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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1856 Mar During His absence Mírzá Musá rents a house in the Karkh district in the west of the city. The house is large, two or three stories, and is made of simple mud brick with a surrounding central courtyard. At some point before His departure on the 22nd of April, 1863, the house is purchased. He later names it "The Most Great House" and designates it a place of pilgrimage. It is also referred to as the "Throne of His Glory", and the "Lamp of Salvation between earth and heaven". [CEBF66]
  • After His departure the House was held in the names of various custodians and allowed to fall into disrepair. [CEBF66]
Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1864 c. At some point during this period After years of imprisonment in Tehran, Àbdu'r '-Rasúl-Qumí visited Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople then took up residence in Baghdad, caring for the garden of the House of Bahá'u'lláh. He was well-known to the Muslims and a target of their attacks. One morning as he was carrying skins of water from the Tigris River he was ambushed by a number of attackers and was mortally wounded. He managed to disperse the assailants, drag himself to the garden where he watered the flowers for the last time.

His name is mentioned in many Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh, consoling his family. His son was appointed caretaker of the pilgrims in 'Akk´and he served in this capacity until the days of Shoghi Effendi. [FAA8]

Baghdád; Iraq; Adrianople House of Baha’u’llah; Abdu'r '-Rasul-Qumi
1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Nabíl-i-A‘zam is dispatched to Iraq and Iran to inform the Bábís of the advent of Bahá'u'lláh. He is further instructed to perform the rites of pilgrimage on Bahá'u'lláh's behalf in the House of the Báb and the Most Great House in Baghdad. [BKG250; EB224; GPB176–7]
  • For details of his mission see EB224–7.
  • On hearing Nabíl's message, the wife of the Báb, Khadíjih Khánum, immediately recognizes the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB225]
  • For the rites of the two pilgrimages performed by Nabíl see SA113–15. The first pilgrimages to the residence of Bahá'u'lláh take place. [GPB177]
Shiraz; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq; Nabil-i-A‘zam; pilgrimage; Khadijih Khanum; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1915 (in the year) Jamál Páshá, Commander of the 4th Army Corps of the Turkish army, is put in military control of Syria, including the Holy Land. [AB412]
  • For an account of his relationship with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá see AB412–14.
  • He threatens to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and to destroy the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [AB414; GPB304, 317]
Haifa; Akka Jamal Pasha; Shrine of Baha’u’llah; ‘Abdu’l-Baha
1920 The House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád is seized by Shí'ís. [BBD109; GBF33; GPB356-7] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or Mandatory Iraq begins. It will last until 1932. [Mandatory Iraq] Iraq House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 after Mandate After the establishment of British control of Iraq and the appearance of religious freedom and greater security, 'Abdu'l-Bahá authorizes repairs to begin on the House. The renovations attract the attention of neighbouring Shi'as and after the passing of the custodian, Muhammad Husayn Bábí, they sue for possession on the grounds that he had no heirs. [SETPE1p25] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 Feb The Shi'a petition for the possession of the House in Baghdád is granted and the Bahá'is are evicted. [SETPE1p25] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 Apr The Minister of Justice overturns an earlier ruling and possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád is returned to the Bahá'ís. [SETPE1p25] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 23 Nov A second suit for the possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad is decided in favour of the Shi'a claimants. This allows them to apply to the Peace Court in 1922. [SETPE1p25]
  • Before the application goes before the Court the Shi'a group prevail upon King Faisal to give an illegal personal order to the Governor of Baghdád to evict the Bahá'ís and the return the keys to them. All this is against the opinion of the British High Commissioner. [SETPE1p25]
  • The case is passed from court to court and finally brought before the Court of Appeal in Baghdád which, by a majority of four (the Iráqí members) to one (the British Presiding Justice), decides in favour of the plaintiffs. [SETPE1p25]
Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1922 22 Feb Subsequent to the decision of the Court of Appeal the government of Iraq takes over the keys for the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [SETPE1p26] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1922 22 Feb King Feisal of Iraq orders the Bahá'ís to be turned out of the Most Great House in Baghdád to keep the peace. [BW354; GPB343; PP54] Baghdad King Feisal; Most Great House; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1923 The keys for the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád are delivered to the Shi'as by the government. [PP94-5, GBF33] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1923 Jul The Bahá'ís appeal to the Peace Court for possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [SETPE1p26] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1923 20 Dec The Peace Court rules in favour of giving the Bahá'ís possession of House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád, however, the Council of Ministers, with the approval of King Feisal, orders that the property not be returned until ownership can be established. [SETPE1p26]
  • The Guardian sends 19 cables to various individuals and national bodies with instructions that the Bahá'ís should send cables to the British High Commissioner in Iráq, Sir Henry Dobbs, as well as to the British authorities in Iráq and in London as well as to King Feisal to protest the action of the Council of Ministers. In communities were the numbers are stronger, Persia and America, he instructs that every local assembly protest directly. The Guardian himself sends over 600 pieces of correspondence during the following six months concerning this issue. [PP94-6, GBF33-34 BA94-95]
  • The Iráqí government refuses to bow to the pressure put upon them. [PP96]
Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1925 16 Jan Shoghi Effendi reports in a letter that the case of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád is now before the court of the First Instance and has been postponed for some time. He states that, should the appeal be successful, the opponents are likely to refer the case to the Court of Appeal and, should that happen, the government is likely to delay the return of the keys for the House. [BA76] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1925 13 Dec The keys to Bahá’u’lláh’s house in Baghdád are given to the Shí’ís. [UD45] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Shi’is
1926 28 Jan Martha Root sends a note and a copy of Bahá’u’lláh and the .New Era to Queen Marie of Romania. [GBF42; GPB390; MR242] Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie; Bahá’u’lláh and the .New Era
1926 14 Nov Iraq's highest tribunal rules against the Bahá'ís in the question of ownership of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. Shoghi Effendi immediately sends a cable urging the American National Assembly and all local assemblies to write or cable the Iraq High Commissioner through the British Consular authorities, to the King of Iraq and to the British central authorities to protest against the injustice. [SETPE1p138] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1928 11 Sep The case of Baha'u'llah's House in Baghdad is put before the League of Nations by means of a petition to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations From the Baha'is of ‘Iráq. [Text of the Petition] Geneva; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1928 11 Sep The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Iraq submits a petition to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations for the return of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW3:198–206]
  • See BA164-165 for letter from Shoghi Effendi.
  • Baghdád; Iraq; Petition to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1928 26 Oct-13 Nov The case of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is taken before the fourteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW3:207]
    • The right of the Bahá’ís to the House is upheld and the government of Iraq is strongly pressed to find a solution but the House is not returned to the Bahá’ís. [BW3:207–9; GBF35; PP96–7]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s comment on these developments see BW3:206–9.
