Bahá'í Library Online
. . . .
.

Search for tag "Bahai"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1862 – 1868 Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a cousin of the Báb, lives in Shanghai during this period. This is the first record of a Bábí or Bahá'í living in China. [PH24]

  • From 1870 he lived in Hong Kong dealing as a merchant and was joined by his brother, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn. [PH24]
Shanghai; Hong Kong; China Haji Mirza Muhammad-Ali (Afnan); Haji Mirza Muhammad Husayn (Afnan); Afnan; Bab, Family of; First Bahais by country or area
1868. 31 Aug The ship arrives in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembark and are taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
  • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, throws himself into the sea when he learns he is to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party is put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
  • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
The exiles land in `Akká to begin a confinement in the citadel that is to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
  • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
  • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
  • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
  • DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
  • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
  • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
  • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • The first night the exiles are refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
  • Afterwards each prisoner is allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
  • Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
  • Three of the exiles die soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
  • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
  • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
  • At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'bdu'l-Ahad ahead some time before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
  • The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
  • After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letter to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1868. 5 Sep Mírzá Yahyá arrives with his entire family but without a single disciple or even a servant. [BBR306]
  • Also exiled to Cyprus were four loyal Bahá'ís and they were:
      Mishkín-Qalam (Áqá Hussain Isfahání)
      Mirzá ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáh-i-Maraghih'í (Mullá Ádí-Guzal)
      Áqá ‘Abdu’l-Ghaffár
      Áqá Muḥammad-Báqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallátí) (coffee-maker)
  • With their arrival Cyprus becomes the first island in the Mediterranean to receive the Faith.
  • See also GPB 182 and AB285, 523.
Famagusta; Cyprus Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile; Cyprus exiles; First Bahais by country or area; Islands
1871. Sep Bahá'u'lláh is transferred to the house of `Údí Khammár in `Akká. [BBD109; BKG317; DH39, 203; GPB189]
  • The house is so small that 13 people of both sexes occupy one room. The remainder of Bahá'u'lláh's companions take up residence in other houses and the Khán-i-`Avámíd. [GBP189]
  • Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasts two years. [BKG319]
  • See BKG317 for the initial response of His neighbour, Ilyás `Abbúd.
  • See DH201–3 for a biography of `Údí Khammár.
Akka Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Udi Khammar; Udi Khammar; House of Abbud; Ilyas Abbud; Khan-i-Avamid; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1873. 12 Apr Birth of Hippolyte Dreyfus, the first French Bahá'í, in Paris. Named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area; Births and deaths
1873 Late in the year Bahá'u'lláh acquires the house of `Abbúd. It is joined to the house of `Údí Khammár to make one residence and Bahá'u'lláh moves to the side of the house previously occupied by `Abbúd. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
  • He lives here for four years. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
  • See BBD1 for information on Ilyás `Abbúd.
Akka Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; Bahaullah, Houses of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1877. c. 1877 `Abdu'l-Bahá rents the house of Mazra`ih for Bahá'u'lláh's use. [BKG357; DH87; RB3:416] Akka Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1877. Jun Possibly the first visit of Bahá'u'lláh to the Ridván Garden outside `Akká. [BBD196–7; DH95; GPB193]
  • See DH95–101 for a description of the garden and Bahá'u'lláh's use of it.
  • See CH96–8 for Túbá Khánum's description of the garden.
Akka Ridvan Garden; Bahaullah, Life of; Gardens; Firsts, Other; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1877. 3–10 Jun Bahá'u'lláh takes up residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD154]
  • It takes the repeated pleadings of Shaykh `Alíy-i-Mírí, the Muftí of `Akká, to persuade Him to go. [BBD 154; BKG358–9; GPB192–3]
  • See BKG359 and DH89 for a description.
  • Bahá'u'lláh resides here for two years with some members of His family while `Abdu'l-Bahá, the Greatest Holy Leaf and Navváb continue to live in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD13, 106; DH89–90]
  • See CH136 for the reason why `Abdu'l-Bahá did not live at Mazra`ih.
  • Also see DH8994.
Akka House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Shaykh Aliy-i-Miri (Mufti of Akka); Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1879. Sep Bahá'u'lláh moves to the empty mansion at Bahjí after two years' residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD42; BKG362]
  • See BBD42 and GPB216 for a list of Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh during His occupation of the mansion of Bahjí.
Mazraih; Bahji House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1881 The Ridván Garden and the Firdaws Garden are purchased in the name of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD84, 196; DH95, 103]
  • Most of the flowering plants in the Ridván Garden are brought by pilgrims from Iran. [CH96]
BWC; Akka Ridvan Garden; Firdaws Garden; Gardens; Pilgrims; Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1890 In the decade Bahá'í books are published for the first time, in Bombay and Cairo. [GPB195; SA250] Mumbai (Bombay); India; Cairo; Egypt Bahai literature; Publishing; Publications; First publications; Business
1891. 27 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visits Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He stays three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He lives in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby on the foot of Mount Carmel on HaGefen Street. [BKG374; DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh instructs to the Master to arrange the transportation of the remains of the Báb from Persia to the Holy Land and their interment in a mausoleum below the clump of cypress trees at a spot which He indicated with His hand. It is stated that there were 15 tiny cypress trees at that time, each one the size of a finger. See Rob4p363 for a photo of the site indicated. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
  • For a story of the difficulties in obtaining land for access to the site of the Shrine of the Báb see SES79-80.
  • One day He pitches His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visits the monastery. [DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh visits the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
  • He reveals the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH109, 174; MBW63; RB4:352]
  • For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
  • For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Carmelite monastery; Cave of Elijah; Elijah; Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel); Charters; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; House of Ilyas Abyad; Templer colony; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1892 `Abdu'l-Bahá rents the house now known as the Pilgrim House (or the "Tea House") at Bahjí from its Christian owner Iskandar Hawwá', the husband of `Údí Khammár's daughter Haní. [DH114, 226] Bahji Abdul-Baha, Life of; Pilgrim Houses; Tea House; Udi Khammar; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1894. 5 Jun Thornton Chase becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BBD53; BFA1:35–6]
  • He is designated by `Abdu'l-Bahá the first American believer. [BBD53; GPB257]
  • See BFA1:35 for his own account of how he became a Bahá'í.
  • See BFA1:33–7 for other Americans who became Bahá'ís around the same time.
  • He was given the name Thábit (Steadfast) by `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD53; GPB257]
  • He had been invited to join the Hearst pilgrimage in 1898 but was unable to go to the Holy Land until 1907. [AY61]
Chicago; United States Thornton Chase; First Bahais by country or area; Names and titles Thornton Chase in the newspapers (series of mentions especially 1893-7)
1895 Mrs Kate C. Ives of Orleans, Cape Cod, Massachusetts becomes a Bahá'í, making her the first woman born in the United States to accept the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:37] Orleans; Cape Cod; Massachusetts; United States First Bahais by country or area
1895. c. summer Miss Marion Brown becomes a Bahá'í in London, the first European to accept the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:37] London; United Kingdom Marion Brown; First Bahais by country or area
1897 In the year Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, the first Bahá'í to have settled China, dies in Bombay on his way back to Shíráz. [PH24] China; Mumbai (Bombay); India Haji Mirza Muhammad-Ali (Afnan); Afnan; First Bahais by country or area; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1898 The Tarbíyat School for boys is established in Tihrán by the Bahá'ís. [BBD221] Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools
1899 Summer Ethel Jenner Rosenberg accepts the Bahá'í Faith, the first English woman to become a Bahá'í in her native land. [AB73–4; ER39; GPB260; SBR20, 33; SEBW55-64, SCU17]
  • For her biography see Rob Weinberg's, Ethel Jenner Rosenberg.
  • She visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá several times in the first decade of the century. [SCU17]
United Kingdom Ethel Rosenberg; First Bahais by country or area
1900. c. 1900 A Bahá'í group is established in Italy. [BBRSM:106] Italy First Bahais by country or area
1901 summer Thomas Breakwell, an Englishman living in the United States, learns of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris from May Bolles. Within three days he becomes a believer and immediately writes to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB74–5; BW7:707]
  • For May Bolles' own account see SW7:707–11.
  • He is the first male British Bahá'í. [BFA2:154]
  • He is designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first English believer'. [GPB259]
  • He is the first Western Bahá'í to pay Huqúqu'lláh. [BW7:70]
  • See also AB74–80; BFA2:154; SEBW6572.
Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; May Maxwell (Bolles); Huququllah; First Bahais by country or area; Firsts, Other
1902 Bahá'í groups are established in Canada and in the Hawaiian Islands. [BBRSM:106-7; BFA2:160; SBBH1:135] Canada; Hawaii First Bahais by country or area
1902 12 Oct Birth of `Abdu'l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávarí, Bahá'í scholar, author and translator, in Mashhad. Mashhad; Iran Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari; Bahai scholars; Births and deaths
1902 28 Nov Construction begins on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of `Ishqábád with the laying of its cornerstone. [BFA2:116-17]
  • BBRXXX says this was 12 December. The discrepancy may lie in the use of two different calendars.< /li>
  • The foundation stone is laid in the presence of General Subotich, governor-general of Turkistan. [BFA2:116–17; GPB300; see discussion of Krupatkin vs Subotich in whitmore_city_love] Also see BBR442-443 for the account of a Russian official, A D Kalmykov who says it was General Subotich.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá commissions Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the Vakílu'd-Dawlih, son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán, to be in charge of the project. [AB109]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineates the general design and a Russian architect, Volkov, plans and executes the details of the construction. [AB109–10]
  • A meeting hall and some of its dependencies had been built before 1900.
  • Its dependencies include two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds. [BBD122; BBR442; BBRSM:91]
  • For a Western account of this see BBR442–3.
  • See jacket of BBR for a photograph of work on the Temple.
  • See the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 for more on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád.
Quick Facts
Location: In the heart of the city of `Ishqábád
Foundation Stone: Late 1902 by General Subotich, the governor-general of Turkistan who had been delegated by the Czar to represent him.
Construction Period: Initial step had been undertaken during the lifetime of Bahá’u’lláh. Superstructure: 1902 – 1907. External Ornamentation: 1919
Site Dedication: No record of a dedication ceremony on completion of the building can be found although the external ornamentation was completed in 1919 it is probable that the building had been in use for some years by this time.
Architects: `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design. More specific design was by Usád ‘Ali]í-Akbar Ranná and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction under the supervision of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán. [AB109]
Seating:
Dimensions:
Cost:
Dependencies: two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds
Expropriation: 1928
Lease period: 1928 – 1938
Seizure; 1938 the building was turned into an art gallery
Earthquake: 1948
Demolition: 25 August 1963 the Universal House of Justice announced that it had been demolished by the authorities and the site cleared.
References: AB109, BW14p479-481, GPB300-301, CEBF236, EB266-268, MF126-128
Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; General Subotich; Krupatkin; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Haji Siyyid Muhammad; Volkov; Haziratul-Quds; Bahai schools; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Life of
1906 The first Bahá'í of Hungarian origin, Countess Aurelia Bethien, declares her faith in the USA. [http://www.bahai.hu] Hungary; United States First Bahais by country or area
1907 `Abdu'l-Bahá starts to move His family to the house that He has designed and built in the German colony at the foot of Mount Carmel in Haifa. [BBD107; DH145]
  • Laura Clifford Barney helped to purchase the land for the house and to pay for its construction. [DH145]
  • Some members of the family occupy it as early as February 1907, if not before. [DH145; GBF56]
Haifa House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Laura Clifford Barney; Purchases and exchanges; Architecture; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1907 26 Nov The first national Bahá'í conference is held in America. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179]
  • At the invitation of the House of Spirituality of Chicago, nine Bahá'ís from various communities join some ten from the Chicago area at a one-day conference to foster national cooperation on the Temple project and to choose a suitable site for the Temple. [BFA2:280; CT78; GPB262, 349]
Chicago; United States Conferences; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, National; House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conferences
1908 Sep
Bahá'í Bulletin Published September, 1908 to May 1909
Link (Will open in this window)
              Dates             
              URL   (For cut 'n' paste)      
Volume 1, Issues 1
September 1908
https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_1
Volume 1, Issues 2 and 3
October 1908
https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_2-3
Volume 1, Issue 4
December 1908
https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_4
Volume 1, Issue 5
January-February-March 1909
https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_5
Volume 1, Issue 6
April-May 1909
https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_6

The Bahá'í Bulletin was succeeded a year later by the Bahá'í News which became Star of the West a year after that. See 1910 21 March
Bahai Bulletin; Bahai News; - Periodicals; Publications
1908 Sep The Bahá'í Publishing Society is founded in Chicago. [BW10:179] Chicago; United States Bahai Publishing Society; Publishing Trusts
1909 21 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá lays the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
  • See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
  • The Shrine is a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
  • The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb is a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
  • For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
BWC; Mount Carmel; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma); Chicago; United States Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Marble; Gifts; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1909 21 Mar The first American Bahá'í Convention opens in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
  • It is held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
  • It is attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
  • The Convention establishes the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', which is incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution is framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. This body becomes the future National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146]
Chicago; United States; Canada Conventions, National; Corinne True; Bahai Temple Unity; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conventions; NSA
1909 months following Mar Construction of the Eastern Pilgrim House in Haifa begins. [BBD178]
  • Mírzá Ja`far Rahmání, (also know as Áqá Mírzá Ja’far Shírází) a believer from `Ishqábád, is given permission by `Abdu'l-Bahá to build it. [DH177, SES25-26]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá composes an inscription that it place above the entrance that reads, "This is a spiritual Hostel for Pilgrims, and its founder is Mírzá Ja'far Rahmani. AH 1327."
  • This is the first property to be granted tax exemption by the civil authorities. [GPB307, SES43-47]
Haifa Eastern Pilgrim House; Pilgrim houses; Mirza Jafar Rahmani; Aqa Mirza Jafar Shirazi; Pilgrimage; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1910 Within a year of her arrival Dr. Susan Moody opens the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán. [BBD221–2; BFA2:360–1]

Those serving at the school were:

  • Miss Lillian Kappes of Hoboken, New Jersey arrived in December of 1911 to serve as a teacher. She died on the 1st of December, 1920 of typhus and was buried there.
  • She was replaced by Genevieve Coy, a qualified psychologist, a Ph.D. in 1922 who was followed by Adelaide Sharp in 1929. Her mother, Clara Sharp joined her in 1931. [BFA2p361, AY233]
  • Elizabeth Stewart who served as a nurse at the school accompanied Lillian Kappes on her arrival. Miss Stewart served until 1924 when she returned to Philadelphia where she died in 1926. [ABF43]
  • Munírih Khánum Ayádí, the mother of Dr Karím Ayádí (later famed as the Shah much-trusted doctor) was Persia’s first official Director of the Tarbíyat School for Girls. She was widely recognized as exceptional, at a time when Persia’s Bahá’í women were only gradually emerging from their earlier state under Islam. Much respected by the men, her attitude toward them was one of total equality. Her greatness was in herself, her devotion to the Faith absolute, and she was made a member of such advanced committees as the Bahá’í Women’s Committee. Her views were moderated by her sense of humour, which included self-deprecation, so that she never subjected you to her piety. One day during the Bahá’í Fast ,she asked Marzieh Gall: ‘Do you think God would notice if I ducked into that room and sneaked a few puffs of tobacco?’ [AY333]
Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Genevieve Coy; Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Equality; Gender; Social and economic development; Munirih Khanum; Karim Ayadi
1910 8 Jan The Persian-American Educational Society is inaugurated in Washington DC. [BFA2:XVII; 355–8]
  • Its primary purpose is to assist the Tarbíyat School in Iran. [BFA2:357]
Washington DC; United States; Iran Bahai associations; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Education
1910 21 Mar The first issue of the Bahá'í News is published in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII; BW10:179]
  • See BFA2:320–2, BW8:927 and SBBH1:116–17 for the magazine's development.
  • It is the first Bahá'í magazine published in the West. [BBD2 14]
  • Star of the West is published as Bahá'í News (Volume 1, Issues 1-19 from 21 March, 1910 until 2 March, 1911) and later under Star of the West /The Bahá'í Magazine (Volume 2 to Volume 25, 21 March, 1911 until 25 March,1935).
  • Its editors were Albert Windust and Gertrude Buikema. Others involved with its publication over its history were Albert and Emily Vail, Dr. Zia Bagdadi, Ahmad Sohrab, Edna M. True; with Horace Holley and Stanwood Cobb being singled out as early contributors. [Duane Troxel]

Star of the West Published March 1910 to April 1935
          URL   (For cut 'n' paste)  
         Volume # / Dates (links)   
Vol 1 (Mar 1910) - Vol 10 (Mar 1920)
Vol 11 (Mar 1920) - Vol 20 (Mar 1930)
Vol 21 (Apr 1930) - Vol 25 (Apr 1935)

For an access to the Star of the West archives see http://www.starofthewest.info. This site is not searchable.

Chicago; United States Star of the West; Bahai News; - Periodicals; Firsts, Other; Publications
1910 Aug Having moved all His family to Haifa, `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself moves from the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá to His new home at 7 Haparsim (Persian) Street, Haifa. [BBD13, 107; DH145] BWC; Haifa; Akka Abdul-Baha, House of; House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1911 27 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party took a ferry to Vevey. a resort town on the other side of Lake Geneva (Lake Leman). Vevey was the location of the Dreyfus summer home and it was near here that Lady Blomfield and her daughters finalized the translation of Paris Talks [ABF33-44, DJT186, SoW vol 2 no 14]
  • He took a room at the Park Hôtel Mooser where He took some rest and also met Edith Sanderson and her mother. With the assembled friends He discussed immortality and divorce.
  • The party returned by ferry to Thonon-les-Bains, stopping at Évian-les-Bains. [DJT196-197]
  • In the afternoon He met with Lillian Frances Kappes and Elizabeth Harnill Stewart who had just arrived from America on their way to teach at the Tarbiyát School for girls in Iran. The school for boys had been in operation since 1897 and the school for girls was just being established in. [ABF43, SoW vol 2 no 18, SoW vol 2 no 14]
Thonon-les-Bains; Vevey; Switzerland; Evian-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Lady Blomfield; Edith Sanderson; Lillian Frances Kappes; Elizabeth Harnill Stewart; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Paris Talks (book)
1912 By this year at least 70 Bahá'í books and pamphlets have been produced in English. [BBRSM:103–4]

There are about two dozen Bahá'ís in Canada by this year. [BFA2:158]

Canada; Worldwide Publishing; Bahai literature; English language; Translation; Statistics; Publications
1912 Margaret Stevenson was the first believer in New Zealand. [New Zealand Bahá'í News, May 1997] New Zealand Margaret Stevenson; First Bahais by country or area
1912 The publication of The Brilliant Proof by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání in Chicago by the Bahai News Service, 1912. The first edition notes state that it was written December 28, 1911, in Syria, "by the pen of Mirza Abul Fazl Gulpaygan."
  • The publication of this book marks the end of an early era of Bahá'í teaching in the West. As 'Abdu'l-Bahá continued his journeys in the United States and Canada, He delivered hundreds of public talks and private addresses which were tailored to Western audiences. The fresh outpouring of teachings which resulted from these encounters produced a new Bahá'í literature of the words of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West. Examples include the following: The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by `Abdu'l-Bahá During His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912, compiled by Howard MacNutt, (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1922-25); Paris Talks: Addresses Given by `Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912 (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1912); 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London.
  • 239D93 says this book was written by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl in answer to a London minister's criticism of the Cause.
Chicago; United States Brilliant Proof (book); Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Criticism and apologetics; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Paris Talks (book); Abdul-Baha in London (book); Bahai literature; Publications
1912 30 Apr Talk at Public Meeting Concluding Convention of Bahá’í Temple Unity, Drill Hall, Masonic Temple, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP65,]

Talk at Hull House, Chicago, Illinois. Hull House was a community centre, one of the earliest in Chicago, founded by the National American Woman Suffrage Association [PUP67, MD70]

Talk at Fourth Annual Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Handel Hall, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP69, MD71]

Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Conventions, National; Bahai Temple Unity; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places
1916 (in the year) Anthony Yuen Seto and his wife Mamie Lorettta O'Connor become Bahá'ís in Hawaii. Mr Seto is the first Chinese Bahá'í in the Hawaiian Islands and the first Chinese-American Bahá'í in the United States. [PH30] Hawaii First bahais by country or area
1916 Apr or May The first Chinese Bahá'í in China, Chen Hai An (Harold A. Chen), becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago through the efforts of Dr Zia Baghdádí. [PH29-30]
  • PH30 says this was 1919 but this is clearly a typographical error.
  • He returns to China in December 1916.
China; Chicago; United States First Bahais by country or area; Zia Baghdadi
1919 The first Norwegian to accept the Faith, Johanna Christensen-Schubarth, `the mother of the Norwegian Bahá'í Community', becomes a Bahá'í in the United States. [BW12:694-6]. Norway First Bahais by country or area
1919 20 Sep Martha Root arrives in Argentina, the first recorded visit of a Bahá'í to this country. [MR101]
  • She remains in Buenos Aires until 4 October. [MR101]
  • See MR101-2 and MRHK61-5 for her teaching work in Argentina.
  • See MR103-6 and MRHK66-9 for her journey over the Andes on a mule.
Buenos Aires; Argentina Martha Root; Andes; First Bahais by country or area
1920 Hyde and Clara Dunn arrive in Samoa enroute to Australia, the first Bahá'ís to visit the islands. Samoa Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; Islands; First Bahais by country or area
1920 After Jul The first Argentineans to become Bahá'ís, Hermann Grossman and his sister Elsa Grossman, accept the Faith in Leipzig in 1920.
  • They were born in Argentina and emigrated to Germany in 1909.
  • Dr Grossman hears of the Faith at a public meeting given by Harlan and Grace Ober at the Theosophical Society. [BW13:869]
Leipzig; Germany Herman Grossmann; Elsa Grossman; Harlan and Grace Ober; Theosophical Society; First Bahais by country or area
1920 27-29 Dec The first All-India Bahá'í Convention is held in Bombay with 175 in attendance. [AB446; BBRSM194; 115] Mumbai (Bombay); India Conferences, Bahai; First conferences
1922 (in the year) Oswald Whitaker, a Sydney optometrist, and Euphemia Eleanor `Effie' Baker, a photographer, become Bahá'ís, the first Australians to accept the Faith. [BW14:320; SBR160-1, BW2p129]
  • In the 1930s Effie Baker travelled to Persia to take photographs of historical sites. [BW14:320]
  • See SETPE1p105-107 for her contribution while serving in Haifa.
  • For Effie Baker's obituary see BW14:320-1.
Australia; Iran Oswald Whitaker; Effie Baker; Photography; First Bahais by country or area
1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi calls for the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity to become an elected legislative body. It had been functioning since 1909 concerned mostly with the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship. He addresses his first letter to this body as the "National Spiritual Assembly of the United States" on December 23rd however in God Passes By pg333 he states that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was not formed until 1925. [SETPE1p107, CT160, CoB293] Chicago; United States Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
  • The difference between this body and its forerunner is little more than a change in name. [DP122]
  • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
  • The election procedure followed that used in the United States: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
Chicago; United States NSA; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1922 Late May The communities of London, Manchester and Bournemouth elect a Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly for England. [ER213; SBR28, 67]
  • This is also known as the Spiritual Assembly for London and the All-England Bahá'í Council. [ER2 13; SBR67]
  • See ER213 and SBR28 for membership.
London; Manchester; Bournemouth; United Kingdom Spiritual Assemblies; All-England Bahai Council
1922 6 Jun The All-England Bahá'í Council meets for the first time. [SBR28; UD9, 468]
  • ER2 13 says it first met 17 June.
  • The meeting is held in the home of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper. [SBR28, 67]
United Kingdom All-England Bahai Council; Firsts, Other; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper
1923 12 Feb Bahai Scriptures, edited by Horace Holley, is published. [SBR231]
  • It is the first comprehensive collection of Bahá'í writings made thus far in English. [SBR231]
Horace Holley; Bahai Scriptures (book); Publications; First publications
1924 (in the year) Miss Nora Lee, who became a Bahá'í in New Zealand, is the first Bahá'í to travel to Fiji, working as a nanny in Labasa from 1924 to about 1930.

