|1844. 22 May
||Declaration of the Báb's Mission
Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad makes His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í.
- See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
- See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
- See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
- See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
- He reveals the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text will later be translated by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
- Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
- See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
- This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
- This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. ZK320
- The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
- See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
- Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
- He chooses the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn is given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
- In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He takes the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gives the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn is called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
- At His public declaration the Báb declares Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
||Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad; declaration; Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru'i; Qayyumu'l-Asma'; Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Bab; Babi Qur'an; Baha'u'llah; Adamic Cycle; Baha'i Cycle; Cycle of Fulfillment; Apostolic; Heroic; Primitive; Age; Shi'i Muslim; Babu'l-Bab; Siyyid-i-dhikr; Fort Tabarsi; Jinab-i Bab; Qa'im; Promised One
|1844. 23 May
||The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá in a rented house near the Shimrán Gate in Tihrán. He was born at midnight. [AB9, SoG3-4]
- He is known as `Abbás Effendi outside the Bahá'í community.
- Bahá'u'lláh gives Him the titles Ghusn-i-A`zam (the Most Great Branch), Sirru'lláh (Mystery of God) and Áqá (the Master). [BBD2, 19, 87, 89]
- Sarkár-i-Áqá (the Honourable Master) is a title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD201]
- He Himself chose the title `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá) after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD2]
|Tihrán; Tehran; Iran
||`Abdu'l-Baha; `Abbas Effendi; Baha'i; Baha'u'llah; Ghusn-i-A`zam; Most Great Branch; Sirru'llah; Mystery God; Áqa; Master; Sarkar-i-Áqa
||The birth of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, eldest daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb, and sister of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Tihrán. She is later designated by Shoghi Effendi `the outstanding heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation'. [BBD42; GPB108]
Many Bábís go to Shíráz and meet the Báb. [B 103]
- For a description of her nature see BK42–3.
Táhirih is sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She is lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád. During her time in Iraq she enlists a considerable number of followers and makes a number of enemies among the clergy [B162; DB271]
|Tihrán; Tehran; Shíráz; Iran; Baghdád; Karbalá; Iraq
||Bahiyyih Khanum; Greatest Holy Leaf; daughter Baha'u'llah; Navvab; sister `Abdu'l-Baha; Shoghi Effendi; Baha'i Dispensation; Babi; Bab; Tahirih; Shaykh Muhammad Shibl; Mufti Baghdad
|1847. 22 Feb
||Birth of Thornton Chase, designated the first American Bahá'í, in Springfield, Massachusetts.
||Springfield; Massachusetts; America; United States
||Thornton Chase; birth; American; Bahá'í
|1847 Spring - Summer
||Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitate against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr writes to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replies praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
- Among those Táhirih meets in Baghdád is Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
- Táhirih is sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She is accompanied by a number of Bábís; they make a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
- Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
- In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
- B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
- In Kirmánsháh she is respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
- Táhirih arrives in Hamadán. Her father has sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agrees on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
- MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
- In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
|Kázimayn; Baghdád; Iraq; Persia; Iran; Hamadán; Kirmánsháh
||Tahirih; Babi; Siyyid `Ali Bishr; Bab; Mah-Ku; Hakim Masih; Jewish; doctor; Baha'i; Najib Pasha
|1848. 12 Sep
||The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
- He is 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
- He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
- The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
- For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
- See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
- See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
- See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
- He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
- It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
|Tabríz; Síyáh-Chál'; Iran; Persia; Iraq
||Násiri'd-Dín Sháh; Báb; Bahá'u'lláh'; martyrs; Bábí; Bahá'í; prime minister; Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání
|1852. 21 Feb
||Birth of Isabella Brittingham, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in New York City.
||New York City; United States
||Isabella Brittingham; American; Bahá'í
|1855. 15 Oct 1855 or 1856
||Birth of Robert Turner, first black American Bahá'í.
||USA; America; United States
||Robert Turner; Bahá'í
|1862 – 1868
||Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a cousin of the Báb, lives in Shanghai during this period. This is the first record of a Bábí or Bahá'í living in China. [PH24]
- From 1870 he lived in Hong Kong dealing as a merchant and was joined by his brother, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn. [PH24]
|Shanghai; Hong Kong; China
||Haji Mirza Muhammad-‘Ali; cousin; Bab; Babi; Baha'i; Haji Mirza Muhammad Husayn
|1863 22 Apr
||Thirty–one days after Naw-Rúz, which in this year falls on 22 March, Bahá'u'lláh leaves His house for the last time and walks to the Najíbíyyih Garden, afterwards known as the Garden of Ridván (Paradise).
On this day Bahá'u'lláh declares His mission to a few of His disciples. [RB1:260, 262]
- ‘Of the exact circumstances … we, alas, are but scantily informed.' [BKG173; GPB153]
- For such details as are known, see BKG173–5 and GPB153.
- For the import of the event, see BKG169–73; G27–35; GBP153–5.
- This initiates the holy day of the First Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 21 April. [BBD196]
- This marks the end of the dispensation of the Báb and of the first epoch of the Heroic or Apostolic Age of the Bahá'í dispensation. [BBD72, 79]
On the same day Bahá'u'lláh makes three important statements to His followers:
- He forbids the use of the sword.
- He states that no other Manifestations will appear before one thousand years. This is later reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Badí‘ and in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
- He states that, as from this moment, all the names and attributes of God are manifested within all created things, implying the advent of a new Day. [RB1:278–80]
On the afternoon of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival at the Garden He reveals the Lawh-i-Ayyúb for Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí. [SA239]
During the 12 days in the Ridván Garden Bahá'u'lláh confides to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá that He is ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. [CH82]
- See CH82–3 for the effect of this announcement on ‘Abdu'l-Bahá.
|Najíbíyyih Garden; Iraq
||Naw-Ruz; Baha'u'llah; Garden Ridvan; taj; Bab; Baha'i; Heroic Age; Apostolic Age; Kitab-i-Badi‘; Kitab-i-Aqdas; Lawh-i-Ayyub; Haji Muhammad-i-Taqiy-i-Nayrizi; ‘Abdu'l-Baha
||About a hundred Bahá'ís are arrested in Tabríz following a disturbance in which a Bábí is killed. [BBR251–3; BW18:382]
||Tabríz; Iran; Persia
||Baha'i; arrest; Babi
|1866. 1 Dec
||Birth of Marion Jack, prominent Bahá'í travel teacher, pioneer and artist, known affectionately as ‘General jack' for her services to the Bahá'í community, in Saint John, New Brunswick.
