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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1823. c. 1823 Bahá'u'lláh's father dreams that his son is swimming in a sea with multitudes of fish clinging to the strands of His hair. He relates this dream to a soothsayer, who prophesies that Bahá'u'lláh will achieve supremacy over the world. [DB199–20] Baha'u'llah; father; dream
1835 Birth of Mírzá Áqá Ján-i-Kashání (Khadimu'lláh), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and His amanuensis. Mirza Áqa Jan-i-Kashani; Khadimu'llah; Apostle of Baha'u'llah; amanuensis
1837. c. 1837 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Mustafáy-i-Baghdádí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Iraq. Iraq Mirza Muhammad Mustafay-i-Baghdadi; Apostle of Baha'u'llah
1844 Birth of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Gulpáygán. Gulpáygán; Iran Gulpaygani; Apostle of Baha'u'llah
1844. 7 Feb Birth of Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandarí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Qazvín. Qazvín; Iran Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandarí; Apostle Bahá'u'lláh
1844. 23 May The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá in a rented house near the Shimrán Gate in Tihrán. He was born at midnight. [AB9, SoG3-4]
  • He is known as `Abbás Effendi outside the Bahá'í community.
  • Bahá'u'lláh gives Him the titles Ghusn-i-A`zam (the Most Great Branch), Sirru'lláh (Mystery of God) and Áqá (the Master). [BBD2, 19, 87, 89]
  • Sarkár-i-Áqá (the Honourable Master) is a title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD201]
  • He Himself chose the title `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá) after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD2]
Tihrán; Tehran; Iran `Abdu'l-Baha; `Abbas Effendi; Baha'i; Baha'u'llah; Ghusn-i-A`zam; Most Great Branch; Sirru'llah; Mystery God; Áqa; Master; Sarkar-i-Áqa
1844 Jul - Aug The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructe them to spread out and heach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36, DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
  • To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
  • Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
  • Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
  • See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
  • From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja`far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
  • See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
  • On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
  • Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
  • See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after The Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46] .
Iran; Persia; Turkey; Kashan; Isfahan; Tihran; Tehran; Mazindaran; Khurasan; Qum Bab; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Baha'u'llah; Tablet Baha'u'llah; Shah; Mulla Ja`far; sifter of wheat; Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdu'l-Majid; Tablet Bab
1844 30 Sep The Báb receives the letter from Mullá Husayn giving Him details of his journey and meeting with Bahá'u'lláh and others he had contacted.
  • Nabíl indicates that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129]
  • Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [B57]
  • GPB8-9 says He received the letter in the month of Sha'bán, 1260 (16 August to 13 September, 1844).
  • See MH119 where the author speculates that if the letter arrived on 16 Ramadan (29 September) and the Báb departed from the port of Búshihr on the 19th of Ramadan (2 October, 1844), He had to have been in Búshihr when He received the letter.
Iran; Bab; Mulla Husayn; Baha'u'llah; letter; pilgrimage
1846 The birth of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, eldest daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb, and sister of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Tihrán. She is later designated by Shoghi Effendi `the outstanding heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation'. [BBD42; GPB108]
  • For a description of her nature see BK42–3.
Many Bábís go to Shíráz and meet the Báb. [B 103]

Táhirih is sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She is lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád. During her time in Iraq she enlists a considerable number of followers and makes a number of enemies among the clergy [B162; DB271]

Tihrán; Tehran; Shíráz; Iran; Baghdád; Karbalá; Iraq Bahiyyih Khanum; Greatest Holy Leaf; daughter Baha'u'llah; Navvab; sister `Abdu'l-Baha; Shoghi Effendi; Baha'i Dispensation; Babi; Bab; Tahirih; Shaykh Muhammad Shibl; Mufti Baghdad
1847. 1 Apr The Báb receives a letter and gifts from Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán delivered to His Hands by Mulla Muhammad-Mihdiy-i-Kandi. The letter cheers His heart, which has been despondent since His arrest and departure from Shíráz. [B120; DB227; GPB678] Tihrán; Tehran; Shíráz; Iran; Persia Bab; letter; gifts; Baha'u'llah
1847 c. Aug - Sep On her departure from Hamadán Táhirih asks most of the Arab Bábís travelling with her to return to Iraq. [B165; DB273]

Arrived in Qazvín, Táhirih refuses her estranged husband's attempts at reconciliation and lives with her father. Her father-in-law Hájí Mullá Taqí, feels insulted and denounces the Shaykhís and Bábís. [B166; DB2736]

Hamadán; Qazvín; Mashhad; Khurásán; Shíráz; Máh-Kú; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran Persia Tahirih; Arab; Babis; Haji Mulla Taqi; Shaykhis; Mulla Husayn; pilgrimage; Baha'u'llah
1847. Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]

Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]