Gretta Lamprill becomes the first Bahá'í in Tasmania in the latter part of the year. [SBR162]

Amelia Collins visits Iceland for two days, meeting H

Fiji; Tasmania; Iceland First Bahais by country or area; First travel teachers and pioneers; Amelia Collins
1924 24 Dec The first Bahá'í News Letter, forerunner of Bahá'í News, is published in New York by the National Assembly of the United States and Canada with Horace Holley as the editor. [BBRSM122; BW10:180; BW13:856; SBR232]
  • For links to the publications see entry at 1990-10-00.
New York; United States Newsletters; Bahai News; Horace Holley; Publications
1925 At the suggestion of Horace Holley a Bahá'í yearbook was published under the name Bahá'í Year Book and subsequent editions were called The Bahá'í World, A Biennial International Record. Although it was published by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, Shoghi Effendi was the editor-in-chief. Volume 13 (1954-1963) saw publication shift to the Bahá'í World Centre and in1992 the format changed. The last year of publication was 2006. [PP209-212, SETPE1p107] United States; BWC Bahai World volumes; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of
1925 spring The International Bahá’í Bureau is established in Geneva by Jean Stannard under the direction of Shoghi Effendi. [BW4:257]
  • For the history and work of the Bureau see BW4:257–61, BW6:130–5, BW7:108–13, BW11:507–8.
  • Its function is to act as intermediary between Haifa and other Bahá’í centres. [BBD118; BW4:261]
Geneva; Switzerland; Europe International Bahai Bureau; Jean Stannard; Firsts, Other
1925 Dec The Guardian express his "heartfelt and abiding gratitude" to Milly Collins and seven others who had donated the necessary funds to complete the Western Pilgrim House construction project. It had been started in 1919 with a donation from Ruth and Harry Randal but had come to a halt when the funds ran out. [Millyp7] Haifa Western Pilgrim House; Pilgrim Houses; Amelia Collins; Donations; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1926 The Bahá’í World is first published. [BW1:4; GT77; PP209; SBR232]
  • The first edition, April 1925 to April 1926, is called The Bahá’í Yearbook.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s impression of it see UD82–4.
United States Bahai World volumes; First publications; Publications
1926 Jan Orcella Rexford and her husband Dr Gayne Gregory (the first to accept the Faith in Alaska) come to Haifa on pilgrimage and are technically the first from Alaska to do so. They are in the process of moving from Alaska to the Continental USA. [SETPE1p112-112]
  • See BW11p495-498 for for details of the life of Orella Rexford
Haifa; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area; Orcella Rexford
1926 30 Jan Martha Root meets with Queen Marie of Romania for the first time. [BBR59; GBF42; GPB390; PP107, HEC49]
  • For the details of the meeting and the acceptance of the Faith by Queen Marie see GBP389–96, BW6p580 and MR240–6.
  • This was the first of eight meetings between Martha Root and Queen Marie.
Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania; Bahai royalty
1926 2 and 4 Aug Two Bahá’í Esperanto conventions are held in conjunction with the Eighteenth Universal Esperanto Congress in Scotland. [BW2:266] Scotland; United Kingdom Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; Esperanto
1928 The publication of Bahá'í Administration, a collection of communications to the American Bahá'í community from the Guardian between 1922 and 1929. Revisions were published in 1933, 1936, 1941 and 1945. Additional messages and an expanded index was added in 1968. [WOBpv, BAiv]

"His letters to Bahá’í institutions and to Bahá’ís in general began almost at once, and many will be found in Bahá’í Administration, beginning January 21, 1922. Early or late, his communications were not merely writings, they were the dynamic that moved the Bahá’í world. These letters in effect built the Administrative Order, its most vital features being found there. They taught the Bahá’í Assemblies how to be, how to consult, what their duties were. The book also contains the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws drawn up by the international lawyer Mountfort Mills, carefully reviewed by Shoghi Effendi, and adopted in 1926 by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada, at this time under one jurisdiction. (Khan, back in America by then. Shoghi Effendi wished all National Spiritual Assemblies to adopt, with necessary local adaptations, this Declaration of Trust and ByLaws, which set forth the character and objectives of Bahá’í communities worldwide." [Cited from AY304]

Bahai Administration (book); Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Declaration of Trust and By-Laws; Mountfort Mills; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Administrative order
1928 Jun Martha Root visited the parents of Milosh Wurm in Brno. He had been the first to become a Bahá'í in Czechoslovakia and the first to have translated a book into Czech when he was only seventeen years of age. He lost his life in the Great War. [BW3p44, Bahá'í Historical Facts 26 March, 2018] Brno; Czechoslovakia Martha Root; Milosh Wurm; First Bahais by country or area
1929 14 Feb Work begins on the three additional chambers of the Shrine of the Báb after the rock had been excavated from behind the building during the previous year. [DH154]
  • Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí, the builder who had completed the repairs on the House of Bahá'u'llah in Baghdad was chosen to be in charge of the work.
  • Originally the centre room had been separated by wooden walls and doors. These were removed and replaced by archways. [SETPE1p164]
  • These rooms, when completed, are used as the International Bahá’í Archives. There is a second repository of the archives at this time near the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GPB347]
BWC; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; International Bahai Archives; Haji Mahmud Qassabchi; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1929 9 Sep The British Bahá’ís open their new centre, at Walmar House, Upper Regent Street, London. [PSBW46–7] London; United Kingdom Bahai centres
1930 Dec The first Asian Women’s Conference is held in India. [BW17:180] India Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; First conferences; Asia
1931 28 Apr Mr Refo Capari (Chapary), the first Albanian Bahá’í, arrives in Tirana, Albania.
  • He became a Bahá’í in America some time before 1931.
Tirana; Albania First Bahais by country or region
1931 May Lilian Barron McNeill, an English Bahá’í, and her husband, a retired British army officer, rented the house at Mazra‘ih. [DH92]
  • They restored the house, which has deteriorated, preserving those parts unchanged from the time of Bahá’u’lláh. [DH92–3, BW19P779-782]
Mazraih; Akka Lilian Barron McNeill; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Restoration; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
1932 15 Jul The Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahíyyih Khánum, ‘outstanding heroine of the Bahá’í Dispensation’ passes away in Haifa about one hour after midnight. [BW5:169; GPB108]
  • Her passing marks the end of the Heroic Age of the Faith. [BBD102; WOB98]
  • She is comparable in rank to Sarah, Ásíyih, the Virgin Mary, Fátimih and Táhirih. [GPB347]
  • Shoghi Effendi is in Switzerland and immediately goes to Italy to commission a memorial for her grave. [DH156]
  • For Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá revealed in her honour see BW5:171–3.
  • See The Fiftieth Anniversary of the passing of Bahíyyih Khánum, The Greatest Holy Leaf, BW18p41-74.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see BW5:174–9.
  • For Marjory Morten’s obituary of her see BW5:181–5.
  • The design of the monument for the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf is a symbol of the Bahá’í administrative order. [CB298]
  • See also Bahíyyih Khánum and Gail, Khánum, The Greatest Holy Leaf; BBD42; CB121–2, 305; DH156–61; GBF65–8; PP144–8.
BWC; Mount Carmel Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Heroic Age; Marjory Morten; In Memoriam; Monument Gardens; Architecture; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1933 The Tavakkul Bahá’í School in Qazvín, Iran, is closed. [BW18:388] Qazvin; Iran Bahai schools; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
1934 The government of Iran takes several measures against the Bahá’ís throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Nineteen Bahá’í schools are closed in Káshán, Qazvín, Yazd, Najafábád, Ábádih and elsewhere. [ARG109]
  • Bahá’í meetings are forbidden in many towns, including Tihrán, Mashhad, Sabzivár, Qazvín and Arák.
  • Bahá’ís centres in Káshán, Hamadán and Záhidán are closed by the authorities.
  • Some Bahá’í government employees are dismissed.
  • Some Bahá’í military personnel are stripped of their rank and imprisoned.
  • Bahá’ís in many places are harassed over the filling-in of marriage certificates, census forms and other legal documents.
Iran; Kashan; Qazvin; Yazd; Najafabad; Abadih; Tihran; Mashhad; Sabzivar; Arak; Hamadan; Zahidan Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools
1934 6 Dec The Tarbíyat Bahá’í Schools in Tihrán and all other Bahá'í schools across the country are closed by order of the Minister of Education (headed by 'Ali-Asghar-i-Hikmat, a well-known Azali) when they fail to open on a holy day. [BBD221–2; BW18:389; CB312; GPB363; PP308; RoB4p313]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR475–9.
Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat school; Bahai schools; Holy days; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Azali Babis
1936 Mr E. R. and Mrs Loulie Mathews arrive in Guatemala, the first Bahá’í teachers to visit the country. Guatemala E. R. Mathews; Loulie Mathews; Travel teaching; First Bahais by country or area
1936 Nov Renée Szanto-Felbermann becomes a Bahá’í, the first to accept the Faith in Hungary. She is considered the first person to accept the Faith by some notwithstanding the events of 1913. [BW19:633]
  • See also Renée Szanto-Felbermann, Rebirth: The Memoirs of Szanto-Felbermann p104.
  • This document prepared by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'í Community of Hungary says that Mr. Arminius Vámbéry is the first believer in Hungary. See www.bahai.hu
  • See BW5p329 for the testament written by Professor Vámbéry and published in the Egyptian Gazette September 24th, 1913.
Hungary; Budapest First Bahais by country or area; Arminius Vambéry
1937 2 May The Yerrinbool Bahá’í School (originally known as ‘Bolton Place’) is officially opened in Australia. Yerrinbool; Australia Yerrinbool Bahai School; Bahai schools
1938 William DeForge becomes the first Bahá’í to visit the Dominican Republic. He has made a one-day trip from Puerto Rico. Dominican Republic; Central America First Bahais by country or area find reference
1938 The first Bahá’í to be resident in Finland, Aminda Josephine Kruka, an American nurse, arrives in the country. Finland First Bahais by country or area find reference
1938 5 Feb Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union are persecuted by the authorities. [BBR473, BW8p87-90, 179-81, BW14p479-481, SETPE1p155]
  • Five hundred Bahá'í men are imprisoned in Turkistán. [Bw8p89]
  • Many Persian Bahá'ís living in various cities of the Soviet Union are arrested, some are sent to Siberia, others to Pavladar in northern Kazakhstan and yet others to Iran. [BW8p87, 179, 184]
  • Six hundred Bahá'í refugees-women, girls, children and a few old men, go to Iran, most to Mashhad. [BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í Temple in Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) is confiscated and turned into an art gallery. [BDD122, BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í schools are ordered closed. [BW8p89]
  • Spiritual Assemblies and all other administrative institutions in the Caucasus are ordered dissolved. [BW8p89]
Soviet Union; Caucasus; Turkistan; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Kazakhstan; Iran; Mashhad Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Persecution, Soviet Union; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai schools; LSA
1938 30 Apr Munírih Khánum, the Holy Mother, wife of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away. [BBD166; BW8:260; CB358; DH161]
  • Note: UD119 records this was 28 April.
  • Shoghi Effendi inters her body just west of the Shrine of Bahíyyih Khánum and erects a simple monument over her grave. [DH161]
  • For excerpts from her autobiography see BW8:259–63.
  • For tributes to her see BW8:263–7.
BWC; Mount Carmel Munirih Khanum; In Memoriam; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Monument Gardens; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1938 Jul The first Finnish Bahá’í, Pastor Väinö Rissanen, accepts the Faith. [BW8:935; BW17:129]
  • For a letter from him about Finland see BW8:936.
Finland First Bahais by country or area
1939 Feb A.L.M. Nicolas, the French consular official and Orientalist who made a study of the Bábí Faith, passes away in Paris.
  • His important collection of manuscripts is auctioned and the items relevant to the Bahá’í and Bábí Faiths are purchased by the Bahá’í World Centre.
Paris; France A.L.M. Nicolas; Babi studies; Bahai studies
1939 27 Aug The first Bahá’í resident in Guatemala, Gerrard Sluter-Schlutius, arrives in the country from Toronto. [OBCC228] Guatemala First Bahais by country or area
1939 Oct Antonio Roca, the first Bahá’í in Honduras, enters the country. Honduras First Bahais by country or area
1939 2 Nov The first people to become Bahá’ís in El Salvador, Luis O. Pérez, Emilio Bermudez and José Manuel Vela, accept the Faith in San Salvador. San Salvador; El Salvador First Bahais by country or area
1939 Nov F. Ferrari becomes a Bahá’í, the first to accept the Faith in Honduras. Honduras First Bahais by country or area
1939 Late in the year Sr. Perfecto Perez Toledo, the first Cuban Bahá’í, accepts the Faith. Cuba First Bahais by country or region
1939 24 Dec Shoghi Effendi reinters the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch. [DH162; GBF116; GPB347–8]
  • Two vaults are cut into the solid rock in the garden area near the monument of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [DH162]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s cable announcing this see DH162 and PP262.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s letters and cables concerning this see BW8:245–53.
  • For a description of the reinterment see BW8:253–8.
  • For the prayer of visitation to the resting place of Navváb see BW8:251 and DH166.
Mount Carmel; BWC Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Tablets of Visitation; Monument Gardens; World Centre; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1940 (in the decade) By the mid-1940s Corporal Thomas Bereford Macauley becomes a Bahá’í in Nigeria, the first Bahá’í in the country. Nigeria First Bahais by country or area
1940 A Bahá’í centre is opened in Havana, Cuba, and an organized group is formed. Havana; Cuba Bahai centres
1940 13 Jan María Teressa Martín de López (Irizarry), from Puerto Rico, becomes a Bahá’í in the Dominican Republic while on a visit. She is the first Puerto Rican Bahá’í and the first person to become a Bahá’í in the Dominican Republic.
  • For the story of her life see BW8:631–42.
Dominican Republic First Bahais by country or area
1940 1 Mar May Bolles Maxwell passes away in Buenos Aires. [BBD153; BW8:631 TG49]
  • Shoghi Effendi awards her the honour of a ‘martyr’s death’ and a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW8:631; MA38]
  • She was the first Bahá'í on European soil and the "mother" of both the French and the Canadian Bahá'í communities. [PP149]
  • For the story of her life see BW17:437–8.
  • Shoghi Effendi asks her husband, Sutherland Maxwell, to design her tomb, which is to be a ‘historic centre’ for ‘pioneer Bahá’í activity’. [BW8:642]
  • For an account of the erection of the monument to her see PSBW83–6.
Buenos Aires; Argentina May Maxwell (Bolles); Births and deaths; Names and titles; Sutherland Maxwell; Architecture; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area
1940 1 Aug The first four people to become Bahá’ís in Costa Rica accept the Faith after Gayle Woolson and Amelia Ford from the United States arrive in Puerto Limón on 29 March 1940.
  • The first to enrol is Raul Contreras, followed by his cousin Guido Contreras, and by José Joaquin Ulloa and Felipe Madrigal.
Costa Rica; Central America First Bahais by country or area
1940 20 Oct Ralph Laltoo, the first Trinidadian to become a Bahá’í, accepts the Faith in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Halifax; Nova Scotia First Bahais by country or region
1940 Dec Luis Carlo Nieto becomes the first Bahá’í in Colombia.
  • He soon leaves the Faith and Aura Sanchez, who becomes a Bahá’í in 1941, is considered the first Colombian believer.
Colombia First Bahais by country or area
1940 Dec Gerald and Vivian MacBeans, a Jamaican couple, and their niece, Miss May Johnson, become the first people to accept the Faith in Haiti. Haiti First Bahais by country or area
1941 Aura Sanchez becomes a Bahá’í in Colombia, considered the first Bahá’í of the country. Colombia First Bahais by country or area
1941 18 May Yvonne Cuellar, a French woman, becomes a Bahá’í in Bolivia.
  • Although Marina del Prado was the first to become a Bahá’í, on 2 February 1941, she did not remain active, so Yvonne Cuellar is recognized as the first Bahá’í in Bolivia. She was called by Shoghi Effendi ‘Mother of Bolivia’.
  • For the story of her life see BW19:619–22.
Bolivia First Bahais by country or area
1942 Dr Malcolm King, a Jamaican who become a Bahá'í in the United States, introduces the Faith to his homeland. [SDSCp425 note 2]
  • He held meetings at 190 Orange Street in Kingston. By 1943, the people he had taught founded a spiritual assembly in Kingston. [The Gleaner]
Jamaica First Bahais by country or area
1942 16 Nov Manuel Bergés Chupani, of Sánchez, Dominican Republic, becomes a Bahá’í, perhaps the first native Dominican person to accept the Faith. Dominican Republic First Bahais by country or area
1944 Apr The first Bahá’í shortwave radio broadcast is beamed from New York towards South America. [BW9:44–5]
  • VV76 says this was 1943.
New York; United States Bahai radio; Firsts, Other
1945 1 Aug Initially founded as a hostel for Bahá'í children with sixteen children, what is now the New Era High School and Senior Secondary has grown to become a leading international co-educational institution with many hundreds of students.
  • Founded as a separate institution in 1987, the New Era Development Institute had its beginnings as a service project for students in the 1970s and 1980s when the school set up programmes to assist the poor and underdeveloped villages in the region. [New Era High School and Senior Secondary website, Wikipedia, BBD171; BBRSM153]
  • For the history of the school see BW16:320–6.
Panchgani; Maharashtra; India New Era High School; Bahai schools; New Era Development Institute; Social and economic development
1946 20 - 25 Jan The first teaching conference in Latin America is held in Panama City on the instructions of Shoghi Effendi. Panama; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
1946 Jun Rita Marshall, the first person native to St Vincent in the Caribbean to become a Bahá’í, accepts the Faith while in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
  • Her husband, Ernest Marshall, becomes a Bahá’í in November 1946.
St Vincent; Halifax; Nova Scotia; Canada First Bahais by country or area
1947 The first Chilean Teaching Conference is held in Santiago. Santiago; Chile Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; First conferences
1947 1 Feb Reflecting the unity in diversity highly valued by the Baha'i community, Amin Banani, Mildred Mottahedeh, Hilda Yen, and Matthew Bullock presented the statement "A Baha'i Declaration of Human Obligations and Rights" to the UN, which ended by quoting a well-known passage by Baha'u'llah: "The earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens."