    • The Shí’ís turn the House into a Husayníyyih, where the martyrdom of the Imám Husayn is mourned. [BBD113–14]
    Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; Shi’is; Husayniyyih
    1928 Nov It is recommended to the Council of the League of Nations to request that the British Government make representations to the Iraqi Government to redress the denial of justice to the Bahá'ís with reference to House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdad. [GBF35] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1929 4 Mar The Council of the League of Nations adopts the conclusion reached by the Mandates Commissions upholding the claim of the Bahá’í community to the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW3:50-55]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s response to this see BW3:206–9 and BA175-180.
    Baghdád; Iraq; Council of the League of Nations; Mandates Commissions; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1929 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces that the Council of the League of Nations had pronounced in favour of the Bahá'í petition regarding the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdad. Unfortunately, King Faisal, a Sunni, relents under the pressure of the Shi'iah element and the property was never returned. [Bahá'í News Letter, no. 31 (April 1929), p.6, SETPE1p169] Baghdad House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1929 6–26 Nov The case of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is taken before the sixteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW4:237]
    • The text of the petition was conceived and drafted by Monfort Mills. Shoghi Effendi paid tribute to his work in a letter dated March 20, 1929. [BA180]
    • The right of the Bahá’ís to the House is upheld and the government of Iraq is strongly pressed to find a solution but the House is not returned to the Bahá’ís. [BW4:237; GBF35; PP96–7]
    Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; Montfort Mills
    1930 2 Jan Martha Roots meets with King Faisal of Iraq in Baghdad. The King says that a committee has been formed to study the problem and to settle it in such a way as to satisfy all groups interested in the matter. [MRHK149] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Martha Root
    1930 Apr A ceremony is held at the American annual convention in dedication of the resumption of the building activities on the Wilmette Temple. [BBRSM183; BW3:47]
    • Shoghi Effendi’s gift to the Temple is ‘the most valuable sacred possession in the Holy Land’ a ‘precious ornament of the Tomb of Bahá’u’lláh’, an exquisite Persian carpet. [BA180–1; BW4:208–12]
    America annual convention; Baha'i Temple; Tomb of Baha’u’llah; gift; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
    1931 The first Chinese translation of Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era is published. [PH36]
    • The translation is made by Dr Tsao Yun-siang, President of the Xinhua University in Beijing. [PH36]
    Beijing Dr Tsao Yun-siang; Baha’u’llah and the New Era
    1932 3 Oct The term of The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or Mandatory Iraq comes to an end. It had been created in 1921 following the Iraqi Revolt in 1920 and enacted via the 1922 Anglo-Iraqi Treaty. The British chose Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashimi as king of of Iraq and Syria. He fostered unity between Sunni and Shiite Molsems and tried to promote pan-Arabism with the goal of creating an Arab state in Iraq, Syria and the rest of the Fertile Crescent. Faisal died in Switzerland at the age of 48, under what some consider to be suspicious circumstances, while there for a medical examination. [Wikipedia]

    • Iraq is admitted to the League of Nations. [BW5p357]
    Baghdad; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashimi; King Faisal; The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration; Mandatory Iraq
    1932 3 Nov-6 Dec Meeting of the 22nd Session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations in Geneva at which the Bahá’ís plead their case for the possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW5:351–4] Geneva; Baghdád; Iraq; Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1933 23 Oct-4 Nov The 24th session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations is held in Geneva at which the case of the possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is again raised. [BW5:354–5] Geneva; Baghdád; Iraq; Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1944 A Bahá’í committee in Tihrán identifies the House of Bahá’u’lláh in the city and purchases it. Tihrán House of Bahá’u’lláh
    1946 The restoration of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán is completed. Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah
    1947 23 Sep The passing of Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí. He became a Bahá'í in 1911 after reading accounts of the travels of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the Star of the West. After WWI he undertook the restoration of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad. A few years later he played a leading part in the purchase and the establishment of the Hazíratu'l-Quds of Baghdad and the erection of the Haziratu'l-Quds in the village of Avashiq, the first in Iraq. His most imperishable service was the construction of three rooms at the rear of the Shrine of the Báb that were temporarily used as the International Bahá'í Archives before the construction of its permanent seat. [BW11p502-503] Baghdad Haji Mahmud Qassabchi; In Memoriam; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Shrine of the Bab
    1948 The owners of a house near the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh flee and the house becomes government property. [DH226]
    • Shoghi Effendi restores the house and makes it a pilgrim house. [DH226]
    • He acquires the title in about 1956 as part of the exchange of the Ein Gev properties. [DH226]
    Bahjí Shrine of Baha’u’llah
    1949 24 Apr The passing of Montfort Mills.
    He had been a believer since 1906 and by 1909 he had made two pilgrimages to 'Akká as well as a third in early 1921.
    In 1922 he and Roy Wilhelm are invited to Haifa to discuss the possibility of calling for the formation of the Universal House of Justice.
    He was the first chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada when it first formed in 1922 and was elected to that body seven times between 1922 and 1937 and was responsible for the final draft of the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws adopted in 1927.
    One of his most outstanding achievements was his rôle in the case of the appeal for possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. He made two trips to Baghdad and had audiences with King Feisal. During one of these trips he was brutally assaulted and suffered the effects for many years.
    He met with Professor E. G. Browne and, after hearing Mr. Mills explanation of the evolution of the Faith and of the Covenant, Mr. Browne realized he had been veiled by conflicting claims and disturbances following the martyrdom of The Báb and expressed a desire to translate later Bahá'í works but died before this contribution could be made. [BW11p509-511]
    House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; In Memoriam; E. G. Browne
    1950 (in the decade) John Z. T. Chang arrives in Hainan Island and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Hainan Island John Z. T. Chang; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1950 ‘Abdu’l-Rahmán arrives in the Seychelles and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Seychelles ‘Abdu’l-Rahman; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1950 Clifford and Catherine Huxtable arrive in the Gulf Islands and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh (albeit in 1957 see LNW93). [BW13:457] Gulf Islands Clifford Huxtable; Catherine Huxtable; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1951 30 Nov Shoghi Effendi announces plans for the Great Jubilee commemorating the centenary of the birth of the Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh in the Síyáh-Chál. [BW12:24–6, 115–16; MBW16–18] Haifa Great Jubilee; centenary of birth of Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh
    1952 18 May The case brought against Shoghi Effendi by the Covenant-breakers in connection with the demolition of a house adjoining the Shrine and Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí is removed from the civil courts by the government of Israel. [CB330; GBF138–9; PP233–4, 290]
    • For the history of this case and the outcome see BW12:384–7.