See LDG1:217 for information on her pioneer work.
|Saint John; New Brunswick; Canada
||Marion Jack; Bahá'í; pioneer; General jack
|1867. 11 Jan
||Three Bahá'ís are executed in Tabríz. Their arrest is precipitated by conflict and rivalry between the Azalís and the Bahá'ís. [BBR252–3; BKG237–8; BW18:382–3; RB2:61]
- BW18:382 says this was 8 January.
|Tabríz; Iran; Persia
||Baha'i; arrest; execution; Azali
|1867. Jan or Feb
||Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a Bahá'í physician, is executed in Zanján. [BBR253; BKG238; BW18:383]
Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání, a disciple of Hujjat, is executed in Tihrán. [BBR254; BW18:383]
||Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí; Bahá'í; physician; executed; Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání; Hujjat
|1872. 22 Jan
||Three Azalís, among them Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahání, the Antichrist of the Bahá'í Revelation, are murdered by seven Bahá'ís. [BBD163; BKG3256 DH41; GPB189; RB3:235]
Siyyid Muhammad Isfahání, Nasr’ulláh Tafríshí, Áqá Ján Ka’j Kuláh and Ridá Qulí these four kept vigil near the land gate to ensure no one would meet Bahá’u’lláh. They kept watch from the second story window of a building overlooking the land gate so that if a pilgrim, after spending some six months traveling on foot, intended to enter the city they could somehow prevent his entrance. This situation lasted for some time. After two years and a few months, Bahá’u’lláh was released from the prison. Some of the friends, including Salmání, decided to get rid of these enemies and during the night went to their place and killed Siyyid Muhammad, Áqá Ján and another person. [Sweet and Enchanting Stories, Aziz Rohani, P 31]
- Bahá'u'lláh is taken to the Governorate where He is interrogated and imprisoned for 70 hours. [BKG327; GBP190; RB3:237]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá is thrown into prison and kept in chains the first night. Twenty–five of the companions were also imprisoned and shackled. [BKG328; GBP190; RB3:237]
- See BKG331, GPB191 and RB3:238 for the effect of the murders on the local population.
- Ilyás `Abbúd puts a barricade between his house and the house of `Údí Khammár, where Bahá'u'lláh lives. [BKG331; GPB191]
- See BKG330, DH44 and RB3:239 for the fate of the murderers, who are imprisoned for seven years.
|`Akká; House of `Údí Khammár
||Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Ilyas `Abbud; Antichrist of the Baha'i Revelation
||Tablets, Communes and Holy Utterances, a collection of writings by Bahá'u'lláh, is published in the United States. [BFA2:26]
- It is the first prayer book and first compilation of Bahá'í writings published in the West. [BFA2:26]
- It was probably translated by Anton Haddad and published by the Behais Supply and Publishing Board. [BFA2:26]
||Tablets; Communes and Holy Utterances; Anton Haddad; Behais Supply and Publishing Board; Sarah Farmer; Green Acre; Baha'i summer school; Publishing Trust
||The publication of Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD
by Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni and
translated by Youness Afroukhteh. A second edition was published in 1917.
||Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali Isfahani; Baha'i Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD
||Agnes Alexander arrives in Alaska, the first Bahá'í travelling teacher to visit the territory.
A Bahá'í group is established in Germany. [BBRSM:107, 219]
|Alaska; Germany; `Akká
||Agnes Alexander; travel teacher; Baha'i group; Commission of Inquiry; `Árif Bey
|1907 31 Mar
||The Bahá'í calendar is used in North America for the first time. BFA2:247–8]
||The Bahá'í Publishing Society is founded in Chicago. [BW10:179]
||Baha'i Publishing Society; Publishing Trust
|1909 21 Mar
||`Abdu'l-Bahá lays the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
- See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
- The Shrine is a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
- The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb is a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
- For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
|Mount Carmel; Rangoon; Chicago
||Shrine of the Bab; marble sarcophagus; Baha'i Convention; Corinne True; Baha'i Temple Unity; Temple
|1909 21 Mar
||The first American Bahá'í Convention opens in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
- It is held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
- It is attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
- The Convention establishes the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', which is incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution is framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146]
||American Baha'i Convention; Corinne True; Baha'i Temple Unity; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
|1910 21 Mar
||The first issue of the Bahá'í News is published in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII; BW10:179]
- See BFA2:320–2, BW8:927 and SBBH1:116–17 for the magazine's development.
- It is the first Bahá'í magazine published in the West. [BBD2 14]
- Star of the West is published as Bahá'í News (Volume 1, Issues 1-19 from 21 March, 1910 until 2 March, 1911) and later under Star of the West /The Bahá'í Magazine (Volume 2 to Volume 25, 21 March, 1911 until 25 March,1935).
- Its editors were Albert Windust and Gertrude Buikema. Others involved with its publication over its history were Albert and Emily Vail, Dr. Zia Bagdadi, Ahmad Sohrab, Edna M. True; with Horace Holley and Stanwood Cobb being singled out as early contributors. [Duane Troxel]
For an access to the Star of the West archives see http://www.starofthewest.info/. This site is not searchable.
||Star of the West; Baha'i News; Baha'i Magazine
||Hájí Muhammad-Taqí Afnán, Vakílu'd-Dawlih, the cousin of the Báb largely responsible for the building of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád, is buried in the newly acquired Bahá'í cemetery in Haifa, the earliest recorded burial in the cemetery. [BBD51; DH182]
||Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan; Vakilu'd-Dawlih; Baha'i cemetery; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
|1912 2 May
||Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois, [PUP72]
Talk to Federation of Women’s Clubs,
Hotel La Salle, Chicago, Illinois.
Talk at Bahá’í Women’s Reception,
Hotel La Salle, Chicago, Illinois.
Talk at Hotel Plaza,
Talk at Hotel Plaza,
||`Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Plaza Hotel; Federation of Women's Clubs; Baha'i Women's Reception
|1914 21 Jan
||Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in Cairo. [AB404; BBD67]
- For a brief biography see EM263–5, SDH113.
- His resting place is now next to that of Lua Getsinger in the Bahá'í cemetery in Cairo.
- His numerous works include Fará'id (The Peerless Gems) 1898; The Brilliant Proof; 1912; Bahá'í Proofs, 1902; and Al-Duraru'l-Bahíyih (The Shining Pearls, published in English as Miracles and Metaphors), 1900. [BBD7]
||Mirza Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpaygani; Apostle of Baha'u'llah; Lua Getsinger; Baha'i cemetery; In Memoriam
|1915 19-25 Apr
The Panama-Pacific International Exposition is held in San Francisco and the 24th of April is declared International Bahá'í Congress Day. [BW8:797-808]
||International Baha'i Congress; Panama-Pacific International Exposition
|1916 1 May
||Lua Getsinger, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, dies of heart failure in Cairo. [BBD87; SW7, 4:29]
- For an her obituary see SW7, 4:29-30.