Amin Banani was an influential scholar; Mildred Mottahedeh was a member of the International Baha'i Council from 1961-63 and later a representative of the BIC for many years; Hilda Yen was a leading figure in Chinese-American society who worked as a diplomat for many years; and Matthew Bullock was a Knight of Baha'u'llah for the Dutch West Indies, on this day was also a Knight for the Netherlands Antilles, and later a representative of the BIC. [BWNS1172]

New York; United States United Nations; Matthew Bullock; Bahai International Community; Firsts, Other; BWNS
1947 May Clarence Iverson visits the Bahamas, the first recorded visit to the islands by a Bahá’í. Bahamas First Bahais by country or area; Islands
1947 5 Jul Manuel Garcia Vasquez becomes a Bahá’í in Spain, the first believer in the country. Spain First Bahais by country or area
1947 Sep Léa Nys becomes a Bahá’í in Belgium, the first Belgian to accept the Faith after World War Two.
  • She is considered the first Belgian Bahá’í.
Belgium First Bahais by country or area
1947 12 Dec The first pioneer to Portugal, Valeria Lamb Nicols, arrives from a pioneer post in Denmark. Portugal First Bahais by country or area
1947 31 Dec Suzette Hipp becomes a Bahá’í in Luxembourg, the second Luxembourger to accept the Faith and the first to do so in Luxembourg. Luxembourg First Bahais by country or area
1948 The first Bahá’í school in Haiti is inaugurated in Carrefour, a suburb of Port-au-Prince. Haiti Bahai schools; Firsts, Other
1948 Mar The name ‘Bahá’í International Community’ is first used to refer to the eight existing National Spiritual Assemblies recognized collectively as a non-governmental organization. [BBRSM149; BW11:43; BW12:597]
  • The Bahá’í International Community evolved to become an international non-governmental organization with affiliates in over 180 countries and territories, which together represent over 5-6 million members of the Bahá’í Faith. As an international NGO, the Office interacts and cooperates with the United Nations, its specialized agencies, with governments, as well as with inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations. The BIC seeks to promote and apply principles — derived from the teachings of the Bahá’í Faith — which contribute to the resolution of current day challenges facing humanity and the development of a united, peaceful, just, and sustainable civilization. The work of the BIC focuses on the promotion of a universal standard for human rights, the advancement of women, and the promotion of just and equitable means of global prosperity.
  • Mildred Mottahedeh is appointed to serve as the accredited Bahá’í International Observer, a post she holds as a volunteer for almost 20 years. [BW12:601]
  • The following is a list of UN agencies with whom the BIC has representation: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Health Organization (WHO).
New York; United States Bahai International Community (general); Mildred Mottahedeh; UNICEF; UNIFEM; UNEP; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); World Health Organization (WHO); Firsts, Other; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1948 22 – 26 May The first Bahá’í European Conference is held in Geneva. [BW11:51]
  • For details of the conference see BW11:51–2.
Geneva; Switzerland; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International
1948 Dec Amjad Ali arrives in East Pakistan, from Chapra in Bihar, northern India, the first pioneer to the country. Bangladesh; Asia First Bahais by country or area
1949 Agnes Harrison (née Parent), an Athabascan, becomes a Bahá’í in Alaska, the first Native Alaskan to accept the Faith in the country. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area
1949 5 – 7 Aug The second European Teaching Conference is held in Brussels. [BW11:52] Brussels; Belgium; Europe Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences
1950 4–30 Jul The third European Teaching Conference is held in Copenhagen. [BW12:49]
  • 177 Bahá’ís from 22 countries attend.
Copenhagen; Denmark; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International
1950 23 Oct Nur Ali, a well-known and respected public servant in Suva, becomes a Bahá’í, the first to accept the Faith in Fiji. Fiji First Bahais by country or area
1950 Nov Brian Burland, the first Bermudian to become a Bahá’í, accepts the Faith in Canada. Canada; Bermuda First Bahais by country or area
1950 Nov From Switzerland, Shoghi Effendi invites five Bahá’ís—Lotfullah Hakim, Jessie and Ethel Revell, Amelia Collins and Mason Remey—to Haifa. [PP251]
  • They, together with Ben and Gladys Weeden who are already there, are told that they will constitute the International Bahá’í Council. [PP251–2]
Switzerland; BWC; Haifa International Bahai Council; Lutfullah Hakim; Jessie Revell; Ethel Revell; Amelia Collins; Charles Mason Remey; Ben Weeden; Gladys Weeden
1951 Shoghi Effendi receives the original manuscript of The Kitáb-i-Íqán, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá with some marginal additions by Bahá’u’lláh, and places it in the International Bahá’í Archives. BWC International Bahai Archives; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1951 By this year the first Canadian Inuit has become a Bahá’í. Canada First Bahais by country or area; First believers by background; Inuit
1951 9 Jan Shoghi Effendi announced the formation of the International Bahá'í Council. [MBW7,8]

Proclaim National Assemblies of East and West weighty epoch-making decision of formation of first International Bahá'í Council, forerunner of supreme administrative institution destined to emerge in fullness of time within precincts beneath shadow of World Spiritual Center of Faith already established in twin cities of 'Akká and Haifa....

  • See UD261 for the significance of the establishment of the International Bahá'í Council.
Between 1951 and 1957 Shoghi Effendi directed the members and used the Council to create an image of an international body handling the Bahá'í affairs in Haifa. According to Shoghi Effendi, the Council's responsibilities were to:
  • establish links with the Israeli authorities, and
  • negotiate with them concerning an establishing of a Bahá'í court to deal with personal matters,
  • Shoghi Effendi to complete the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb
  • as an international Bahá'í secretariat.

    This body functioned until the election of the Universal House of Justice in 1963.

BWC International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice
1951 9 Jan Shoghi Effendi announces the establishment of the International Bahá’í Council. [BBD118; BBRSM127; GBF109; MBW7–8; PP252]
  • It is a forerunner to the Universal House of Justice. [BBD118]
  • For its functions see MBW7–8.
  • Its seat is the Western Pilgrim House. [BBD178]
  • For the stages of its evolution see CB324.
Haifa; BWC International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Western Pilgrim House
1951 2 Mar Shoghi Effendi announces the completion of the restoration of the House of ‘Abbúd. [MBW8] Akka House of Abbud; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
1951 23 May Jamshed and Parvati Fozdar arrive in Kuching with their son, Vijay, the first Bahá’ís to settle in Sarawak. Kuching; Sarawak; Malaysia Jamshed Fozdar; First Bahais by country or area
1951 Jul Mr P. K. Gopalakrishnan Nayer, an Indian, becomes a Bahá’í in Dar-es-Salaam, the first person to accept the Faith in Tanganyika. [BW12:53] Dar-es-Salaam; Tanganyika (Tanzania); Tanzania First Bahais by country or area
1951 2 Aug Músá and Samí‘ih Banání; their daughter, Violette and her husband, ‘Alí Nakhjavání; their baby daughter, Bahíyyih; and Philip Hainsworth from England arrive in Kampala, the first pioneers to Uganda. Kampala; Uganda Musa Banani; Samiih Banani; Violette Nakhjavani; Ali Nakhjavani; Philip Hainsworth; First Bahais by country or area
1951 Dec Brothers-in-law Fred Bigabwa, a Mutoro, and Crispin Kajubi, a Muganda, become Bahá’ís in Uganda, the first to accept the Faith in that country. Uganda First Bahais by country or area
1952 Mr Narain Das, a textile salesman from India working in Singapore, becomes a Bahá’í, the first person in the country to accept the Faith. A few months later Mr Teo Geok Leng, a Chinese Singaporean, becomes a Bahá’í, the first native of Singapore to accept the Faith. Singapore First Bahais by country or area
1952 Walli Khan, a Fiji Indian, becomes a Bahá’í, the first person in Fiji to accept the Faith. Fiji First Bahais by country or area
1952 Mar Mariette Bolton of Australia visits New Caledonia, the first Bahá’í to visit the islands.
  • During her visit Mlle Françoise Feminier becomes a Bahá’í, the first person in New Caledonia to accept the Faith.
New Caledonia First Bahais by country or area; Islands
1952 8 Mar Shoghi Effendi announces the enlargement of the International Bahá’í Council to eight members. [MBW22; PP252–3]
  • Its members are Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery, Leroy Ioas, Jessie Revell, Ethel Revell and Lotfullah Hakim. [BW12:379; MBW22]
Haifa International Bahai Council; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Jessie Revell; Ethel Revell; Lutfullah Hakim
1952 Jun or Jul Mr C. C. Cheng, a newspaper reporter; Professor L. S. Tso, a professor of engineering; and Miss Rosie Du (Ruthy Tu) become Bahá’ís in Taiwan, the first people to accept the Faith in the country. Taiwan; Asia First Bahais by country or area
1952 Jun Aaron (‘Arthur’) B. Wellesley Cole, a Sierra Leonean barrister, returns to Sierra Leone from England, the first Bahá’í to enter the country. Sierra Leone First Bahais by country or area
1952 8 Oct Shoghi Effendi announces his decision to launch ‘the fate-laden, soul-stirring, decade-long world-embracing Spiritual Crusade’ in the coming year. [BW12:253–5; MBW411
  • For the objectives of the Crusade see BW12:256–14.
  • Among the goals to be achieved is the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives building. [BBD22; DH168; MBW43]
  • He calls upon the Hands of the Cause to appoint during Ridván 1954 five auxiliary boards to act as their adjuncts or deputies to work with the national spiritual assemblies to execute the projected national plans. [MBW44, BW13p335]
BWC Ten Year Crusade; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; International Bahai Archives; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm; NSA; Teaching plans; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1953 12–18 Feb The first Intercontinental Teaching Conference is convened by the British National Spiritual Assembly in Kampala, Uganda. [BW12:121, MBW135-140]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:121–4.
  • For a report of the conference see BW12:124–30.
  • It is attended by ten Hands of the Cause, Bahá’ís from 19 countries and representatives of over 30 tribes. [PP413]
  • Over a hundred new African believers attend as personal guests of the Guardian. [PP413]
  • With this conference the Ten Year World Crusade is launched. [BBRSM158–9; BW12:253; MBW41]
Kampala; Uganda; Africa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; First conferences
1953 Ridván Mrs Meherangiz Munsiff, the wife of an Indian diplomat in London, arrives in Madagascar and is acknowledged as the first Bahá’í in the country. [news.bahai.org/story/288]
  • There was one other Bahá’í in Madagascar before Mrs Munsiff but he was not a Bahá’í in good standing.
  • Suffering ill health, Mrs. Munsiff left in January 1954 a day after Danile Randrianarivo, 29, accepted the Faith, becoming the first Malagasy Baha'i.
Madagascar Meherangiz Munsiff; Danile Randrianarivo; First Bahais by country or area
1953 2 May The House of Worship in Wilmette is dedicated in a public ceremony. [BW12:142, BWNS218]
  • For the text of the Guardian’s message of dedication see BW12:141–2.
  • For an account of the event see BW12:154–63.
  • See The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p24-26 for project statistics and a chronology of events.
  • Towards the end of his life in Tehran, Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) had entrusted the original Tablet to his grandson Jamal who in turn, out of the purity of his heart and his devotion to the Faith of God offered it as a gift to Hand of the Cause, Trustee of Huqúq, the son and brother of two illustrious martyrs, Jinab-i-Valiyu'llah Varqá. When Jinab-i-Varqa, according to the instructions of the beloved Guardian, was sent to take part in this dedication ceremony he brought this most precious Tablet as his offering to the archives of the Bahá'ís of the United States. [A Flame of Fire by A.Q. Faizi.]
Quick Facts
Location: Wilmette, Illinois, U.S. Cook County
Foundation Stone: by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 1 May, 1912
Construction Period;The purchase of the site completed: 1914. Design Chosen: 1920. Superstructure: 1921 – 1 May 1931. External Ornamentation: June 1932 -1943. Interior: 1951
Dedication: 1 May 1953
Architects Louis Bourgeois with Alfred Shaw (interior cladding)
Seating: 1,191
Dimensions: 203ft at the base and 191ft high
Cost: $2.6 million
Dependencies: Construction of a home for the aged was began in December, 1957 and inaugurated on 1 February, 1959. It is located about three blocks away.
Note: In GPB349 Shoghi Effendi states that “…this enterprise—the crowning achievement of the Administrative Order of the Faith of Bahá’u’lláh in the first Bahá’í century…”.
References: CEBF236-241,GPB348-353, MDM121-239, The Dawning Place
Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Gifts; Archives; Dedications; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Alfred Shaw; Architects; Bahai home for the aged; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1953 3 – 6 May The All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Chicago. [BW12:133]
  • For the texts of Shoghi Effendi’s messages to the conference see BW12:133–41 and MBW142–6.
  • Twelve Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:143]
  • At the conference, five members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States resign from that body in order to go pioneering: Elsie Austin, Dorothy Baker, Matthew Bullock, Mamie Seto and Dr William Kenneth Christian. [ZK102]
  • Extract from the cecond message to All-American Intercontinental Conference from Shoghi Effendi... [MBW150]
    .....the lands contributed in Latin America for a similar purpose approximate one-half of a million square meters, ninety thousand of which have been set aside near Santiago, Chile, for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of South America..
Chicago; United States; Santiago; Chile; America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Pioneering; Elsie Austin; Dorothy Baker; Matthew Bullock; Mamie Seto; William Kenneth Christian; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Purchases and exchanges
1953 21 – 26 Jul The European Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Stockholm. [BW12:167]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:167–71.
  • For a report of the conference see BW12:171–8.
  • Fourteen Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:171]
  • 374 Bahá’ís from 30 countries attend, of these 110 come from the ten goal countries. [BW12:171]
Stockholm; Sweden; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities
1953 Oct Albert Nyarko Buapiah becomes a Bahá’í in Ghana, the first Ghanaian to become a Bahá’í in the country. Ghana First Bahais by country or area find reference
1953 Oct The superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb is completed. [BBD210; CB324–5; PP235; ZK85–6]
  • Marble for the Shrine of the Báb came from Chiampo, Italy as did marble for the Archives Building, the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the Terraces Project, the Monument Gardens and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. [BWNS1223]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá described the Shrine of the Báb as the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár. [ABF18]
BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel; Chiampo; Italy Bab, Shrine of; Marble; BWNS; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1953 7 – 15 Oct The Asian Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in New Delhi. [BW12:178]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:178–81.
  • For a report of the conference see BW12:181–8.
  • This is the first international Bahá’í gathering ever to be held in the East. [BW12:181; SBR171]
  • It is attended by 489 Bahá’ís representing 31 countries. [BW 12:181]
  • The design for the International Bahá’í Archives is revealed to the Bahá’ís of the world for the first time at this conference. [DH168]
New Delhi; India; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; International Bahai Archives; Teaching; First conferences
1953 Oct Enoch Olinga arrives in Victoria (Limbé) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the British Cameroons. [BW13:449]
  • The first Cameroonian to become a Bahá’í in British Cameroon is a youth, Jacob Tabot Awo.
  • The first Cameroonian adult to become a Bahá’í is Enoch Ngompek of the Bassa tribe.
  • The first Cameroonian woman to become a Bahá’í is Esther Obeu, the wife of David Tanyi.
Victoria (Limbe); British Cameroon; Cameroon; Nigeria Enoch Olinga; Knights of Bahaullah; First Bahais by country or area
1953 20 Nov The formation of the Israel Branch of the Bahá'ís of Canada. Canada; Israel Israel Branch of the Bahais of Canada find reference
1953 Late in the year ‘Abdu’l-Karím Amín Khawja becomes a Bahá’í in Algeria, the first person to accept the Faith in that country. Algeria; Africa First Bahais by country or area find reference
1953 19 Dec Yan Kee Leong becomes a Bahá’í, the first person to accept the Faith in Malaya. Malaya; Malaysia Yan Kee Leong; First Bahais by country or area
1954 The first native Fijian, the first Pygmy, the first Berber and the first Greenlander to accept the Bahá’í Faith enrol. [MBW262] First Bahais by country or area; First believers by background
1954 The first Tlinget from Alaska to become a Bahá’í, Eugene King, enrols. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area find reference
1954 The first person to become a Bahá’í in the Balearic Islands, C. Miguel, enrols. Balearic Islands First Bahais by country or area; Islands
1954 Mr and Mrs Sandikonda, Eliam Chisengalumbwe, Mr Musonda, Peter Chitindi and Elias Kanayenda become Bahá’ís, the first African Bahá’ís to enrol in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). BANANI BULLETIN, 1 AUG 1954] Zambia First Bahais by country or area
1954 José Mingorance Fernandez and his wife, Carmen Tost, a Spanish couple, accept the Bahá’í Faith, the first to enrol in Andorra. Andorra First Bahais by country or area
1954 4 Mar The arrival of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Elena (Marsella) and Roy Fernie in Kiribati. [BWNS301, BW13:452]

They had left their home in Panama and their service on the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama to pioneer. They arrived on the island of Abaiang (aka Charlotte Island, of the Gilbert Islands), on March 4, 1954 and for this service they were named Knights of Baha'u'llah. About the first of June 1954, former Catholic seminarian and mission teacher Peter Kanere Koru became the first convert on the island.

Their teaching work brought opposition from the Roman Catholic priest who told his congregation not to attend the Bahá'í meetings. He began to criticize them in the Roman Catholic newsletter and actually contributed to the knowledge of the Faith because the newsletter had a wide distribution.

The priest persisted in his opposition by informing his bishop who asked the government to send the Fernies away and to send Peter Kanere back to his native island of Tabiteuea. At the time, to be a registered religious organization required a membership of at least 100 believers so the government approved sending the Fernies away however, in a single night some 300 people registered. A certificate of registration was issued on the 24th of September, 1955, but not before they managed to send Roy Fernie away. Elena continued the teaching work on her own and was responsible for firmly establishing the Faith on Abaiang.

Meanwhile, Peter Kanere, back on his home island, managed to teach a Protestant minister who was under discipline of his church at the time. Together they spread the Faith on Tabiteuea. [Island Churches: Challenge and Change by Makisi Finau page 101]

Tabiteuea; Kiribati; Gilbert Islands Knights of Bahaullah; First Bahais by country or area; Islands; BWNS
1954 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces that plans for the International Bahá’í Archives have been completed and that steps have been taken to begin its construction. [BBD22–3; DH169; GBF117–8; MBW64] BWC; Mount Carmel International Bahai Archives; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1954 18 Jun The first islander to become a Bahá’í in the Seychelles, Marshall Delcy, a local school teacher, enrols. Seychelles First Bahais by country or area; Islands
1954 19 Jun The first Canary Islander to become a Bahá’í, Sr. José Jacinto Castillo y Gonzalez, enrols. Canary Islands First Bahais by country or area
1954 Jul Reginald Stone and Allan Delph become Bahá’ís in British Guiana, the first two people to accept the Faith in that country. British Guiana; Latin America First Bahais by country or area
1954 Second half of the year The first Somali to become a Bahá’í in Djibouti, ‘Alí ‘Abdu’lláh, a 21-year old employee of a commercial firm, enrols. Djibouti; Somalia; Africa First Bahais by country or area find reference
1954 Oct The first person to become a Bahá’í in Nassau, Bahamas, Winfield Small, a young police officer from Barbados, enrols.
  • Mr Small opened Barbados to the Faith.
Nassau; Bahamas; Barbados First Bahais by country or area
1954 Nov A plot of land of slightly less than half an acre owned by Farah Sprague, a Covenant-breaker, is purchased, overcoming the final obstacle to beginning the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives. [DH169; MBW73–4] Haifa Farah Sprague; Covenant-breakers; International Bahai Archives Was she the Iranian-born wife of Sidney Sprague? See BFA2p155
1954 20 Nov The first person to become a Bahá’í in Tonga, Harry Terepo, born in Rarotonga, Cook Islands, enrols.
  • He is a teacher, interpreter and guide living in Ohonua on the island of Eua.
Tonga First Bahais by country or area
1954 27 Nov Shoghi Effendi describes the significance of the world administrative centre of the Faith and the ‘structures, which will serve as the administrative seats of such divinely appointed institutions as the Guardianship, the Hands of the Cause, and the Universal House of Justice’ to be ranged along a ‘far-flung arc’. [MBW74] BWC Guardianship; Hands of the Cause; Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Arc (World Centre); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1955. c. 1955 The first person to become a Bahá’í in The Gambia, Mr Nichola Banna, a Lebanese merchant, enrols. Gambia, The First Bahais by country or area
1955 The first indigenous Samoan to become a Bahá’í, Sa’ialala Tamasese, enrols.
  • He is a member of one of the three royal families of Samoa. [BINS, No. 100, 1 MARCH 1979, p. 1]
Samoa First Bahais by country or area; Bahai royalty
1955 Labíb Isfahání arrives in Abidjan, French West Africa, from Dakar, the first Bahá’í to settle in what is now the Ivory Coast. Abidjan; French West Africa Habib Isfahani; First Bahais by country or area
1955 The first person to become a Bahá’í in Spanish Sahara, ‘Abdu’l-Salam Salím Al-Sbintí, enrols. Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara) First Bahais by country or area
1955 c. Jan The first Tswana Bahá’í, Stanlake Kukama, enrols in Mafikeng. Mafikeng; South Afica First Bahais by background
1955 Feb The first local person to become a Bahá’í in Mauritius, Mr Yam-Lim, a Chinese Catholic, enrols. Mauritius First Bahais by country or area
1955 8–15 Feb The first people to become Bahá’ís in Réunion, Paul and Françoise Tayllamin (8 Feb) and Jean Donat and Julien Araye (15 Feb), enrol. Reunion; France First Bahais by country or area
1955 Mar The first person to become a Bahá’í in the Solomon Islands, William Gina, a 43-year-old Solomon Islander from the Western Solomon Islands, enrols. Solomon Islands; Oceania First Bahais by country or area
1955 4 Mar The first Tongan to become a Bahá’í in Tonga, Tevita Ngalo’afe, enrols. Tonga First believers by background; First Bahais by country or area
1955 14 Mar The first person to become a Bahá’í in Guam, Charles T. Mackey, a United States civil service employee, enrols. Guam First Bahais by country or area
1955 20 Mar Shoghi Effendi announces the commencement of the excavation for the foundations of the International Bahá’í Archives. [MBW75] Haifa International Bahai Archives
1955 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces the acquisition of 36,000 square metres of land for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the Holy Land. [DH175; MBW78–9]
  • The entire sum for the purchase was donated by Amelia Collins. [MBW79]
BWC; Haifa Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; Purchases and exchanges; Amelia Collins; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1955 Apr The first person to become a Bahá’í in the Bahamas, Molly Newbold, enrols.
  • As she did not remain a Bahá’í, Arnold Wells, a tinsmith who became a Bahá’í on 20 April, is regarded as the first Bahá’í. Christine Thompson, who owned a small fruit and vegetable shop, and Frank Ferguson, who owned a gas station, also enrolled on 20 April.
Bahamas First Bahais by country or area; Islands
1955 4 May Sylvia Ioas is appointed to the International Bahá’í Council as its ninth member. [BW19:612; GBF110; MBW86; PP253] Haifa Sylvia Ioas; International Bahai Council
1955 23 May The Bahá’í International Community submits its Proposals for Charter Revision to the United Nations for the Conference for Revision of the UN Charter. [BW13:788, 795–802] New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations Charter; United Nations
1955 Aug Appeals are made by National Spiritual Assemblies around the world through the Bahá’í International Community to the UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld to ask the Iranian government to halt the attacks on the Bahá’ís. [BW13:789–91; BW16:329; MBW88–9; PP304, 311]
  • The intervention of the Secretary-General of the UN, along with the efforts of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, bring an end to the physical persecution of the Bahá’ís, although their human rights are still denied. [BW13:790; BW16:329]
  • This marks the first time the Faith is able to defend itself with its newly born administrative agencies. An “Aid the Persecuted Fund” was established.
  • Historian Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi noted that the 1955 anti-Bahá'í campaign was both the apogee and the point of separation of the state-clergy co-operation. The Shah succumbing to international pressure to provide human rights, withdrew support. The result was that the period from the late fifties until 1977-1978 was a period of relative safety. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
New York; United States; Iran Bahai International Community; Dag Hammarskjöld; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; United Nations; NSA; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
1955. 23 - 25 Sep International Teaching Conference held in Nikko, Japan. [Japan Will Turn Ablaze p87, 97] Nikko; Japan Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; First conferences
1956 The first Tlinget to become a Bahá’í in Alaska, Joyce Anderson Combs, enrols. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area
1956 The first people to become Bahá’ís in Cape Verde enrol. Cape Verde First Bahais by country or area; Islands
1956 c. The first person in Tibet to become a Bahá’í, Chiten Tashi, a young businessman from the village of Chombethan, enrols. Tibet First Bahais by country or area
1956 12 Feb The first four people to become Bahá’ís in Hong Kong, Nari Sherwani, Ng Ying Kay, Chan Lie Kun and Chan Lie Fun, enrol. [PH75] Hong Kong First Bahais by country or area
1956 11 - 12 Nov First All-Taiwan Teaching Conference held in Tainan, Taiwan. Tainan; Taiwan Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; First conferences find reference
1957 Charles Winfield Small, a native of Barbados and the first to become a Bahá’í in the Bahamas, returns to Barbados, the first Bahá’í to settle in the country. Barbados; Central America First Bahais by country or area
1957 Ridván The International Bahá’í Archives is completed. [DH169; GBF63–4; PP264–5]
  • For details of its construction and photographs see BW13:403–33.
BWC; Mount Carmel International Bahai Archives; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1957 Oct Shoghi Effendi calls for the convocation of a series of Intercontinental Conferences to be held successively in Kampala, Uganda; Sydney, Australia; Chicago, United States; Frankfurt, Germany; and Djakarta, Indonesia. [BW13:311–12; MBW125] BWC; Kampala; Uganda; Sydney; Australia; Chicago; United States; Frankfurt; Germany; Djakarta; Indonesia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
1957 4 Nov Passing of Shoghi Effendi