  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
Tihrán; Tehran; Qazvín; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Mulla `Abdu'llah; murder; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Shaykh Salib-i-Karimi; Babis; execute; execution; martyrdom; shrine; Imam-Zadih Zayd; Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi; death; prison; Mulla Tahir-i-Shirazi; Mulla Ibrahim-i-Maballati
1848. early Dec Bahá'u'lláh sets out from Tihrán with 11 companions to reinforce the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí. Nine miles from the fort they are arrested and taken to the town of Ámul, where they are held prisoner in the home of the deputy governor. This is Bahá'u'lláh's second imprisonment. He intervenes to spare His companions the bastinado and He alone receives it.
  • When the governor returns to his home he orders that Bahá'u'lláh and His companions be released and arranges a safe conduct for them to Tihrán. [B174; BBD44; BKG56–60; BW18:381; DB369–76; GPB68; SB7]
  • See BKG57 and DB70 for pictures.
Tihrán; Tehran; Ámul; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Babis; Shaykh Tabarsi; arrest; bastinado
1848. 30 Mar Mullá Husayn departs for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
  • The Báb tells him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he is to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
  • In Tihrán he again meets Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
Mázindarán; Khuy; Urumiyyih; Maraghih; Milan; Tabriz; Zanjan; Qazvin; Tehran; Iran; Persia Mulla Husayn; Baha'u'llah; Báb Mulla Husayn
1848. c. 17 Jul The Bábís leave Badasht for Mázindarán. They are attacked by a mob of more than 500 outside the village of Níyálá. [B170–1; BKG46–7; BW18:380; DB298; GPB68]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr with Táhirih. He entrusts her into the care of Shaykh Abú-Turáb-i-Ishtahárdí, to be taken to a place of safety. [BKG48; DB299]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr `in easy stages'. By September He is in Bandar-Jaz. [BKG48]
Badasht; Mázindarán; Níyálá; Núr; Bandar-Jaz; Iran; Persia Babis; attack; Baha'u'llah; Tahirih; Shaykh Abu-Turab-i-Ishtahardi
1948 Sep Bahá'u'lláh is in Bandar-Jaz. An edict comes from Muhammad Sháh ordering His arrest.
  • The Russian agent at Bandar-Jaz offers Him passage on a Russian ship at anchor there but He refuses. [BKG50] Birth of Hájí Mírzá Hasan, Adíb, Hand of the Cause and Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Táliqán.
Bandar-Jaz; Táliqán; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; arrest; Muhammad Shah; Russian agent; Russia; Haji Mirza Hasan; Adib; Hand Cause; Apostle
1848. 4 Sep The death of Muhammad Sháh. [BBR153–4]
  • This precipitates the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. [B147; BBD19; BBR156]
  • For details of his life, fall and death, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
  • The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest is rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
Iran; Persia Muhammad Sháh; Grand Vizier; Hájí Mírzá Áqásí; Bahá'u'lláh; arrest
1848. Oct - May 1849 The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí.
  • See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
  • The episode lasts seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
  • See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
  • See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
  • See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
  • Bahá'u'lláh visits the fortress and approves the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227]
  • He advises Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn sets out immediately and secures the release of Quddús, who has been in detention for 95 days. [B173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
  • Quddús arrives towards the end of the year. Some sources say October 20. [B173]
  • See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brings the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
  • Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
    • 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
    • The siege begins with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
    • it is said that 2000 soldiers were involved in the siege.
Iran; Persia Shrine; Shaykh Tabarsi; Babis'; Babi; Baha'u'llah; fortress; Mulla Husayn; Quddus Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)
1849 Bahá'u'lláh marries his second wife, Fátimih Khánum Mahd-i-‘Ulyá (1828–1904), His cousin, the daughter of Malik-Nisá Khánum (Mírzá Buzurg's sister) and Mírzá Karím-i-Namadsáb.
  • Note: According to one source, she was married to the famous cleric Mírzá Muhammad Taqí ‘Allámi-yi-Núrí and widowed before Bahá'u'lláh married her.
Persia; Iran Baha'u'llah; marriage; wife; Fatimih Khanum Mahd-i-‘Ulya; Malik-Nisa Khanum; Mirza Buzurg; Mirza Karim-i-Namadsab
1851 Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán meets with Bahá'u'lláh and tells Him that it would be advisable for Bahá'u'lláh to leave Tihrán temporarily. [BKG66; DB591]

A few days later, Bahá'u'lláh leaves Tihrán for Karbalá on pilgrimage. [BKG66; DB587]

Tihrán; Iran; Persia; Karbalá; Iraq Mirza Taqi Khan; Baha'u'llah
1851 Aug Bahá'u'lláh spends most of August in Kirmánsháh. [BKG67; DB591] Kirmánsháh; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah
1851. 28 Aug Bahá'u'lláh arrives in Karbalá via Baghdád on His pilgrimage. He stays here for 10 months. [BKG67; DB593; GPB70]

  • See BKG68 and DB593–4 for those who became Bábís in Karbalá in this period.
Karbalá; Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; pilgrimage; Babis
1851 5 Oct Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí, the Báb's amanuensis, had been sent from the Báb's side in Chihríq to live in Karbilá at a time just before the incident at Shaykh Tabarsí when all available believers were being dispatched to assist Quddús. Here, the Báb told him, he would meet the promised Husayn. Although he had never met Bahá'u'lláh before, on this day he recognized Him as He walked by the inner courtyard of the Shrine of the Imám Husayn. [BKG67–8]
  • There is a Shíh tradition that, in the Latter Days, 'Alí would re-appear twice, once before Muhammad and once after Husayn. The Báb's name was 'Alí-Muhammad and Bahá'u'lláh's name was Husayn-Alí, hence the prophecy was fulfilled. Shaykh Hasan wants to proclaim the advent of the Promised One however Bahá'u'lláh advises him that it is not yet time.[OPOP163, DB31-33]
Karbalá; Iraq Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi; Bab; amanuensis; Baha'u'llah; Imam Husayn; shrine
1852 Birth of Mírzá Buzurg-i-Khurásání (Badí‘), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Mashhad. Mashhad; Iran; Persia Mirza Buzurg-i-Khurasani; Badi‘; birth; Apostle; Baha'u'llah
1852 Apr - May c. Bahá'u'lláh returns to Iran from Karbalá. [DB598]