    Israel Shrine and Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí; Covenant-breakers
    1953 Katharine Meyer arrives on Margarita Island and is named Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Margarita Island Katharine Meyer; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 19 Mar Suhayl Samandarí arrives in Mogadishu and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Italian Somaliland. [BW13:452]
    • Within a short time, Sa‘íd ‘Alí Masqatí, a Somali from the port of Baraawe, becomes a Bahá’í, the first person to accept the Faith in Somalia.
    Mogadishu; Italian Somaliland Suhayl Samandarí; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh; Sa‘íd ‘Alí Masqatí
    1953 May Mary and Reginald (Rex) Collison, an elderly Canadian-American couple, arrive in Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) from Uganda and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
    • For the story of Mary Collison’s life see BW15:486–8.
    Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) Mary Collison; Reginald (Rex) Collison; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Jun Ghulám ‘Alí Kurlawala arrives in Daman and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Daman Ghulam ‘Ali Kurlawala; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Jun Dunduzu Chisiza, a Nyasaland student who has recently become a Bahá’í in Uganda, arrives in Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) Dunduzu Chisiza; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 6 Jun ‘Izzatu’lláh Zahrá’í (Ezzat Zahrai) arrives in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) ‘Izzatu’lláh Zahrá’í (Ezzat Zahrai); Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1953 Jul Rawshan Áftábí and Fírúzih Yigánigi arrive in Goa and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Goa Rawshan Áftabi; Firuzih Yiganigi; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Jul Arthur and Ethel Crane arrive in Key West and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW16:453] Key West Arthur Crane; Ethel Crane; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Jul Sa‘íd Nahví arrives in Pondicherry and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Pondicherry Sa‘id Nahvi; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Jul Jack Huffman and Rose Perkal arrive on the Kodiak Islands and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Kodiak Islands Jack Huffman; Rose Perkal; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Jul Jenabe and Elaine Caldwell arrive in the Aleutian Islands and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Aleutian Islands Jenabe Caldwell; Elaine Caldwell; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Aug ‘Abbás Vakíl arrives in Cyprus and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cyprus ‘Abbas Vakil; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Aug Shiyam Behari arrives in Pondicherry and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Pondicherry Shiyam Behari; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Aug Amír Húshmand Manúchihrí arrives in Liechtenstein and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Liechtenstein Amir Hushmand Manuchihri; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Aug Salísa Kirmání and Shírín Núrání arrive in Karikal and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Karikal Salisa Kirmani; Shirin Nurani; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Aug Amín and Sheila Banání, a Persian-American couple, settle in Athens-Kifissia in August 1953 and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Greece. [BW452] Athens-Kifissia; Greece Amin Banani; Sheila Banani; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Aug Eskil Ljungberg of Sweden, aged 67, arrives in the Faroe Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451]
    • He is the only Bahá’í on the islands for over a decade.
    • For the story of his life see BW19:658–61.
    Faroe Islands Eskil Ljungberg; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Aug Edythe MacArthur arrives in the Queen Charlotte Islands (now Haida Gwaii) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Queen Charlotte Islands Edythe MacArthur; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Aug Udai Narain Singh arrives in Sikkim and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455; PH63] Sikkim Udai Narain Singh; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 2 Aug Fred Schechter, an American, arrives in Djibouti and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for French Somaliland. [BW13:451]
    • Mr Schechter went on to pioneers to several Latin American countries, he spent thirteen year on the Continental Board of Councillors for the Americas and served on the International Teaching Centre. He passed away on 27 January 2017 in California, U.S.A. He was 89 years old. [BWNS1149]
    Djibouti; French Somaliland Fred Schechter; Knight of Baha’u’llah; Continental Board of Councillors; International Teaching Centre; In Memoriam
    1953 11 Aug Virginia Orbison arrives in the Balearic Islands from a pioneer post in Spain and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Balearic Islands. [BW13:449] Balearic Islands Virginia Orbison; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1953 28 Aug Mildred Clark, a pioneer in Norway, and Loyce Lawrence (née Drugan), a nurse and hospital matron, arrive in the Lofoten Islands and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453]
    • Mrs Lawrence begins teaching the Saami.
    Lofoten Islands Mildred Clark; Loyce Lawrence (née Drugan); Knight of Bahá’u’lláh; pioneer
    1953 Sep Brigitte Hasselblatt arrives in Shetland and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Shetland Brigitte Hasselblatt; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Sep Ada Schott, Elizabeth Hopper, Sara Kenny and Ella Duffield arrive in the Madeira Islands and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. BW13:453] Madeira Islands Ada Schott; Elizabeth Hopper; Sara Kenny; Ella Duffield; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Sep Kathleen Weston arrives in the Magdalen Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Magdalen Islands Kathleen Weston; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Sep Nellie French arrives in Monaco and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Monaco Nellie French; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Sep Julius Edwards arrives in the Northern Territories Protectorate and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Northern Territories Protectorate Julius Edwards; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Sep Doris Richardson arrives on Grand Manan Island and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Grand Manan Island Doris Richardson; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Sep Cora Oliver arrives in British Honduras (Belize) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] British Honduras (Belize) Cora Oliver; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Sep Helen Robinson arrives on Baranof Island and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Baranof Island Helen Robinson; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Sep Dick Stanton arrives in Keewatin and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Keewatin Dick Stanton; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Sep Howard Snider arrives in Key West and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Key West Howard Snider; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Sep Diá’i’lláh Asgharzádih and Evelyn Baxter arrive in the Channel Islands and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Channel Islands Dia’i’llah Asgharzadih; Evelyn Baxter; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Sep Elsa Grossman arrives in the Frisian Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Frisian Islands Elsa Grossman; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Sep Hugh McKinley and his mother, Violet, arrive in Cyprus and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cyprus Hugh McKinley; Violet McKinley; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 8 Sep Jameson and Gale Bond arrive in Arctic Bay in the District of Franklin and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451, SDSC127] Arctic Bay; Franklin Jameson Bond; Gale Bond; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 9 Sep José (d. 1985) and Hilda (née Summers) Xavier Rodrigues, a Portuguese-English couple, arrive in Bissau from Portugal as the first Bahá’í pioneers to Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau) and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Bissau; Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau) José Xavier Rodrigues; Hilda (née Summers) Xavier Rodrigues; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1953 18 Sep Dwight and Carole Allen arrive in Athens and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Greece. [BW13:452] Athens; Greece Dwight Allen; Carole Allen; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1953 23 Sep Ted and Joan Anderson arrive in Whitehorse, Canada, and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Yukon. [BW13:457] Whitehorse; Canada Ted Anderson; Joan Anderson; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1953 27 Sep Tábandih Paymán arrives in San Marino and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh in November. [BW13:455] San Marino Tábandih Paymán; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1953 30 Sep Manúchihr Hizárí and Hurmuz Zindih arrive in Tangier and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Morocco (International Zone). [BW13:454] Tangier; Morocco Manúchihr Hizárí; Hurmuz Zindih; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1953 Oct Lionel Peraji arrives in Mahé and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Mahé Lionel Peraji; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Charles Dunning arrives in the Orkney Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