- She is buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Cairo. In 1939 a court ruling enables the Bahá'ís to reinter her in the first Bahá'í cemetery established in Egypt. Her grave is now beside that of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. [GPB344]
- See also Sears and Quigley, The Flame.
||Lua Getsinger; Disciple of `Abdu'l-Baha; Baha'i cemetery; Mirza Abu'l-Fadl; In Memoriam
||The first Norwegian to accept the Faith, Johanna Christensen-Schubarth, `the mother of the Norwegian Bahá'í Community', becomes a Bahá'í in the United States. [BW12:694-6].
||Johanna Christensen-Schubarth; the mother of the Norwegian Baha'i Community
|1919 17 Dec
||`Abdu'l-Bahá sends His `Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace at the Hague' in response to a communication addressed to Him by the executive committee. [AB438; BBD1 15; GPB308]
- It is delivered in person by Ibn-i-Asdaq. [EB176]
- It defines the Bahá'í peace programme. [BW3:12]
- For the text of the Tablet see AB438-9.
||`Abdu'l-Baha; Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace at the Hague; Ibn-i-Asdaq; Baha'i peace programme
|1920 27-29 Dec
||The first All-India Bahá'í Convention is held in Bombay with 175 in attendance. [AB446; BBRSM194; 115]
||All-India Baha'i Convention
||Shoghi Effendi calls for the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity to become and elected legislative body. It had been functioning since 1909 concerned mostly with the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship. He addresses his first letter to this body as the "National Spiritual Assembly of the United States" on December 23rd however in God Passes By pg333 he states that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was not formed until 1925. [SETPE1p107, CT160, CoB293]
||Executive Board of the Baha'i Temple Unity; National Spiritual Assembly of the United States; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
|1922 25 Apr
||A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
- The difference between this body and its forerunner is little more than a change in name. [DP122]
- The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
- The election procedure followed that used in the United States: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
||National Spiritual Assembly; Executive Board of the Baha'i Temple Unity; Shoghi Effendi
|1922 Late May
||The communities of London, Manchester and Bournemouth elect a Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly for England. [ER213; SBR28, 67]
- This is also known as the Spiritual Assembly for London and the All-England Bahá'í Council. [ER2 13; SBR67]
- See ER213 and SBR28 for membership.
|London; Manchester; Bournemouth; England
||Spiritual Assembly for London; All-England Baha'i Council
|1922 6 Jun
||The All-England Bahá'í Council meets for the first time. [SBR28; UD9, 468]
- ER2 13 says it first met 17 June.
- The meeting is held in the home of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper. [SBR28, 67]
||All-England Baha'i Council
||An article entitled `Bahai Organization: Its Basis in the Revealed Word' appears in Star of the West. [SW13, 12:323-8]
- The purpose of the article is to convince those who are opposed to a structured form of Bahá'í administration. [BBRSM123]
||Bahai Organization; Star of the West; Baha'i administration; Opposition
|1923 12 Mar
||Shoghi Effendi writes to Bahá'ís in America, Great Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Japan and Australasia about Bahá'í administration, outlining the process for annual elections of assemblies and calling for the establishment of local and national funds. [BA34-43; PP330]
- See ER223-4 for the response of the British Bahá'ís.
||Shoghi Effendi; Baha'i administration; annual elections; local and national funds
|1924 24 Dec
||The first Bahá'í News Letter, forerunner of Bahá'í News, is published in New York by the National Assembly of the United States and Canada with Horace Holly as the editor. [BBRSM122; BW10:180; BW13:856; SBR232]
- For links to the publications see entry at 1990-10-00.
||Baha'i News Letter; Baha'i News; Horace Holly
||"A Plan of Unified Action to Spread the Baha'i Cause Throughout the United States and Canada January 1, 1926-December 31, 1928" was formulated by The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada in response to Shoghi Effendi's message to the annual National Convention. [BA86-89]
It can be found at [Plan] The goals were (1) to unify the American Bahá'í community's efforts, (2) to increase the number of Bahá'ís, (3) to "penetrate the consciousness of the public with the spirit of Bahá'u'lláh", and (4) to raise $400,000 so that the construction of the first unit of the Temple's superstructure could begin. [SBBR14p160, BFA1p110]
- This was the first of two Plans developed by the North American National Assembly in the years from 1926 to 1934 the second being "A New Plan of Unified Action To complete the Bahá'í Temple and promote the Cause in America (1931-1934)". [SBBR14p155-197]
During the years of these two plans the National Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada developed practices commonly used in subsequent plans, organized propagation, a central budget and the modern form of the Nineteen Day Feast. [SBBR14p160]
|National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada
||"A Plan of Unified Action to Spread the Baha'i Cause Throughout the United States and Canada
||The publication of Bahá'í Administration, a collection of communications to the American Bahá'í community from the Guardian between 1922 and 1929. Revisions were published in 1933, 1936,1941 and 1945. Additional messages and an expanded index was added in 1968. [WOBpv, BAiv]
||A ceremony is held at the American annual convention in dedication of the resumption of the building activities on the Wilmette Temple. [BBRSM183; BW3:47]
- Shoghi Effendi’s gift to the Temple is ‘the most valuable sacred possession in the Holy Land’ a ‘precious ornament of the Tomb of Bahá’u’lláh’, an exquisite Persian carpet. [BA180–1; BW4:208–12]
||annual convention; Baha'i Temple; Tomb of Baha’u’llah; gift; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
||In Egypt, a certain learned Shaykh el Kharashi attacked the Faith in a series of articles under the heading, "The Bahá'í Faith Is a Pleasing Illusion". 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad refuted his arguments with a series of fourteen articles under the heading "The Bahá'í Faith Is an Everlasting Truth". Having failed to counter 'Abdu'l-Jalíl's arguments the Shaykh and his associates appealed to the authorities to stop his articles on the grounds that they were anti-Muhammadan. The matter was raised to the Minister and then to Parliament where both parties were asked to stop publication. 'Abdu'l-Jalíl was transferred to a remote part of the country where, it was hoped that he would not be able to resume his activities. [BW9p598]
||"The Baha'i Faith Is an Everlasting Truth"; 'Abdu'l-Jalil Bey Sa'ad
||The publication in Iran of Amir Kabir and Iran, considered perhaps the most influential scholarly work of history published prior to the Islamic Revolution, by Fereidoon Adamiyyat, one of the most influential and widely acknowledged Iranian historians of the 20th century. The book argues that British intelligence officers were behind a plot which led to the creation of the Bahá'í Faith. [Iran Press Watch]
||Amir Kabir; Fereidoon Adamiyyat; historian; British; Britain; officers; Baha'i
|1940 1 Mar
||May Bolles Maxwell passes away in Buenos Aires. [BBD153; BW8:631 TG49]
- Shoghi Effendi awards her the honour of a ‘martyr’s death’ and a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW8:631; MA38]
- She was the first Bahá'í on European soil and the "mother" of both the French and the Canadian Bahá'í communities. [PP149]
- For the story of her life see BW17:437–8.
- Shoghi Effendi asks her husband, Sutherland Maxwell, to design her tomb, which is to be a ‘historic centre’ for ‘pioneer Bahá’í activity’. [BW8:642]
- For an account of the erection of the monument to her see PSBW83–6.
||May Bolles Maxwell; martyr; Sutherland Maxwell; Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Baha; Mother of the French Baha'i community; Mother of the Canadian Baha'i community
|1947 1 Feb
||Reflecting the unity in diversity highly valued by the Baha'i community, Amin Banani, Mildred Mottahedeh, Hilda Yen, and Matthew Bullock presented the statement "A Baha'i Declaration of Human Obligations and Rights" to the UN, which ended by quoting a well-known passage by Baha'u'llah: "The earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens."