  • He is the guest of the Grand Vizier for one month. [BKG74; DB598–9]
Karbalá; Iraq; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Grand Vizier
1852 summer Bahá'u'lláh stays at the summer residence of Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, the brother of the Grand Vizier, in Afchih, Lavásán, near Tihrán. [BKG77; DB599] Afchih; Lavásán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Ja‘far-Quli Khan; Grand Vizier
1852. 15 Aug Attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]

  • See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
  • See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
  • See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
  • Ja‘far-Qulí Khán writes immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh is denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the ‘would-be murderer'. Ja‘far-Qulí Khán offers to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
Iran; Persia Shah; Ja‘far-Quli Khan; Baha'u'llah
1852. 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh rides out towards the headquarters of the imperial army. He stops at Zargandih at the home of Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, secretary to the Russian legation. [BKG77; DB603]

  • Bahá'u'lláh is invited to remain in this home. [DB603]
  • The Sháh is informed of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival and sends an officer to the legation to demand the delivery of Bahá'u'lláh into his hands. The Russian minister, Prince Dolgorukov, refuses and suggests that Bahá'u'lláh be sent to the home of the Grand Vizier. [BKG77; DB603]
  • Bahá'u'lláh is arrested. [BKG77; DB603]
Zargandih; Iran; Persia Bahá'u'lláh; Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí; Russian; Sháh; Prince Dolgorukov; Grand Vizier; arrest
1852 days following
16 Aug
For a few days after His arrest, Bahá'u'lláh is interrogated. [TN31]

He is then taken ‘on foot and in chains, with bared head and bare feet' to Tihrán where He is cast into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77; DB606–7; ESW20; GPB71; TN31]

  • See BKG77–8 and DB606–8 for a description of Bahá'u'lláh's journey.
  • See CH40–1 for the effect on Bahá'u'lláh's family.
Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Siyah-Chal
1852 Dec Bahá'u'lláh is released from the Síyáh-Chál.

  • This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
  • See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release. He invoking his full power as an envoy of Russia, called out the Sháh and his court for their barbaric behaviour.
  • See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh on release.
  • See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán on His release.
  • The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but Bahá'u'lláh chose instead to go to Iraq. It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would have been misrepresented as having political implications. [BBIC:8; DB650]
Iran; Persia; Iraq Baha'u'llah; release; Siyah-Chal; Russia; Minister; Prince Dolgorukov; Mirza Áqa Khan
1853. 8 Apr Bahá'u'lláh and His family arrive in Baghdád. [BBR177; BKG106; GPB109; TN38]
  • See BBR177–83 for conditions in Baghdád during this period.
  • Shoghi Effendi describes this as being the lowest period of the faith of the Báb. [DB651, GPB113-114]
  • Shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád Navváb gives birth to a son. [CB71; CH51–2]
Baghdad; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Navvab; son
1853 or 1854 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, first son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [CB 125]

  • He was born in the first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in Baghdád. CB125]

    Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘ám (Tablet of All Food). [BRSM:62; BKG112]

  • The revelation of this Tablet points up Mírzá Yahyá's lack of ability. [BKG 112]
Baghdád; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-‘Ali; birth; son; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya; Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘am; Tablet All Food; Mirza Yahya'
1853. summer Bahá'u'lláh reveals His station and mission to Mírzá Áqá Ján in Karbalá. [BKG109–11; GPB115–16] Karbalá; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Mirza Áqa Jan a few newspaper stories in English mention 'A certain "Babee"'
1856. c. 1856 – 1857 Birth of Samadíyyih Khánum, first daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Samadiyyih Khanum; daughter; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya
1856 – 1858 Bahá'u'lláh's writings during this period are so prolific that in one hour He would reveal a thousand verses and in the course of one day the equivalent of the Qur'án. He reveals a vast number of works and then commands that hundreds of thousands of verses be destroyed. [BBRSM62–3; BKG167; GPB137–8] Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; writing
1856 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh returns from Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán.

"He Himself has described the situation which then confronted Him:

We found no more than a handful of souls, faint and dispirited, nay utterly lost and dead. The Cause of God had ceased to be on any one's lips, nor was any heart receptive to its message. [GPB125]

  • From this time Bahá'u'lláh started to educate the believers in the principles of the Faith. [GPB127–8; TN39]
Baghdád; Iraq; Sulaymáníyyih; Kurdistán Baha'u'llah; Sulaymaniyyih
1857. c. 1857 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Four Valleys, addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahmán-i-Tálabání and describing four stages of the spiritual life. [SA157–8] Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Four Valleys; Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahman-i-Talabani
1860. c. 1860 Mírzá Mihdí, the son of Bahá'u'lláh, is taken from Tihrán to join his family in Baghdád. He is about 12 years old. [RB3:205]

  • He travels with the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [MMNF]
Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia; Baghdád; Iraq Mirza Mihdi; son; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya
1860 Birth of Shaykh Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Qá'iní, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw Firist, near Bírjand. [EB273] Naw Firist; Bírjand; Iran; Persia Shaykh Muhammad-‘Aliy-i-Qa'ini; birth; Apostle of Baha'u'llah
1862. c. 1862 Bahá'u'lláh sends a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refuses to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3] Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; ring; shawl; Shahr-Banu; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; Iraq
1862. c. Mar - Jun Birth of Sádhijíyyih, second daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Baghdád; Iraq Sadhijiyyih; daughter; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya
1863 or earlier Colonel Sir Arnold Burrowes Kemball, the British Consul-General in Baghdád, offers Bahá'u'lláh the protection of British citizenship and offers Him residence in India or anywhere of Bahá'u'lláh's choosing. [BBR183, 234; BBRSM65; GPB131]

