the doctrines, history, and circumstances of this "most remarkable" religious phenomenon, and outline of things yet to be studied. [about]
- Bábís of Persia, The: II. Their Literature and Doctrines, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21:4 (1889). Overview of Babi literature and doctrine. [about]
- Birth and Childhood of the Bab, by David Merrick (2007). Childhood and Early Life of the Bab, told in plain English and suitable for reading aloud. [about]
- Black Pearls: The African Household Slaves of a Nineteenth Century Iranian Merchant Family, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram (2003). The African slave trade to Iran in the 1800s, and the lives of household slaves of one specific merchant family from Shiraz, that of The Báb, as described in the narrative of Abu'l-Qasim Afnan. [about]
- Black Pearls: Notes on Slavery, by Anthony Lee and Abu'l-Qasim Afnan, in Black Pearls: Servants in the Households of the Bab and Bahá'u'lláh (1988). Editor's notes and introduction to two editions of Black Pearls; brief overview of the institution of slavery. [about]
- Bushires' British Residency Records (1837-50): The Appearance of Babism in Persia, by Syed Shakeel Ahmed, in Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 43:4 (1995). Records from Mirza 'Ali Akbar, a British agent in Shiraz, from 1837, 1839, and 1850, with possible early mentions of the Báb. [about]
- Chihriq, by Juan Cole and Amir Hassanpour, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Chosen Highway, The, by Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield (Sitarih Khanum) (1940). [about]
- City of Dancing Dervishes, The: And other sketches and studies from the Near East, by Harry Charles Luke (1914). One-half page summary of the Mahdi and Baha'i history. [about]
- Concealment and Burial of the Báb, by Peter Terry, in A Most Noble Pattern: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb (2012). This chapter from A.-L.-M. Nicolas' seminal biography Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Bab (1905) tells the story of the death and burial of the Bab, compiled from the reports of several eye-witnesses consulted by the author.
- Conversion of the Great-Uncle of the Báb, The, by Ahang Rabbani, in World Order, 30:3 (1999). The history of Hájí Mírzá Sayyid Muhammad (1798-1876), maternal uncle of the Bab. [about]
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). Seven essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. [about]
- Dawn-Breakers: Nabil's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Nabil-i-A'zam (1932). The extensive and preeminent history of Babism and the early Baha'i Faith, by Nabil-i-A'zam [aka Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí, aka Nabíl-i-Zarandí]. [about]
- Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of The Bahá'í Revelation: Study Guide, by National Teaching Committee (1932). [about]
- Dr. Cormick's Accounts of his Personal Impressions of Mirza 'Ali Muhammad, The Báb, by Dr. Cormick, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion. A Westerner's account of meeting the Bab and an account of separate incidents involving the persecution of Babis. [about]
- Efforts to preserve the remains of the Bab: Four historical accounts, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Accounts by Mirza Hasan Adib Taliqani, Fadil Mazandarani, ‘Abdu’l-Husayn Avarih, and Aqa Husayn ‘Ali Nur. [about]
- Enslaved African Women in Nineteenth-Century Iran: The Life of Fezzeh Khanom of Shiraz, by Anthony Lee, in Iranian Studies, 45:3 (2012). Through an examination of the life of this servant of The Bab, this paper addresses the enormous gap in our knowledge of the experience of enslaved women in Iran. [about]
- Episode in the Childhood of the Bab, An, by Stephen Lambden, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Parallels legends of the Bab's early childhood with those of Jesus. [about]
- Eyewitness Account of the Massacre of Bahá'ís in Nayriz, 1909, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Shaykh Dhakariyya's rebellion in Nayriz culminated in the martyrdom of nineteen Baha'is on Naw Ruz, 1909, the same day Abdu'l-Baha interred the remains of the Bab in the mausoleum on Mount Carmel. This is a history of both events. [about]
- Five unpublished contemporary documents relating to The Bab's examination at Tabriz in 1848, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1848). [about]
- Further extracts concerning the remains of the Bab in Tehran, by Fadl Mazandarani and Avarih. Two brief excerpts [about]
- Genealogy of Bab, The, by Mirza Abid, in The Dawn-Breakers. Genealogy of the family of the Bab and the family of Baha'u'llah in relation to the Bab. [about]
- Genealogy of The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh, by Kay Zinky (1950). Chart showing the Semitic line of prophets, including source citations. [about]
- Gobineau's Account of the Beginnings of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Howard B. Garey, in World Order, 31:4 (2000). Short summary of the Bab's time in Shiraz and Mecca, circa 1843. [about]
- Half the Household Was African: Recovering the Histories of Two African Slaves in Iran, by Anthony Lee, in UCLA Historical Journal, 26:1 (2015). Biographies of two enslaved Africans in Iran, Haji Mubarak and Fezzeh Khanum, the servants of The Bab. A history of slavery in Iran can be written, not only at the level of statistics, laws, and politics, but also at the level of individual lives. [about]
- Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
- History of the Bab, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1994). Biography of the Bab, distributed by Images International as a 34-page booklet. [about]