Amin Banani was an influential scholar; Mildred Mottahedeh was a member of the International Baha'i Council from 1961-63 and later a representative of the BIC for many years; Hilda Yen was a leading figure in Chinese-American society who worked as a diplomat for many years; and Matthew Bullock was a Knight of Baha'u'llah for the Dutch West Indies, on this day was also a Knight for the Netherlands Antilles, and later a representative of the BIC. [BWNS1172]
||UN; United Nations; Amin Banani; Mildred Mottahedeh; Hilda Yen; Matthew Bullock; BIC; Baha'i International Community
|1951 9 Jan
||Shoghi Effendi announced the formation of the International Bahá'í Council. [MBW7,8]
Proclaim National Assemblies of East and West weighty epoch-making decision of formation of first International Bahá'í Council, forerunner of supreme administrative institution destined to emerge in fullness of time within precincts beneath shadow of World Spiritual Center of Faith already established in twin cities of 'Akká and Haifa....
Between 1951 and 1957 Shoghi Effendi directed the members and used the Council to create an image of an international body handling the Bahá'í affairs in Haifa. According to Shoghi Effendi, the Council's responsibilities were to:
- See UD261 for the significance of the establishment of the International Bahá'í Council.
||International Baha'i Council
||The National Convention of the Bahá'ís of Central America was scheduled to be held in a prestigious hotel in San Jose, Costa Rica. When a distinguish believer, Mr Matthew Bullock, was not allowed to register at the hotel because of his race, the National Assembly moved the Convention to another venue and registered guests moved to small pensions rather than staying at the hotel. [SDSC65]
- Matthew Bullock was one of the early African-American believers in the United States. He became an enrolled believer in 1940 after 15 years of knowledge of the Faith. In 1952 he was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly and along with fellow NSA member Elsie Austin, represented that institution at the first Intercontinental Teaching Conference in Uganda in 1953. [LoS108, SDSC102]
|San Jose; Costa Rica
||National Convention; Regional Assembly of the Baha'is of Central America; Matthew Bullock; Elsie Austin
||Anjoman-e Hojjatieh ("Society of Allah's Proof Over Creation"), also called the Hojjatieh Society founded specifically as an anti-Bahá'í organization by a charismatic Shiite Muslim cleric, Shaikh Mahmoud Halabi in the aftermath of the coup d'état of 1953. Between the early 1950s and the early 1970s a great number of the future elite of the Islamic revolution were trained by Hujjatieh. During the 1979 Iranian revolution, the Society was to play an important role in stirring animosity against Bahá'ís. However, in part because of differences in theology—among other things the Hojjatieh believe a truly Islamic state cannot be established until the return of the 12th Imam—the Society fell into disfavour and was banned by the regime in 1984. [Hojjatieh Society, Wiki]
||Hujjatieh; anti-Baha'i; Shaikh Mamud Halabi; Anjoman-e Hojjatieh
| 1953 3 – 6 May
||The All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Chicago. [BW12:133]
- For the texts of Shoghi Effendi’s messages to the conference see BW12:133–41 and MBW142–6.
- Twelve Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:143]
- At the conference, five members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States resign from that body in order to go pioneering: Elsie Austin, Dorothy Baker, Matthew Bullock, Mamie Seto and Dr William Kenneth Christian. [ZK102]
- Extract from the cecond message to All-American Intercontinental Conference from Shoghi Effendi... [MBW150]
.....the lands contributed in Latin America for a similar purpose approximate one-half of a million square meters, ninety thousand of which have been set aside near Santiago, Chile, for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of South America..
||All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference; Hand of the Cause; pioneer; Elsie Austin; Dorothy Baker’ Matthew Bullock; Mamie Seto; Dr William Kenneth Christian; Intercontinental Teaching Conference; Conference; Baha'i House of Worship; Mother Temple of South America; Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
|1953 20 Jun
||Shoghi Effendi designates the Maxwell home in Montreal as a Shrine. [MtC179]
||Shoghi Effendi; Baha'i Shrine; Montreal Shrine
|1953 20 Nov
||The formation of the Israel Branch of the Bahá'ís of Canada.
||Israel Branch of the Baha'is of Canada
|1958 21–28 Nov
||The Second Conclave of the Hands of the Cause convenes at Bahjí. [BW13:347–8; MC118]
- It is attended by 25 of the 27 Hands of the Cause. [BW13:347; MC118]
- The Hands of the Cause call for the election of the Universal House of Justice at the time of the Most Great Jubilee in 1963. BBRSM129; BW13:351; MC122]
||Bahá'í; Hand of the Cause; Most Great Jubilee
|1960 12 Jul
||Horace Hotchkiss Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 April, 1887 in Torrington, CT) [MC226-227, BW13:849]
- Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
- For his obituary see BW13:849–858.
- For cable from the Hands of the Cause see MC217–18.
- See also SBR214-247, LoF253-264 and Holley, Horace Hotchkiss
by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram.
His publications Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion,
Religion for Mankind,
Bahai, The Spirit of the Age,
Baha'i Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha,
Divinations and Creation,
The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh,
The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse .
|Haifa; Torrington; CT
||Horace Holley; Hand of the Cause of God; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent; Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion; Religion for Mankind; World Unity; Bahai; The Spirit of the Age; Baha'i Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha; Read-aloud Plays; Divinations and Creation; The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh; The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse
|1967. 24 - 26 Mar
||The Arctic Policy Conference was held in Toronto. Present were 16 attendees, Hand of the Cause John Robarts, representatives of the National Spiritual Assembly, the Auxiliary Board, the National Pioneer Committee and individuals involved in the teaching work in the Arctic. It was decided to establish Bahá'í houses in Frobisher Bay in the District of Franklin, Baker Lake in the District of Keewatin and Yellowknife in the District of Mackenzie. [SDSC278]
- Photo of Bahá'í House in Baker Lake.
|Toronto; Frobisher Bay; Baker Lake; Yellowknife;
||Frobisher Bay (Iqaluit); Baker Lake; Yellowknife; Baha'i House
||The International Bahá’í Youth Conference takes places at Oteppe-Namur, Belgium, launching a two-year youth campaign for Europe. [BW15:333–4]
- For picture see BW15:334.
||International Baha'i Youth Conference; Conference
|1974 13 July
||The dedication of the Bosch Bahá'í School north of Santa Cruz, California. (Bosch Bahá'í School site, Bahá'´News page 716]
||Santa Cruz; California
||Bosch Baha'i School
|1974 13 Jul
||The dedication of the John Bosch Bahá'í Summer School in Santa Cruz, California. [Bosch web site]
||Santa Cruz; California
||John Bosch Baha'i Summer School
||The first Bahá’í Women’s Conference of the Solomon Islands takes place at Auki, Malaita Island, attended by more than 90 women. [BW16:282]
||Baha'i Women's Conference
|1975 29 Mar
||The first Bahá’í Youth Conference of the Canary Islands is held in Santa Cruz. [BW16:313]
||Santa Cruz; Canary Islands
||Baha'i Youth Conference
|1975 9 – 12 Jul
||The first International Bahá’í Youth Conference of Iceland takes place in Njardvik with youth from nine countries. [BW16:301]
||Baha'i Youth Conference
||The Bahá'í Faith, along with many other religious groups, are banned in Uganda. [BWNS135]
||Baha'i Faith; ban
||The first National Bahá’í Children’s Conference of Samoa takes place. [BW17:211]
||Baha'i Children's Conference
|1983. 24 Feb
||The inauguration of the Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women at Indore, India. It offers rural women residential courses on literacy, health care and income generating skills. The success of this school was recognized in 1992 when it won one of the Global 500 Environmental Action awards that was presented at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro [The Baha'ismagazine].
