Search for tag "Babis"
|1844. 11 Aug
||The Báb sends Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivers a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
- The Shaykh's rejection of the claim leads to violent debate. Mullá `Alí is taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he is sent to Istanbul. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
|Constantinople; Istanbul; Iraq; Baghdád; Najaf; Karbalá
||Bab; Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami; Shaykhi; Mulla `Ali; Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafi; Shi`i; Sunni; `ulama; martyr; Babi; Mulla Hasan Gawhar; Babism
|1847 c. Aug - Sep
||On her departure from Hamadán Táhirih asks most of the Arab Bábís travelling with her to return to Iraq. [B165; DB273]
Arrived in Qazvín, Táhirih refuses her estranged husband's attempts at reconciliation and lives with her father. Her father-in-law Hájí Mullá Taqí, feels insulted and denounces the Shaykhís and Bábís. [B166; DB2736]
|Hamadán; Qazvín; Mashhad; Khurásán; Shíráz; Máh-Kú; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran Persia
||Tahirih; Arab; Babis; Haji Mulla Taqi; Shaykhis; Mulla Husayn; pilgrimage; Baha'u'llah
|1847. Oct - Nov
||Táhirih is accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle and is confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís are arrested. Four, including the assassin, are taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8]
||Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Tahirih; assassination; uncle; Babis; arrested; Khusraw Khan
|1847. Nov - Dec
||Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]
Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]
- See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
- This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
- Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
- He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
- The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
- DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
|Tihrán; Tehran; Qazvín; Iran; Persia
||Baha'u'llah; Mulla `Abdu'llah; murder; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Shaykh Salib-i-Karimi; Babis; execute; execution; martyrdom; shrine; Imam-Zadih Zayd; Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi; death; prison; Mulla Tahir-i-Shirazi; Mulla Ibrahim-i-Maballati
|1848. early Dec
||Bahá'u'lláh sets out from Tihrán with 11 companions to reinforce the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí. Nine miles from the fort they are arrested and taken to the town of Ámul, where they are held prisoner in the home of the deputy governor. This is Bahá'u'lláh's second imprisonment. He intervenes to spare His companions the bastinado and He alone receives it.
- When the governor returns to his home he orders that Bahá'u'lláh and His companions be released and arranges a safe conduct for them to Tihrán. [B174; BBD44; BKG56–60; BW18:381; DB369–76; GPB68; SB7]
- See BKG57 and DB70 for pictures.
|Tihrán; Tehran; Ámul; Iran; Persia
||Baha'u'llah; Babis; Shaykh Tabarsi; arrest; bastinado
||The presence of the Báb in Chihríq attracts much notice. Eventually Yahyá Khán softens his attitude to the Báb. [B135; DB303]
- Excitement among local people eclipses that of Máh-Kú. [GPB20]
- Many priests and government officials become followers, among them Mírzá Asadu'lláh of Khuy, surnamed Dayyán. [B136; DB303; GPB20]
- So many Bábís come to Chihríq that they cannot all be housed. [B135]
- See B136 for story of the inferior honey.
- A dervish, a former navváb, arrives from India after having seen the Báb in a vision. [B137; DB305; GPB20]
- The Báb reveals the Lawh-i-Hurúfát (Tablet of the Letters) in honour of Dayyán. [DB304; GPB27]
|Chihríq; Iran; Persia; India
||Bab; Yahya Khan; Mah-Ku; Mirza Asadu'llah; Khuy; Dayyan; Babis; honey; dervish; navvab; Lawh-i-Hurufat; Tablet Letters
|1848. c. 17 Jul
||The Bábís leave Badasht for Mázindarán. They are attacked by a mob of more than 500 outside the village of Níyálá. [B170–1; BKG46–7; BW18:380; DB298; GPB68]
- Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr with Táhirih. He entrusts her into the care of Shaykh Abú-Turáb-i-Ishtahárdí, to be taken to a place of safety. [BKG48; DB299]
- Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr `in easy stages'. By September He is in Bandar-Jaz. [BKG48]
|Badasht; Mázindarán; Níyálá; Núr; Bandar-Jaz; Iran; Persia
||Babis; attack; Baha'u'llah; Tahirih; Shaykh Abu-Turab-i-Ishtahardi
|1848. Jul - Sep
||Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, are joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
- Their numbers swell into hundreds, possibly 300 and beyond. [B172; BKG50]
- The Black Standard is raised on the plain of Khurásán. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
- The Black Standard will fly for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
- See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
- See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
|Mázindarán; Badasht; Khurásán; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Husayn; Babis; Black Standard; prophecy; death; Muhammad Shah
|1848. 12 Oct
||The band of 72 Bábís take refuge in the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí which is located about 14 miles southeast of Bárfurúsh and prepare it for siege. [B173; BBRSM26; BW18:381; DB344–5]
||Bárfurúsh; Iran; Persia
||Bábís; Bábí; shrine; Shaykh Tabarsí
|1848. Oct - May 1849
||The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí.