    • In probably it was October of 1954 Harold and Marzieh Gail depart from St Matthew's Quay in Aberdeen destined to pay a visit to Charles Dunning in Kirkwall. On the island the diminutive Charles Dunning is referred to as "a wee chappie". [OPOP55-59]
    Orkney Islands Charles Dunning; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Geraldine Craney arrives in the Hebrides and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Hebrides Geraldine Craney; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Marie Ciocca arrives on Sardinia and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Sardinia Marie Ciocca; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Earle Render arrives in the Leeward Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Leeward Islands Earle Render; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Salvador and Adela Tormo arrive on the Juan Fernandez Islands and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Juan Fernandez Islands Salvador Tormo; Adela Tormo; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Zunilda de Palacios arrives on Chiloé Island and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Chiloé Island Zunilda de Palacios; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Elly Becking arrives in Dutch New Guinea and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Dutch New Guinea Elly Becking; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Gertrud Ankersmidt and Ursula von Brunn arrive in the Frisian Islands and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Frisian Islands Gertrud Ankersmidt; Ursula von Brunn; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Frederick and Jean Allen and Irving and Grace Geary arrive on Cape Breton Island and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cape Breton Island Frederick Allen; Jean Allen; Irving Geary; Grace Geary; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Richard and Lois Nolen arrive in the Azores and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13p44g] Azores Richard Nolen; Lois Nolen; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Shirley Warde arrives in British Honduras (Belize) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] British Honduras (Belize) Shirley Warde; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Dr Malcolm King, an American pioneer in Jamaica, arrives in British Guiana and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] British Guiana Malcolm King; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Rolf Haug settles in Crete and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for that island. [BW13:450] Crete Rolf Haug; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Muhammad Mustafá Sulaymán, an Egyptian, arrives in Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. BW13:456]
    • For the story of his life see BW18:768–71.
    Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara) Muhammad Mustafa Sulayman; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Max Kanyerezi, a Ugandan, is brought to Brazzaville by Violette and ‘Alí Nakhjavání and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for French Equatorial Africa. [BW13:451] Brazzaville; French Equatorial Africa Max Kanyerezi; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct ‘Amín Battáh, an Egyptian, arrives in Río de Oro (Western Sahara) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Río de Oro (Western Sahara) ‘Amin Battah; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Bertha Dobbins arrives in Port Vila on the island of Efate from Adelaide, Australia, and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the New Hebrides Islands (Vanuatu). [BW13:454] Port Vila; Efate; New Hebrides Islands (Vanuatu) Bertha Dobbins; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Jean and Tove Deleuran arrive in the Balearic Islands and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh in December. [BW13:449] Balearic Islands Jean Deleuran; Tove Deleuran; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Mrs (Alexandra) Ola Pawlowska arrives in St Pierre and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Miquelon Island and St Pierre Island. [BW13:454] St Pierre; Miquelon Island Alexandra Ola Pawlowska; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Gail and Gerald Curwin and Maurice and Ethel Holmes arrive in Nassau and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Bahama Islands. [BW13:449] Nassau Gail Curwin; Gerald Curwin; Maurice Holmes; Ethel Holmes; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Claire Gung arrives in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) Claire Gung; Knight of Baha’u’llah find reference
    1953 Oct Edmund (‘Ted’) Cardell arrives in Windhoek and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for South West Africa (Namibia). [BW13:456]
    • He is later joined by his wife Alicia and the first German Bahá’ís to pioneer to Africa, Martin and Gerda Aiff and their children.
    Windhoek; West Africa (Namibia) Edmund (‘Ted’) Cardell; Knight of Baha’u’llah; Martin Aiff; Gerda Aiff
    1953 7 Oct William Danjon Dieudonné arrives in Andorra and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW12:449]
    • He continues to live in the country.
    Andorra William Danjon Dieudonné; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 11 Oct Fawzí Zaynu’l-‘Ábidín and his wife, Bahíyyih ‘Alí Sa‘di’d-Dín, and their sons Kamál and Sharíf arrive in Tetuán from Egypt and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Spanish Morocco. [BW13:456]
    • For the story of Fawzí Zaynu’l-‘Ábidín’s life see BW16:544–6.
    Tetuán; Spanish Morocco Fawzí Zaynu’l-‘Ábidín; Bahíyyih ‘Alí Sa‘di’d-Dín; Kamál Zaynu’l-‘Ábidín; Sharíf Zaynu’l-‘Ábidín; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1953 13 Oct Una Townshend arrives in Malta and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454, BWNS234] Malta Una Townshend; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 13 Oct Esther Evans and Lillian Middlemast arrive in Castries, St Lucia, and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Windward Islands. BW13:457] Castries; St Lucia; Windward Islands Esther Evans; Lillian Middlemast; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 13 Oct Frederick and Elizabeth Laws arrive in Basutoland (Lesotho) and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449, news.bahai.org/story/262 ]
    • For the story of the life of Elizabeth Laws see BW17:459–60.
    • Chadwick Mohapi and his wife become the first Bahá'ís in Basutoland (Lesotho). [TG166]
    Basutoland (Lesotho) Frederick Laws; Elizabeth Laws; Knight of Baha’u’llah; Chadwick Mohapi
    1953 14 Oct Shoghi Effendi announces the settling of 13 further Knights of Bahá’u’lláh, with 178 territories now open to the Faith. [MBW173] Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 14 Oct Gertrude Eisenberg arrives in Las Palmas and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Canary Islands. [BW13:450] Las Palmas; Canary Islands Gertrude Eisenberg; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 14 Oct Robert and Elinor Wolff arrive in Dutch Guiana and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Dutch Guiana Robert Wolff; Elinor Wolff; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 14 Oct Edith M. Danielsen arrives on Aitutaki Island, 150 miles north of Rarotonga, before leaving for Avarua, Rarotonga, five days later and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Cook Islands. [BW13:450]
    • For the story of her life see BW19:625–6
    .
    Cook Islands Edith M. Danielsen; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Oct Enoch Olinga arrives in Victoria (Limbé) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the British Cameroons. [BW13:449]
    • The first Cameroonian to become a Bahá’í in British Cameroon is a youth, Jacob Tabot Awo.