  • Bahá'u'lláh declines the invitation, preferring to remain in Ottoman lands. [GBP131]
  • See BBR183, 508 for details on Kemball; see BBR160–1 for a picture.
Baghdád; Iraq; India; Britain; Colonel; Arnold Burrowes Kemball; British; Consul-General; Baha'u'llah; Ottoman
1863. Mar Bahá'u'lláh celebrates the two-week festival of Naw-Rúz at the Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh, a farm along the river Tigris, not far from His house in Baghdád. [BKG154; GPB147; SA163] Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh; Tigris; Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Naw-Ruz
1863. 30 Apr Bahá'u'lláh's family joins Him in the Garden. [BKG175; RB1:281; SA235]

  • This initiates the holy day of the Ninth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 29 April. [BBD 196]
Najíbíyyih Garden; Iraq Bahá'u'lláh; family; Ridván; ninth day
1863. c. Aug - Nov Death of Sádhijíyyih, 18-month-old daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Her body is buried in a plot of land outside the Ádirnih Gate of Constantinople. [BKG203] Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Death; Sadhijiyyih; daughter; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya; Ádirnih Gate
1863. 19 Oct Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Bell (Subhánika-Yá-Hú). [BKG206; BW14:632; RB2:18]
  • See SDH41-43 for the story of Hájí Mirzá Haydar-'Alí and the use of this tablet during his imprisonment in Egypt.
Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Baha'u'llah; Tablet Bell; Subhanika-Ya-Hu
1863. 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Istanbul for Adrianople. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427]

  • The journey takes twelve days and they pass through the following villages en route. [BKG204; GPB161,The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • chik-Chakmachih
    Buyúk-Chakmachih
    Salvarí
    Birkás
    Bábás
    Bábá-Iskí
    
  • See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter is extremely cold and the travellers are not clad for freezing weather.
Constantinople; Istanbul; Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; winter; journey
1863. 12 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrive in Adrianople. [BKG206; GPB161; RB2:62]

  • This is the furthest point from His native land that Bahá'u'lláh reaches and the first time in known history that a Manifestation of God had lived on the European continent. [BKG217]
  • See BKG218–19, 221–2; GPB161–2 and MRHK179–96 for a description of the houses Bahá'u'lláh lives in during this period.
  • See BKG219–20 for the hardships of the first winter.
Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey; Europe Bahá'u'lláh; Europe
1864. 15 Aug Birth of Mírzá Díyá'u'lláh, the third son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahdi-‘Ulyá. [BKG222] Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Mírzá Díyá'u'lláh; son; Bahá'u'lláh; wife; Mahdi-‘Ulyá
1865. c. 1865 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Arabic Tablet of Ahmad (Lawh-i-Ahmad) for Ahmad, a believer from Yazd. [RB2:107]
  • See RB2:107–66 for the story of Ahmad.
  • See Bahá'í News pg 541 (March 1967) for A Flame of Fire: The Story of the Tablet of Ahmad by A.Q. Faizi. Part 2 of the story is found in the April 1967 edition. It is also found at Bahá'í Library.
  • See RB2:119–26 for an analysis of the Tablet.
  • Shoghi Effendi states that the Tablet has a special potency and significance. [DG60]
  • See "Ahmad, The Flame of Fire" by Darius Shahrokh.
Adrianople; Edirne; Yazd; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Tablet of Ahmad; Lawh-i-Ahmad
1866 10 Mar - c. Mar 1867 Bahá'u'lláh reveals numerous Tablets in the months that follow.

  • See GBP170–1 for a description of the number of verses revealed every day.
  • See BKG245 and GPB171 for list of Tablets revealed before Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in the house of ‘Izzat Áqá.
  • In addressing the Tablets to the Kings and the Queens of the earth Baha'u'lláh addressed them as "Servants of the Most High God and Guardians under Him of the people entrusted to their guidance" and called on them to join with Him in establishing an International Arbitration Council so that humanity should never again suffer the misery of war. His approach was now more direct, He claimed Divine authority and that He was the Chosen One, Whom, under various names, all the religions of the world were awaiting. [CH63]
Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; Tablet; ‘Izzat Áqa; International Arbitration Council; kings
1866. 14 Nov The ‘star-fall' of 1866. [RB2:270, 422–6]

  • The falling of stars is predicted in MATT. 24:29.
  • For Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this see ESW131–2.
  • For the symbolism of falling stars see KI41.
  • See The Delight of Hearts pg87 for an account.
The spectacular shower of meteors in the early hours of the morning of 14 November 1866 was observed all over Europe. It was an extraordinary event exciting comment from professional astronomers and laymen alike. The following sample account is from The Times Saturday, 17 November 1866:

The Rev. Robert Main, the Radcliffe Observer at Oxford, gives the following account of the meteorological phenomenon of Tuesday night last: --

'...This great display began about 13h. (or 1 o'clock in the morning), and reached its maximum at about 13h.24m., after which time it gradually began to slacken. The watch, however, was kept up till 18h., though after 15h., there were not many meteors seen. In all there were observed not fewer than 3,000 during the night, of which about 2,000 fell between 13h. and 14h., or between 1 a.m. and 2 a.m. As to the general appearance of the meteors, it was noticed that the majority of them were of a whitish or yellowish colour. Some, however, were reddish or orange-coloured, and one meteor was noticed to be bluish. The brightest left generally a train behind them, which was to be seen for a few seconds after the meteor disappeared.' (Adapted from ‘The Revelation of Baha’u’llah', by Adib Taherzadeh, vol. 2)

star-fall; falling stars; symbol; Baha'u'llah; Bible; Matthew; The Times; Rev Robert Main
1867 Birth of Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, fourth son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i‘Ulyá in Adrianople. [BKG247] Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Mirza Badi'u'llah; son; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i‘Ulya
1867. c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh moves back to the now empty house of Amru'lláh. [GPB168]
  • He stays for about three months. [GPB168]
  • BKG239 says that within six months of Bahá'u'lláh's return to the house the owner sold it.
Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; Amru'llah
1867. c. Jun Bahá'u'lláh rents the house of ‘Izzat Áqá. [BKG239; GPB168]