- Journey Motif in the Bahá'í Faith, The: From Doubt to Certitude, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22 (2012). The process of individual spiritual growth lies at the heart of human purpose. Bahá’u’lláh speaks about the collective spiritualization of humanity — creating new patterns of community and social relations — as the "journey" of the human body politic. [about]
- Les religions et les philosophies dans l'asie centrale, by Joseph Arthur Gobineau (1866). A lengthy early account of Babi history by French Orientalist and diplomat Comte de Gobineau, who served as France's envoy to Iran in 1855-1863. [about]
- Life of the Bab, The, by Asadu'llah Fadil Mazandarani, in Star of the West, Set 7, Vol 14, Num 7 (1938). Life of the Bab by the historian Jinab-i-Fadil (Asadu'llah Fadil Mazandarani) [about]
- Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer and Nicola Towfigh, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Two pages on a prophecy concerning the advent of Man Yuzhiruhu'llah. [about]
- Marriage certificates of The Bab and Baha'u'llah, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 5 (1932-1934) (1934). Marriage certificates of The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Martyrdom of the Bab: An Outline for Researchers, by David Merrick (2017). The events of the Martyrdom of the Bab, including the weeks before and days after, presented through complementary and contrasting accounts with commentary, suitable for anyone investigating the events in detail. [about]
- Memories of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Memoirs of Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 4 (2005). Autobiography of a close confidant of the holy family. Includes appendices on Baha'i historical places in Shiraz, the Afnán family genealogy, and excerpts from Houshmand Fatheazam’s diary [about]
- Messianic Concealment and Theophanic Disclosure, by Moojan Momen, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
- New History (tarikh-i-jadid) of Mirza Ali-Muhammed the Bab, The, by Husayn Hamadani (1893). Detailed history of the Bab, translated into English. Also known as Tarikh-i Badi'-i Bayani. [about]
- Notes on The Báb, Some, by Robert Stockman (1998). Brief overview of sources on the Babi period, the Bab's history, and his writings. [about]
- Perfection and Refinement: Towards an Aesthetics of the Bab, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The writings of the Bab have implications for the "plastic" arts; significance for native traditions; relevance to the performing arts; and the concept of refinement which comes across in both the person and the writings of the Báb. [about]
- Prophet in Modern Times, A, by Peter Terry (2008). Partial translation of A.L.M. Nicolas' Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Bab, with extensive notes and explanations. [about]
- Questions of Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali Muhammad occasioning the Revelation of the Kitab-i-Iqan, by Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali Muhammad (1997). Translation of the questions submitted to Baha'u'llah by Haji Mirza Siyyid Muhammad, the maternal uncle of the Bab, which
led to the revelation of the Kitab-i Iqan. [about]
- Recovering the Lives of Enslaved Africans in Nineteenth-Century Iran: A First Attempt, by Anthony Lee, in Changing Horizons in African History (2016). Reconstructing the lives of four slaves in the Middle East, including Haji Mubarak and Fezzeh Khanum, servants of The Bab. [about]
- Release the Sun, by William Sears (1960). Millennialism gripped many around the world during the early 19th century. While Christians expected the return of Christ, a wave of expectation swept through Islam that the "Lord of the Age" would appear. This is a living history of that period. [about]
- Remains of the Bab in Tehran, The, by Ahang Rabbani (1997). Brief bio of Aqa Husayn-'Ali Nur and an extract from Khatirat Muhajiri Az Isfahan, "Memoirs of a Refugee from Isfahan," discussing the history of these remains. Includes biographical notes. [about]
- Seeds of Revelation and the Mystic Bond between The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: An Exposition on Excerpts from the Persian Bayán, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
- Servants in the Households of Baha'u'llah and the Bab, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Whether or not the servants of the Bab and Baha'u'llah were slaves, and a list of relevant sources for further research. [about]
- Seyyèd Ali Mohammed, dit le Bâb, by A.L.M. Nicolas (1905). The first detailed biography of The Bab written in a Western language. [about]
- Tahirih, Letter of the Living, and Khadijih Bagum, Wife of the Báb, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Life stories of two key heroines of Babi history. [about]
- Trial of Mullá 'Alí Bastámí, The: A Combined Sunní-Shí'í Fatwá against The Báb, by Moojan Momen, in Iran: Journal of the British Institute for Persian Studies, 20 (1982). [about]
- Trial of the Báb: Answers given during the interrogation of the Báb (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial.
- Trial of the Báb: Alim-i Hashtrud's account (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial.
- Trial of the Bab: Mulla Muhammad Mamaqani's account (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial.
- Trial of the Báb: Questions, rebukes, statements made during the interrogation of the Bab (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial. [about]
- Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image, by Denis MacEoin, in Studies in Honor of Clifford Edmund Bosworth 2: The Sultan's Turret (2000). Overview of, and documents preserved from, the Bab's 1848 trial for heresy against Islam. [about]
- Two Shall Appear, by Olivia Kelsey, Revised Second Edition (1943). A play which attempts to depict in a brief form the background and some of the heroic events of Baha'i history. [about]
- Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]