||Baha'i Vocational Institute for Rural Women
|1983 18 Jun
||In Shiraz, ten Bahá'í women ranging in age from 17 to 57, were hanged. All of the women had been tortured and interrogated in the months prior to their execution. The youngest of these martyrs was Mona Mahmudnizhad, a 17-year-old schoolgirl who had been beaten on the soles of her feet, kissed the hands of her executioner and placed the hangman's rope around her own throat. The names of the others executed were Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih, 28, Ruya Ishraqi, a 23-year-old veterinary student, Shahin Dalvand, 25, a sociologist; Izzat Janami Ishraqi, 57, a homemaker; Mahshid Nirumand, 28, who had qualified for a degree in physics but had it denied her because she was a Bahá'í, Simin Sabiri, 25; Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi, 30, a nurse; Akhtar Thabit, 25, also a nurse; Nusrat Ghufrani Yalda'i, 47, a mother and member of the local Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly. [Hanged for teaching “Sunday school”]
- For the story of the martyrs see BW19:180–7 and VV56.
- For their obituaries see BW19:596–607.
- For pictures of the martyred women see BW19:240–1.
||Baha'i; martyr; Mona Mahmudnizhad; Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih; Ruya Ishraqi; Shahin Dalvand; Izzat Janami Ishraqi; Mahshid Nirumand; Simin Sabiri; Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi; Akhtar Thabit; Nusrat Ghufrani Yalda'i
||The establishment of the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education (BIHE) to meet the educational needs of young people who had been systematically denied access to higher education by the Iranian government. [Closed Doors, Chapter IV]
||Baha'i Institute for Higher Education; BIHE
||The establishment of the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment in New York. Ridván Message 1992 [AWH75; VV54 106]
||Baha'i International Community's Office of the Environment
||The inaugural publication of One Country, the newsletter of the Bahá'í International Community. It is a publication of the Office of Public Information of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. The periodical reports mainly on activities of the worldwide Bahá'í community in relation to issues of sustainable development, peace and world order, human rights, and the advancement of women. [BW'86-‘92 p.539]
||New York; U.S.; Paris; France
||One Country; newsletter; Baha'i International Community
||The founding of the Maxwell International Bahá'í School. It was a co-ed Bahá'í school located on Shawnigan Lake, British Columbia, Canada. It offered boarding students and day students instruction from grades 7-12. Its educational philosophy was based on the principles of the Bahá'í Faith. Students attended from all over the world. The school was opened with guest of honour Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum (Mary Maxwell, daughter of May and Sutherland) and wife of the Bahá'í Faith's Guardian, Shoghi Effendi. A tree was planted in dedication to the opening of the school. In the early 2006-2007 school year, the school board decided to drop "Bahá'í" from its name, changing it to "Maxwell International School".
The school closed on its 20th anniversary in 2008. [Wiki]
||Shawnigan Lake; BC
||Maxwell International Baha'i School; Maxwell International School; Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
||One Country, the newsletter of the Bahá'í International Community, now published in five other languages - French, Spanish, Chinese, Russian, and German. The first French language edition of the publication was launched in Paris in October, 1989. Each issue contains two or three in-depth feature stories on the United Nations, noteworthy social and economic development projects, environmental efforts or educational programs, along with an editorial that addresses world problems from a Bahá'í point of view.
||Baha'i International Community; One Country
||The founding of the European Bahá'í Business Forum as an informal network. Their goal is exploring how to contribute to a more prosperous, just and sustainable civilization, through their daily work and discourse. [EBBF]
||Baha'i Business Forum
||The University of Maryland announced its decision to establish "The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace" in its Centre for International Development and Conflict Management. In 1992 Professor Suheil Bushrú’í was named as the first scholar to hold the Chair. [AWH76; VV108]
||University of Maryland; Baha'i Chair for World Peace; Centre for International Development and Conflict Management; Suheil Bushru’i
||The Asian Buddhist Conference for Peace was held in Mongolia.
- A representative of the International Bahá'í Community was the only non-Buddhist speaker invited to address a public meeting held in conjunction with the conference. [AWH88] [VV101]
||Asian Buddhist Conference for Peace; International Baha'i Community
||The Bahá'í International Community, through the Office of the Environment in collaboration with other environmental organizations, re-instituted the annual World Forestry Charter Gathering that had be founded in 1945 by Richard St. Barbe Baker. [AWH75] [VV106]
||Baha'i International Community; World Forestry Charter Gathering; Richard St. Barbe Baker
||The Bahá'í International Community was invited to participate in the World Conference on Education for All in Thailand because of its involvement in the work of the Task Force for Literacy under the aegis of UNESCO. [AWH75]
||Baha'i International Community; World Conference on Education for All; Task Force for Literacy; UNESCO
||A branch of the Bahá'í International Community's United Nations Office for the Pacific region was opened in Suva, Fiji. [AWH76; VV54]
||Baha'i International Community
||The formation of the European Bahá'í Business Forum in France with members from 26 countries in Europe and elsewhere. [VV115]
- Formed by a group of Bahá'ís active in business and management meeting in Chamonix, France, due to concern about the decline of ethics and values in business.
- Forum created to promote the moral and spiritual wisdom and principles of the great religious traditions of the world (sources included Judaism, Hinduism, and Christianity as well as the 19th century revelation of Baha'u'llah) such as adherence to the principles of justice, respect, trustworthiness, integrity and unity.
- Beginning as an informal network, its membership grew requiring the election of a Governing Board.
- Members have attached importance to sharing their broad experience and to contributing to the improvement of management in emerging free-market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. [ebbf]
||European Baha'i Business Forum
||The first local spiritual assembly comprised entirely of newly enrolled Bahá'ís of Ahmadiyyah background is formed in Chak No. 8P Katta, Pakistan. [BINS219:5]
||Chak No. 8P Katta; Pakistan
||Baha'i spiritual assembly; Ahmadiyyah; Muslim
|1990 24 Jan – 5 Feb
||The first All-Union Bahá'í Conference was held in Moscow with 250 people gathered from all over the Soviet Union and from 17 other countries. This was the first national Bahá'í conference held in the USSR in about 60 years. [BINS224:8; VV112]
||All-Union Baha'i Conference
|1990 26 Jan
||The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace is established at the University of Maryland's Centre for International Development and Conflict Management at the official signing of the Memorandum of Understanding. [AWH76; BINS217:7; VV108]
- Professor Suheil Bushrui is appointed to the Chair in 1992.