  • See BKG241 for a description of this house.
Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; ‘Izzat Áqa; house
1867. c. Aug Bahá'u'lláh refuses to draw the allowance granted Him by the Ottoman government. [RB2:327]

  • Mírzá Yahyá twice petitions the government to convince it that he ought to be the recipient of the allowance. [RB2:327]
  • Bahá'u'lláh sells some of His belongings to provide the necessities for Himself and His dependents. [RB2:327]
Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; Ottoman government; Mirza Yahya
1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]

  • See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí‘.

Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station is foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177]

  • See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.
Adrianople; Turkey Baha'u'llah; Suriy-Muluk; Surih Kings; Kitab-i-Badi‘; Munajathay-i-Siyam; Prayers for Fasting; Napoleon III; Lawh-i-Sultan; Nasirid-Din Shah; Suriy-i-Ra'is; Suriy-i-Ghusn; Tablet of the Branch; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; Allah-u-Abha'; Bayan; Mirza Yahya
1967 Sep Mírzá Yahyá, prodded on by Mír Muhammad, challenges Bahá'u'lláh to a public confrontation in the mosque of Sultán Salím, thinking that He will not accept. In the end, it is Mírzá Yahyá who does not appear. [BKG239–41; GPB168–9; RB2:291–300, SDH22]

  • The incident gains Bahá'u'lláh respect in the eyes of the people. [RB2:289]
  • See [RB2:304] for a picture of the mosque.
Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Mirza Yahya; Mir Muhammad; Baha'u'llah; confrontation; mosque Sultan Salim; challenge
1869. Jul Badí` delivers the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He is tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
  • For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
  • For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
  • He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
  • Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
  • For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
  • See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
Írán Badi`; Fakhru'sh-Shuhada' (Pride of Martyrs); Apostle of Baha'u'llah; Shah
1881 to 1928 The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá.
  • Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
  • Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
Akka; BWC Trustee of the Huququ'llah; The second Trustee of the Huququ'llah; Haji Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani; Amin-i-Ilahi; Jinab-i-Shah; Hand of the Cause; Apostles of Baha'u'llah; Haji Ghulam-Rida; Amin-i-Amin; Huququ’llah
1887 Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
  • He is buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
  • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
`Akká; Mirza Musa; Áqay-i-Kalim; Apostle of Baha'u'llah; Karbala'i Hasan Khan; Karbala'i Sadiq
1910 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, (Hájí Akhund). He was born in Shahmírzád around 1842/3.
  • Bahá’u’lláh had entrusted him with the sacred task of moving and hiding the remains of the Báb. In Tehran he transferred the remains to Hand of the Cause Amínu’l-Bayán who moved them through innumerable dangers to a safe hiding place in the Mosque of the Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran, where they lay concealed until the time when, at the behest of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, they were transferred to the Holy Land to be laid in their permanent resting place on the slopes of Mount Carmel. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause by Bahá’u’lláh. [LoF3-8]
Tihrán; Tehran; Shahmírzád; Hand appointed by Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam; Haji Mulla ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Haji Akhund; Hand of the Cause of God
1914 21 Jan Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in Cairo. [AB404; BBD67]
  • For a brief biography see EM263–5, SDH113.
  • His resting place is now next to that of Lua Getsinger in the Bahá'í cemetery in Cairo.
  • His numerous works include Fará'id (The Peerless Gems) 1898; The Brilliant Proof; 1912; Bahá'í Proofs, 1902; and Al-Duraru'l-Bahíyih (The Shining Pearls, published in English as Miracles and Metaphors), 1900. [BBD7]
Cairo Mirza Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpaygani; Apostle of Baha'u'llah; Lua Getsinger; Baha'i cemetery; In Memoriam
1917 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqíy-i- Abharí (Ibn-i-Abhar). He was born in 1853/4 in Abhar.
  • For four years he suffered in Síyáh-Chál wearing the very same chains as Bahá’u’lláh had worn in 1852.
  • His services during the time of the Master included teaching journeys through Persia, the Caucasus and India. He also made some eleven journeys to the Holy Land with the permission of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
  • A special service rendered by Ibn-i-Abhar was the promotion of the education of women. He and his wife played an important part in the advancement of women in Persian society.
  • In 1886 Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause. He died in 1917. [LoF13-16, BBD114, EB268]
Abhar Hand appointed by Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God; Haji Mirza Muhammad-Taqiy-i- Abhari; Ibn-i-Abhar
1918 Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandar, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away early in the year.
  • For the story of his life see EB191-215.
Iran; Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandar; Apostle of Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam
1919 2 Sep The passing of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, entitled Adíbu'l-'Ulamá, know as Adíb in Tihrán. He was born in Talaqán in 1848 and became a Bahá’í around 1889.
  • Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God. [SDH138-140]
  • He was one of the founders of the Tarbíyat Schools in Tihrán. He died in Tihrán. [LoF17-18]
  • Tihrán; Tehran; Talaqán Hand appointed by Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan; Adibu'l-'Ulama; Adib; Hand of the Cause of God
    1922 30 Jan Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and Badí`u'lláh seize the keys to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBR456-7; CB288-9, 333; ER205; GBF18; PP53]
    • The governor of `Akká orders that the keys be handed over to the authorities and posts a guard at the Shrine. [BBR457; PP53-4]
    • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR456-7.
    Bahji Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Badi`u'llah; Shrine of Baha'u'llah
    1922 21 Apr The Shrines of Bahá'u'lláh and the Báb are electrically illuminated for the first time. [PP69]
    • For the story of this see HLS.
    Bahji; Mount Carmel Shrine of Baha'u'llah; Shrine of the Bab
    1923 8 Feb The keys to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh are returned to Shoghi Effendi. [GBF23; PP71] Shoghi Effendi; Shrine of Baha'u'llah
