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Search for tag "Babi"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1847. Aug Táhirih sends Mullá Ibráhím Mahallátí to present to the chief mujtahid of Hamadán her dissertation in defence of the Bábí Cause. Mahallátí is attacked and severely beaten. Hamadán; Iran Persia Tahirih; Mulla Ibrahim Mahallati; Babi
1847. Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]

Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]

  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
Tihran; Tehran; Qazvin; Iran; Persia Bahaullah, Life of; Mulla `Abdu'llah; murder; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Shaykh Salib-i-Karimi; Babis; execute; execution; martyrdom; shrine; Imam-Zadih Zayd; Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi; death; prison; Mulla Tahir-i-Shirazi; Mulla Ibrahim-i-Maballati
1848. late Spring Mullá Husayn goes to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, and realizes that the `hidden treasure' is his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]

Mullá Husayn proceeds to Mashhad and builds a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús take up residence in it and begin to teach the Bábí religion.

  • See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
  • Among those who come to the Bábíyyih is Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
  • See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
Barfurush; Mazindaran; Mashhad; Iran; Persia Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Babi centre
1848. Jul - Sep Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, are joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
  • Their numbers swell into hundreds, possibly 300 and beyond. [B172; BKG50]
  • The Black Standard is raised on the plain of Khurásán. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
  • The Black Standard will fly for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
  • See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
  • See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
Mazindaran; Badasht; Khurasan; Iran; Persia Mulla Husayn; Babis; Black Standard; Prophecies; death; Muhammad Shah
1848. 12 Oct The band of 72 Bábís take refuge in the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí which is located about 14 miles southeast of Bárfurúsh and prepare it for siege. [B173; BBRSM26; BW18:381; DB344–5] Bárfurúsh; Iran; Persia Bábís; Bábí; shrine; Shaykh Tabarsí
1849. 26 Apr A charge by the forces of Sulaymán Khán is repulsed by 37 Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir. [BW18:381; DB3956]

  • A few days later some of the Bábís leave the fort on the promise of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá that they will be returned to their homes. As soon as they are outside the fort they are put to death. [DB396–9]
Iran Sulayman Khan; Babis; Mirza Muhammad-Baqir; Shaykh Tabarsi
1850. 14 Feb Fourteen Bábís are arrested as a result of the actions of an informer. [BBRSM28; BW18:381] Iran; Persia Bábí; informer; arrest
1850. 21 Jun End of the first Nayríz upheaval. [BBRXXIX, 112]

  • Vahíd is forced to write to his companions in the fortress to assure them that a settlement has been reached. The Bábís leave the fort, are set upon and killed. [B181; BW18;381]
Nayríz; Iran; Persia Vahíd; Bábí
1850. 24 Jun The severed heads of 13 Bábís arrive in Shíráz from Nayríz. They are raised on lances and paraded through the town. [B182; BW18:381] Shíráz; Nayríz; Iran; Persia severed head; Bábí
1851 2 Jan c. End of the Zanján upheaval. [BW18:382]

  • Hujjat, wounded in the right arm by a bullet 19 days previously, succumbed to his wounds. With the death of Hujjat the Bábí resistance weakens. A general assault by the royal forces ends the siege. [B187; BBR122; BW18:382; DB573–4]
  • See B187 and DB574–7 for the fate of the survivors.
  • See B187 and DB577–9 for the fate of Hujjat's body.
  • About 1,800 Bábís were killed during the upheaval. [DB580, 598]
Zanján; Iran; Persia death; Hujjat; Babi
1851. 2 Mar Four Bábís brought from Zanján are execute in Tihrán. [BW18:382] Tihrán; Tehran; Zanján; Iran; Persia Bábís; executed
1852 22 Aug – 27 Aug After the initial executions, about 20 or more Bábís are distributed among the various courtiers and government departments to be tortured and put to death. [BBR135–6 BW18:382] execution; Babis
1852. Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís are arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