- For picture see VV108.
|Maryland; United States
||Baha'i Chair World Peace; Suheil Bushrui
|1990 9 Apr
||The first professorial Chair in Bahá'í Studies is established at Indore University, India. [BINS222:8; VV108]
||Chair Baha'i Studies; Devi Ahilya University
|1990 9 Apr
||The establishment of the Chair for Bahá'í Studies at the University of Indore (later renamed Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya). Dr. Vishnudatta Nagar was appointed to the position. [BW'86-‘92pg454]
||Chair Baha'i Studies; University Indore; Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya; Vishnudatta Nagar
||The publication of the last issue of the Bahá'í News by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States after nearly 70 years of uninterrupted service. [CBN Feb1991pg15]
- Issues 1 to 40 were published under the name Bahá'í News Letter. Subsequent issues, from #41 to #714, were entitled simply Bahá'í News.
Subscribers in the United States received an insert entitled US Supplement from 1958 to 1967 and the name of the insert was changed to National Bahá'í Review from 1968 until the Bahá'í News discontinued publication in 1990.
||Baha'i News; Baha'i News Letter
|1990 30 Nov - 2 Dec
||The First National Teaching Conference of the Bahá'ís of Romania was held near Poiana Brasov, in the Carpathian mountains. [CBN Feb 91p14]
||Poiana Brasov; Romania
||First National Teaching Conference of the Baha'is of Romania
|1990 8 - 9 Dec
||The first All-Union Bahá'í Consultative Conference was held in Moscow attended by Bahá'ís from every part of the Soviet Union, members of three Continental Boards of Counsellors and representatives of all those National Spiritual Assemblies having responsibility for the work of the Faith in that area. [BINS 238:6] [CBN Mar91Vol3no8] [VV112]
||Conference; Continental Board; National Assemblies; Soviet Union; All-Union Baha'i Consultative Conference
|1991 15 – 21 Jul
||The first European Bahá'í Youth Conference of Romania is held in Neptune. [BINS253:9; VV74]
||European Baha'i Youth Conference of Romania
||A Chair for Bahá'í Studies was established at the University of Indore, India. [VV108]
||Chair for Baha'i Studies; University of Indore
||The International Bahá'í Community's Office for the Advancement of Women established in New York. [VV54]
||International Baha'i Community; Office for the Advancement of Women
|1992 2 – 5 Jan
||The first European Conference on Bahá'í Activities in Universities is held in Brno, Czechoslovakia. [BINS263:2]
- BINS290:2 gives a second report of this event, incorrectly implying it was held in January 1993.
||European Conference on Baha'i Activities in Universities
|1992 3 – 6 Feb
||The Association of Bahá'í Publishers and Distributors is established at a Bahá'í Publishers' Conference in Oakham, England, with its headquarters in the Netherlands. [BINS273:4-5; VV71]
||Publishing Trust; Baha'i Publishers' Conference
|1992 5 Jun
||The Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women, a non-profit education project based in Indore, India, is one of 74 individuals and institutions presented with the United Nations Environment Programme ‘Global 500' award in Rio de Janeiro. [BINS272:5; BW92–3:125; VV110]
- For picture see BW92–3:183.
|Rio de Janeiro; Brazil
||Baha'i Vocational Institute for Rural Women; United Nations Environment Programme ‘Global 500' award
|1992 19 - 22 Jun
||Graduation ceremonies were held for the thirty-eight members of the first graduating class of the Maxwell International Bahá'í School. More than seven hundred participated in the ceremonies. ["Maxwell Eagle" Sep/Oct 1992 Vol IV no. 1 page 1]
||Maxwell International Baha'i School
|1992 15 Sep
||Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum was officially invited to open the Exhibition of Bahá'í Manuscripts at the British Museum in London. [VV134]
||Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum; Exhibition of Bahá'í Manuscripts; British Museum
|1992 17 Sep
||The Bahá'í Professional Society of Hong Kong is inaugurated. [BINS292:8; BW92–3:129]
||The Baha'i Professional Society of Hong Kong
|1992 25 - 27 Sep
||The first Bahá'í Youth Conference of Lithuania takes places in Kaunas, attended by 32 Bahá'ís. [BINS281:1]
||Baha'i Youth Conference of Lithuania
|1992 24 – 28 Oct
||The first Bahá'í Autumn School of Central Asia is held in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, attended by more than 200 Bahá'ís and many others. [BINS284:2]
||Baha'i Autumn School of Central Asia
|1992 26 – 30 Dec
||The first National Bahá'í Winter School of Bulgaria is held in Lovech, attended by 130 Bahá'ís. [BINS286:1–2]
||Baha'i Winter School
|1993 In the year
||EBBF was registered in Paris as an official non-profit association. Its statutes provide that membership is open to Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís alike. [ebbf]
||European Baha'i Business Forum
|1993 19 Jan
||The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace at the University of Maryland is inaugurated. [BW92–3:140–1]
||Baha'i Chair for World Peace at the University of Maryland; Baha'i Chair for World Peace
|1993 29 – 31 Jan
||The first Latin American Bahá'í Social and Economic Development Seminar takes place in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. [BINS308:2; BW92–3:139]
||Santa Cruz; Bolivia
||Latin American Baha'i Social and Economic Development Seminar
|1993 19 – 21 Feb
||The first Bahá'í Winter School of Slovenia and Croatia, the first Bahá'í school to be held in Slovenia, takes place in Mozirje, Slovenia, attended by 20 adults and seven children. [BINS289:5–6]
||Mozirje; Slovenia Croatia
||Baha'i Winter School of Slovenia and Croatia
|1993 13 Mar
||Three Bahá'ís are assassinated at the Bahá'í Centre in Mdantsane, Ciskei, in a racially-motivated attack. [BW93–4:147–50]
||assassination of Baha'is
||The first International Bahá'í Youth Conference of Belarus is held, attended by 164 people from 16 countries. [BINS299:8; BINS306:7; BW93–4:123]
||International Baha'i Youth Conference of Belarus
||The first European Bahá'í Medical Conference is held in De Poort, Netherlands, attended by people from 26 countries. [BW93–4:104–5]
||De Poort; Netherlands
||European Baha'i Medical Conference
|1993 16 Oct
||The passing of Marzieh Nabíl Carpenter Gail, the second child and eldest daughter of the first Persian-American marriage in the Bahá'í Faith between Persian diplomat Ali-Kuli Khan and Boston debutante Florence Breed. (b. 1 April, 1908) [BW1993-1994p320-321, Find a grave]
- A translator (Arabic and Persian into English) and author. Poet Roger White would say of his friend: "She is the first lady of Bahá'í literature and I and many writers are indebted to her for leading the way."
- translations include: The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys (1945) and The Secret of Divine Civilization (1957) with her father; Memorials of the Faithful (1971); Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1976) with a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre; My Memories of Bahá'u'lláh (1982).
- author of a dozen Bahá'í and non-Bahá'í books in addition to countless essays, articles, and short stories. Her remembrances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá are contained in The Sheltering Branch (1959), and those of His Exalted Sister in Khanum: The Greatest Holy Leaf (1981).
- Many of her essays and pioneering stories are contained in Dawn Over Mount Hira (1976) and Other People, Other Places (1982). As well she wrote “Six Lessons in Islam” (1953), Summon Up Remembrance (1987), Arches of the Years (1991) and, “Bahá'í Glossary” (1955). [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol6, 1996]
||Marzieh Nabil Carpenter Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; "Patron Saint" of women Baha'i scholars; In Memoriam; Marzieh Gail
|1993 24 Oct
||The establishment of the India Hindi Bahá'í Academy (The Rashtriya Bahá'í Uchcha Shiksha Sansthan) in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh).