    1923 Early Sep J. E. Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era is published in Britain by George Allen and Unwin. [DJEE28; RG77]
    • Shoghi Effendi views this as a landmark in British Bahá'í history. [UD97]
    • Over the years he encourages its translation into dozens of languages. [RG77]
    • See DJEE37-8 for the importance of this work.
    Britain J. E. Esslemont; Baha'u'llah and the New Era; Shoghi Effendi
    1924 Nov The Supreme Court of Iraq decides against the Bahá'ís in the dispute over the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. [UD37-8] Supreme Court of Iraq; House of Baha'u'llah
    1928 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1.
  • His father was Mullá Sádiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursúní, referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [EM19] While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran.
  • He begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a martyr. Baha’u’llah said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Baha’u’llah conferred the station of martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”) .”
  • He is the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá’u’lláh.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class” the Faith.
  • He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
  • Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
  • For details of his life see EB171–6.
  • Tihrán; Tehran; Mashhad; Hand appointed by Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God; Mirza 'Ali-Muhammad; Ibn-i-Asdaq; Mulla Sadiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursuni
    1929 27 Nov The Mansion at Bahjí is evacuated by the Covenant-breakers after the occupation by Muhammad-Alí and his relatives for about 40 years. [DH116; GPB355–6; PP231-232, SETPE1p174]
    • During this time they showed no respect for the Holy Site; a blacksmith shop was set up near the entrance to the Shrine. [SE125]
    • For details of how the building is left see GBP356.
    • For pictures of its neglected state see DH116.
    • Covenant-breakers continue to occupy the adjacent house until June 1957. [PP233]
    • See SE126 for Shoghi Effendi's plan for a Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh.
    Bahjí; Mansion at Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Bahji; Shrine of Baha'u'llah
    1938 30 Apr Munírih Khánum, the Holy Mother, wife of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away. [BBD166; BW8:260; CB358; DH161]
    • Note: UD119 records this was 28 April.
    • Shoghi Effendi inters her body just west of the Shrine of Bahíyyih Khánum and erects a simple monument over her grave. [DH161]
    • For excerpts from her autobiography see BW8:259–63.
    • For tributes to her see BW8:263–7.
    Haifa Munirih Khanum; Holy Mother; In Memoriam; Shrine of Baha'u'llah
    1951 25 Jan or 4 Feb Claire Gung arrives in Tanganyika, the second Bahá’í pioneer to the country. Tanganyika; Tanzania; Claire Gung; pioneer; Knight of Baha'u'llah
    1951 3 Aug The establishment of the Faith in Uganda with the arrival of Mr. and Mrs. Músá Banání, Mrs. Violette and Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, of Iran, with their baby daughter Bahiyyih, and Mr. Philip Hainsworth arrived in Kampala. [Wiki Bahá'í Uganda] Kampala; Uganda; Iran; Persia Musa Banani; Nakhjavani; Bahiyyih; Philip Hainsworth; Knight of Baha'u'llah
    1953 The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Dr. K. M. Fozdar on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. [BWNS271] Andaman Island; Nicobar Island Knight Baha'u'llah; Dr. K. M. Fozdar
    1953 The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Edith Danielsen in the Cook Islands. [BWNS265] Cook Islands Knight Baha'u'llah; Edith Danielsen
    1953 The arrival of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Dr. Mihdi Samandari and Mrs. Ursula Samandari (Newman) in Mogadishu, Somalia [BWNS230] Mogadishu; Somalia Knights Baha'u'llah; Dr. Mihdi Samandari; Ursula Samandari; Newman
    1953. 28 May In a message addressed on the eve of the 61st anniversary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh, at the opening of the Ten Year Crusade, Shoghi Effendi encouraged 70 pioneers to arise to fill the goals promising that a Roll of Honour with their names would be deposited at the entrance door of the inner Sanctuary of the Tomb of Bahá’u’lláh. [MBW48-49]
    • He further elaborated in a message addressed to the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada. See the message of the 8 June 1953. [MtC177]
    • See 1992 28 May.
    BWC Pioneer; Roll of Honor; Roll of Honour; Sanctuary of the Tomb of Baha’u’llah; Shrine of Baha'u'llah
    1953 Sep The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Enayat Sohaili in Nyasaland (now known as Malawi) [BWNS240] Nyasaland; Malawi; Africa Knight Baha'u'llah; Enayat Sohaili
    1953 Sep Brigitte Lundblade (nee Hasselblatt), (b. 1923 - d. 17 May 2008) arrived in the Shetland Islands and was later honoured with being named as Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [Bahaikipedia] Shetland Islands Brigitte Lundblade; Brigitte Hasselblatt; Knight of Baha'u'llah
    1953 20 Sep The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Mr. Max Kanyerezi in Middle Congo (now called Republic of Congo) [BWNS246] Congo; Africa Knight Baha'u'llah; Max Kanyerezi
    1953 Oct The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Emma Rice, followed one week later by Knights Stanley and Florence Bagley and their three teenage children, Susan, Gerrold and Carol in Palermo, Sicily. [BWNS254] Sicily Knight Baha'u'llah; Emma Rice; Stanley Bagley; Florence Bagley; Susan Bagley; Gerrold Bagley; Carol Bagley
    1953 17 Oct The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Bertha Dobbins in Vanuatu. [BWNS256] Vanuatu Knight Baha'u'llah; Bertha Dobbin
    1953 Nov The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Kamil Abbas in the Seychelles. [BWNS272] Seychelles; Africa Knight Baha'u'llah; Kamil Abbas
    1953 Dec The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Labib Isfahani in Senegal. He was followed by his brother Habib Isfahani in April of 1954 who also received the honour. [BWNS283] Senegal; Africa Knight Baha'u'llah; Labib Isfahani; Habib Isfahani
    1954 Jan The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Abdu'l Rahman Zarqani, in the Seychelles. [BWNS272] Seychelles; Africa Knight Baha'u'llah; Abdu'l Rahman Zarqani
    1954 25 Jan The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Dr. Stanley Bolton in Tonga. [BWNS286] Tonga; Oceania Knight Baha'u'llah; Dr. Stanley Bolton
    1954 1 Mar The arrival of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Alvin and Gertrude Blum in the Solomon Islands. [BWNS291] Solomon Islands Knight Baha'u'llah; Alvin Blum; Gertrude Blum
    1954 4 Mar The arrival of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Elena (Marsella) and Roy Fernie in Kiribati. [BWNS301, BW13:452]