Shoghi Effendi passes away in London of coronary thrombosis after a bout of Asian influenza. [CB377; PP446]

  • He was in London to purchase some furniture to complete the interior of the International Archives Building. [PP445]
  • For a tribute to Shoghi Effendi written by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW13:58–226.]
  • See also Rabbání, The Guardian Of The Bahá’í Faith and The Priceless Pearl.
London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; International Bahai Archives; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Appointed arm; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1957 19 Nov Nine Hands of the Cause are chosen by Rúhíyyih Khánum to examine Shoghi Effendi’s apartment. [BW 13:341]
  • These are the five members of the International Bahá’í Council (Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery and Leroy Ioas), an Afnán (Hasan Balyuzi), a representative of the Hands of the Western Hemisphere (Horace Holley), a representative of the Hands of the African continent (Músá Banání) and the Trustee of the Huqúqu’lláh (‘Alí Muhammad Varqá). [BW13:341]
  • After seeing that the seals are intact, the Hands examine the contents of Shoghi Effendi’s safe and desk. [BW13:341]
  • The nine Hands sign a document testifying that no Will or Testament of any nature executed by Shoghi Effendi has been found. This is reported to the entire body of Hands assembled in the Mansion of Bahjí. [BW13:341]
  • See CB378–9 for an explanation of why Shoghi Effendi left no Will.
Haifa; Bahji Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Horace Holley; Musa Banani; Varqa, Ali-Muhammad
1957 Nov-1963 Apr Interregnum

The six year ministry of the Hands of the Cause residing in the Holy Land, or ‘Custodians’. [BW16:90; WG45–6]

  • This period is known as the ‘interregnum’. [BBD 120]
  • See BW14:467 for a summary of the work of the Hands of the Cause during this period.
  • The International Bahá’í Council continues to perform its duties at the World Centre under the direction of the Custodians. [BBD118]
  • See also The Ministry of The Custodians 1957–1963.
Haifa; BWC Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Custodians; Interregnum; Ministry of The Custodians (book); International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1958 The first Aleut to become a Bahá’í, Vassa Lekanoff, enrols in Unalaska. Unalaska; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area
1958 23–28 Jan The first Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Kampala, Uganda. [BW13:317]
  • Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by Dr Lutfu’lláh Hakím.
  • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC56–60.
  • For a report of the conference see BW13:317.
Kampala; Uganda; Africa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Lutfullah Hakim; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; First conferences
1958 21–24 Mar The second Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Sydney, Australia. [BW13:319]
  • Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative and who is the architect of the Mother Temple of Australasia, attends, accompanied by four other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:317]
  • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC72–5.
  • For a report of the conference see BW13:319–21.
Sydney; Australia; Australasia Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects
1958 2–4 May The third Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Wilmette, Illinois. [BW13:323]
  • Hand of the Cause Dr Ugo Giachery, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by four other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:323]
  • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC90–8.
  • For a report of the conference see BW13:323–5.
Wilmette; Illinois; United States; America Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ugo Giachery; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
1958 25–29 Jul The fourth Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Frankfurt, Germany. [BW13:327]
  • Amelia Collins, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by ten other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:327]
  • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC102–6.
  • For a report of the conference see BW13:327–9.
Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
1958 14 Sep c. A week before the fifth Intercontinental conference is due to convene in Djakarta, Indonesia, the government withdraws the permit to hold the conference. [BW13:331]
  • For the story of why the permit was revoked see DM83–5.
  • The cancellation of the conference in Djakarta begins a period of severe repression of the Faith in Indonesia which eventually leads to the Faith being banned in 1962. [DM85, 88]
Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
1958 27 – 29 Sep The fifth Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Singapore. [BW13:331]
  • Hand of the Cause Leroy Ioas, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by eight other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:331–2]
  • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC111–6.
  • For a report of the conference see BW13:331–2.
Singapore; Asia Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Leroy Ioas; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
1959 The mansion at Mazra‘ih is renovated. [MC219] Akka House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
1959 The first Inuit in Alaska to become a Bahá’í, William Wiloya, enrols in Nome. Nome; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area; First believers by background; Inuit
1959 The House of ‘Abbúd is renovated and restored. [MC219] Akka House of Abbud; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
1959 1 Feb The ‘first Dependency of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in Wilmette’, the Bahá’í Home for the Aged, opens. [BW13:747]
  • For the history of its building see BW13:743–8.
  • For pictures see BW13:742, 744–7.
Wilmette; United States Bahai home for the aged; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of
1959 4 Nov The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their third Conclave. [MC166–70]
  • The date for the election of the Universal House of Justice is fixed at Ridván 1963. [MC166]
  • They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of 21 national spiritual assemblies in Latin America. [MC167–8]
  • They call for the election at Ridván 1962 of 11 national spiritual assemblies in Europe. [MC168]
  • They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of the International Bahá’í Council by postal ballot of the members of the national and regional spiritual assemblies constituted at Ridván 1960. [MC168]
  • The name of Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey is missing from the list of signatories to this letter. [MC170]
Akka Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Universal House of Justice, Election of; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
1960 (In the decade) A number of Bahá’í primary schools are opened in Bolivia. Bolivia Bahai schools
1960s, early Two Bahá’í primary schools open in Uganda. Uganda Bahai schools
1960 27 Apr The International Bahá’í Council by unanimous vote rejects the claim of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC206–7] Haifa International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
1960 13 May The International Bahá’í Council writes to the Custodians recording its decision taken on 27 April to reject the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [Mc206–7] Haifa International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Custodians; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
1960 12 Jul Horace Hotchkiss Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 April, 1887 in Torrington, CT) [MC226-227, BW13:849]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW13:849–858.
  • For cable from the Hands of the Cause see MC217–18.
  • See also SBR214-247, LoF253-264 and Holley, Horace Hotchkiss by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram.
  • His publications Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion, Religion for Mankind, World Unity, Bahai, The Spirit of the Age, Baha'i Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha, Read-aloud Plays, Divinations and Creation, The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh, The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse .
Haifa; Torrington; Connecticut; United States Horace Holley; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Bahai Scriptures (book); Plays; Arts
1961 Knud Jensen (of mixed Danish, St Thomanian parentage), the first local person to become a Bahá’í in the Virgin Islands, enrols. Virgin Islands; United States First Bahais by country or area
1961 Ridván The International Bahá’í Council is elected for the first time, by postal ballot of the members of the national spiritual assemblies. [BW13:397; MC282]
  • The members are Jessie Revell, ‘Alí Nakhjavání, Lutfu’lláh Hakím, Ethel Revell, Charles Wolcott, Sylvia Ioas, Mildred Mottahedeh, Ian Semple and Borrah Kavelin. [MC282]
  • See BW13:398 for picture.
  • See also BBD118; BBRSM131; BW16:90; CB324; MC168, 242.
Haifa; BWC International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Jessie Revell; Ali Nakhjavani; Lutfullah Hakim; Ethel Revell; Charles Wolcott; Sylvia Ioas; Mildred Mottahedeh; Ian Semple; H. Borrah Kavelin; Firsts, Other
1961 25 – 26 Jun The newly-elected International Bahá’í Council meets for the first time. [BW13:397; MC285–6]
  • For details of the meeting and excerpts from its minutes see MC285–91.
Haifa International Bahai Council
1961 autumn/winter The International Bahá’í Archives is opened to Bahá’í pilgrims. [BW13:429; MC20]
  • For details of the Archives building and several pictures see BW13:403–34.
  • Marble for the the International Baha’i Archives building was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
BWC International Bahai Archives; Pilgrimage; Marble; BWNS
1962 Mar Aboubacar Kâ, a school teacher and the first Senegalese known to become a Bahá’í, enrols. Senegal; Africa First Bahais by country or area
1962 22 May The first Athabascan Indian north of the Arctic Circle to become a Bahá’í, Charley Roberts, enrols. [BW15:455] Canada First Bahais by country or area; Native Americans
1962 autumn A property is acquired outside of Gwalior, India, for a teaching institute. [DM192]
  • The institute is later converted into a boarding hostel solely for Indian children and still later into the ‘Rabbani School’, now an accredited agricultural school. [DM192–3; VV82]
Gwalior; India teaching institutes; Rabbani School; Bahai schools
1962 17 Dec The Custodians ask the Bahá’í International Community to issue press releases deploring Morocco’s persecution of religious minorities and pointing out its failure to adhere to the UN charter condemning religious intolerance. [MC397] Morocco Custodians; Bahai International Community; Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
1963 1 Nov The first person on Saipan to become a Bahá’í, Patience Robinson, enrols. Saipan; Northern Mariana Islands First Bahais by country or region
1964 22 Mar The Faith is brought to St Vincent for the first time by Shirley Jackson, who returns to the island the day after having become a Bahá’í while on a visit to her native home in Grenada.
  • Later in the year she enrols the first Bahá’ís on St Vincent.
St Vincent First Bahais by country or area
1965 Emma Reinert, the first Faroese to become a Bahá’í, enrols. Faroer Islands First Bahais by country or area
1965 Feb Jean and Ivanie Désert and their three children arrive in Guadeloupe from Haiti, the first Bahá’ís to settle on the island. Guadeloupe First Bahais by country or area
1965 Apr Franklin Bozor, an agricultural labourer, and Pierre Defoe, the first persons to become Bahá’ís in Guadeloupe, enrol. Guadeloupe First Bahais by country or region
1965 15 Jul Hendrik Olsen, the first indigenous Greenlander to become a Bahá’í, enrols. Greenland Hendrik Olsen; First Bahais by country or area
1965 Aug Thaddeus Smith, Clara Smith, Nando Valle, Evert Scott, Gloria Scott, Thomas Seymour and Lawrence Jebbers, the first to become Bahá’ís in the Cayman Islands, enrol in George Town owing to the efforts of Ivan A. Graham, a Jamaican Bahá’í. George Town; Cayman Islands First Bahais by country or area; Islands
1965 19 Sep Walter Garland and Miss Annie Lourie Williams, the first to become Bahá’ís on Grand Turk Island, enrol. Grand Turk Island; Central America First Bahais by country or area
1966 Tommy Kabu, a prominent person from the village of Ara’ava in the Gulf Province and the first in the Territory of Papua to become a Bahá’í, enrols. [BW15:459–60] Papua First Bahais by country or area
1966 17 April Ivor Ellard, a British resident of the United States, arrives Dominica, the first pioneer to the island.
  • Two days later William Nedden settles on the island.
Dominica First Bahais by country or area
1967 – 1968 Cleophas Koko Vava, a Togolese employed at the American Cultural Centre as a librarian to the United States Information Service and the first person to become a Bahá’í in Chad, enrols. Chad First Bahais by country or area
1967 Victor de Araujo is appointed by the Universal House of Justice as the full-time Accredited Representative of the Bahá’í International Community to the United Nations; Mildred Mottahedeh appointed Alternate Representative. [BW14:88–9; BW15:364]
  • For picture see BW15:365.
New York; United States Victor de Araujo; Mildred Mottahedeh; Bahai International Community; United Nations
1967. 24 - 26 Mar The Arctic Policy Conference was held in Toronto. Present were 16 attendees, Hand of the Cause John Robarts, representatives of the National Spiritual Assembly, the Auxiliary Board, the National Pioneer Committee and individuals involved in the teaching work in the Arctic. It was decided to establish Bahá'í houses in Frobisher Bay in the District of Franklin, Baker Lake in the District of Keewatin and Yellowknife in the District of Mackenzie. [SDSC278]
  • Photo of Bahá'í House in Baker Lake.
Toronto; Frobisher Bay; Baker Lake; Yellowknife; Canada John Robarts; Bahai centres
1967 3 May Patsy Vincent, a youth from Castries and the first St Lucian to become a Bahá’í, enrols. St Lucian First Bahais by country or region
1967 5 – 10 Oct Six Intercontinental Conferences are held simultaneously in Panama City, Wilmette, Sydney, Kampala, Frankfurt and New Delhi to celebrate the centenary of the proclamation of Bahá’u’lláh to the kings and rulers of the world in September/October of 1867. [BW 14:221]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice to the conferences see BW14:221–2.
  • For descriptions of each conference see BW14:223–58.
  • The six Hands of the Cause representing the Universal House of Justice at the conferences travelled to Adrianople to visit the House of Bahá’u’lláh before dispersing to the conferences. [BW14:236, 458; VV2]
Panama; Wilmette; US; Sydney; Australia; Kampala; Uganda; Frankfurt; Germany; New Delhi; India Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Intercontinental; Tablets to Kings and rulers; Centenaries
1967. 11 Dec The Bahá'í Campus Club was inaugurated at the University of New Brunswick. Moncton; New Brunswick; Canada Bahai associations; Universities find reference
1968 19 Feb His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa, the first reigning monarch to become a Bahá’í, writes to the Universal House of Justice confirming his acceptance of the Faith. [BW15:180–3] Samoa Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Bahai royalty; Firsts, Other
1968 22 – 23 Jun The first National Youth Conference of the Bahá’ís of the United States opens in Wilmette, Illinois. [BW15:327 8]
  • For picture see BW15:325.
Wilmette; Illinois; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, National
1968 Jul Christian and Elanzo Callwood, Norris Duport and Ethien Chinnery, the first people to become Bahá’ís on the island of Jost Van Dyke in the British Virgin Islands, enrol. Jost Van Dyke; British Virgin Islands First Bahais by country or area; Islands
1968 Jul Louis Joseph, the first Bahá’í indigenous to Dominica, enrols in Roseau. Roseau; Dominica First Bahais by country or area
1968 27 – 28 Jul The first National Youth Conference of Honduras opens in Santa Rosa de Copán. [BW15:328–9] Santa Rosa de Copan; Honduras Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
1969 3 – 6 Apr The first European Youth Conference opens in Madrid, Spain. [BW15:329] Madrid; Spain; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International
1969 4 – 6 Apr The first National Youth Conference of Australia opens at Bolton Place summer School. [BW15:329]
  • For picture see BW15:328.
Bolton Place; Australia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, National; Conferences, First
1969 24 – 25 May The first Bahá’í Youth Conference of Japan opens on Jogashima Island. [BW15:329] Jogashima Island; Japan Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, National; Conferences, First
1969 Aug The first 12 new Bahá’ís enrol on Union Island in the Grenadines during a visit of Patricia Paccassi and her daughter Judith. Union Island; Grenadines First Bahais by country or region
1969 29 Dec - 1970 2 Jan The First Pacific Area Bahá’í Youth Conference takes place in Apia, Western Samoa. [BW15:329–30]
  • For picture see BW15:330.
Apia; Samoa; Oceania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, First; Youth
1970 A Bahá’í International Youth Conference is held in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Abidjan; Ivory Coast Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, First
1970 Botswana holds its first National Youth School. [BW15:329] Botswana Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, National; Conferences, First
1970 25 Jan Valde Nyman, the first full Gypsy in Finland to become a Bahá’í, enrols in Helsinki. Finland First Bahais by country or area; Gypsies
1970 27 May The Bahá’í International Community is granted consultative status, category II, by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations [BBRSM149; BW15:178, 366; BW16:333; BW19:30; VV54]
  • As a result, the Bahá’í International Community begins to be represented at sessions of UN bodies addressing a wide range of issues of particular interest to Bahá’ís, including human rights, social development, status of women, environment, human settlements, agriculture, science and technology, new and renewable resources, population, law of the sea, crime prevention, narcotic drugs, children, youth, the family, disabled persons, the ageing, the United Nations University and disarmament.
  • At such sessions the Bahá’í International Community offers statements on the Bahá’í position on the subject under discussion.
  • Prior to this date individuals were accredited as "observer" representatives of the "Bahá'í International Community" which originally had been established in 1947 under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. Individuals who served as observer representatives on a part-time basis were Mildred Mottahedeh, Dr Ugo Giachery, John Ferraby, 'Azíz Navidi and Dr Amin Banáni among others. In 1963 the responsibility for the BIC was transferred to the Universal House of Justice and in 1965 permanent offices were established in New York with a full-time representative appointed. The first representative was Mildred Mottahedeh who soon asked to be replaced. Dr Victor de Arujo served for 23 years until his retirement in January, 1991. [BW15p358-367]
New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); Mildred Mottahedeh; Ugo Giachery; John Ferraby; Aziz Navidi; Amin Banani; Victor de Araujo
1970 19 – 21 Jun Rúhíyyih Khánum interrupts her African teaching safari to meet with more than 2,000 youth at the National Youth Conference in the United States. [BW15:331; VV10] United States; Africa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
1970 Dec Canadian Bahá’ís hold a Victory Conference in Iceland to prepare the community to achieve assembly status in 1972. [BW15:335] Iceland Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, National; Conferences
1970 25 Dec - 1971 3 Jan The First International Bahá’í Youth Winter School takes place in Salzburg, Austria, attended by 600 people from 25 countries. [BW15:332]
  • For picture see BW15:332.
Salzburg; Austria; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, First
1971 The first three people to become Bahá’ís in Guinea enrol. [BINS45] Guinea First Bahais by country or area
1971 Apr The International Bahá’í Youth Conference takes places at Oteppe-Namur, Belgium, launching a two-year youth campaign for Europe. [BW15:333–4]
  • For picture see BW15:334.
Oteppe-Namur; Belgium; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
1971 31 Jul - 11 Aug The European Youth Conference takes place in Fiesch, Switzerland, attended by 1,200 youth from 50 countries. [BW15:336–8]
  • About 200 people enrol in the Bahá’í Faith during the conference. [BW15:336]
  • For pictures see BW15:337.
Fiesch; Switzerland; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
1971 Aug The Universal House of Justice erects an obelisk on the site of the future House of Worship of the Holy Land on land that was purchased in 1953 with a gift of $50,000 from Milly Collins. [MBW63, 78-79, BBD 172; BW15:177–8; DH175; MUHJ83–4, SES18-20] BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; Obelisks; Gifts; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1971 27 – 30 Aug The first Bahá’í Youth Conference for Western Asia takes place in New Delhi. [BW15:335]
  • Two thousand people enrol during the conference and the week following. [BW15:335]
New Delhi; India; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences; Mass conversion
1971 Nov The first Bahá’í Youth Conference of the Antilles takes place in the Dominican Republic. [BW 15:217] Dominican Republic Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
1972 The first Bahá’í studies seminar is held in London. For an account of the development of these seminars see BW18:204 and BW19:368. London Bahai studies; Firsts, Other
1972 28 Apr - 2 May An international teaching conference is held in conjunction with the dedication of the Mother Temple of Latin America in Panama. [BW15:633–42]
  • For pictures see BW15:632–49.
  • Some 3,000 Bahá'ís attend. [TG191]
Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Teaching
1972 1 May The international teaching conference in Panama held in conjunction with the dedication of the House of Worship opens. [BW15:635]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:635–7.
Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International
1972 6 Aug ‘Abdu’l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávarí, Iranian scholar, author, translator and promoter of the Bahá’í Faith, passes away. [BW15:520]
  • For his obituary see BW15:518–20.
Tihran; Iran Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bahai scholars
1972 Dec The first International Youth Conference of Surinam takes places in Paramaribo. [BW15:341] Paramaribo; Suriname; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
1972 29 - 31 Dec The first West African Bahá’í Youth conference is held in The Gambia. The Continental Board of Counsellors sponsored the first West African Bahá’í Youth Conference in conjunction with the National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa. The Conference was held in The Gambia on the campus of Yundum College some fifteen miles from the capital city of Bathurst. Youth representing nine countries in this zone attended: Nigerin, Upper Volta, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, Senegal and Mauritania, plus pioneers originating from the United States, Mauritius, Malaysia, Iran, and friiq. A young Bahá’í from Sweden was able to greet the friends during a brief stop on a boat cruise. Counsellors Mr. H. R. Ardikani and Dr. William Maxwell Jr., were present as well as six of their Auxiliary Board members, Mr. Amos Agwu, Mr. Muhammad Al-Salihi, Mrs. H. Vera Edwards, Mr. Friday Ekpe, Mr. Shidan Kouchekzadeh and Dr. B. Sadiqzadeh. A total of fifty-six persons attended.[Bahá'í Works 504] Banjul (Bathurst); Gambia, The; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
1973 The first International Youth Conference of Mexico takes place in Puebla City, attended by 200 youth from five countries. [BW15:343] Puebla; Mexico Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences; North America
1973 13 Mar The mansion at Mazra‘ih is purchased. [BW15:169; BW16:136; BW19-779-782, DH94; VV14]

From the Ridván message of the Universal House of Justice ...