- It is a national institute for higher learning of the Bahá'í Faith.
- There are three courses of study, a three year Advanced Bahá'í Studies course, a two year, post-graduate, Specialised Course and short courses for 3-5 days. The study scheme employs correspondence courses and campus contact, a programme for personal clarifications for the learners’ difficulties. Two question papers are also sent to them in each semester.
- The evaluation employs a two fold method: Viva voce examination based on the study materials and practical input in the field of service. Paper presentations, self reflection in the form of stories, songs, pictures, etc., and assignments in the active service of the Faith as well as making formal speeches all form a part of the final evaluation. [Bahá'í India website]
||India Hindi Baha'i Academy (The Rashtriya Baha'i Uchcha Shiksha Sansthan)
|1993 29 - 31 Oct
||The founding conference of the Association for Bahá'í Studies in Russia is held in St Petersburg. [BINS305:5]
||St. Petersburg; Russia
||Association for Baha'i Studies in Russia; conference
|1994 May 19
||The first National Bahá'í Conference of Armenia is held in Yerevan. [BINS318:5–6]
||National Baha'i Conference of Armenia
|1994 May 22
||The first Bahá'í Children and Youth Conference of Martinique is held in Fort-de-France, attended by 22 people. [BINS318:4–5]
||Baha'i Children and Youth Conference of Martinique
||The Bahá'í Health Association for Central and Eastern Europe and the European Bahá'í Dental Association are formed at the second Bahá'í Health Conference held at De Poort, Netherlands. [BW94–5:116]
||De Poort; Netherlands
||Baha'i Health Conference
|1995 Jun 8 – 11
||The first European Bahá'í Conference on Law and International Order is held at De Poort Conference Centre, Netherlands. [BINS345:4]
||De Poort; Netherlands
||European Baha'i Conference on Law and International Order
||The publication of Turning Point For All Nations by the Bahá'í International Community, United Nations Office, in New York in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations. It was a call for world leaders to define a role for the UN. [Turning Point for all Nations, en français]
||Turning Point For All Nations; Baha'i International Community; 50th anniversary of the UN
|1996 15 Jan
||A Chair for Bahá'í Studies is inaugurated at the University of Lucknow. [BINS354:3]
||Chair for Baha'i Studies
|1996 9 - 11 Feb
||The first National Bahá'í Winter School of Belarus is held near Minsk. [BINS358:3]
||National Baha'i Winter School of Belarus
|1997 24-26 Oct
||The International Environment Forum was launched at the first International Bahá'í Environment Conference in de Poort, Netherlands, with participants from nine countries, who were joined electronically by people from 21 countries participating in the e-mail version of the conference.
- A BAHÁ'Í PERSPECTIVE ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT was presented by Michael Richards of the Overseas Development Institute in London.
- At the conference, the objectives, activities and structure of the Forum were agreed and statutes adopted, and a governing board of five people was elected.
- It is a Bahá'í-inspired non-governmental organization that links together Bahá'ís and others interested in the fields of environment and sustainable development. Development of the Forum has been encouraged and guided by the Bahá'í International Community, although it has no formal link with the Bahá'í administration.
|de Poort; Netherlands
||International Environment Forum; Baha'i International Community; International Baha'i Environment Conference
||The dedication of the first academic chair in Bahá'í studies in Israel at Hebrew University of Jerusalem with the appointment of Prof. Moshe Sharon. The position was made possible because of an anonymous donation. [Jerusalem Post, June 7, 1999, BWNS84]
||Academic chair in Baha'i Studies; Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Prof. Moshe Sharon
|1999 15 - 18 Aug
||The third conference was held Sidcot, Avon, United Kingdom, jointly with the Bahá'í Agency for Social and Economic Development - UK. It brought together 44 participants from 13 countries on 5 continents, as well as internet connection with an additional 70 "electronic" conference participants in 29 countries, for a total of 114 participants from 38 countries, including 8 in Africa. (From web site)
||Baha'i Agency for Social and Economic Development; Baha'i Agency for Social and Economic Development Conference
|2001 25 - 27 Jun
||The Baha'i International Community issued this statement for the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS in New York entitled HIV/AIDS and Gender Equality: Transforming Attitudes and Behaviours". [Text]
||Baha'i International Community; United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS; HIV/AIDS and Gender Equality: Transforming Attitudes and Behaviours; UN; BIC
|2001 13 Dec
||The passing of Giovanni (Gianni) Ballerio in Geneva at the age of 58 after a battle with cancer. He was 58.
- He had been a representative of the Bahá'í International Community at the United Nations in Geneva and in New York since 1981. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 3]
||Giovanni (Gianni) Ballerio; Baha'i International Community
|2002 19 Mar
||The establishment of the seventh Bahá'í radio station in Bulac, Philippines, located in a rural district some 30 kilometers from the city of San José on the main island of Luzon.
- The station operates at 1584 kHz on the AM band, broadcasting at a power of 1,000 watts. Due to the flat topography of the region, it reaches a wide area encompassing the entire province of Nueva Ecija and a portion of Tarlac and Pangasinan provinces, with a potential listenership of more than 2.3 million people. [BWNS181]
||Baha'i radio station
|2002 26 Jun – 2 Jul
||In commemoration of the Second Bahá'í World Congress 23-26 November in 1992 in New York, a Festival of the Arts is celebrated in that same city. The project is an independent initiative of Global Music, Inc., a Bahá'í-owned company, and associated individuals. It is not under the sponsorship of any Bahá'í institution. The centerpiece event is held at Carnegie Hall featuring a 550-voice choir under the direction of Mr. Tom Price and known as the Voices of Baha. It is composed of Bahá'ís from some 24 countries. [BWNS162]
||New York; NY
||Second Baha'i World Congress; Festival of the Arts; Global Music; Inc.; Carnegie Hall; Tom Price
|2002 21 Sep
||The dedication , at the Green Acre Bahá'í School in Eliot Maine, the oldest permanent Bahá'í school in the world, of a new classroom and lecture hall designated as The Harriet and Curtis Kelsey Center, with an attendant Manny Reimer Hall. [BWNS175]
||Green Acre; Eliot; Maine
||Green Acre; Baha'i School; The Harriet and Curtis Kelsey Center; Manny Reimer Hall; oldest permanent Baha'i school in the world
|2003 11 Mar
||Bani Dugal Gujral was appointed Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations.
- Ms. Dugal Gujral had been serving as interim Principal Representative since the resignation of Techeste Ahderom in 2001.