    They had left their home in Panama and their service on the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama to pioneer. They arrived on the island of Abaiang (aka Charlotte Island, of the Gilbert Islands), on March 4, 1954 and for this service they were named Knights of Baha'u'llah. About the first of June 1954, former Catholic seminarian and mission teacher Peter Kanere Koru became the first convert on the island.

    Their teaching work brought opposition from the Roman Catholic priest who told his congregation not to attend the Bahá'í meetings. He began to criticize them in the Roman Catholic newsletter and actually contributed to the knowledge of the Faith because the newsletter had a wide distribution.

    The priest persisted in his opposition by informing his bishop who asked the government to send the Fernies away and to send Peter Kanere back to his native island of Tabiteuea. At the time, to be a registered religious organization required a membership of at least 100 believers so the government approved sending the Fernies away however, in a single night some 300 people registered. A certificate of registration was issued on the 24th of September, 1955, but not before they managed to send Roy Fernie away. Elena continued the teaching work on her own and was responsible for firmly establishing the Faith on Abaiang.

    Meanwhile, Peter Kanere, back on his home island, managed to teach a Protestant minister who was under discipline of his church at the time. Together they spread the Faith on Tabiteuea. [Island Churches: Challenge and Change by Makisi Finau page 101]

    Tabiteuea; Kiribati; Oceania; Gilbert Islands; Knight Baha'u'llah; Elena Fernie; Roy Fernie; Peter Kanere Koru; Elena Marsella cro ssreference URLs; title; title
    1954 Apr Mrs Mehrangiz Munsiff pioneers to the city of Douala in the French Cameroons (later Cameroon). Both she and Mr Samuel Njiki were honoured as Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for this territory. [Bahá'í Journal UK Vol 20, No 5 Jan/Feb 2004, BW13:451] French Cameroons; Douala Mrs Mehrangiz Munsiff; Knight of Baha'u'llah
    1954 1 Oct Anthony and Mamie Seto arrive in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Anthony and Mamie Seto; Knights of Baha'u'llah find reference
    1954. 22 Oct Mr and Mrs Suleimani arrive by ship in Keelung, Taiwan. Keelung; Taiwan Mr and Mrs Suleimani; Knight of Baha'u'llah find reference
    1957 6 Sep Shoghi Effendi announces ‘the complete evacuation of the remnant of Covenant-breakers and the transfer of all their belongings from the precincts of the Most Holy Shrine’. [MBW124]
    • See VSE166 for Audrey Robarts' observation of the Covenant-breakers at Bahjí during her pilgrimage in 1955.
    ‘Akká Bahji; Most Holy Shrine; Covenant-breaker; Shrine of Baha'u'llah
    1967 Ridván The Universal House of Justice calls upon the Bahá’ís to launch a global campaign proclaiming the message of Bahá’u’lláh to every stratum of society. A special edition of The Proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh is to be presented to Heads of State. [BW14:211, Ridván 1967] BWC; Haifa UHJ; The Proclamation of Baha'u'llah
    1967. 25 Dec The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Charles Dunning (b.27 March, 1885 need Leeds). [BW14p305-308] Cardiff; Wales Knight of Baha'u'llah; Charles Dunning; In Memoriam
    1972 17 Dec The passing of Matthew Bullock (b. 11 September, 1881 in Dabney, North Carolina) in Detroit, Michigan.
    • He was a singer, a talented athlete, a football coach, a teacher, a soldier, a war hero, a civic leader, a church leader.
    • Lawyer-graduated from Harvard Law School in 1907.
    • Found the Faith in 1940 after many years of careful investigation.
    • Husband to Katherine Wright, (d. 1945), father to Matthew W. Bullock Jr (a judge) and Julia Gaddy (librarian).
    • Chairman of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Boston.
    • Travel teacher to Haiti, Costa Rica, Mexico, Belgian Congo, Liberia.
    • Elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the the United States in 1952.
    • Represented the NSA at the first Intercontinental Bahá'í Conference in Uganda, East and received permission to visit the Holy Land on pilgrimage prior to attending the Conference.
    • Became a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh in 1953 for Dutch West Indies when he and four other members of the NSA resigned to take up pioneer posts.
    • He received an honorary degree from Harvard in recognition of the lifetime of achievements.
    • He spent his last years in Detroit in the care of his daughter. [BW15p535-539]
    Dabney; NC; Detroit; MI; In Memoriam; Matthew Bullock; Knight of Baha'u'llah
    1990 Ridván Abbas and Rezvanieh Katirai became the last Knights of Bahá'u'lláh to be named when they pioneered to Sakhalin Island, the last remaining territory named by Shoghi Effendi in his Ten Year Crusade. [Russia by Moojan Momen] Sakhalin Knight of Baha'u'llah; Abbas Katirai; Rezvanieh Katirai