    • The first Cameroonian adult to become a Bahá’í is Enoch Ngompek of the Bassa tribe.
    • The first Cameroonian woman to become a Bahá’í is Esther Obeu, the wife of David Tanyi.
    Victoria (Limbé); British Cameroons Enoch Olinga; Knight of Baha’u’llah; Jacob Tabot Awo; Enoch Ngompek; Esther Obeu
    1953 15 Oct Eberhard Friedland arrives in French Guiana from the United States and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] French Guiana Eberhard Friedland; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 16 Oct Benjamin Dunham Weeden and his wife Gladys (née Anderson) arrive in Antigua and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Leeward Islands. [BW13:453]
    • For the story of Ben Weeden’s life see BW15:478–9.
    • For the story of Gladys Weeden’s life see BW18:692–6.
    Antigua; Leeward Islands Benjamin Dunham Weeden; Gladys (née Anderson) Weeden; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1953 18 Oct George and Marguerite (Peggy) True arrive on Tenerif with their 12-year-old son Barry and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Canary Islands. [BW13:450] Tenerif; Canary Islands George True; Marguerite (Peggy) True; Barry True; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1953 20 Oct Frances Heller arrives in Macau and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the island. [BW13:453; PH73]
    • She is the first Knight of Bahá’u’lláh to settle in Chinese territory.
    Macau Frances Heller; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1953 24 Oct Elsie Austin arrives in Tangier from the United States and Muhammad-‘Alí Jalálí, an Iranian, also arrives. They are both named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Morocco (International Zone). [BW13:454] Tangier; Morocco Elsie Austin; Muhammad-‘Ali Jalali; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 24 Oct Luella McKay, John and Erleta Fleming, and Alyce Janssen arrive in Spanish Morocco and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Spanish Morocco Luella McKay; John Fleming; Erleta Fleming; Alyce Janssen; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 29 Oct Opal Jensen arrives on Réunion Island from the United States and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
    • She is later declared a Covenant-breaker.
    Réunion Island Opal Jensen; Knight of Baha’u’llah; Covenant-breaker
    1953 29 Oct Gladys (‘Glad’) Irene Parke and Gretta Stevens Lamprill arrive in Papeete from Australia and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Society Islands, French Polynesia. [BW13:455]
    • For the story of Gladys Parke’s life see BW15:457–8.
    • For the story of Gretta Lamprill’s life see BW15:534–5.
    Papeete; Society Islands; French Polynesia Gladys (‘Glad’) Irene Parke; Gretta Stevens Lamprill; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Nov Mary Olga Katherine Mills (née Bieymann) arrives in Malta and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Malta Mary Olga Katherine Mills (née Bieymann); Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Nov Samíra Vakíl arrives in Cyprus and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cyprus Samira Vakil; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Nov Dr Mihdí Samandarí arrives in Italian Somaliland and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452]
    • His wife Ursula (née Newman) arrives in 1954 and is also named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh.
    Italian Somaliland Mihdi Samandari; Ursula Samandari (née Newman); Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Nov Labíb Isfahání arrives in Dakar from Egypt and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for French West Africa. [BW13:452] Dakar; French West Africa Labib Isfahani; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Nov Dr Khodadad M. Fozdar, an Indian of Parsi background, arrives in the Andaman Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449]
    • For the story of his life see BW13:892–3.
    Andaman Islands Khodadad M. Fozdar; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Nov Husayn Rawhání Ardikání and his wife, Nusrat, arrive in Tangier with their daughter, Shahlá, and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Morocco (International Zone). [BW13:454] Tangier; Morocco Husayn Rawhani Ardikani; Nusrat Rawhani Ardikani; Shahla Rawhani Ardikani; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Nov ‘Alí Akbar Rafí‘í (Rafsanjání) and his wife, Sháyistih, and their 19-year-old son, ‘Abbás, arrive in Tangier and all are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Morocco (International Zone). [BW13:454] Tangier; Morocco ‘Ali Akbar Rafi‘i (Rafsanjani); Shayistih Rafi‘i (Rafsanjani); ‘Abbas Rafi‘i (Rafsanjani); Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Nov Matthew W. Bullock of Boston, Massachusetts, arrives in the Dutch West Indies and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Dutch West Indies Matthew W. Bullock; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 11 Nov Shoghi Effendi announces the settling of a further contingent of Knights of Bahá’u’lláh in 21 virgin areas, bringing the number of territories open to the Faith to 200. [MBW52–3] Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 11 Nov Ottilie Rhein (1903-79), an American of German origin, arrives in Mauritius and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the island. [BW13:454]
    • For the story of her life see BW18:703–5.
    • On her first expedition to provide necessities for living, she met the proprietor of a shop, Mr. Yim Lim, who became the first resident of the country to join the Faith. [BWNS274]
    Mauritius Ottilie Rhein; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 13 Nov Kámil ‘Abbás arrives in the Seychelles from Iraq and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
    • For the story of his life see BW18:722–3.
    Seychelles Kámil ‘Abbás; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1953 Dec Kay Khusraw Dahamobedi, Bahíyyih Rawhání and Gulbár Áftábí arrive on Diu Island and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Diu Island Kay Khusraw Dahamobedi; Bahiyyih Rawhani; Gulbar Áftabi; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 Dec Adíb Baghdádí arrives in Hadhramaut and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Hadhramaut Adib Baghdadi; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 8 Dec Loretta and Carl Scherer arrive in Macau from Milwaukee and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for that island. [BW13:453; PH73]
    • For the stories of their lives see BW18:738–40.
    Loretta Scherer; Carl Scherer; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 ‘Aynu’d-Dín and Táhirih ‘Alá’í arrive in Southern Rhodesia and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Southern Rhodesia ‘Aynu’d-Din; Tahirih ‘Ala’i; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Grace Bahovec arrives in the Baranof Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Baranof Islands Grace Bahovec; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 The purchase of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Istanbul is concluded. [SS38] Istanbul House of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Feb Elise Schreiber (later Lynelle) arrives on St Thomas Island and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] St Thomas Island Elise Schreiber (later Lynelle); Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Jan Jean Sevin arrives in Tuamotu Archipelago and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:457] Tuamotu Archipelago Jean Sevin; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Jan Charles M. Ioas arrives in the Balearic Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Balearic Islands Charles M. Ioas; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Jan Munír Vakíl, a former general in the Iraqi army, settles on one of the Kuria-Muria Islands in the Arabian Sea and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453]
    • For the story of the hardships of his pioneering post see ZK99–101.