“The Mansion of Mazra`ih, often referred to by the beloved Guardian as one of the "twin mansions" in which the Blessed Beauty resided after nine years within the walled prison-city of `Akká, and dear to the hearts of the believers by reason of its associations with their Lord, has at last been purchased together with 24,000 square metres of land extending into the plain on its eastward side.” [MUHJ68-73p112]

Mazraih; Akka House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1973 Nov The first youth conference of Papua New Guinea takes place in Sogeri with 40 youth and visitors. [BW16:276] Sogeri; Papua New Guinea Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
1974 The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward and Virgin Islands holds its first annual National Teaching Conference. [BW16:187] Leeward Islands; Virgin Islands Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; First conferences
1974 The first International Bahá’í Youth Conference to be held in Botswana takes place in Mahalapye. [BW16:150] Mahalapye; Botswana Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, First
1974 The Canadian Association for Studies on the Bahá’í Faith is created. [BW16:200]
  • For its history; terms of reference and programmes and publications see BW17:197–201.
Canada Bahai Studies, Associations for
1974 21 Mar In its Naw-Rúz Message the Universal House of Justice announced that there would be eight International Teaching Conferences will be held during the middle part of the Five Year Plan; two for the Arctic, one in Anchorage and one in Helsinki during July 1976, one in Paris in August 1976, one in Nairobi in October 1976, one in Hong Kong in November 1976, one in Auckland and one in Bahia, Brazil in January 1977 and one in Mérida, Mexico in February 1977. The theme of these conferences was the urgent need for the Bahá'ís to ARISE to teach the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh. (Arise-Reach-Individual-Souls-Everywhere). 14,500 Bahá'ís attended. [Naw-Rúz 1974.] Worldwide Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; Arising; UHJ
1974 May c. The first National Youth Conference of Burma takes place during the visit of Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum. [BW16:251] Myanmar (Burma) Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
1974 13 July The dedication of the Bosch Bahá'í School north of Santa Cruz, California. (Bosch Bahá'í School site, Bahá'´News page 716] Santa Cruz; California Bosch Bahai School; Bahai schools
1974 4 – 8 Aug The first International Youth Conference, the largest conference ever held in Hawaii to date, takes place in Hilo. [BW16:229]
  • For picture see BW16:232.
Hilo; Hawaii Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, First
1974 11 – 18 Aug The first Teaching Conference of the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Europe take place in Tórshavn, Faroe Islands. [BW16:110] Torshavn; Faroe Islands; Arctic Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; First conferences
1974 28 Aug - 2 Sep The conference held in St Louis, Missouri, to launch the Five Year Plan in the United States attracts some 10,000 Bahá’ís, the largest gathering of Bahá’ís to take place anywhere in the world to date. [BW16:203; VV40] St Louis; Missouri; United States Conferences, Bahai
1975 The first international Quechua conference is held in Cusco, Peru, attended by Bahá’ís from Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. Cusco; Peru Quechua; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; First conferences
1975 1 Jan Shidan and Susan Kouchekzadeh, an Iranian-British couple pioneering in Sierra Leone, arrive in Conakry, the first Bahá’ís to settle in Guinea. Conakry; Guinea; Sierra Leone First Bahais by country or area
1975 2 – 4 Jan The first annual meeting of the Association for Bahá’í Studies is held at Cedar Glen, Bolton, Ontario. [BW17:198]
  • See also BBD201–2; VV23–5.
Bolton; Ontario; Canada Conferences, Bahai studies; Bahai Studies, Associations for
1975 14 Jan The house of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá is purchased after lengthy and delicate negotiations. [BBD108; BW16:103, 133; BW17:82; DH73; VV39]
  • For a history of the house see BW16:103–6.
Akka; BWC House of Abdullah Pasha; Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1975 Feb The first National Teaching Conference in Sierra Leone takes place in Bo. [BW16:172] Bo; Sierra Leone Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; First conferences
1975 Feb The first Bahá’í Women’s Conference of the Solomon Islands takes place at Auki, Malaita Island, attended by more than 90 women. [BW16:282] Solomon Islands; Oceania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences
1975 29 Mar The first Bahá’í Youth Conference of the Canary Islands is held in Santa Cruz. [BW16:313] Santa Cruz; Canary Islands Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
1975 9 – 12 Jul The first International Bahá’í Youth Conference of Iceland takes place in Njardvik with youth from nine countries. [BW16:301] Njardvik; Iceland; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
1975 Dec The first International Youth School to be held in Rhodesia takes place near Bulawayo. [BW16:155] Bulawayo; Rhodesia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, First
1975 Dec The first National Teaching Conference to be held in Senegal takes place in Dakar. [BW16:175] Dakar; Senegal Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching
1976 24 – 25 Mar The first Continental Youth Conference of Western Asia takes place in Karachi, Pakistan. [BW16:265] Karachi; Pakistan; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
1976 5 – 8 Jul An International Teaching Conference is held in Helsinki, Finland, attended by some 950 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:129–30.
  • For pictures see BW17:109, 112, 114–15.
Helsinki; Finland Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
1976 9 – 11 Jul An International Youth Conference is held in Ivory Coast, attended by nearly 200 Bahá’ís. [BW17:150, 153] Ivory Coast; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
1976 23 – 25 Jul An International Teaching Conference is held in Anchorage, Alaska, attended by 1,005 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:130–1.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 113, 116–17.
Anchorage; Alaska; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
1976 3 – 6 Aug An International Teaching Conference is held in Paris, attended by some 5,700 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; DM416; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:131–2.
  • For the message of Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General of the United Nations, see BW17:140.
  • For pictures see BW17:109, 117–19.
Paris; France; Europe Kurt Waldheim; United Nations; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
1976 15 – 17 Oct An International Teaching Conference is held in Nairobi, Kenya, attended by 1,363 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:133–4.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 119–21.
Nairobi; Kenya; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
1976 27 – 30 Nov An International Teaching Conference is held in Hong Kong, attended by 506 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:135–6.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 111, 121–2.
Hong Kong; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
1977 The Hemispheric Bahá’í Radio and Television Conference is held in Panama, with 125 participants from 24 countries. [BW17:219] Panama Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; Bahai radio; Television; Media
1977 19 – 22 Jan An International Teaching Conference is held in Auckland, New Zealand, attended by 1,195 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:136–7.
  • For pictures see BW17:111, 122–4.
Auckland; New Zealand; Asia-Pacific Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
1977 27 – 30 Jan An International Teaching Conference is held in Bahia, Brazil, attended by 1,300 Bahá’ís, the largest such gathering of Bahá’ís to date in Brazil. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:137–8.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 124–5.
Bahia; Brazil; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
1977 4 – 6 Feb An International Teaching Conference is held in Mérida, Mexico, attended by more than 2,000 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:139.
  • Three Hands of the Cause were present – Paul Haney, Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir, and Enoch Olinga, as well as Counsellor Florence Mayberry who had been on the first national assembly of Mexico.
  • For pictures see BW17:112, 126–7.
  • VV33 says this was 2–6 Feb.
Merida; Mexico; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
1977 Apr The first National Bahá’í Children’s Conference of Samoa takes place. [BW17:211] Samoa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Children; First conferences
1977 16 – 17 Apr The first annual Bahá’í Studies Seminar supported by the Departments of Religious Studies and of Sociology at the University of Lancaster, England, takes place. [BW18:204] Lancaster; United Kingdom Bahai Studies, Associations for; Firsts, Other
1977 May The Himalayan Conference is held in Gangtok, Sikkim. [BW17:180–2] Gangtok; Sikkim; India Conferences, Bahai
1977 Jun At the behest of the Universal House of Justice, two conferences are held for Persian-speaking Bahá’ís resident in Europe, one in Germany and one in London. [BW17:194] Germany; London; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Persian-speaking Bahais; Persian diaspora
1977 19 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador is granted permission to operate a radio station at Otavalo. [BW17:169] Otavalo; Ecuador Bahai radio
1977 12 – 14 Aug An International Bahá’í Youth Conference is held in Enugu, Nigeria, attended by over 250 Bahá’ís from 19 countries. [BW17:150, 153] Enugu; Nigeria; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
1977 12 Oct The first Bahá’í educational and cultural radio station, HCRN-1 Radio Bahá’í del Ecuador, makes its inaugural broadcast at 1420kHz, 20 watts, in Spanish and Quechua from studios in Otavalo. [BBD193; BW17:169, 215–17; BW19:120; VV77]
  • For pictures see BW17:216, 218 and VV77.
  • Full time programming (six hours a day) as initiated on the 12th of December, 1977. The 1 kiloWatt transmitter is located at Cahas, 20km south of Otavalo. [Radio Bahá'í Ecuador p23, 52]
  • On December 12th, 1979, programming was initiated in the short wave band on 2340 kHz in the 120-metre band. The 1 kilowatt transmitter is located about 30 km north of Otavalo at an altitude of 10,000 feet. In 1982 the transmission frequency was switched to 4990 kHz on the 60-meter band. [Radio Bahá‘Í Ecuador p205 note 23]
Otavalo; Cahas; Ecuador Bahai radio; Firsts, Other
1977 13 – 16 Oct The Asian Bahá’í Women’s Conference is held in New Delhi, attended by more than a thousand women from across Asia. 1,200 women from 36 countries were in attendance. [BW17:180]
  • For picture see BW17:212.
New Delhi; India; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women
1977 17 Oct At the end of the Asian Bahá’í Women’s Conference Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum lays the foundation stone of the Mother Temple of the Indian Subcontinent. [BW17:85, 180, 368–70; VV35] New Delhi; India; Asia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women
1977 Dec The first International Conference of Bahá’í Women in South America is held in Lima, Peru, attended by 200 women from 12 countries. [BW17:172]
  • For picture see BW17:211.
Lima; Peru Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences
1978 15 Jan The first National Bahá’í Women’s Conference of Niger takes place. Niger Women; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, National; First conferences
1978 Mar The first Bahá’í-owned school in Pakistan, the New Day Montessori, opens in Karachi. Karachi; Pakistan Bahai schools
1978 4 Mar Christaline Francis, the first woman of the Caribs to become a Bahá’í, enrols in Dominica. Dominica First Bahais by country or area
1978 Aug An International Bahá’í Youth Conference is held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, attended by some 380 Bahá’ís from 19 countries. [BW17:150, 153] Yaounde; Cameroon; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
1978 28 – 30 Dec The West African Bahá’í Women’s Conference is held in Monrovia, Liberia. [BW17:154] Monrovia; Liberia; Africa Women; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, International
1980 Yee Wah Sing, the first Fiji-born person to become a Bahá’í in Fiji, enrols. [BN596:14] Fiji First Bahais by country or area
1980 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Twenty–four Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW18:229–30]
  • BW18:291–2 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:293–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:275–81.
  • Twelve Bahá’ís disappear and are presumed dead. [BW19:235]
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:339–41, 415–17.
Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
1980 2 May The first Bahá’í International Conference on Health and Healing is held in Ottawa, Canada, under the sponsorship of the Association for Bahá’í Studies. [BW 18:201] Ottawa; Canada Bahai Studies, Associations for; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Health; Conferences, International; First conferences
1980 24 Sep Universal House of Justice announces that additional land has been acquired in the south-western area of the Haram-i-Aqdas in exchange for some land near Nazareth. The acquisition of this new land permits the completion of the fourth quadrant. In addition, it is announced that nearly 50,000 square meters of agricultural land adjacent to and north of the Mazra'ih property has been acquired as a protection for the Mansion because this area is being developed rapidly. [BW18:99; DH122, Message from the Universal House of Justice 24 September, 1980] BWC; Akka; Bahji Haram-i-Aqdas; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
1981 The Comunicación Intercambio y Radiodifusión Bahá’í para America Latina y el Caribe (CIRBAL) is established by the Universal House of Justice to promote the development of Bahá’í radio and mass media activities in Latin America. [BW19:59] Latin America Bahai radio; Social and economic development; Universal House of Justice
1981 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Forty–six Bahá’ís are executed and two assassinated. [BW18:292–3; BW19:230–1]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:277–8, 281–4.
  • For excerpts from the wills of some of the martyrs see BW18:284–9.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:341–5, 417–20.
Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
1981 Apr The Canadian Association for Studies on the Bahá’í Faith is renamed the Association for Bahá’í Studies. [BBD202; VV24–5] Canada Bahai Studies, Associations for
1982 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Thirty–two Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232]
  • BW18:293–4 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:345–52, 420–4.
  • See the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 January 1982 for a summation of the steps taken by the coordinated Bahá'í community to expose the crimes of the Iranian regime and to bring pressure to have the persecutions stop.
Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
1982 9 – 12 Apr The first Conference on Bahá’í Scholarship to be held in Australia takes place at Yerrinbool Bahá’í School in New South Wales. [BW18:202-203] New South Wales; Australia Conferences, Other; Conferences; Bahai studies; First conferences
1982 10 – 11 Apr The Bahá’í International Health Agency is established as an affiliate of the Association for Bahá’í Studies. [BW18:201; VV25] Canada Bahai Studies, Associations for; Health
1982 25 – 27 Jun A Bahá’í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf is held in Dublin, Ireland, attended by some 1,900 Bahá’ís from 60 countries. [BW18:100; VV61]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:156–7.
  • For a pictorial report see BW18:138–40.
Dublin; Ireland Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
1982 27 Jun The Bahá’í Youth Academy is established in Panchgani, India. [BW18:230–2] Panchgani; Maharashtra; India Bahai Youth Academy; Bahai Academy; Youth
1982 Aug Shakontala (‘Shaku’) Aswani, the first Gibraltarian to become a Bahá’í, enrols in Northern Ireland, shortly afterwards returning to Gibraltar. Northern Ireland; Gibraltar First Bahais by country or area
1982 6 – 8 Aug A Bahá’í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf is held in Quito, Ecuador, attended by some 1,450 Bahá’ís from 43 countries. [BW18:100; VV61]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:157–8.
  • For a pictorial report see BW18:141–3.
Quito; Ecuador Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
1982 19 – 22 Aug A Bahá’í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf is held in Lagos, Nigeria, attended by some 1,110 Bahá’ís from 46 countries representing some 90 ethnic groups. [BW18:100; VV61]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:158–9 In the message the Universal House of Justice reported that in a little more than three decades there were 37 National Spiritual Assemblies, 4,490 Local Assemblies, 29,000 localities with believers drawn from 1,152 tribes.
  • For a pictorial report see BW18:144–6.
Lagos; Nigeria Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
1982 2 – 5 Sep A Bahá’í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf is held in Montreal, Canada, attended by 9,400 Bahá’ís from 101 countries. [BW18:100; VV61]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:161–2.
  • For a pictorial report see BW18:151–4.
Montreal; Canada Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
1982 2 – 5 Sep A Bahá’í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf is held in Canberra, Australia, attended by some 2,400 Bahá’ís, twice as many as were expected, from 45 countries. [BW18:100; VV61]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:159–60.
  • For a pictorial report see BW18:147–50.
Canberra; Australia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
1982 Nov The West African Centre for Bahá’í Studies is established in Nigeria. [BW18:167; BW19:366]
  • For a report of its activities see BW19:366–7.
Nigeria; Africa Bahai studies
1983 The Association for Bahá’í Studies, German-Speaking Europe, is established in Austria. [BW19:357–8] Austria Bahai Studies, Associations for; German language
1983 The Association for Bahá’í Studies, India, is established. [BW19:360] India Bahai Studies, Associations for
1983 The Association for Bahá’í Studies, English-Speaking Europe, is established in the Republic of Ireland.
  • Responsibility for the Association is transferred to the United Kingdom in 1989.
Ireland; United Kingdom; Europe Bahai Studies, Associations for
1983 The Association for Bahá’í Studies of Francophone Europe is established in Switzerland. Switzerland Bahai Studies, Associations for; French language
1983 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92; BW19:177–226]
  • Twenty–nine Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232–3]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:352–6, 424–5.
Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
1983 Jan - Feb c. The Seat of the Universal House of Justice is completed; the Universal House of Justice formally occupies it. [BBD204; BW19:23; VV62]
  • For a description and history of the building see BW19:24–6.
  • Marble for the Seat of the Universal House of Justice quarried from Mount Pentelikon, just north of Athens and was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
  • For pictures see BW18:466–72 and Construction.
  • See video called Ark of Destiny.
BWC; Mount Carmel Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Marble; Architecture; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1983. 24 Feb The inauguration of the Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women at Indore, India. It offers rural women residential courses on literacy, health care and income generating skills. The success of this school was recognized when it won one of the Global 500 Environmental Action awards that was presented at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 [The Baha'is magazine]. Indore; India Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Sustainable development; Bahai schools; Earth Summit
1983 Ridván The renovation of the House of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá in ‘Akká is completed. [BW18:77]
  • Delegates attending the fifth International Convention are the first pilgrims to visit it. [BW18:77]
  • For pictures see BW18:78–80.
Akka; BWC House of Abdullah Pasha; Restoration; Conventions, International; Firsts, Other; Pilgrimage; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
1983 5 – 7 Aug The first Los Angeles Bahá’í History Conference is held at the University of California at Los Angeles. [BW19:369–70] Los Angeles; United States Bahai history; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; Conferences; First conferences
1984 The first Bahá’í university, Universidad Núr, opens in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. [VV82–3] Santa Cruz; Bolivia Bahai schools
1984 28 Feb The passing of Renée Szanto-Felbermann (b 21 June, 1900, d. 28 February, 1984) in Freiburg, Germany. She is considered the first to declare her faith in Hungary. [BW19p633] Freiburg; Germany; Hungary First Bahais by country or region; In memoriam; Births and deaths
1984 Jun The Association for Bahá’í Studies, Australia, is established in Perth. [BW19:356] Perth; Australia Bahai Studies, Associations for
1984 4 Jun Vladimir Malai, the first Moldovan to become a Bahá’í in Moldova, enrols. [Candle 9] Moldova First Bahais by country or area
1984 30 Aug - 2 Sep An International Teaching Conference is held to coincide with the dedication of the House of Worship at Apia, Western Samoa. [BW19:548–54; VV64]
  • For a report of the conference see BW19:548–54.
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW19:555–6.
  • For pictures see BW19:475, 547–57 and VV64.
Apia; Samoa Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
1984 Nov The International Bahá’í Refugee Office, responsible for coordinating efforts to resettle Iranian Bahá’í refugees, is established by the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada at the request of the Universal House of Justice. [BW19:50]
  • For a report of the work of the Office see BW19:50–3.
Canada International Bahai Refugee Office; Refugees
1984 28 – 30 Dec The first National Bahá’í Youth Conference to be held in Greece takes place in Athens. [BW19:319] Athens; Greece Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
1985 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • Seven Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:234]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community see BW19:39.
Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bahai International Community; Human rights
1985 A regional office of the Bahá’í International Community affiliated with the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) is established in Bangkok. [BW19:161–2] Bangkok; Thailand Bahai International Community; Social and economic development
1985 5 – 8 Apr An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Bophuthatswana, attended by 198 people. [BW19:300] Bophuthatswana; South Africa; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
1985 30 Apr - 1 May The first annual conference of the Association for Bahá’í Studies, Brazil, takes place in Saõ Paulo. [BW19:358] Sao Paulo; Brazil; Latin America Bahai Studies, Associations for; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Bahai studies; First conferences
1985 3 – 7 Jul An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Columbus, Ohio, United States attended by more than 3,200 youth from 42 nations. [BW19:300] Columbus; Ohio; United States; North America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
1985 15 – 26 Jul Ten representatives of the Bahá’í International Community attend the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women and Forum ‘85 in Nairobi. [BW19:147–8, 412; VV28–9]
  • For a report of the Bahá’í participation see BW19:4.12–15.
  • For pictures see BW19:413, 415.
Nairobi; Kenya Bahai International Community; United Nations; Women
1985 6 – 9 Jul The European Bahá’í Youth Conference was held in Antwerp, Belgium, in July 1985, and was attended by some 1,450 youth from 45 nations. The youth addressed the European Parliament and the Council of Europe in letters which told of their resolve to put into action the International Youth Year themes of ‘Participation, Development and Peace’. The youth spoke of programs in which Bahá’ís were supporting the themes, including human rights education and social and economic development projects. [BW19:301]
  • For picture see BW19:315.
Antwerp; Belgium; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year; European Union
1985 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Molepolole, Botswana, attended by 119 youth from six countries. [BW19:300]
  • For picture see BW19:320.
Molepolole; Botswana; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
1985 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in New Delhi, India, attended by more than 550 youth from 24 countries. [BW19:300] New Delhi; India; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
1985 1 – 4 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Port Dickson, Malaysia, attended by 1,300 youth from 15 countries, the largest gathering of Bahá’ís ever held in Malaysia. [BW19:301] Port Dickson; Malaysia; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
1985 2 – 5 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Lima, Peru, attended by 500 youth from 18 countries and representing four native tribes. [BW19:300]
  • For picture see BW19:322.
Lima; Peru; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, International; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
1985 8 – 11 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Kauai, Hawaii, attended by 300 youth from nine Pacific countries. [BW19:301]
  • For picture see BW19:321.
Kauai; Hawaii; Oceania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
1985 Sep The first Bahá’í Studies conference in Hawaii takes place at the national Bahá’í centre. [BW19:360] Hawaii Bahai Studies; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; First conferences
1985 Oct The first National Bahá’í Youth Conference in Nepal takes place, attended by 120 Bahá’ís, the largest Bahá’í gathering ever held in the country. [VV74] Nepal Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
1985 19 Oct The Association for Bahá’í Studies, Chile, is established in Santiago. [BW19:358–9] Santiago; Chile; Latin America Bahai Studies, Associations for
1985 22 Nov The Promise of World Peace is presented to the Secretary-General of the United Nations Javier Perez de Cuellar by Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and representatives of the Bahá’í International Community. [BW19:33, 382; VV87] United Nations; Javier Perez de Cuellar; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Promise of World Peace (statement); Bahai International Community
1985 27 Dec - 1986 2 Jan The Universal House of Justice convenes a Counsellors’ Conference at the Bahá’í World Centre. [AWH39; BW19:29; VV122]
  • The gathering, held in the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, consulted on the opportunities and challenges facing the Bahá’í world community. [BW19:29]
  • See BW19:494, 504 for pictures.
Haifa; BWC Counsellors; Conferences, Bahai; Counsellors conferences
1986 The Bahá’í Association for Arts (BAFA) is formed with its base in the Netherlands. Netherlands Bahai Association for Arts (BAFA); Bahai associations; Arts
1986 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • One Bahá’í, 15-year-old Paymán Subhání, is killed. [BW19:225–6, 234]
  • For his picture see BW19:246.
  • For the actions taken by the Bahá’í international Community see BW19:38.
Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bahai International Community; Human rights
1986 The founding of the Ruaha Secondary School in southwestern rural Tanzania near Iringa, about 500 km from Dar-es-salaam. [The Mona Project (information on the Iringa School no longer available on this web site), One Country]

In 2001 the school received a grant to build a girls dormitory. [BWNS145]