Many Bábís are tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís are martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes are gouged in his body and nine lighted candles are inserted. He joyfully dances to the place of his execution. His body is hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions are so severe that the community is nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappears from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
Mílán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Bábí; arrest; torture; prison; Sháh; Mahmud Khán; Kalántar; martyr; Sulaymán Khán
1853. 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245] Nayriz; Shiraz; Iran; Persia Babi; prisoner; martyr; Islam; Prophecies; Qaim
1853. 24 Nov The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrive in Shíráz. More Bábís are executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads are later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382] Shíráz; Nayríz; Tihrán; Tehran; Ábádih; Iran; Persia Bábí; executed
1865 French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau publishes Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement. [BBR17]

Mírzá Kazem-Beg of St Petersburg University publishes Bab Babidy, the first Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion. [BBR26]

France; Russia Comte de Gobineau; Babi studies; Mirza Kazem-Beg; Petersburg University; Firsts, Other
1867. 11 Jan Three Bahá'ís are executed in Tabríz. Their arrest is precipitated by conflict and rivalry between the Azalís and the Bahá'ís. [BBR252–3; BKG237–8; BW18:382–3; RB2:61]
  • BW18:382 says this was 8 January.
Tabriz; Iran Executions; Azali Babis; Persecution
1872. 22 Jan Three Azalís, among them Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahání, the Antichrist of the Bahá'í Revelation, are murdered by seven Bahá'ís. [BBD163; BKG3256 DH41; GPB189; RB3:235]
  • Siyyid Muhammad Isfahání, Nasr’ulláh Tafríshí, Áqá Ján Ka’j Kuláh and Ridá Qulí these four kept vigil near the land gate to ensure no one would meet Bahá’u’lláh. They kept watch from the second story window of a building overlooking the land gate so that if a pilgrim, after spending some six months traveling on foot, intended to enter the city they could somehow prevent his entrance. This situation lasted for some time. After two years and a few months, Bahá’u’lláh was released from the prison. Some of the friends, including Salmání, decided to get rid of these enemies and during the night went to their place and killed Siyyid Muhammad, Áqá Ján and another person. [Sweet and Enchanting Stories, Aziz Rohani, P 31]
  • Bahá'u'lláh is taken to the Governorate where He is interrogated and imprisoned for 70 hours. [BKG327; GBP190; RB3:237]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá is thrown into prison and kept in chains the first night. Twenty–five of the companions were also imprisoned and shackled. [BKG328; GBP190; RB3:237]
  • See BKG331, GPB191 and RB3:238 for the effect of the murders on the local population.
  • Ilyás `Abbúd puts a barricade between his house and the house of `Údí Khammár, where Bahá'u'lláh lives. [BKG331; GPB191]
  • See BKG330, DH44 and RB3:239 for the fate of the murderers, who are imprisoned for seven years.
Akka Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; House of Udi Khammar; Bahaullah, Houses of; Antichrist; Murders; Opposition; Azali Babis
1939 Feb A.-L.-M. Nicolas, the French consular official and Orientalist who made a study of the Bábí Faith, passes away in Paris.
  • His important collection of manuscripts is auctioned and the items relevant to the Bahá’í and Bábí Faiths are purchased by the Bahá’í World Centre.
Paris; France A.L.M. Nicolas; Babi studies; Bahai studies