- See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
- The episode lasts seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
- See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
- See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
- See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
- Bahá'u'lláh visits the fortress and approves the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227]
- He advises Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn sets out immediately and secures the release of Quddús, who has been in detention for 95 days. [B173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
- Quddús arrives towards the end of the year. Some sources say October 20. [B173]
- See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brings the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
- Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
- 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
- The siege begins with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
- it is said that 2000 soldiers were involved in the siege.
||Shrine; Shaykh Tabarsi; Babis'; Babi; Baha'u'llah; fortress; Mulla Husayn; Quddus
||Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)|
|1848. 21 Dec
||The Bábís, led by Quddús, make a mounted attack on the army. All of the officers are killed including `Abdu'lláh Khán. A number of soldiers are drowned as they retreat into the Tálár River. About 430 soldiers are killed but no Bábís; one Bábí is wounded. [BW18:381; DB361–3; MH243–6]
- For the next 19 days the defenders dig a moat. [DB363]
||Bábís; Bábí; Quddús; attack; `Abdu'lláh Khán; Tálár River
|1849. 11 Jan
||Quddús and Mullá Husayn lead a night attack on the encamped army. Two hundred and two Bábís disperse the camp. [BW18:381; BD365; MH254]
DB 368 says this occurred on 21 December 1848.
||Quddus; Mulla Husayn; attack; army; Babis
|1849. 2 Feb
||Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn leads a charge of 313 men that again routs the king's army. He is struck in the chest by a bullet and dies. His body is carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís are also wounded, about 40 of whom die. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]
- Mullá Husayn is 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
- See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
- See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
- See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
- See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
- Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
- It takes the army 45 days to reassemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
||Mulla Husayn; death; Babis; burial; Mihdi-Quli Mirza; martyred
|1849. 26 Apr
||A charge by the forces of Sulaymán Khán is repulsed by 37 Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir. [BW18:381; DB3956]
- A few days later some of the Bábís leave the fort on the promise of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá that they will be returned to their homes. As soon as they are outside the fort they are put to death. [DB396–9]
||Sulaymán Khán; Bábís; Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir
|1849. 10 May
||The end of the siege of the fort at Shaykh Tabarsí. Two hundred and two Bábís are tricked into leaving the shrine. [BW18:381]
- DB400 says they accompanied Quddús.
- They are not conducted to their homes as promised but are set upon by the Prince's soldiers. Some are killed, others sold into slavery. The fortifications around the shrine are razed to the ground. [DB403–4; MH283]
- See DB414–29 for a list of the martyrs of Tabarsí.
||Shaykh Tabarsi; fort; shrine; Babis
|1850. early Dec
||Hujjat is wounded in the arm. His companions lay down their arms and rush to his assistance. The royal forces take advantage of the lull to breach the fortifications. [B187; BBR121; DB569]
- About 100 women and children are taken captive. They are left exposed in the open for 15 days without food, shelter or appropriate clothing. [BBR121; DB569–70]
- The remaining Bábís, about 140, shelter in Hujjat's residence under fierce attack. [BBR121]
The bombardment of the fortress is stepped-up and Hujjat's house particularly targeted. Hujjat's wife and baby are killed. [B187; DB572–3]
||Hujjat; wounded; killed; Babis
|1851. 2 Mar
||Four Bábís brought from Zanján are execute in Tihrán. [BW18:382]
||Tihrán; Tehran; Zanján; Iran; Persia
|1851. 28 Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh arrives in Karbalá via Baghdád on His pilgrimage. He stays here for 10 months. [BKG67; DB593; GPB70]
- See BKG68 and DB593–4 for those who became Bábís in Karbalá in this period.