Tanzania; Iringa; Dar-es-salaam Bahai schools; BWNS
1986 21 Jan The Islamic Research Academy at the Azhar University in Cairo publishes in a number of newspapers a lengthy opinion about the Bahá’í Faith in advance of the court cases of Bahá’ís due to be heard in February. [BW19:286]
  • For a refutation of this statement by the Bahá’í International Community, see BW19:288–96 and "Far Stretching River".
Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Bahai International Community; Criticism and apologetics
1986 23 May Fourteen State Bahá’í Councils were elected in India by members of local spiritual assemblies. [BW19:162; VV99–100]
  • For a description of the Councils and their responsibilities see BW19:162–4.
  • The State Bahá'í Council was the forerunner for the Regional Bahá'í Council which was announced on the 30th of May, 1997.
India State Bahai Councils; Regional Bahai Councils
1986 6 Aug The Brazilian Society of Physicians for Peace is formed by Bahá’í physicians in Pôrto Alegre at a ceremony attended by 120 medical professionals. [BINS159:2–3] Porto Alegre; Brazil Bahai associations; Health; Peace
1986 7 Dec Radio Bahá’í Liberia, the first Bahá’í radio station in Africa, makes its test broadcast. [BINS164:6] Liberia Bahai radio; Firsts, Other
1986. 23 - 27 Dec International Teaching Conference was held in New Delhi in conjunction with the opening of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. It was attended by 8,000 Bahá'ís from 114 countries. [BW20p731-753] New Delhi; India Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple
1987 The establishment of the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education (BIHE) to meet the educational needs of young people who had been systematically denied access to higher education by the Iranian government. [Closed Doors, Chapter IV] Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human Rights; Education
1987 The Bayan Hospital, the first Bahá’í hospital in Honduras, opens in Palacios. Palacios; Honduras Bahai hospitals
1987 The first National Children’s Camp in Australia is held in Yerrinbool School with 36 children between 9 and 13 years of age in attendance. [BINS173:10] Yerrinbool; Australia Yerrinbool Bahai School; Bahai schools; Children
1987 16 – 17 Jan The first Youth Conference of the Bahamas is held with representation from three islands. [BINS173:9] Bahamas Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
1987 24 Feb The Bahá’í Cultural Centre is opened in the Guaymi area of Panama. Panama Bahai Cultural Centres
1987 24 Mar Radio Bahá’í of Liberia, the first Bahá’í radio station in Africa, is inaugurated in Maynesville. [BINS164:6; BW19:121; VV77] Maynesville; Liberia Bahai radio; Firsts, Other
1987 31 Aug The Universal House of Justice calls for the erection of the remaining three buildings along the arc at the Bahá’í World Centre—the Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts, the Seat of the International Teaching Centre and the International Bahá’í Library—as well as an expansion of the International Archives building and the creation of 19 monumental terraces from the foot of Mount Carmel to its crest. [AWH50–4, 90; BBD21; VV96] Mount Carmel; BWC Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; International Teaching Centre, Seat; International Bahai Library; International Bahai Archives; Terraces; Arc project; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1987 Sep The United Nations Secretary-General designates the Bahá’í International Community and the National Spiritual Assemblies of Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Kenya and Lesotho as Peace Messengers, an honour given to only 300 organizations worldwide for their support of the UN Year of Peace 1986. [BINS173:4] New York; United States; Australia; Belgium; Brazil; Kenya; Lesotho United Nations; Bahai International Community; International Year of Peace; Peace
1987 3 Oct The Bahá’í International Community joins the Network on Conservation and Religion of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the sixth major religion to do so. [AWH56; BBD38; VV106] Bahai International Community; World Wide Fund for Nature; Nature; Environment
1987 Dec The first Children’s Conference of Uganda is held in Kikaaya, Kampala. [BINS173:7] Kikaaya; Kampala; Uganda Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Children; First conferences
1988 The opening of the School of the Nations in Taipa, Macau with 5 students enrolled in kindergarten. [SoN, BWNS460] Taipa; Macau School of the Nations; Bahai schools; BWNS
1988 The first Caribbean Bahá’í Women’s conference takes place in Antigua. Antigua Caribbean; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; First conferences
1988 ‘Arts for Nature’, a fund-raising programme held to benefit the work of the World Wide Fund for Nature, is held in London with the collaboration of the Bahá’í International Community. [AWH61; VV106] London; United Kingdom Bahai International Community; Arts; Nature; World Wide Fund for Nature; Environment
1988 The Bahá’í International Community becomes a founding member of ‘Advocates for African Food Security: Lessening the Burden for Women’, a coalition of agencies and organizations formed to act on behalf of farm women in Africa, and is convener for 1988–92. Africa Bahai International Community; Rural development; Social and economic development; Women
1988 14 – 17 Jul The Bahá’í Association for Arts (BAFA) holds its first arts festival at the Bahá’í conference centre De Poort, Netherlands. [BINS180:4] Groesbeek; Netherlands Bahai Association for Arts (BAFA); Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Arts; First conferences; De Poort
1988 15 Jul The first International Women’s Conference of Paraguay opens, attended by 130 women from seven countries. [BINS180:5] Paraguay; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women
1988 3 – 7 Aug The first Iberian Youth Conference is held in Lisbon, attended by 120 Bahá’ís from nine European countries. [BINS181:6] Lisbon; Portugal; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
1988 24 – 25 Sep The first annual Bahá’í Studies Conference of Spain is held in Barcelona. [BINS192:5] Barcelona; Spain Bahai Studies; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; First conferences
1988 30 Nov The Bahá’í International Community is elected Secretary of the Board of the ‘Conference on Non-Governmental Organizations in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations’ (CONGO) for the period 1988–91. [BINS189:2] New York Bahai International Community; United Nations; Social and economic development
1988 29 Dec The Universal House of Justice issues a letter to the Bahá’ís in the United States published as Individual Rights and Freedoms in the World Order of Bahá’u’lláh. BWC; United States Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Publications; Administration; Administrative Order; Authority; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Consultation; Criticism and apologetics; Ethics; Freedom; Freedom of expression; Human rights; Individualism; Liberty; Moderation; Review; Unity; Western culture
1988 24 Dec The first National Youth Conference of Côte d’Ivoire takes place. [BINS196:9] Ivory Coast Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
1989 Fourteen-year-old Olga Anatolevna Kirushkin becomes a Bahá’í in Minsk, the first known native person to become a Bahá’í in Belarus. Minsk; Belarus First Bahais by country or area
1989 The establishment of the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment in New York. Ridván Message 1992 [AWH75; VV54 106] New York; United States Bahai International Community; Environment
1989 Feb The inaugural publication of One Country, the newsletter of the Bahá'í International Community. It is a publication of the Office of Public Information of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. The periodical reports mainly on activities of the worldwide Bahá'í community in relation to issues of sustainable development, peace and world order, human rights, and the advancement of women. [BW'86-‘92 p.539] New York; United States One Country; Newsletters; Bahai International Community; Publications Find date
1989. 15 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Creating a Universal Culture of Human Rights”, to the fourty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Human Rights; United Nations
1989 17 Mar The Bahá’í International Community enters into a ‘working relationship’ with the World Health Organization (WHO) for the period 1989–91. [AWH61; BINS201:1] Bahai International Community; World Health Organization (WHO)
1989 23 – 26 Mar The First National Women’s Conference of Spain is held in Madrid. [BINS201:6] Madrid; Spain Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, National; Women; First conferences
1989 Apr The Association for Bahá’í Studies of Malaysia is established. [BINS206:8] Malaysia; Asia Bahai Studies, Associations for
1989 Jul - Aug Five European Regional ‘Peace Moves’ Youth Conferences are held in different parts of the continent. Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Peace
1989 1 – 2 Jul The first European Bahá’í Women’s Conference is held at De Poort Conference Centre, the Netherlands. [BINS203:2] Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, International; De Poort; First conferences
1989 Aug The first Mongolian to become a Bahá’í, Ms Oyundelger, a 22-year-old English-language pupil of Sean Hinton, enrols in Ulaan Baator. [VV101] Ulaan Baatar; Mongolia First Bahais by country or area; Sean Hinton
1989 3 Aug The first Latvian resident in Latvia to become a Bahá’í, Lilita Postaza, a renowned tapestry artist, enrols after visiting the Bahá’í temple in India. Latvia Lilita Postaza; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; First Bahais by country or area
1989 Summer The founding of the Maxwell International Bahá'í School. It was a co-ed Bahá'í school located on Shawnigan Lake, British Columbia, Canada. It offered boarding students and day students instruction from grades 7-12. Its educational philosophy was based on the principles of the Bahá'í Faith. Students attended from all over the world. The school was opened with guest of honour Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum (Mary Maxwell, daughter of May and Sutherland) and wife of the Bahá'í Faith's Guardian, Shoghi Effendi. A tree was planted in dedication to the opening of the school. In the early 2006-2007 school year, the school board decided to drop "Bahá'í" from its name, changing it to "Maxwell International School". The school closed on its 20th anniversary in 2008. [Wiki] Shawnigan Lake; Canada Maxwell International School; Bahai schools; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
1989 Sep The Bahá’í Office of the Environment is established as part of the Bahá’í International Community in New York. [AWH75; VV54, 106] New York; United States Bahai Office of the Environment; Environment; Bahai International Community
1989 Oct One Country, the newsletter of the Bahá'í International Community, now published in five other languages - French, Spanish, Chinese, Russian, and German. The first French language edition of the publication was launched in Paris in October, 1989. Each issue contains two or three in-depth feature stories on the United Nations, noteworthy social and economic development projects, environmental efforts or educational programs, along with an editorial that addresses world problems from a Bahá'í point of view. Bahai International Community; One Country; Firsts, Other; Newsletters; Publications
1989 4 – 6 Nov The European Bahá’í Youth Council, comprising seven youth and appointed by the Universal House of Justice to coordinate those European youth activities that have a continental impact, meets for the first time, in London. [BINS213:4; BW93–4:121] London; United Kingdom; Europe European Bahai Youth Council; Youth
1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan During the Youth Winter School in Traben-Trarback participants from 12 countries including East Germany, Romania, Hungary and the Soviet Union gather for the first time since the Second World War. [BINS215:2] Traben-Trarback; Germany; Eastern Europe; Soviet Union; Russia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Conferences, International; Winter schools; First conferences
1990 An Association for Bahá'í Studies is established in Kenya. Kenya; Africa Bahai Studies, Associations for
1990 The Italian Association for Bahá'í Studies is established in Rome. [BINS232:5]
  • It lapses in 1991 but is re-established in 1992.
Rome; Italy; Europe Bahai Studies, Associations for
1990 The first Adam Benke Project is organized by the Bahá'í European Youth Council in Bulgaria.
  • The first semi-public talks and lectures in Bulgaria are given in restaurants, where people are invited to private meetings.
  • Eleven people become Bahá'ís.
Bulgaria European Bahai Youth Council; Youth; Firsts, Other Find ref
1990 The founding of the European Bahá'í Business Forum as an informal network. Their goal is exploring how to contribute to a more prosperous, just and sustainable civilization, through their daily work and discourse. [EBBF] Europe European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF)
1990 The University of Maryland announced its decision to establish "The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace" in its Centre for International Development and Conflict Management. In 1992 Professor Suheil Bushrú’í was named as the first scholar to hold the Chair. [AWH76; VV108] Maryland; United States University of Maryland; Bahai Chair for World Peace; Suheil Bushrui; Firsts, Other
1990 The Asian Buddhist Conference for Peace was held in Mongolia.
  • A representative of the International Bahá'í Community was the only non-Buddhist speaker invited to address a public meeting held in conjunction with the conference. [AWH88] [VV101]
Mongolia Buddhism; Conferences, Peace; Bahai International Community; Interfaith dialogue
1990 The Bahá'í International Community, through the Office of the Environment in collaboration with other environmental organizations, re-instituted the annual World Forestry Charter Gathering that had be founded in 1945 by Richard St. Barbe Baker. [AWH75] [VV106] Bahai International Community; Environment; Richard St Barbe Baker
1990 The Bahá'í International Community was invited to participate in the World Conference on Education for All in Thailand because of its involvement in the work of the Task Force for Literacy under the aegis of UNESCO. [AWH75] Thailand Bahai International Community; Education; Literacy; UNESCO
1990 A branch of the Bahá'í International Community's United Nations Office for the Pacific region was opened in Suva, Fiji. [AWH76; VV54] Suva; Fiji Bahai International Community
1990 The formation of the European Bahá'í Business Forum in France with members from 26 countries in Europe and elsewhere. [VV115]
  • Formed by a group of Bahá'ís active in business and management meeting in Chamonix, France, due to concern about the decline of ethics and values in business.
  • Forum created to promote the moral and spiritual wisdom and principles of the great religious traditions of the world (sources included Judaism, Hinduism, and Christianity as well as the 19th century revelation of Baha'u'llah) such as adherence to the principles of justice, respect, trustworthiness, integrity and unity.
  • Beginning as an informal network, its membership grew requiring the election of a Governing Board.
  • Members have attached importance to sharing their broad experience and to contributing to the improvement of management in emerging free-market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. [ebbf]
Chamonix; France; Europe European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
1990 Jan – Feb The Brazilian Society of Educators for Peace, conceived and initiated by Bahá'ís, is officially recognized by the Amazonas State Government. [BINS219:3] Brazil Bahai associations; Peace; Education
1990 24 Jan – 5 Feb The first All-Union Bahá'í Conference was held in Moscow with 250 people gathered from all over the Soviet Union and from 17 other countries. This was the first national Bahá'í conference held in the USSR in about 60 years. [BINS224:8; VV112] Moscow; Russia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, National; First conferences
1990 26 Jan The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace is established at the University of Maryland's Centre for International Development and Conflict Management at the official signing of the Memorandum of Understanding. [AWH76; BINS217:7; VV108]
  • Professor Suheil Bushrui is appointed to the Chair in 1992.
  • For picture see VV108.
Maryland; United States Bahai Chair for World Peace; Suheil Bushrui
1990 31 Mar 31 – 1 Apr The first Bahá'í International Chinese Symposium is held in San Francisco, California; it is attended by 362 Bahá'ís from eight countries. [BINS222:6] San Francisco; California; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Other; First conferences; China
1990 9 Apr The first professorial Chair in Bahá'í Studies is established at Indore University, India. [BINS222:8; VV108] Indore; India Chair in Bahai Studies; University of Indore; Universities
1990 9 Apr The establishment of the Chair for Bahá'í Studies at the University of Indore (later renamed Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya). Dr. Vishnudatta Nagar was appointed to the position. [BW'86-‘92pg454] Indore; India Chair in Bahai Studies; University of Indore; Universities; Vishnudatta Nagar
1990 18 - 20 May The first of seven European women's conferences sponsored by the Continental Board of Counsellors is held in Iskenderun, Turkey. [BINS230:1] Iskenderun; Turkey Conferences, Women; Conferences, Bahai; Counsellors
1990 10 Jun The Paraguay International Chinese Teaching Symposium, the first of its kind in South America, is held in Asuncion, attended by 80 people from 10 countries. [BINS226:4] Asuncion; Paraguay; South America Conferences, International; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences; China
1990 Jul The first youth conference of Estonia is held in Kabli, near Parnu, attended by some 113 participants from all parts of Europe Kabli; Parnu; Estonia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
1990 1 - 2 Sep The European Bahá'í Business Forum is formed at a meeting in Chamonix, France, attended by people from eight countries. [BINS244:8; VV115]
  • For picture see VV115.
Chamonix; France European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
1990 6 Sep The Bahá'í International Community opens a branch of its United Nations Office for the Pacific region in Suva, Fiji. [AWH76; BINS233:4–5; VV54] Suva; Fiji Bahai International Community; United Nations; Pacific
1990 Oct The publication of the last issue of the Bahá'í News by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States after nearly 70 years of uninterrupted service. [CBN Feb1991pg15]
  • Issues 1 to 40 were published under the name Bahá'í News Letter. Subsequent issues, from #41 to #714, were entitled simply Bahá'í News.


Bahá'í News Published December 1924 to October 1990
          Link (Will open in this window)            
         Dates        
Pages
              URL   (For cut 'n' paste)      
"Bahá'í News" Issues 001-110
Dec 1924 - Sep 1937
969
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn01.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 111-210
Oct 1937 - Aug 1948
1186
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn02.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 211-280
Sep 1948 - Jun 1954
1072
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn03.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 281-345
Jul 1954 - Nov 1959
1088
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn04.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 346-400
Dec 1959 - Jul 1964
849
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn05.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 401-440
Aug 1964 - Nov 1967
716
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn06.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 441-490
Dec 1967 - Jan 1972
1008
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn07.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 491-525
Feb 1972 - May 1975
958
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn08.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 526-580
Jun 1975 - Jul 1979
1019
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn09.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 581-630
Aug 1979 - Sep 1983
958
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn10.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 631-670
Oct 1983 - Jan 1987
780
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn11.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 671-714
Feb 1987 - Oct 1990
847
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn12.pdf

Subscribers in the United States received an insert entitled US Supplement from 1958 to 1967 and the name of the insert was changed to National Bahá'í Review from 1968 until the Bahá'í News discontinued publication in 1990.
United States Bahai News; Newsletters; Publications
1990 19 – 21 Oct The first National Children's Conference of Nicaragua is held in Retiro, Aurora, Managua, attended by more than 40 children. [BINS243:8] Retiro; Aurora; Managua; Nicaragua Children; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Children; Conferences, National; First conferences
1990 22 Nov – 6 Dec The First European Bahá'í Youth Encounter is held in the Canary Islands, attended by over 150 people from eight countries. [BINS239:1] Canary Islands; Europe Youth; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International
1990 30 Nov - 2 Dec The First National Teaching Conference of the Bahá'ís of Romania was held near Poiana Brasov, in the Carpathian mountains. [CBN Feb 91p14] Poiana Brasov; Romania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, teaching; First conferences
1990 8 - 9 Dec The first All-Union Bahá'í Consultative Conference was held in Moscow attended by Bahá'ís from every part of the Soviet Union, members of three Continental Boards of Counsellors and representatives of all those National Spiritual Assemblies having responsibility for the work of the Faith in that area. [BINS 238:6] [CBN Mar91Vol3no8] [VV112] Moscow; Russia Conferences, Bahai; First conferences
1991 Jan Dr. Victor de Araujo, Bahá'í representative to the United Nations for 23 years and the first full-time representative, retired from his duties. He had represented the BIC at innumerable conferences and seminars throughout the world as well as at the UN headquarters in New York, often serving as chairman on the UN committees. [VV54]
  • Mr. Techeste Ahderom of Eritrea succeeded him. [VV54]
New York; United States Victor de Araujo; Bahai International Community; United States; Techeste Ahderom; Firsts, Other
1991 26 - 27 Jan The first National Teaching Conference of Yugoslavia is held in Belgrade. [BINS243:3] Belgrade; Yugoslavia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, National
1991 The administration of the Bahá'í Faith in Zaire is devolved to a system of subordinate regional councils. Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC) Regional Bahai Councils Find ref
1991 15 – 21 Jul The first European Bahá'í Youth Conference of Romania is held in Neptune. [BINS253:9; VV74]
  • For picture see VV74.
Neptune; Romania; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International
1991 Sep The ground was broken for the construction of the Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts and for the Extension to the International Archives Building. [Ridván Message 1992] Haifa; BWC Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; International Bahai Archives; Arc project; Foundation stones and groundbreaking
1991 25 – 27 Oct The first National Teaching Conference of Bulgaria is held in Plovdiv. [BINS258:2–3] Plovdiv; Bulgaria Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, National
1991 Dec 20 A Bahá'í Monument for Peace is inaugurated in a ceremony held in Florianopolis, Brazil. [BINS266:1] Florianopolis; Brazil Bahai Monument for Peace
1992 The establishment of the Bahá'í Chair for Peace at the University of Maryland in the United States. The mission of the Bahá'í Chair for Peace, in part, is to develop alternatives to the violent resolution of conflict, promote global education and spiritual awareness, and reflect the beliefs of the Bahá'í world community in building a global society. Suheil Bushrui held the chair from 1992 until 2005. [ news.bahai.org/story/282 ] Maryland; United States Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland
1992 A Chair for Bahá'í Studies was established at the University of Indore, India. [VV108] Indore; India Chair in Bahai Studies; Universities
1992 The establishment of the Townshend International School situated in the heart of Europe in Hluboká, South Bohemia, Czech Republic.
  • This private, non-affiliated, co-educational high school, accredited by the Ministry of Education with English as the teaching language, is a non-profit project and sponsors a number of students from its host country. [TIS Web Site]
Hluboka; South Bohemia; Czech Republic Townshend International School; Bahai schools
1992 Jan The first teaching conference of Southern Yugoslavia is held, attended by 40 Bahá'ís representing 12 nationalities. [BINS264:8] Yugoslavia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, teaching; First conferences
1992 2 – 5 Jan The first European Conference on Bahá'í Activities in Universities is held in Brno, Czechoslovakia. [BINS263:2]
  • BINS290:2 gives a second report of this event, incorrectly implying it was held in January 1993.
Brno; Czechoslovakia; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Other; Universities Find ref
1992 10 – 11 Jan The first teaching conference of Croatia and Slovenia is held in Kranj. [BINS263:1–2] Kranj; Croatia; Slovenia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, teaching; First conferences
1992 3 – 6 Feb The Association of Bahá'í Publishers and Distributors is established at a Bahá'í Publishers' Conference in Oakham, England, with its headquarters in the Netherlands. [BINS273:4-5; VV71] Oakham; United Kingdom; Netherlands Publishing Trusts; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other
1992 4 – 5 Apr The first Children's Festival and Family Conference of Turkey is held in Cankaya, Ankara. [BINS269:5–6] Cankaya; Ankara; Turkey Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Children; Conferences, Other; First Conferences
1992 5 Jun The Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women, a non-profit education project based in Indore, India, is one of 74 individuals and institutions presented with the United Nations Environment Programme ‘Global 500' award in Rio de Janeiro. [BINS272:5; BW92–3:125; VV110]
  • For picture see BW92–3:183.
Rio de Janeiro; Brazil; Indore; India Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Sustainable development; United Nations; Environment; Awards
1992 19 - 22 Jun Graduation ceremonies were held for the thirty-eight members of the first graduating class of the Maxwell International Bahá'í School. More than seven hundred participated in the ceremonies. ["Maxwell Eagle" Sep/Oct 1992 Vol IV no. 1 page 1] British Columbia; Canada Maxwell International School; Bahai schools
1992 15 Sep Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum was officially invited to open the Exhibition of Bahá'í Manuscripts at the British Museum in London. [VV134] London; United Kingdom Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; British Museum
1992 17 Sep The Bahá'í Professional Society of Hong Kong is inaugurated. [BINS292:8; BW92–3:129] Hong Kong Bahai associations
1992 25 - 27 Sep The first Bahá'í Youth Conference of Lithuania takes places in Kaunas, attended by 32 Bahá'ís. [BINS281:1] Kaunas; Lithuania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
1992 Dec The Universal House of Justice announced its decision to establish an Office for the Advancement of Women at the headquarters of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. Support for UN efforts to improve the status of women, which had been carried out for twenty years by the United Nations Office, continued uninterrupted under the auspices of this new office. At annual sessions of the UN Commission on the Status of Women, statements addressed appropriate topics on the agenda, such as partnership between women and men, the status of girl children, the participation of women in decision making, partnership for development, and the human rights of women. [VV29; 54; BIC Document #: 95-0228; BW92–3:136]
  • The Office for the Advancement of Women officially opened its doors on the 26th of May, 1993. [BINS296:2; BW93–4:83–9; VV29] For pictures see BW93–4:83, 86.
New York; United States Bahai International Community; Women; Office for the Advancement of Women
1993 In the year The opening of the Bádi School with an enrollment of 12 students by the Torrez family members in Las Cumbres Villa Zaita, Panamá City, Republic of Panama. They rented a small, dismantled house from the Panama Social Security Agency, remodeled it and closed the garage in order to use it as a classroom.
  • Over the years, two more buildings were added to expand the facility and enrollment capacity to its present 3200 square meters and 156 students. Badi's first high school graduation was scheduled for 2004, when Badi Tutorial University was scheduled to open its door. [Bádi School , Wiki Bahá'í Faith in Panama]
Panama Badi School; Bahai schools
1993 In the year EBBF was registered in Paris as an official non-profit association. Its statutes provide that membership is open to Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís alike. [ebbf] Paris; France European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
1993 19 Jan The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace at the University of Maryland is inaugurated. It is situated in the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences. [BW92–3:140–1]