    Kuria-Muria Islands Munir Vakil; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Jan Elizabeth Bevan (later Mrs Golmohammed) arrives in Rhodes and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Rhodes Elizabeth Bevan (later Mrs Golmohammed); Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Jan Virginia Breaks arrives on the island of Truk and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Caroline Islands. [BW13:450; MBW57] Truk; Caroline Islands Virginia Breaks; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Jan Kenneth and Roberta Christian arrive in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) Kenneth Christian; Roberta Christian; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Jan Andrew and Nina Matthisen arrive in the Bahamas and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Bahamas Andrew Matthisen; Nina Matthisen; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 3 Jan Howard and Joanne Menking arrive in the Cape Verde Islands and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cape Verde Islands Howard Menking; Joanne Menking; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 14 Jan Lilian E. Wyss arrives in Apia from Australia and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Samoa Islands. [BW13:455] Apia; Samoa Islands Lilian E. Wyss; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 15 Jan ‘Abdu’l-Rahmán Zarqání, from India, arrives in the Seychelles and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Seychelles ‘Abdu’l-Rahmán Zarqání; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 18 Jan Mrs Dulcie Burns Dive arrives in the Cook Islands from Australia and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450, 925] Cook Islands Dulcie Burns Dive; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 25 Jan Stanley P. Bolton, Jr. arrives in Nuku’alofa, on Tongatapu Island, from Australia and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Tonga Islands. [BW13:456] Tonga Islands Stanley P. Bolton; Jr.; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 Feb Rahmatu’lláh and Írán Muhájir arrive in Mentawai Islands and are named Knights of Bahá’u‘lláh. [BW13:454]
    • For the story of their pioneering activity see Muhájir, Dr Muhajir, Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh.
    Mentawai Islands Rahmatu’llah Muhajir; Íran Muhajir; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Feb ‘Azízu’lláh and Shamsí Navídí arrive in Monaco and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Monaco ‘Azizu’llah Navidi; Shamsi Navidi; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Feb Joan Powis arrives in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) Joan Powis; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Feb Bernard H. Guhrke arrives on the Kodiak Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Kodiak Islands Bernard H. Guhrke; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Feb Gail Avery arrives in the Baranof Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Baranof Islands Gail Avery; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Feb John and Audrey Robarts and their son Patrick and young daughter Tina arrive in Mafikeng and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Bechuanaland (Botswana). [BW13:449] Mafikeng; Bechuanaland (Botswana) John Robarts; Audrey Robarts; Patrick Robarts; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Feb David Schreiber, an American, arrives in Antigua and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Leeward Islands. [BW13:453] Antigua; Leeward Islands David Schreiber; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Feb Faríburz Rúzbihyán (Feriborz Roozbehyan) arrives in The Gambia and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] The Gambia Fariburz Ruzbihyan (Feriborz Roozbehyan); Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Feb Husayn Halabi arrives in Hadhramaut and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Hadhramaut Husayn Halabi; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 10 Feb John Leonard arrives in the Falkland Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Falkland Islands John Leonard; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 15 Feb Charles Duncan (a musician) and Harry Clark, both Americans, arrive in Brunei from Kota Kinabalu (Jesselton) in Sabah, where they have been waiting for several weeks, and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451; PH63] Brunei Charles Duncan; Harry Clark; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 21 Feb Charles (‘Chuck’) and Mary Dayton from the United States, settle in Charlotte Amalie, on St Thomas, and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Leeward Islands. [BW13:453] Charlotte Amalie; St Thomas; Leeward Islands Charles (‘Chuck’) Dayton; Mary Dayton; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 Mar Qudratu’lláh Rawhání and Khudárahm Muzhgání arrive in Mahé and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Mahé Qudratu’llah Rawhani; Khudarahm Muzhgani; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Mar Olivia Kelsey and Florence Ullrich arrive in Monaco and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454]
    • See Bahá'í Chronicles for the story of the life of Florence Maria Ullrich Kelley (b. November 3, 1932 d. February 17, 2016)
    Monaco Olivia Kelsey; Florence Ullrich; Knight of Baha’u’llah; Florence Kelly
    1954 1 Mar Alvin J. Blum and his wife, Gertrude (née Gewertz), arrive in Honiara and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Solomon Islands. They are accompanied by their eight-year-old daughter Keithie. [BW13:456] Solomon Islands Alvin J. Blum; Gertrude Blum (née Gewertz); Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 25 Mar Leland Jensen arrives on Réunion Island from the United States and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
    • He is later declared a Covenant-breaker.
    Réunion Island Leland Jensen; Knight of Baha’u’llah; Covenant-breaker
    1954 28 Mar Suhráb Paymán, together with his five-year old-daughter Ghitty, arrives in San Marino from Tihrán to join his wife. He is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh in April. [BW13:455] San Marino Suhráb Paymán; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 Apr Dr John Fozdar arrives in Brunei in April 1954 and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Brunei John Fozdar; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Apr Edward Tabe and Albert Buapiah arrive in British Togoland and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] British Togoland Edward Tabe; Albert Buapiah; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Apr Benedict Eballa arrives in Ashanti Protectorate and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Ashanti Protectorate Benedict Eballa; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Apr Martin Manga arrives in the Northern Territories Protectorate, Australia, and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Northern Territories Protectorate; Australia Martin Manga; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Apr Habíb Isfahání arrives in Dakar and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for French West Africa. [BW13:452] Dakar; French West Africa Habib Isfahani; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Apr Gayle Woolson arrives in the Galapagos Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Galapagos Islands Gayle Woolson; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Apr Kay Zinky arrives in the Magdalen Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Magdalen Islands Kay Zinky; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Apr Howard Gilliland arrives in Labrador and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Labrador Howard Gilliland; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Apr Samuel Njiki, the first Bahá’í of the Bamiliki tribe, arrives in French Cameroons from British Cameroons and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. French Cameroons Samuel Njiki; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Apr Corporal Richard Walters and his wife, Evelyn, and Richard and Mary L. Suhm arrive in Tangier from the United States and are all named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Morocco (International Zone). BW13:454] Tangier; Morocco Richard Walters; Evelyn Walters; Richard Suhm; Mary L. Suhm; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Apr John and Marjorie Kellberg of Oak Park, Illinois, arrive in the Dutch West Indies and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Dutch West Indies John Kellberg; Marjorie Kellberg; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Apr Robert B. Powers, Jr., a member of the U.S. armed forces at the Navy Air Station, arrives in Guam and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Mariana Islands. [BW13:454] Guam; Mariana Islands Robert B. Powers; Jr.; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 11 Apr Bula Mott Stewart arrives in Swaziland and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Swaziland Bula Mott Stewart; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 13 Apr David Tanyi, a tailor, arrives in French Togoland from British Cameroons and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] French Togoland David Tanyi; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 18 Apr John and Valera Allen arrive in Swaziland and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Swaziland John Allen; Valera Allen; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 21 Apr Bruce Matthew arrives at Goose Bay and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Labrador. [BW13:453] Goose Bay; Labrador Bruce Matthew; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 4 May Elizabeth Stamp, an Irish-American widow from New York City, arrives in St Helena and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] St Helena Elizabeth Stamp; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 5 May Sabrí and Fahima (Ra’isa) Elias, an Egyptian couple with four children, arrive in Djibouti and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for French Somaliland. [BW13:451] Djibouti; French Somaliland Sabrí Elias; Fahima (Ra’isa) Elias; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 Jun Harold and Florence Fitzner arrive in Portuguese Timor and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Portuguese Timor Harold Fitzner; Florence Fitzner; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Jun Louise Groger arrives on Chiloé Island and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Chiloé Island Louise Groger; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Jun Shawqí Riyád Rawhání (Shoghi Riaz Rouhani), an Iranian from Egypt, arrives in Las Palmas and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Canary Islands. [BW13:450] Las Palmas; Canary Islands Shawqi Riyad Rawhani (Shoghi Riaz Rouhani); Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 24 Jun Shápúr Rawhání and Ardishír Furúdí, Iranian residents of India, arrive in Bhutan by foot and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. They spent about two months in Bhutan. However, circumstances did not permit them to remain longer in Bhutan and they had to return to India. [BW13:449]
    • They are accompanied to the Bhutan border by the prime minister of Bhutan, Jigme Dorji.