|Karbalá; Baghdád; Iraq
||Baha'u'llah; pilgrimage; Babis
|1852 16 – 22 Aug
||A large number of Bábís are arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number are executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]
Eighty–one, of whom 38 are leading members of the Bábí community, are thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]
|Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Babis; arrest; execute; execution; Siyah-Chal; martyrdom
|1852 22 Aug – 27 Aug
||After the initial executions, about 20 or more Bábís are distributed among the various courtiers and government departments to be tortured and put to death. [BBR135–6 BW18:382]
|1853. 26 Mar
||Five Bábís, acting on their own initiative, murder the governor of Nayríz, providing the spark for the second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147]
||Nayríz; Iran; Persia
||Bábís; upheaval; murder; governor
from the main catalogue
- Süleyman Nazif's Nasiruddin Shah ve Babiler: an Ottoman Source on Babi-Baha'i History, by Necati Alkan (2000). On the author of the 1919 Persian history "Nasiru’d-Din Shah and the Babis," including a translation of passages on Tahirih. [about]
- Abdul Baha; Babism, in Winston's Cumulative Loose-Leaf Encyclopedia: A Comprehensive Reference Work (1922). Two short encyclopedia entries. [about]
- Báb and the Bábí Religion, The, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani, in Letters & Essays 1886-1913 (1985). A general overview of Babi history and thought, written in Arabic in 1896. [about]
- Bab und Babis, by Arminius (Armin) Vambery, in Meine Wanderungen und Erlebnisse in Persien (1867). Lengthy discussion of the Babis, by a Hungarian Jew who later met Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Báb's Bayan, The: An Analytical Survey, by Muhammad Afnan, in World Order, 31:4 (2000). Analysis of the Bayan and its contents: fundamental beliefs and worldview, moral principles, laws, administration of society, and future expectations. [about]
- Babi Movement in Iran, The: From Religious Dissent to Political Revolt, 1844, by Ahmad Nur Fuad (1998). Development of the Babi movement and the political implications of its religious teachings, as seen in its shift from purely religious dissent to political dissent. [about]
- Commentary on a Verse of Rumi, by Juan Cole (1999). Summary and paraphrase of a tablet about a debate over the unity of being (wahdat al-wujud) in Sufi thought. [about]
- Dervish of Windsor Castle, The: The Life of Arminius Vambery, by Lory Alder and Richard Dalby (1979). Two-paragraph discussion of Curzon and the Babis. [about]
- Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers, summer 1850 (1850). Very brief newspaper mentions about the rise of the Bábí movement: Tioga Eagle (Wellsborough, Pennsylvania) 1850-08-21; Church and State Gazette (Middlesex, London) 1850-07-19; Nevada State Journal 1871-12-23. [about]
- First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith (2013). Six versions of the first public mentions in English of the Bábís, from November 1845. [about]
- God's Heroes: A Drama in Five Acts, by Laura Clifford Barney (1910). A play based on events in the lives of the early Babis, with a focus on Tahirih. [about]
- Hierarchy Authority and Eschatology in Early Babi Thought, by Denis MacEoin, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Evolution of the Bab's theology and prophetology. [about]
- Persian Rival to Jesus, and His American Disciples, The, by Robert P. Richardson, in The Open Court, 29:8 (1915). History and teachings of the Bábi and Bahá'í religions and contemporary American disagreements, from an unsympathetic outsider's perspective. Followed by three letters-to-the-editor from three subsequent issues. Needs a second proofreading. [about]
- (Report to the) American Oriental Society / A New Prophet, by Austin Wright, in The Literary World, 228:8 (1851). First paper on Bábí history, from a letter to the American Oriental Society, published in multiple newspapers, including translation into German. Includes preface by Steven Kolins. [about]
- Tablets concerning the Divine Test, by Bahá'u'lláh (2000). Baha'u'llah's writings about the divine test between Baha'u'llah and Mirza Yahya at the Sultan Selim Mosque in Edirne in September, 1867, which led to the final schism between the Baha'is and the Azali Babis. [about]
- Wild Asses, The: A Journey through Persia, by W. V. Emanuel (1939). Passing mentions of Babis in Tabriz and Zanjan. [about]