The Baha’i Chair for World Peace is an academic program that conducts and publishes research with a diverse group of scholars on global issues. The organization’s purpose is to study worldwide challenges and discuss solutions that could advance peace and promote tolerance. In addition to conducting academic research and releasing publications, the chair hosts events at the University of Maryland that are available to students, university staff and the general public. Although the chair was inspired by the spiritual teachings of the Bahá'í faith’s focus on humanity’s unity, the program emphasizes science-based analysis along with the values the Faith provides. [Unwind Magazine]

Maryland; United States Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland
1993 29 – 31 Jan The first Latin American Bahá'í Social and Economic Development Seminar takes place in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. [BINS308:2; BW92–3:139] Santa Cruz; Bolivia; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Social and economic development; First conferences
1993 20 Feb The first National Youth Conference of Hungary is held in Debrecen, attended by 60 youth. [BINS289:3] Debrecen; Hungary Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
1993 Ridván The first person resident on Norfolk Island to become a Bahá'í enrols. [BINS293:8] Norfolk Island First Bahais by country or area
1993 10 – 25 Jun The Bahá'í International Community and Bahá'ís from 11 countries participate in the United Nations World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna and the parallel meeting for non-governmental organizations. [BINS298:1–2] Vienna; Austria United Nations conferences; Human Rights; Bahai International Community
1993 Aug The first International Bahá'í Youth Conference of Belarus is held, attended by 164 people from 16 countries. [BINS299:8; BINS306:7; BW93–4:123] Belarus; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
1993 16 Sep The document Bahá’í Social and Economic Development: Prospects for the Future, prepared at the World Centre, is approved for publication by the Universal House of Justice for use by the Office of Social and Economic Development (OSED) in orienting and guiding the work in this area. Most central to this vision was the question of capacity building. That activities should start on a modest scale and only grow in complexity in keeping with available human resources was a concept that gradually came to influence development thought and practice. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 2012] BWC; Haifa Social and economic development; Capacity building; Publications; Growth; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Social action
1993 Oct The first European Bahá'í Medical Conference is held in De Poort, Netherlands, attended by people from 26 countries. [BW93–4:104–5] Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Health; Conferences, International; First conferences; Health; De Poort
1993 16 Oct The passing of Marzieh Nabíl Carpenter Gail, the second child and eldest daughter of the first Persian-American marriage in the Bahá'í Faith between Persian diplomat Ali-Kuli Khan and Boston debutante Florence Breed. (b. 1 April, 1908) [BW1993-1994p320-321, Find a grave]
  • See AY91 for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s praise of her as a child and confirmation and promises for the future. He commented that she had átish (fire) and namak (salt). [AY93]
  • A translator (Arabic and Persian into English) and author. Poet Roger White would say of his friend: "She is the first lady of Bahá'í literature and I and many writers are indebted to her for leading the way."
  • Translations include: The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys (1945) and The Secret of Divine Civilization (1957) with her father; Memorials of the Faithful (1971); Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1976) with a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre; My Memories of Bahá'u'lláh (1982).
  • Author of a dozen Bahá'í and non-Bahá'í books in addition to countless essays, articles, and short stories. Her remembrances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá are contained in The Sheltering Branch (1959), and those of His Exalted Sister in Khanum: The Greatest Holy Leaf (1981).
  • Many of her essays and pioneering stories are contained in Dawn Over Mount Hira (1976) and Other People, Other Places (1982). As well she wrote “Six Lessons in Islam” (1953), Summon Up Remembrance (1987), Arches of the Years (1991) and, “Bahá'í Glossary” (1955). [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol6, 1996]
San Francisco; United States Marzieh Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; Bahai scholars; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1993 24 Oct The establishment of the India Hindi Bahá'í Academy (The Rashtriya Bahá'í Uchcha Shiksha Sansthan) in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh).
  • It is a national institute for higher learning of the Bahá'í Faith.
  • There are three courses of study, a three year Advanced Bahá'í Studies course, a two year, post-graduate, Specialised Course and short courses for 3-5 days. The study scheme employs correspondence courses and campus contact, a programme for personal clarifications for the learners’ difficulties. Two question papers are also sent to them in each semester.
  • The evaluation employs a two fold method: Viva voce examination based on the study materials and practical input in the field of service. Paper presentations, self reflection in the form of stories, songs, pictures, etc., and assignments in the active service of the Faith as well as making formal speeches all form a part of the final evaluation. [Bahá'í India website]
Lucknow; India Bahai study centers; Bahai studies
1993 29 - 31 Oct The founding conference of the Association for Bahá'í Studies in Russia is held in St Petersburg. [BINS305:5] St Petersburg; Russia Bahai Studies, Associations for; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences
1994 May 19 The first National Bahá'í Conference of Armenia is held in Yerevan. [BINS318:5–6] Yerevan; Armenia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, National
1994 May 22 The first Bahá'í Children and Youth Conference of Martinique is held in Fort-de-France, attended by 22 people. [BINS318:4–5] Fort-de-France; Martinique Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
1994 Jul 20 – 25 The European Bahá'í Youth Council sponsors five regional ‘Shaping Europe' conferences, in Berlin, Bucharest, St Petersburg, Barcelona and Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. [BINS323:3–5; BW94–5:177–8, 189] Berlin; Germany; Bucharest; Romania; St Petersburg; Russia; Barcelona; Portugal; Wolverhampton; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
1994 Sep 9 – 11 The first National Youth Conference of Liberia is held, attended by 75 youth. [BW94–5:188–9]
  • For picture see BW94–5:189.
Liberia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
1994 Oct The Bahá'í Health Association for Central and Eastern Europe and the European Bahá'í Dental Association are formed at the second Bahá'í Health Conference held at De Poort, Netherlands. [BW94–5:116] Groesbeek; Netherlands Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Health; Conferences, International; Health
1995 The Association for Latin American Bahá'í Writers and Authors is formed at the fifth Latin American Seminar for External Affairs in Cali, Colombia. [BINS336:2] Cali; Colombia Association for Latin American Bahai Writers and Authors; External Affairs Find date
1995 Jan The first National Teaching Conference of Cambodia is held in Phnom Penh, attended by more than 50 Bahá'ís. [BINS334:2] Phnom Penh; Cambodia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, National; First conferences
1995 23 Jan To respond to the increased attention given to the issues of social and economic development following the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992, the Universal House of Justice asked the Bahá'í International Community's Office of Public Information to prepare a statement on the concept of global prosperity in the context of the Bahá'í teachings. The statement is entitled The Prosperity of Humankind. [Mess86-01p417-8] BWC Prosperity of Humankind (statement); Social and economic development; Social action; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1995 Mar 3 – 12 The Bahá'í International Community and Bahá'ís from many countries participate in the United Nations World Summit for Social Development and the parallel Forum ‘95 for non-governmental organizations in Copenhagen. [BINS337:1–2]
  • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement in the Summit see BW94–5:37–6.
  • For the text of The Prosperity of Humankind the Bahá'í International Community statement released at the Summit, see BW94–5 273–96.
  • For pictures see BW94–5:39, 43, 45.
Copenhagen; Denmark United Nations Summits; Bahai International Community; Social and economic development; Prosperity of Humankind (statement); BIC statements; Statements; Publications
1995 May 30 – Jun 1 The first International Medical/Surgical Conference of Tirana is held under the auspices of Health for Humanity and the University of Tirana, attended by more than 400 Albanian physicians. [BINS343:2–3] Tirana; Albania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Health; Conferences, International; Health
1995 Jun 8 – 11 The first European Bahá'í Conference on Law and International Order is held at De Poort Conference Centre, Netherlands. [BINS345:4] Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Law; Laws; First conferences; De Poort
1995 Jul 26 The inaugural meeting of the Association for Bahá'í Studies of Ghana is held in Accra. [BINS348:3] Accra; Ghana Bahai Studies, Associations for
1995 Oct The publication of Turning Point For All Nations by the Bahá'í International Community, United Nations Office, in New York in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations. It was a call for world leaders to define a role for the UN. [Turning Point for all Nations, en français] New York; United States Turning Point For All Nations (statement); Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations
1995 Dec 28 – 30 The first teaching conference of Lithuania is held in Vilnius, attended by Bahá'ís from five countries. [BINS355:1] Vilnius; Lithuania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, teaching; First conferences
1996 15 Jan A Chair for Bahá'í Studies is inaugurated at the University of Lucknow. [BINS354:3] Lucknow; India Chair in Bahai Studies; Universities; Firsts, Other
1996 3 Mar The establishment of the Ocean of Light School in Tonga. [OoL Website, BWNS195] Tonga Bahai schools; BWNS
1996 23 – 24 Mar The first National Women's Seminar of Bulgaria is held in Sofia, organized by the European Task Force for Women. [BINS365:8] Sofia; Bulgaria Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences
1997 In the year In 1997 One Country launched its Web site that contains all the English issues of the newsletter published over the past three years. [One Country Vol 23 Issue3, BW’86-92p539] One Country; Newsletters; Internet; Bahai International Community
1997 Ridván The Universal House of Justice restricted the formation of Local Spiritual Assemblies to the first day of Riḍván. This measure had the effect anticipated, a decrease in the number of these institutions but the fall was not drastic. [Message from the Universal House of Justice Ridván 2000] Worldwide Ridvan; Elections; Administration; Local Spiritual Assemblies; LSA, formation of; Growth; Statistics; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Maturity
1997 30 May In its message of 30 May 1997 the Universal House of Justice announced that they have authorized the formation of "State Bahá'í Councils" or "Regional Teaching and Administrative Committees" to be called "Regional Bahá'í Councils. Their intention was to provide a balance between centralization and decentralization. This structure had been in place in some countries, notably India, for some years prior to this time. See 23 May, 1986. [TP87-90]
For a synopsis of the letter see The Establishment of Regional Bahá'í Councils in Certain Countries, Their Characteristics and Functions.
The distinguishing effects of the establishment of Regional Bahá’í Councils are the following:
  • It provides for a level of autonomous decision making on both teaching and administrative matters, as distinct from merely executive action, below the National Assembly and above the Local Assemblies.
  • It involves the members of Local Spiritual Assemblies of the area in the choice of the members of the Council, thus reinforcing the bond between it and the local believers while, at the same time, bringing into public service capable believers who are known to the friends in their own region.
  • It establishes direct consultative relationships between the Continental Counselors and the Regional Bahá’í Councils.
  • It offers the possibility of forming a Regional Bahá’í Council in an ethnically distinct region which covers parts of two or more countries. In such a situation the Council is designated to work directly under one of the National Assemblies involved, providing copies of its reports and minutes to the other National Assembly.
  • The greater degree of decentralization involved in the devolution of authority upon Regional Bahá’í Councils requires a corresponding increase in the capacity of the National Spiritual Assembly itself to keep fully informed of what is proceeding in all parts of the territory over which it has ultimate jurisdiction.
BWC State Bahai Councils; Regional Bahai Councils; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Administration
1997 24-26 Oct The International Environment Forum was launched at the first International Bahá'í Environment Conference in de Poort, Netherlands, with participants from nine countries, who were joined electronically by people from 21 countries participating in the e-mail version of the conference.
  • A BAHÁ'Í PERSPECTIVE ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT was presented by Michael Richards of the Overseas Development Institute in London.
  • At the conference, the objectives, activities and structure of the Forum were agreed and statutes adopted, and a governing board of five people was elected.
  • It is a Bahá'í-inspired non-governmental organization that links together Bahá'ís and others interested in the fields of environment and sustainable development. Development of the Forum has been encouraged and guided by the Bahá'í International Community, although it has no formal link with the Bahá'í administration.
Groesbeek; Netherlands International Environment Forum; Bahai International Community; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; First conferences; Environment; De Poort iefworld.org/conf1.htm
1998 Feb The Bahá’í Open University resumed activities after the seizure of much of their assets four months earlier by the Iranian government. Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution
1998 29 Sep Starting this date until October 2nd, in Iran, government raids on 500 private homes and the arrest of some 30 faculty members in efforts to close the Bahá’í Institute for Higher Education, a decentralized university that aimed to give Bahá’í students access to the education they have been otherwise denied.
  • The Institute offered Bachelor's degrees in ten subject areas: applied chemistry, biology, dental science, pharmacological science, civil engineering, computer science, psychology, law, literature and accounting. Within these subject areas, which were administered by five "departments," the Institute was able to offer more than 200 distinct courses each term.
  • In the beginning, courses were based on correspondence lessons developed by Indiana University, which was one of the first institutions in the West to recognize the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education. Later on, course offerings were developed internally.
  • Teaching was done principally via correspondence, or, for specialized scientific and technical courses and in other special cases, in small-group classes that were usually held in private homes. Over time, however, the Institute was able to establish a few laboratories, operated in privately owned commercial buildings in and around Teheran, for computer science, physics, dental science, pharmacology, applied chemistry and language study. The operations of these laboratories were kept prudently quiet, with students cautioned not to come and go in large groups that might give the authorities a reason to object.
  • Among other significant human rights conventions, Iran is a party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966. Parties to this Covenant "recognize the right of everyone to education" and more specifically that "higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means." [“The New York Times” article dated 29 October, 1998, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Human Rights; Education
1998 6 - 8 Nov The 2nd International Conference of the Environment Forum was held in the Netherlands with wide electronic participation on the themes of sustainable consumption and the Earth Charter. The first theme of the conference, sustainable consumption, was introduced by a keynote address on "Sustainable Consumption and True Prosperity" by Arthur Dahl. [ iefworld.org/conf2.htm ] Netherlands Arthur Dahl; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Environment; Conferences, International; Environment; International Environment Forum
1998 23 Nov The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States announced the results of the elections for their first Regional Councils. Four were elected in the regions corresponding to those mentioned in The Tablets of the Divine Plan. [Results of the First Regional Bahá'í Council Election] United States Regional Bahai Councils; Tablets of the Divine Plan
1999 The Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity was established as a non-profit organization in association with the Bahá'í International Community. One of the purposes of the Institute was to explore, with others, the complementary roles that science and religion – as co-evolving systems of knowledge and practice – must play in the advancement of civilization. [ISPG Web site] Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Bahai International Community; Science; Social discourse
1999 19 Apr The Islamic Revolutionary Court in Isfahan sentenced Sina Hakiman (10 yrs), Farzad Khajeh Sharifabadi (7 yrs), Havivullhh Ferdosian Najafabadi (7 yrs) and Ziaullah Mirzapanah (3yrs) for crimes against national security. All four were among the thirty-six who were arrested in late September and in early October, 1998 in a concerted government crackdown against Bahá’í education in fourteen cities in Iran.
  • It is reported that over 500 homes were raided in an attempt to crack down on the Bahá’í Open University. Files, equipment and other property used by the University were seized. From report by Human Rights Watch Academic Freedom Committee.
Isfahan; Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human Rights; Education Find ref
1999 June The dedication of the first academic chair in Bahá'í studies in Israel at Hebrew University of Jerusalem with the appointment of Prof. Moshe Sharon. The position was made possible because of an anonymous donation. [Jerusalem Post, June 7, 1999, BWNS84] Jerusalem; Israel Chair in Bahai Studies; Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Universities; Moshe Sharon; Firsts, Other; Donations; BWNS
1999 21 Jun The passing of Meherangiz Munsiff in London (b. 23 November, 1923 Bombay, India) Born into a Bahá'í family she travelled in India with Martha Root at the age of 14 years. She was appointed Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the French Cameroons. In addition she visited more than 150 countries to teach and assist in the development of Bahá'í communities and was know as a lecturer and an activist among the international humanitarian community. [The Bahá'í World99-00p308-309] London; United Kingdom Meherangiz Munsiff; First Bahais by country or area
1999 15 - 18 Aug The third conference was held Sidcot, Avon, United Kingdom, jointly with the Bahá'í Agency for Social and Economic Development - UK. It brought together 44 participants from 13 countries on 5 continents, as well as internet connection with an additional 70 "electronic" conference participants in 29 countries, for a total of 114 participants from 38 countries, including 8 in Africa. (From web site) United Kingdom Social and economic development; Bahai Agency for Social and Economic Development; Conferences, Bahai Find ref
2000 Jan The establishment of a high school at the Malagwane hill site in Mbabane, the capital of Swaziland, a small cosmopolitan city of about 90,000 inhabitants.
  • The school, located on the outskirts of the city, has been named "The Setsembiso Sebunye High School." In Siswati, the language of Swaziland, it means "the promise of unity."
  • It opened with a double stream (two sections) with 120 students in Forms One and Two (the 8th and 9th year of school). In subsequent years a minimum of 70 new students will be admitted.
  • A two-story, twelve-room building was completed just before the opening of school. This building contains 7 classrooms, a science lab/classroom, and a modern computer room, a library and an administrative/staff room. Each classroom is equipped with computer capabilities to provide both access to a network in support of the curriculum and the internet. This building is the first of a complex of facilities to serve the needs of a modern high school, eventually having about 400 students.
  • The total enrolment for all of the schools (high, primary and pre-primary schools) now exceeds 500. [Home Page]
Mbabane; Swaziland Bahai schools
2000 17 Feb The passing of Mildred Mottahedeh in New York. She had been elected to the International Bahá’í Council, the first globally elected Bahá’í body and was the first Bahá'í International Community representative to the United Nations. She was born in Seabright, New Jersey, on 7 August 1908 and was 91. [One Country Jan-Mar 2000 Vol 11 Issue 4, TP705-706] New York; Seabright; New Jersey; United States International Bahai Council; Bahai International Community; Mildred Mottahedeh; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
2000 22 - 26 May The United Nations Millennium Forum was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York. It attracted 1,350 participants from more than 106 countries and many others participated remotely via Internet. The purpose was to give organizations of civil society an opportunity to formulate views and recommendations on global issues to be taken up at the subsequent Millennium Summit in September to be attended by heads of state and government. Convened by the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the Forum's overarching theme - "The United Nations for the 21st Century" - encompassed six main sub-themes in its declaration: 1) Peace, security and disarmament; 2) Eradication of poverty, including debt cancellation and social development; 3) Human rights; 4) Sustainable development and environment; 5) Facing the challenges of globalization: achieving equity, justice and diversity; and, 6) Strengthening and democratizing the United Nations and international organizations. The document was divided into three main areas: recommendations for governmental action; proposals for the United Nations; and actions to be undertaken by civil society itself. The Bahá’í International Community as an NGO representing a cross-section of humankind acted as a unifying agent in major discussions. Our principal representative at the United Nations, Techeste Ahderrom, was appointed to cochair a committee of non-governmental organizations. Lawrence Arturo and Diane 'Alá'í represented the Bahá'í International Community. [BW00-01p87-89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000] New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom; Lawrence Arturo; Diane Alai
2000 28 - 31 Aug The Millennium Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders was held in New York and involved more than 1,000 attendees. The “very specific purpose” of this meeting was “to further the prospects for peace among peoples and nations, and within every individual.” The outcome of this Peace Summit was the adoption and signing of a declaration committing the participants to global peace. Noting that “the United Nations and the religions of the world have a common concern for human dignity, justice and peace,” accepting that “men and women are equal partners in all aspects of life and children are the hope of the future,” and acknowledging that “religions have contributed to the peace of the world but have also been used to create division and fuel hostilities,” the declaration resolved to “collaborate with the United Nations and all men and women of goodwill locally, regionally and globally in the pursuit of peace in all its dimensions.” The Baha'i' International Community was represented by its Secretary-General, Mr Albert Lincoln. Laurence Arturo and Bani Dugal-Gujral also attended as BIC representatives. [BW00-01p89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000] New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders; Interfaith dialogue; Albert Lincoln; Laurence Arturo; Bani Dugal Gujral
2000 6 - 8 Sep The General Assembly Millennium Summit was held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York and was attended by leaders of more than 150 nations. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan presented a report entitled, "We The Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century". In which was presented an overview of the challenges facing humankind and suggested practical solutions. Some of the key themes addressed include health, environment, human rights and other social issues, international law, peace and rejuvenating the United Nations. It is striking that called upon by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to address so historic a gathering was Mr. Techeste Ahderom, the principal representative of the Bahá’í International Community to the United Nations, addressed the gathering as the spokesman of civil society. He was accorded this honour because he had presided as cochair at the earlier United Nations Millennium Forum. After all the national leaders had spoken and before the Summit had adopted its declaration on 8 September, Mr. Ahderom made a speech in which he conveyed to that unprecedented assemblage a report of the Forum. The text of his speech is enclosed herewith. On the last day a declaration was unanimously adopted that began by asserting: “We, Heads of State and Government, have gathered at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 6 to 8 September 2000, at the dawn of a new Millennium, to reaffirm our faith in the Organization and its Charter as indispensable foundations of a more peaceful, prosperous and just world.” [BW00-01p91-93, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000]
  • The text of Ahderom's speech can be found on the BIC's website and at BW00-01p243-247.
New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom
2000 18 Sep The announcement of the opening of the new Pilgrim Reception Centre near the Shrine of the Báb to receive Bahá'í pilgrims and visitors to the Bahá'í holy places in Haifa and Acre. The Centre is housed in two historic buildings that formerly served as a clinic. Remodeling these two structures began in 1998. The larger one was built during the time of the British Mandate and the smaller structure has a more Middle Eastern appearance, with patterned ceramic floors and stone arches. The first Bahá'í Pilgrim House in Haifa was built near the Shrine of the Bab by a Persian believer in 1909 and continued to serve as the primary gathering place for pilgrims until the new facility was completed. [BWNS67] BWC; Haifa Pilgrim Reception Centre; Pilgrimage; Pilgrim Houses; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
2000 12 - 14 Dec The 4th Annual Conference of the International Environment Forum (IEF) was held in Orlando, Florida. The theme was Applying the Baha'i Teachings to the Environmental Challenges Facing the World. (IEF Web Site) Orlando; Florida; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; International Environment Forum; Environment
2001 4 Jan The passing of Dr. Victor de Araujo of Vista, NY at the age of 78 years. He was born near London, England and spent his childhood and youth in Brazil. He came to the United Stated in 1946 as a vice consul to the Brazilian Consulate in Chicago. From 1967-1990, Dr. de Araujo served as a Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations. In his years in this position he represented the Bahá'í International Community both at the United Nations headquarters and at numerous conferences around the world. He also participated in the preparation of Bahá'í statements on human rights, the environment, and the equality of men and women, which were presented to the United Nations. [Baha’i Announce 5Jan2001] London; United Kingdom; Brazil; New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations; In Memoriam; Victor de Araujo
2001 8 - 17 Jan The inauguration of the International Teaching Centre Building at the World Centre with the meeting of the Institution of the Counsellors. Board members from 172 countries attended. BWC; Mount Carmel International Teaching Centre, Seat; Arc project; BWNS; Counsellors; Counsellors conferences; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
2001 Mar The publication of Century of Light, a statement by the Universal House of Justice. The purpose of the book is to provide members of the Faith with a perspective on two defining processes that unfolded during the 20th century; on the one hand, the sequence of events that made the unification of humanity the principal feature of modern history and, on the other, the emergence from obscurity of the Cause of God and its Administrative order. It is primarily a resource for Bahá'í study and deepening. It is not a public information publication. [TP777-778] BWC Century of Light (book); Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Publications; History (general); Bahai history; 20th century; World order (general)
2001 30 Apr – 2 May The Bahá'í International Community today issued a statement, entitled Sustainable Development: the Spiritual Dimension, for the first session of the United Nations Preparatory Committee of the World Summit on Sustainable Development at the UN in New York. [BWNS93]

For the complete text with footnotes see: Statement.