    • In about 1961 Dr. Anayat Soroosh Yaganagi, a Bahá'í of Zoroastrian background from Bangalore pioneered to Bhutan. See the brief history of his family and the development of the Faith in the country in "Bahá'í Recollections" written by one of his daughters, Geeti Yaganegi.
    Bhutan Shapur Rawhani; Ardishir Furudi; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Jul José Marques arrives in Portuguese Timor and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Portuguese Timor José Marques; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 Jul Dr John George Mitchell, an English physician who became a Bahá’í in 1950, arrives in Malta and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Malta John George Mitchell; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1954 5 Jul Violet Hoehnke, an Australian, arrives in Papua New Guinea and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Admiralty Islands. [BW13:449] Papua New Guinea; Admiralty Islands Violet Hoehnke; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 12 Jul Dudley Moore Blakely, an artist, sculptor and designer, and his wife, Elsa (‘Judy’), British citizens living in Maine, arrive on Tongatapu and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Tonga Islands. [BW13:456] Tonga Islands Dudley Moore Blakely; Elsa (‘Judy’) Blakely; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 7 Aug Marcia Steward de Matamoros Atwater arrives in the Marshall Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Marshall Islands Marcia Steward de Matamoros Atwater; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 28 Aug Mihribán Suhaylí (Mehraban Sohaili) arrives on the Comoro Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Comoro Islands Mihribán Suhaylí (Mehraban Sohaili); Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1955 Mar Kamálí Sarvístání arrives on Socotra Island and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Socotra Island Kamali Sarvistani; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1955 1 Jun The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Mázandarán, Iran, is taken over. [BW18:391] Tákur; Mázandarán; Ira House of Bahá’u’lláh; religious persecution
    1955 4 Jun Frank Wyss of Australia arrives on Cocos and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cocos Frank Wyss; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1955 Sep Travelling by foot, Udai Narain Singh arrives in Tibet from Gangtok, Sikkim., and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh, his second such distinction.
    • He is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh in spring 1956. [BW13:456]
    Tibet Udai Narain Singh; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1955 Oct Daniel Haumont arrives in the Loyalty Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Loyalty Islands Daniel Haumont; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1956 May Mary Zabolotny (later Mrs Ken McCulloch), of Polish background, arrives on Anticosti Island, Canada, and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Anticosti Island; Canada Mary Zabolotny (later Mrs Ken McCulloch); Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1957 May Pouva Murday of Mauritius arrives in the Chagos Archipelago and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. Chagos Archipelago Pouva Murday; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1957 Jul Margaret Bates and her daughter Jean Frankel of the United States arrive in the Nicobar Islands and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454; PH63] Nicobar Islands Margaret Bates; Jean Frankel; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1958 26 Jun Paul Adams, from Reading, England, having obtained permission to accompany Svalbard’s chief hunter on a fishing tour in the summer and to spend the winter with him in Sassen Fjord, arrives Spitzbergen and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456]
    • See also Adams, Arctic Island Hunter.
    Spitzbergen Paul Adams; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1958 1 Nov The monument marking Shoghi Effendi’s resting place is completed. [MC117]
    • Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh is placed in the foundations. [MC117]
    • For a description of the resting place see BBD194–5 and MC135–6.
    • The monument is paid for from a Memorial Fund established after Shoghi Effendi’s passing. Money in excess of the amount required is spent on the teaching work and on the construction of the Temples. [MC132]
    London Shoghi Effendi; Shrine of Baha’u’llah
    1959 18 Aug Cheong Siu Choi (John Z. T. Chang), the Chinese headmaster of the Leng Nam Middle School and a highly respected leader in Macau, arrives with his family on Hainan Island and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452]
    • PH75 says this was August 1958.
    Hainan Island Cheong Siu Choi; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1962 Apr Virginia Breaks, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Caroline Islands, moves to Saipan, the first pioneer to the area. Saipan Virginia Breaks; Knight of Baha’u’llah; pioneer
    1965 11 Nov The Universal House of Justice announces that the ‘final step’ in the ‘process’ of the ‘purification’ of the Bahá’í properties in Bahjí has been taken with the removal of the remains of the Covenant-breaker Mírzá Díyá’u’lláh from the immediate precincts of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW14:82–3] ‘Akká Bahji; Covenant-breaker; Mirza Diya’u’llah; Shrine of Baha’u’llah
    1970 The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán undergoes major repair and a fundamental restoration of both exterior and interior parts. Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah in Tihran
    1970 The passing of Florence Evaline (Lorol) Schopflocher in Montreal (b.1886)
    • Wife of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. For his "In Memoriam" see BW7p664.
    • She circled the globe nine times on travel teaching tours and visited some 86 countries, many of them multiple times. She travelled to Iran twice visiting parts not previously visited by Western Bahá'ís.
    • She visited the Guardian 11 times.
    • She had several audiences with King Feisal in Iraq and discussed the question of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád with him.
    • Favourite themes for her public talks were the World Order letters of Shoghi Effendi and the emancipation and education of women.