from the main catalogue

  1. Süleyman Nazif's Nasiruddin Shah ve Babiler: an Ottoman Source on Babi-Baha'i History, by Necati Alkan (2000). On the author of the 1919 Persian history "Nasiru’d-Din Shah and the Babis," including a translation of passages on Tahirih. [about]
  2. 20,000 Martyrs, Source of Statements about, by Universal House of Justice (1984). Two letters from the Research Department: one from 1984 identifies the source of the statement that 20,000 Bábís were martyred, and one from 2005 says that this source has not actually been found. [about]
  3. A Propos de Deux Manuscrits "Babis" de la Bibliotheque Nationale, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Revue de l'histoire des religions, 47 (1903). Regarding the correct titles/classification of two versions of the manuscript "Histoire de la secte des Bâbis" from the library of Comte de Gobineau. [about]
  4. Abdul Baha; Babism, in Winston's Cumulative Loose-Leaf Encyclopedia: A Comprehensive Reference Work (1922). Two short encyclopedia entries. [about]
  5. Afnán Family, The: Some Biographical Notes, by Ahang Rabbani (2007). Genealogy of the Báb and biographies of his descendants; meaning of afnan. [about]
  6. Báb and the Bábí Religion, The, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani, in Letters & Essays 1886-1913 (1985). A general overview of Babi history and thought, written in Arabic in 1896. [about]
  7. Báb in Shiraz, The: An Account by Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 16 (2008). Recollections of the early years of the Bab and his family, and the times following his declaration; written by a relative. [about]
  8. Bab und Babis, by Arminius (Armin) Vambery, in Meine Wanderungen und Erlebnisse in Persien (1867). Lengthy discussion of the Babis, by a Hungarian Jew who later met Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
  9. Báb's Bayan, The: An Analytical Survey, by Muhammad Afnan, in World Order, 31:4 (2000). Analysis of the Bayan and its contents: fundamental beliefs and worldview, moral principles, laws, administration of society, and future expectations. [about]
  10. Babi Movement in Iran, The: From Religious Dissent to Political Revolt, 1844, by Ahmad Nur Fuad (1998). Development of the Babi movement and the political implications of its religious teachings, as seen in its shift from purely religious dissent to political dissent. [about]
  11. Babi Movement, The: A Resource Mobilization Perspective, by Peter Smith and Moojan Momen, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Babism from a sociological standpoint, esp. the place of the Babis in their contemporary cultural and economic classes. [about]
  12. Bábís of Nayriz, The: History and Documents, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 2 (2006). Extensive collection of historical documents: autobiographies, narratives, genealogies and chronologies, the transition from the Babi to the Baha'i community, provisional translations, and a list of Babi martyrs. [about]
  13. Babis, The, by Edward Sell, in The Church Missionary Intelligencer, 47:21 (1896). An early 10-page overview, published in a monthly journal of missionary information. [about]
  14. Babism, by E. G. Browne, in Religious Systems of the World: A Contribution to the Study of Comparative Religion (1890). [about]
  15. Baron Rosen's Archive Collection of Bábí and Bahá'í Materials, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
  16. Bábís of Persia, The: I. Sketch of Their History, and Personal Experiences amongst Them, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21:3 (1889). Results of Browne's investigations into the doctrines, history, and circumstances of this "most remarkable" religious phenomenon, and outline of things yet to be studied. [about]
  17. Bábís of Persia, The: II. Their Literature and Doctrines, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21:4 (1889). Overview of Babi literature and doctrine. [about]
  18. Browne, Edward Granville: Babism and Bahaism, by Juan Cole, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  19. Bushires' British Residency Records (1837-50): The Appearance of Babism in Persia, by Syed Shakeel Ahmed, in Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 43:4 (1995). Records from Mirza 'Ali Akbar, a British agent in Shiraz, from 1837, 1839, and 1850, with possible early mentions of the Báb. [about]