- Ms. Dugal Gujral came to the Bahá'í International Community in 1994 and served as Director of the Community's Office for the Advancement of Women. A native of India, where she practiced law before coming to the United States, Ms. Dugal Gujral holds a Master's degree in Environmental Law from Pace University School of Law in New York. [One Country Vol.14 Issue4]
|New York; NY
||Bani Dugal Gujral; Baha'i International Community; Office for the Advancement of Women; Techeste Ahderom; UN
|2003 18 Mar
||The President of India, Abdul Kalam, visited the Bahá'í House of Worship in New Delhi, the first official visit there by an Indian Head of State since the Temple was opened in December 1986. [BWNS204]
||New Delhi; India
||Abdul Kalam; Baha'i House of Worship in New Delhi; Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
|2003 4 Apr
||Given current conditions in the world the Ninth International Convention was cancelled. It had been scheduled for 29 April to 2 May. Ballots from the National Spiritual Assembly members were mailed to the World Centre. The 19 delegates that had been chosen as tellers travelled to the World Centre to count the votes. [BW'02-‘03pg37-38, BWNS202]
||International Baha'i Convention; International Convention
|2003 25 Jul
||The passing of Elisabeth Charlotte (Lottie) Tobias while on her way home to Voorburg from a summer school held in De Poort. She was described by the National Spiritual Assembly as being the "mother" of the Netherlands Baha'i community. [BW03-04p238]
||Elisabeth Charlotte (Lottie) Tobias; Netherlands Baha'i community
||The publication of History of Bahá'ísm in Iran by Abdullah Shahbazi, the then head of the Political Studies and Research Institute, part of the Institute for Iranian Contemporary Historical Studies. In his book he advanced the theory of the alliance between Bahá'ísm and Zionism. [Iran Press Watch1407]
||History of Baha'ism in Iran; Abdullah Shahbazi
||Dr. John Grayzei was appointed to the Bahá'í Chair for Peace at the University of Maryland in the United States. He succeeds Suheil Bushrui who held the position since its inauguration in 1992. [BWNS404]
||Dr. John Grayzei; Suheil Bushrui; Baha'i Chair for Peace; University of Maryland
|2005 1 Nov
||A new Bahá'í Centre is obtained at 44 Albany Street in Edinburgh, Scotland. [BWNS347, BWNS395]
|2006 15 Jul
||The Bahá'í Academy has entered into a formal agreement with one of India's top-ranked universities to offer specialized training in education for moral development to its students, faculty, and staff. [BWNS470]
||Baha'i Academy; University of Pune
|2009 2 – 3 Jul
||More than 20 members of the European Bahá'í Business Forum participated in the Global Ethics Forum, held at United Nations headquarters in Geneva. [BWNS722]
||Global Ethics Form; European Baha'i Business Form
|2011. 21 Oct
||Launch of Inciting Hatred: Iran's media campaign to demonize Baha'is. The Baha'i International Community prepared and launched a report that documents and analyses more than 400 press and media items over a 16-month period that typify an insidious state-sponsored effort to demonize and vilify Baha'is, using false accusations.
||Inciting Hatred: Iran's media campaign to demonize Baha'is; BIC; persecution
|2012 21 Apr
||Plans are announced for the building of the first two national Mashriqu’l-Adhkárs that are to be raised up in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Papua New Guinea. [Riḍván 2012 To the Bahá’ís of the World]
||Haifa; Israel; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Papua New Guinea;
||national Baha'i Temples; national Mashriqu’l-Adhkars; Mashriqul-Adhkar
|2012. 29 Oct
||The Baha'i International Community publishes a special report on The Baha'is of Semnan: A Case Study in Religious Hatred. This video report highlights the effect on one community of the Iranian government’s methodical and organized campaign to incite hatred against the Baha'is and eliminate them as a viable social entity.
The Baha'is of Semnan have been the focus in recent years of an intensifying persecution, facing an array of economic, physical and psychological attacks. While these types of attacks on Baha'is are not confined to Semnan, the situation there is noteworthy for its particular intensity and the mobilization and coordination of official and semi-official elements -- including the police, the courts, local officials, and the clergy.
||The Baha'is of Semnan: A Case Study in Religious Hatred
||The publication of the report entitled Violence with Impunity: Acts of Aggression Against Iran's Bahá'í Community published by the Bahá'í International Community. The report documents a rising tide of violence directed against the Iranian Bahá'í community - and the degree to which attackers enjoy complete impunity from prosecution or punishment. From 2005 through 2012, for example, there were 52 cases where Bahá'ís have been held in solitary confinement, and another 52 incidents where Bahá'ís have been physically assaulted. Some 49 incidents of arson against Bahá'í homes and shops, more than 30 cases of vandalism, and at least 42 incidents of cemetery desecration were also documented. [BWNS972]
||Violence with Impunity: Acts of Aggression Against Iran's Baha'i' Community
|2013 29 Apr – 2 May
||The Eleventh International Bahá'í Convention in Haifa and the 50th anniversary of the inaugural Convention in 1963 at which the first Universal House of Justice was elected. Those elected were Paul Lample, Firaydoun Javaheri, Payman Mohajer, Gustavo Correa, Shahriar Razavi, Stephen Birkland, Stephen Hall, Chuungu Malitonga, and Ayman Rouhani. [BWNS950, BWNS951, BWNS953]
||International Baha'i Convention; Paul Lample; Firaydoun Javaheri; Payman Mohajer; Gustavo Correa; Shahriar Razavi; Stephen Birkland; Stephen Hall; Chuungu Malitonga; Ayman Rouhani
|2013 28 Oct
||The release of the video Violence with Impunity: Acts of Aggression Against Iran's Bahá'í' Community based on the report of the same name. [BWNS972]
||Violence with Impunity: Acts of Aggression Against Iran's Baha'i' Community
|2015 14 May
||A global campaign called "Seven Days in Remembrance of Seven Years in Prison for the Seven Baha'i Leaders" to call attention to the long and unjust imprisonment of seven Iranian Baha'i leaders is launched on the seventh anniversary of their arrest. Each day of the week-long campaign, starting 14 May 2015, is dedicated to one member of the seven: Mahvash Sabet, Fariba Kamalabadi, Jamaloddin Khanjani, Afif Naeimi, Saeid Rezaie, Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Vahid Tizfahm.
||Yaran; Seven Days in Remembrance of Seven Years in Prison for the Seven Baha'i Leaders
|2016 26 Oct
||The report from the offices of the Bahá'í International Community entitled The Bahá'í Question Revisited: Persecution and Resilience in Iran was formally released.
- The full report can be read on-line here.
- A list of resolutions by the United Nations and United Nations bodies that reference the situation of Baha’is in Iran since 1980 can be found
at this location.
- An annex to The Bahá'í Question Revisited is the report called "Inciting Hatred". It is an analysis of approximately 400 anti-Baha'i articles, broadcasts, and webpages from late December 2009 through May 2011 and can be found here.
- A list of the 222 Baha’is who have been killed in Iran since 1978 can be read here.
||Persecution; BIC; The Baha'i Question Revisited: Persecution and Resilience in Iran
|2017 18 Jan
||The announcement of the publication of Days of Remembrance: Selections from the Writings of Baha'u'llah for Baha'i Holy Days by the Bahá'í World Centre. It is also made available in electonic format from Bahá’í Reference Library at Days of Remembrance: Selections from the Writings of Baha'u'llah for Baha'i Holy Days. [BWNS1148]
||Days of Remembrance: Selections from the Writings of Baha'u'llah for Baha'i Holy Days; Days of Remembrance