    • She is interred in the Mount Royal Cemetery in Montreal. A radiant star went from the West to the East. [BW15p488-489
    • Find a grave
    Montreal; QC; Canada Lorol Schopflocher; Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher; In Memoriam; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1973 The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán and its adjacent bírúní (reception area) are completely restored to their original structure, design and elegance. Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah
    1974 11 Sep Annemarie Krüger, a German citizen and a granddaughter of Dr Auguste Forel, arrives in Moldavia (then the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, a part of USSR) on the first of her teaching trips to Chisinau as a tourist.
    • In 1985 she is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh by the Universal House of Justice, although she never lived in the country. [Candle9 28 July, 2008]
    Moldavia Annemarie Krüger; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1978 Ridvan Delegates to the International Convention attend a ceremony to further dedicate the new building for the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. The superstructure of the building is completed at this stage. Chairing the event is Hand of the Cause Dr. Ugo Giachery with special guest Ethel Revell, former member of the International Bahá'í Council in attendance. A casket containing dust from both Holy Shrines is placed in a niche specially designed for it.
    • Delegates from 123 National/Regional Assemblies attended. {BW17p293-300]
    BWC; Haifa; Seat of the Universal House of Justice; Shrine of Baha’u’llah; Shrine of the Bab
    1978 23 Dec Helmut Winkelbach, a German Bahá’í, arrives in Bobrujsk, Belarus, and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [Ela-D Committee of Germany Records] Bobrujsk; Belarus Helmut Winkelbach; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1979 The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán is confiscated by the revolutionary government of Iran. [BW17:79] Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah; religious persecution
    1979 spring The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Iran, is confiscated by the Revolutionary Government. [BW18:289] Tákur; Iran House of Bahá’u’lláh; religious persecution
    1979 16 Sep Enoch Olinga—Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh—his wife and three of his children are murdered in Kampala, Uganda. (b.24 June, 1926) [BBD 172; BW18:633]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW18:618–35.
    Kampala; Uganda Enoch Olinga; Hand of the Cause; Knight of Baha’u’llah; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
    1979 29 Dec Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir, Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Quito, Ecuador. (b. 1923) [BW18:486, 651]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW18:651–9.
    • See also Muhájir, Dr Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh.
    Quito; Ecuador Rahmatu’llah Muhajir; Hand of the Cause; Knight of Baha’u’llah; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
    1981 23 May Helmut Winkeibach, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Belarus, marries Olga Grigorevna Dolganova, a Russian, their wedding ceremony being the first Bahá’í wedding in the Soviet Union. Soviet Union Helmut Winkeibach; Olga Grigorevna Dolganova; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1981 10 Dec The Universal House of Justice announces that the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Núr, Iran, confiscated by the Revolutionary Government in the spring of 1979, has been totally demolished and the site offered for sale by auction. [BW18:289; BW19:42] Tákur; Núr; Iran House of Bahá’u’lláh
    1985 Annemarie Krüger, who began travelling to Moldavia to teach the Bahá’í Faith in 1974, is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh by the Universal House of Justice, although she never lived in the country. Moldavia Annemarie Krüger; Knight of Baha’u’llah; travel teaching
    1988 29 Dec The Universal House of Justice issues a letter to the Bahá’ís in the United States published as Individual Rights and Freedoms in the World Order of Bahá’u’lláh. Haifa UHJ; Individual Rights and Freedoms in the World Order of Baha’u’llah
    1989 Jul Sean Hinton, the first Bahá’í to reside in Mongolia, is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh by the Universal House of Justice. Mongolia Sean Hinton; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1992 27 – 30 May Thirty thousand Bahá'ís representing approximately 200 countries and territories, gather at the Bahá'í World Centre to mark the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [BINS271:1–2; BW92–3:96–8, 121]
    • For pictures see BINS271:10 and BW92–3:97.
    On the 27th of May...the gathering of one hundred thirteen Knights of Bahá'u'lláh along with 19 representatives of every National Spiritual Assembly (165) and 9 representatives of every territory without a National Spiritual Assembly (40-50) at Bahjí in commemoration of the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh (some 3,000 persons). A scroll bearing the Roll of Honour of the Knights of Bahá'u'lláh was deposited at the entrance door of the inner Sanctuary of the Most Holy Shrine. [AWH90 105] [VV128] [BW92-3p98] [BINS271:1]

    BWC; Haifa; Centenary of the Ascension of Baha'u'llah; Shrine of Baha’u’llah
    1992 May 29 The Commemoration of the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh at Bahjí and the walk from the German Settlement to the Shrine of the Báb, the circumambulation of the Shrine and the walk to the Seat of the Universal House of Justice for the viewing of a projected portrait of Bahá'u'lláh, and a candle-lit programme of prayers and readings. The 3 a.m. observances circled the globe in some 71,000 localities with prayers and readings beginning in the Eastern Pacific Ocean time zone and going west. At 1PM in the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, there was a viewing of the passport photo of Bahá'u'lláh taken in 1868. [BINS271:1–2; BW92–3:96–7; VV129–30, SDSC367-368]
    • For the tribute to Bahá'u'lláh by the Universal House of Justice see BW92–3:31–6.
    • For pictures see BINS271:10 and VV129, 130.
    World Centre; BWC; Shrine of Baha’u’llah; Shrine of the Bab
    1992 May 29 The Chamber of Deputies of the government of Brazil paid homage to Bahá’u’lláh. [Bahá'í Newsreel Volume 3 Number 2] [UHJMessage 30Mar92]
    • The tribute to Bahá'u'lláh was paid at a plenary session of that body and following that session members joined Post Office officials in the formal launching of a commemorative postage stamp. [VV133]
    Brazil Baha’u’llah
    2008 8 Jul The Shrine of the Báb and the Resting Place of Baháu'lláh chosen as UNESCO World Heritage sites. [BWNS642, BWNS643] Haifa; Israel; Akka; BWC; UNESCO; World Heritage Site; Shrine of Baha’u’llah; Shrine of the Bab
    2013 24 - 26 Jun Contrary to the plans of the Department of Antiquities, the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is razed to make way for the construction of a mosque. [Message from the Universal House of Justice date 17 July 2013, SETPE1p170] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    2013 27 Jun In a message from the Universal House of Justice to all National Spiritual Assemblies it advises of the news of the destruction of the House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad. [Message of 27 Jun 2013]
    In truth, I declare, it shall be so abased in the days to come as to cause tears to flow from every discerning eye...And in the fulness of time, shall the Lord by the power of truth exalt it in the eyes of all the world, cause it to become the mighty standard of His domination, the shrine round which shall circle the concourse of the faithful. [BA99-100, BWNS961]
    Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
     
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