  20. Commentary on a Verse of Rumi, by Juan Cole (1999). Summary and paraphrase of a tablet about a debate over the unity of being (wahdat al-wujud) in Sufi thought. [about]
  21. Correspondance entre le Comte de Gobineau et le Comte de Prokesche-Osten (1854-1876), by Joseph Arthur Gobineau (1933). Multiple letters from 1865-1868 referencing the Bábí Faith. [about]
  22. Crisis in Babi and Bahá'í Studies, The: Part of a Wider Crisis in Academic Freedom?, by Denis MacEoin, in British Society for Middle Eastern Studies, 17:1 (1990). Response to Cole's review of MacEoin's "Hierarchy, Authority, and Eschatology in Early Babi Thought" with comments on "outsider" scholarship versus faith-based approaches. [about]
  23. Dawn-Breakers: Nabil's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Nabil-i-A'zam (1932). The extensive and preeminent history of Babism and the early Baha'i Faith, by Nabil-i-A'zam [aka Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí, aka Nabíl-i-Zarandí]. [about]
  24. Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of The Bahá'í Revelation: Study Guide, by National Teaching Committee (1932). [about]
  25. Dervish of Windsor Castle, The: The Life of Arminius Vambery, by Lory Alder and Richard Dalby (1979). Two-paragraph discussion of Curzon and the Babis. [about]
  26. Development of the Babi/Bahá'í Communities, The: Exploring Baron Rosen's Archives, by Youli A. Ioannesyan (2013). 19th-century private letters and diplomatic correspondence from a prominent Russian scholar, one of the first to study the rise of the Babis. Excerpt from book: contents and Introduction. (Offsite.) [about]
  27. Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers, summer 1850 (1850). Very brief newspaper mentions about the rise of the Bábí movement: Tioga Eagle (Wellsborough, Pennsylvania) 1850-08-21; Church and State Gazette (Middlesex, London) 1850-07-19; Nevada State Journal 1871-12-23. [about]
  28. First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith (2013). Six versions of the first public mentions in English of the Bábís, from November 1845. [about]
  29. Gobineau's Account of the Beginnings of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Howard B. Garey, in World Order, 31:4 (2000). Short summary of the Bab's time in Shiraz and Mecca, circa 1843. [about]
  30. God's Heroes: A Drama in Five Acts, by Laura Clifford Barney (1910). A play based on events in the lives of the early Babis, with a focus on Tahirih. [about]
  31. Half the Household Was African: Recovering the Histories of Two African Slaves in Iran, by Anthony Lee, in UCLA Historical Journal, 26:1 (2015). Biographies of two enslaved Africans in Iran, Haji Mubarak and Fezzeh Khanum, the servants of The Bab. A history of slavery in Iran can be written, not only at the level of statistics, laws, and politics, but also at the level of individual lives. [about]
  32. Hierarchy Authority and Eschatology in Early Babi Thought, by Denis MacEoin, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Evolution of the Bab's theology and prophetology. [about]
  33. Historical Account of Two Indian Babis: Sa'en Hindi and Sayyid Basir Hindi, by Sepehr Manuchehri (2001). Includes translated excerpts from a number of Persian sources on these two individuals. [about]
  34. History and Provenance of an Early Manuscript of the Nuqtat al-kaf dated 1268 (1851-52), The, by William F. McCants and Kavian Sadeghzade Milani, in Iranian Studies, 37:3 (2004). [about]
  35. Les Béhahis et le Bâb, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Journal Asiatique, vol. 222 (April-June) (1933). [about]
  36. Les religions et les philosophies dans l'asie centrale, by Joseph Arthur Gobineau (1866). A lengthy early account of Babi history by French Orientalist and diplomat Comte de Gobineau, who served as France's envoy to Iran in 1855-1863. [about]
  37. Les religions et les philosophies dans l'asie centrale (continued), by Joseph Arthur Gobineau (1866). Due to size, this book was split in two for this online edition. See part 1. [about]
  38. Mutilated Body of the Modern Nation: Qurrat al-'Ayn's Unveiling and the Persian Massacre of the Bábís, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 18:2 (1998). [about]
  39. Nabil's Narrative: What History has Forgotten, by Soheila Vahdati (2008). An outsider's view of how Iranian media and society have glossed over or intentionally obscured Iran's treatment of 19th-century dissidents. [about]