    1991 18 Jun The passing of Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, John Aldham Robarts at Rawdon, Quebec. He was born in Waterloo, Ontario 2nd of November, 1901. [VV124]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • Bahá’í World, Vol. 20, 1986-1992, “In Memoriam,” pp. 801-9.
    • For his obituary see BINS250:10.
    • For picture see VV124.
    • For the story of how he came to learn of the Faith see SBR137.
    Rawdon; Quebec Hand of the Cause of God; Knight of Baha'u'llah; John Aldham Robarts; John Robarts; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
    1992 28 May The original scroll bearing the Roll of Honour of the Knights of Bahá'u'lláh is placed by Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in a chamber at the entrance door of the inner sanctuary of the Most Holy Shrine. [AWH90, 105; BINS271:1; BW92–3, 98; VV128]
    • For pictures see BINS271:9 and VV127, 128.
    Bahji Knights of Baha'u'llah; Shrine of Baha'u'llah; Roll of Honour
    1993 15 Apr The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Stanley Bagley, (b.2 February, 1912). He had been a pioneer Belgium, France, Guadeloupe, Martinique, the United States as well as Sicily where he and his family received the Knighthood for their service. [BW93-94p319] USA In Memoriam; Stanley Bagley; Knight of Baha'u'llah
    2000 22 Aug The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Audrey Robarts (née FitzGerald) in her 96th year. She is buried with her husband, Hand of the Cause of God John Robarts, in the Ecumenical Cemetery in Rawdon who predeceased her on the 18th of June, 1991. Rawdon,Quebec Audrey Robarts; Knight of Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam
    2003 3 Mar The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Una Dean, née Townshend, in Edmonton, Canada. Una lived a full life of Bahá'í service. In 1946 she was the first Bahá'í in Dublin and was later a member of the first spiritual assembly. She also helped to form the first spiritual assembly in Liverpool. In October 1953 she was the first Bahá'i in Malta, a goal of the Ten Year Crusade. In 1954 she returned to Ireland to tend to her ailing father and to assist him in writing Christ and Bahá'u'lláh. After his passing in 1957 she moved to America, met and married her husband, Dick Dean, and moved to Edmonton where she served on the Local Assembly until 1987. [BW02-03p169] Edmonton; Alberta; Canada; Malta; Ireland; Liverpool; Dublin Una Dean; Una Townshend; Knight of Baha'u'llah
    2004 2 Apr The passing of Ola Pawlowska in Newfoundland, Canada. Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for St. Pierre and Miquelon, translator of the Writings (into Polish, Pioneer to Poland, Luxembourg and Congo (30 years), Auxiliary Board Member. [BW'03-‘04pg236, BWNS248] Newfoundland; Canada; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Poland; Luxembourg; Cong Knight of Baha'u'llah for St. Pierre and Miquelon; Ola Pawlowska
    2004 Jun After 15 years of negotiations, research, and planning, the restoration work began on the cell used to imprison Bahá'u'lláh when He was first incarcerated in ‘Acre. Approved by government authorities keen to preserve the heritage of the site, the project was supervised and financed by the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS336] ‘Akká; BWC; Baha'u'llah; BWC Pilgrimage
    2007. 1 Jun The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Jameson (Jamie) Bond (b. 6 November, 1917 Toronto, ON) in Duncan, BC. [SDSC262, 387-388, 406]
    • See Sole Desire Service Cause An Odyssey of Bahá'í Service: Gale and Jameson Bond by Don Brown for a biography.
    Toronto; Duncan; BC Jamie Bond; In Memoriam; Knight of Baha'u'llah
    2009. 14 Apr The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Gale Bond, née Keass (b. 13 November, 1919 in Emod, Hungary) in Cowichan, BC. [SDSC397]
    • See Sole Desire Service Cause An Odyssey of Bahá'í Service: Gale and Jameson Bond by Don Brown for a biography.
    Emod; Hungary; Cowichan; BC Gale Bond; In Memoriam; Knight of Baha'u'llah
    2016 7 May The passing of Jenabe Esslemont Caldwell, 89 in Wailuku, Hawaii. (b. August 7, 1926 in Butte, Montana). He and his wife Elaine were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for pioneering to the Aleutian Islands in July, 1953 where they started a king crab and salmon cannery. They sponsored the Bahá’í­ singing group Windflower that toured Europe, including the United Kingdom, in the 1980s. He was the author of the books: The Story of the Bab & Baha'u'llah,From Night to Knight, Follow the Instructions and Reflections. He is well-known for his mass teaching successes. [Bahaikipedia] Butte; Montana; Aleutian Islands; Wailuku; Hawaii. Jenable Caldwell; Elaine Caldwell; Knight of Baha'u'llah; Aleutian Islands; Windflower; From Night to Knight; Follow the Instructions; Reflections; The Story of the Bab & Baha'u'llah; mass teaching
     
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