  40. New History (tarikh-i-jadid) of Mirza Ali-Muhammed the Bab, The, by Husayn Hamadani (1893). Detailed history of the Bab, translated into English. Also known as Tarikh-i Badi'-i Bayani. [about]
  41. Nuqtat al-Káf, by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2008). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  42. Nuqtat al-Kaf and the Babi Chronicle Traditions, by Juan Cole, in Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2:6 (1998). History of the writing of this early Babi historical text, and some recent interpretations of its history. [about]
  43. Persian Rival to Jesus, and His American Disciples, The, by Robert P. Richardson, in The Open Court, 29:8 (1915). History and teachings of the Bábi and Bahá'í religions and contemporary American disagreements, from an unsympathetic outsider's perspective. Followed by three letters-to-the-editor from three subsequent issues. Needs a second proofreading. [about]
  44. Religion of the Bab, The, by Robert E. Speer and Henry H. Jessup, in Missions and Modern History: A Study of the Missionary Aspects of some Great Movements of the Nineteenth Century (1904). Two articles: Speer's "The Religion of the Bab," pp. 119-174, is followed by Jessup's "The Babites," pp. 174-182 (originally published in The Outlook, 1901). [about]
  45. (Report to the) American Oriental Society / A New Prophet, by Austin Wright, in The Literary World, 228:8 (1851). First paper on Bábí history, from a letter to the American Oriental Society, published in multiple newspapers, including translation into German. Includes preface by Steven Kolins. [about]
  46. Ruptured Spaces and Effective Histories: The Unveiling of the Babi Poetess Qurrat al-'Ayn-Tahirih in the Gardens of Badasht, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1998). Implications of Tahirih's revolutionary act at Badasht in terms of a decisive break with Islamic history; also Shaykh Abu Turab's recollections of the event and his literary role in Nabil's Dawn-Breakers. [about]
  47. Sacred Mythology and the Bahá'í Faith, by William P. Collins, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:4 (1990). [about]
  48. Servants in the Households of Baha'u'llah and the Bab, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Whether or not the servants of the Bab and Baha'u'llah were slaves, and a list of relevant sources for further research. [about]
  49. Seyyèd Ali Mohammed, dit le Bâb, by A.L.M. Nicolas (1905). The first detailed biography of The Bab written in a Western language. [about]
  50. Short Chapter in the History of Bâbeeism in Persia, A, by Austin Wright, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Oriental Society (1853). Letter to the American Oriental Society recounting the continuation of Bábísm and attack on the Shah. Follow-up to Wright's first report on Bábí history, from June 1851. [about]
  51. Suggestions for Bahá'í Hermeneutics, by Mark A. Foster (1999). Four essays: "Non-Overlapping Magisteria [science, religion, and Stephen Jay Gould]," "Infallibility: Sinlessness and Prophetic Ecology," "The Case of Some Answered Questions [pedagogy and evolution]," and "The Gospel According to Nabíl." [about]
  52. Tablets concerning the Divine Test, by Bahá'u'lláh (2000). Baha'u'llah's writings about the divine test between Baha'u'llah and Mirza Yahya at the Sultan Selim Mosque in Edirne in September, 1867, which led to the final schism between the Baha'is and the Azali Babis. [about]
  53. Wild Asses, The: A Journey through Persia, by W. V. Emanuel (1939). Passing mentions of Babis in Tabriz and Zanjan. [about]
  54. Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
  55. Witness to Shaykh Tabarsi: The Narrative of Haji Nasir Qazvini, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 8 (2007). Biography of Qazvini, sources for the study of the conflict at Shaykh Tabarsi, and Qazvini's narrative. Includes the Persian text, and bios of Táríkh Samandar and M. A. Malik-Khusravi (in Persian). [about]
  56. Work of A.L.M. Nicolas (1864-1937), The, by Moojan Momen, in The Bábí and Bahá'í Religions: Some Contemporary Western Accounts (1981). Short bio, including list of the works of Nicolas. [about]
  57. Year Amongst the Persians, A, by E. G. Browne (1893). [about]
 
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