New York; NY Bahai International Community; Sustainable Development; United Nations; United Nations Summits; BWNS
2001 May The inauguration of the Centre for the Study of the Texts. The facility was completed and occupied in 1999. It consists of study rooms for resident and visiting scholars, meeting and conference rooms, a large reference library, a secretariat and ancillary spaces totalling 7750 sq. metres (83,420 sq. ft) Much of the building is located below ground. It has been integrated into the mountain with a portico that reflects the classical motifs of the other buildings on the Arc.. The offices of the building are provided with natural light directly or through light wells, patios and skylights. . Below ground it is connected to an extension to the Archives which provides secure, climate-controlled storage vaults for the original, hand written papers that constitute the Bahá'í Sacred Texts. The architect was Hossein Amanat. [amanatarchitect.com]

“The Centre for the Study of the Texts . . . will be the seat of an institution of Bahá’í scholars, the efflorescence of the present Research Department of the World Centre, which will assist the Universal House of Justice in consulting the Sacred Writings, and will prepare translations of and commentaries on the authoritative texts of the Faith.” [AWH p52]

“The building was completed and occupied in 1999. It now houses the Research Department, and is the temporary home of the International Bahá'í Library and other offices.” [Visiting Bahá’í Holy Places p. 35. ]

BWC Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; Arc project; Hossein Amanat; Research Department; International Bahai Library; International Bahai Archives; Libraries; Archives; Translation; Architects; Architecture; Quick facts; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
2001 22 May At dusk, the opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb, a project begun ten years ago that has transformed the ancient barren face of the mountain into 19 majestic terraced gardens cascading down the length of the mountain.
  • See the message To the Believers Gathered for the Events Marking the Completion of the Projects on Mount Carmel.
  • The nineteen Canadian believers who had the extraordinary blessing of being present in the Holy Land for the official opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb are: Dr. Akouete Akakpo-Vida, Mr. Riel Aubichon, Mr. Garrett Brisdon, Mrs. Pearl Downie, Mrs. Nellie Ironeagle, Mrs. Aghdas Javid, Mr. Joseph Kowtow, Mrs. Joo Jong Kung, M. Fréderic Landry, Ms. Giselle Melanson, Mr. Borna Noureddin, Mr. James Patrick, Mrs. Valerie Pemberton-Piggott, Mlle. Cindy Poitras, Mrs. Janice Schlosser, Mlle. Caroline Simon, Mrs. Doris Toeg, Mrs. Linda Wilkinson and Mme. Elizabeth Wright. In addition, several students from the Maxwell International Bahá'í School were present as members of the delegations from their home countries.
  • The event was attended by some 4,500 people, 3,300 of them Bahá'ís, as representative of more than 200 countries and territories. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 1]
  • For the statement read at the official opening of the flight of terraces see Ruhi 8.3 page 93.
  • See video From Darkness to Light Recalling the Events at the Official Opening of the Terraces on Mount Carmel May 2001.
BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Terraces; Dedications; Arc project; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
2001 28 - 31 May Global Form on Fighting Corruption II was held in The Hague. [IAACA Web Site]
  • The paper entitled Overcoming Corruption and Safeguarding Integrity in Public Institutions: A Baha’i Perspective was prepared by the Bahá’í World Centre at the request of the United States government and for use of the Bahá’í representative to the forum. [Text]
Hague, The; Netherlands Corruption; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
2001 4 Jun The public opening of the terraces surrounding the Shrine of the Báb on Mount Carmel. [BWNS134, BWNS221, BWNS123, BWNS122, BWNS121, BWNS120,]

BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel; Chiampo; Italy Terraces; Dedications; Bab, Shrine of; Marble; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
2001 25 - 27 Jun The Baha'i International Community issued this statement for the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS in New York entitled HIV/AIDS and Gender Equality: Transforming Attitudes and Behaviours". [Text] New York Bahai International Community; United Nations; HIV/AIDS; Gender; Equality Find ref
2001 Jul The inauguration of the new campus of the Townshend International School in the Czech Republic.
  • Since its opening in 1992 the co-educational high school has gained accreditation from the Ministry of Education and has welcomed students from over thirty countries in addition to sponsoring students from the Czech Republic. This private, non-affiliated, co-educational high school is accredited by the Ministry of Education with English as the teaching language. [TIS Web Site]
Czech Republic Townshend International School; Bahai schools
2001 31 Aug – 7 Sep United Nations World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, was held in Durban, South Africa. The Bahá'í International Community issued a statement entitled One Same Substance: Consciously Creating a Global Culture of Unity. See BWNS133 for the full text or on the BIC Site. Durban; South Africa United Nations; Racism; Discrimination; Bahai International Community
2001 23 - 25 Nov International Consultative Conference on School Education in relation with Freedom of Religion and Belief, Tolerance and Non-discrimination, a United Nations conference was held in Madrid, Spain. The Bahá'í International Community presented a statement, entitled Belief and Tolerance: Lights Amidst the Darkness. For the text of the document see BWNS141 or on the BIC Site. Madrid; Spain United Nations conferences; Tolerance; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; BWNS
2001 13 Dec The passing of Giovanni (Gianni) Ballerio in Geneva at the age of 58 after a battle with cancer. He was 58.
  • He had been a representative of the Bahá'í International Community at the United Nations in Geneva and in New York since 1981. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 3]
Geneva; Switzerland Giovanni (Gianni) Ballerio; Bahai International Community; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
2002 19 Mar The establishment of the seventh Bahá'í radio station in Bulac, Philippines, located in a rural district some 30 kilometers from the city of San José on the main island of Luzon.
  • The station operates at 1584 kHz on the AM band, broadcasting at a power of 1,000 watts. Due to the flat topography of the region, it reaches a wide area encompassing the entire province of Nueva Ecija and a portion of Tarlac and Pangasinan provinces, with a potential listenership of more than 2.3 million people. [BWNS181]
Bulac; Philippines Bahai radio; BWNS Find ref
2002 6 June City Montessori School in Lucknow, India wing the UNESCO Peace Education award in recognition of its efforts to promote the universal values of education for peace and tolerance and to renew the principles of secularism at a time when these values and principles are increasingly being challenged. The school was founded by Mr. Jagdish Gandhi and his wife Bharti in 1959 with only 5 students and has since earned a reputation for a high level of academic excellence — and for a distinctive program of moral and spiritual education. In 1999 the Guinness Book of World Records recognized City Montessori School as the world's largest school by enrollment. The school had some 22,000 students that year. In 2002 it had 26,000 students in grade levels ranging from pre-primary to college and in 2010-11 enrolment was 39,437. In 2014-14 it was over 47,000. Technically speaking, CMS is not so much a school as a school district, with some 20 branches spread throughout Lucknow. [CMS site, BWNS165, BWNS146, One CountryVol.14,Issue 1] Lucknow; India Awards; UNESCO; City Montessori School; Bahai schools; BWNS
2002 26 Aug – 4 Sep World Summit on Sustainable Development, a United Nations conference in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Bahá'í International Community issues a statement, entitled Religion and Development at the Crossroads: Convergence or Divergence?. [BWNS169, BWNS170] Johannesburg; South Africa United Nations; Sustainable Development; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; BWNS
2002 21 Sep The dedication, at the Green Acre Bahá'í School in Eliot Maine, the oldest permanent Bahá'í school in the world, of a new classroom and lecture hall designated as The Harriet and Curtis Kelsey Center, with an attendant Manny Reimer Hall. [BWNS175] Green Acre; Eliot; Maine; United States Green Acre; Bahai schools; Curtis Kelsey; Harriet Kelsey; First schools; BWNS
2002 26 Nov The inauguration of a new radio station at Bulac, Philippines. The station operates at 1584 kHz on the AM band, broadcasting at a power of 1,000 watts with a potential listenership of more than 2.3 million people. [BWNS181] Bulac; Philippines Bahai radio; BWNS
2003 11 Mar Bani Dugal Gujral was appointed Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations.
  • Ms. Dugal Gujral had been serving as interim Principal Representative since the resignation of Techeste Ahderom in 2001.
  • Ms. Dugal Gujral came to the Bahá'í International Community in 1994 and served as Director of the Community's Office for the Advancement of Women. A native of India, where she practiced law before coming to the United States, Ms. Dugal Gujral holds a Master's degree in Environmental Law from Pace University School of Law in New York. [One Country Vol.14 Issue4]
New York; United States Bani Dugal Gujral; Bahai International Community; Women; Techeste Ahderom; United Nations
2003 25 Jul The passing of Elisabeth Charlotte (Lottie) Tobias while on her way home to Voorburg from a summer school held in De Poort. She was described by the National Spiritual Assembly as being the "mother" of the Netherlands Baha'i community. [BW03-04p238] Netherlands First Bahais by country or area; Lottie Tobias
2003 6 - 7 Sep The celebration of the Jubilee of the opening of the Faith in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was commemorated in Kinshasa by some 600 participants. Among those at the celebrations in the capital were three of the first Congolese Baha'is: Louis Selemani, 81, Remy Kalonji, 83, and Valerien Mukendi, 83. One guest who could not make it was Ola Pawlowska, 93, though she participated in the celebrations by sending from her home in Canada a message of congratulations and love to a community to which she devoted three decades of her life. Guests of honour at the jubilee included Mr. Nakhjavani, former member of the Universal House of Justice, and Mrs. Nakhjavani, as well as Joan Lincoln, counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre, and Albert Lincoln, secretary-general of the Baha'i International Community. All four had spent many years as pioneers in Africa.

Active teaching in the area began in 1953. Before that time, colonial authorities did not permit the promotion of the Faith and that is when Ali Nakhjavani and his wife, Violette, driving across Africa from Uganda, took Ugandan Baha'i Samson Mungongo to the city of Kamina. The first local assembly was formed in 1957 and the National Assembly was inaugurated in 1970. This event also marked the first time the National Spiritual Assembly had been able to meet in Kinshasa since 1998 because of the war. [BWNS248]

  • For further details on the development of the Faith in the DRC see Legacy of Courage: The Life of Ola Pawlowska, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh by Suzanne Schuurman.
Kinshasa; Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC) Bahai history by country; BWNS
2004 Jun After 15 years of negotiations, research, and planning, the restoration work began on the cell used to imprison Bahá'u'lláh when He was first incarcerated in ‘Acre. Approved by government authorities keen to preserve the heritage of the site, the project was supervised and financed by the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS336] Akka; BWC Bahaullah, Prison cell of; Restoration; Pilgrimage; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; BWNS
2004 24 Nov The announcement of the completion of the restoration of the prison citadel that was occupied by Bahá'u'lláh and His family upon arrival in Akka I on August 31st, 1868. [BWNS336] Akka; BWC Bahaullah, Prison cell of; Citadel; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Restoration
2005 23 Jul The purchase of a new Bahá'í Centre at 44 Albany Street, Edinburgh EH1 3QR. [bahai.org.uk] Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Bahai centres
2005 Nov Dr. John Grayzei was appointed to the Bahá'í Chair for Peace at the University of Maryland in the United States. He succeeds Suheil Bushrui who held the position since its inauguration in 1992. [BWNS404] Maryland; United States John Grayzei; Suheil Bushrui; Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland; BWNS
2005 1 Nov A new Bahá'í Centre is obtained at 44 Albany Street in Edinburgh, Scotland. [BWNS347, BWNS395] Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Bahai centres; BWNS
2005 27 – 31 Dec The gathering, at the Bahá'í World Centre, the members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors [BWNS418] BWC Counsellors; Conferences, Bahai; Counsellors conferences; BWNS
2006 16 Jun The Baha'i International Community's Office of Public Information announced the launch of a new website called "Baha'i Media Bank,". The site contained more than 2,500 high-quality photographs on Baha'i-related themes and the plan was to eventually include video and audio material. [BWNS455] BWC; Worldwide Bahai Media Bank; Websites; Visuals; BWC; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Monument gardens; Gardens; Pilgrim houses; Montreal Shrine; Junayn Gardens; Ridvan garden; Haziratul-Quds (general); Bahai history; Pilgrimage; Knights of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Bahaullah, Family of; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Relics; First Bahais by country or area; Activities (general); Core activities; - Institute process; Devotional gatherings; Prayer; Ruhi institute; Study Circles; Childrens classes; Social action; Social and economic development; Conferences; Regional conferences; World Congresses; Conventions, International; Conventions, National; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Counsellors; Bahai International Community; Symbolism; Greatest Name; Persecution, Iran; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
2006 15 Jul The Bahá'í Academy has entered into a formal agreement with one of India's top-ranked universities to offer specialized training in education for moral development to its students, faculty, and staff. [BWNS470] Pune; India Bahai Academy; Universities; Education; Moral education; Ethics; BWNS
2007 5 Mar The start of Bahaikipedia - The Bahá’í collaborative encyclopedia. The name Bahaikipedia is a portmanteau of Bahá’í, wiki and encyclopedia. [Bahaikipedia] Bahaikipedia; Internet; Websites
2007 11 May The passing of His Highness Susuga Malietoa Tanumafili II, the Samoan head of state. He was one of the longest reigning monarchs in the world and had been head of state since independence from New Zealand in 1962. [BWNS543] Samoa Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; In memoriam; Births and deaths; Bahai royalty; BWNS
2007 12 Oct The opening of a new office of the Bahá'í International Community in Brussels. The purpose is to strengthen the BIC's ties with the European Union. [BWNS581] Brussels; Belgium Bahai International Community; BWNS
2007. 14 Nov In a letter to the Students, Staff, Parents and Supporters of Maxwell International School the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada announced that the school would close (at the end of the term). Financial considerations were cited as the reason. Maxwell had provided an accredited academic program for grades 7–12 leading to British Columbia high school graduation certification. The school had been established in 1989 as a non-profit educational institution with a strong emphasis on the performing arts. The Maxwell Dance Workshop used dance, music and drama to challenge young people to find new solutions for the issues facing their generation. The school also had an ESL (English as a Second Language) program to accommodate foreign students who came from diverse religious and cultural backgrounds. [Maxwell International School on A-Channel News] Shawnigan Lake; Canada Maxwell International School; Bahai Schools; Dance; Dance Workshop
2008 14 Feb The publication of a new statement from the Bahá'í International Community entitled Eradicating Poverty: Moving Forward as One. In English [Moving Forward as One, In Farsi] New York; United States Poverty; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
2008 12 May After negotiations over several years, agreement has been reached with the Israeli government for the acquisition of a rectangular plot of land 90,000 square metres in area, located between Bahjí and the main road, which is currently being used by the government opening the way to further beautification of the environs of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, the Qiblih of the people of Bahá, described by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as the “luminous Shrine” and “the place around which circumambulate the Concourse on high”.
The property in the possession of the Faith has been further augmented by the conclusion, after negotiations which extended over some twenty years, of a land exchange with the Israel Land Administration, by which a portion of the land bequeathed to the Faith in the Ein Sara neighbourhood of Nahariya, north of ‘Akká, has been exchanged for an additional 100,000 square metres to the east of the Mansion of Bahjí, an area of about 32,000 square metres adjoining the island at the Riḍván Garden and the caravanserai adjacent to the Mansion of Mazra‘ih. They reported that discussions were continuing with the authorities for a further exchange, using more of the Ein Sara land to acquire additional property in close proximity to the Bahá’í Holy Places in the ‘Akká area required to protect the sanctity and tranquillity of these places in the face of the rapid urbanization of the region.
Work has also been completed on the restoration of the Junayn Gardens, a small farmhouse and orchard north of Bahjí visited occasionally by Bahá’u’lláh, which was subsequently donated to the Faith. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 12 May, 2008]
BWC; Ein Sara; Nahariya; Akka; Mazraih; Bahji; Israel Junayn Gardens; Bahaullah, Shrine of; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Ridvan Garden; Purchases and exchanges; Caravanserai; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
2008 8 Jul The Shrine of the Báb and the Resting Place of Baháu'lláh, together with their surrounding gardens, associated buildings and monuments, were chosen as UNESCO World Heritage sites. [BWNS642, BWNS643, UNESCO site] Haifa; Israel; Akka; BWC UNESCO; World Heritage Sites; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; BWNS
2009 2 – 3 Jul More than 20 members of the European Bahá'í Business Forum participated in the Global Ethics Forum, held at United Nations headquarters in Geneva. [BWNS722] Geneva; Switzerland; Europe European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business; BWNS
2010 May The publication of Rethinking Prosperity: Forging Alternatives to a Culture of Consumerism," for the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. The statement can be read at BIC10-0503. [BWNS770] New York; United States Sustainable Development; Prosperity; Consumerism; Materialism; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations; BWNS
2010 29 Oct After three years the restoration work is complete on the Ridván Garden some two kilometers southeast of the old city of Acre. [BWNS797] BWC; Akka Ridvan garden; Restoration; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
2010 7 Dec In an open letter to Ayatollah Mohammad Sadeq Larijani, the Head of the Judiciary, the Bahá'í International Community today contrasted the country's persecution of Bahá'ís with Iran's own call for Muslim minorities to be treated fairly in other countries. [BWNS801] Iran Ayatollah Mohammad Sadeq Larijani; Open letters; Bahai International Community; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
2010 28 Dec – 1 Jan The conference of the Continental Boards of Counsellors held at the World Centre attended by 79 of the world's 81 Counsellors, from some 58 countries. [BWNS804]
  • See the message from the Universal House of Justice to the Conference of the Continental Boards of Counsellors dated 28 December, 2010.
BWC Counsellors; Conferences, Bahai; Counsellors conferences; BWNS
2011 Apr After more than two years of extensive restoration work the Shrine of the Báb is complete. The project required the restoration and conservation of the interior and exterior of the original 1909 structure, as well as measures to strengthen the Shrine against seismic forces. An entirely new retrofit design – combining concrete, steel and carbon fibre wrap technology – was needed for the whole building, from its foundation and original masonry to its octagon, drum and dome. More than 120 rock anchors were fixed into the mountain behind newly fortified retaining walls. [BWNS816] BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Restoration; BWNS; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
2011 24 Sep The arrest of Abdolfattah Soltani, a senior member of the legal team representing a number of Bahá'ís in Iran await trial for providing higher education to youth barred from university. [BWNS849] Iran Abdolfattah Soltani; Lawyers; Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution; Human Rights; Education; BWNS
2011. 21 Oct Launch of Inciting Hatred: Iran's media campaign to demonize Baha'is. The Baha'i International Community prepared and launched a report that documents and analyses more than 400 press and media items over a 16-month period that typify an insidious state-sponsored effort to demonize and vilify Baha'is, using false accusations.
  • The report is available in English and in Persian.
New York; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Bahai International Community
2012 11 May The Universal House of Justice sends a message to the Bahá'ís of Iran near the four-year anniversary of the illegal arrest and imprisonment of the former members of the Yárán and the more recent injustice meted out against the co-workers of the Bahá’í Institute for Higher Education (BIHE). [BWNS823, Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 11 May, 2012, In Farsi] Iran Yaran; Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; UHJ; BWNS
2012 Jul The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace was assumed by Professor Hoda Mahmoudi who previously headed a research department at the Bahá'í World Center in Israel. [Bio Professor Hoda Mahmoudi] Maryland; United States Hoda Mahmoudi; Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland; Firsts, Other
2013 Mar The publication of the report entitled Violence with Impunity: Acts of Aggression Against Iran's Bahá'í Community published by the Bahá'í International Community. The report documents a rising tide of violence directed against the Iranian Bahá'í community - and the degree to which attackers enjoy complete impunity from prosecution or punishment. From 2005 through 2012, for example, there were 52 cases where Bahá'ís have been held in solitary confinement, and another 52 incidents where Bahá'ís have been physically assaulted. Some 49 incidents of arson against Bahá'í homes and shops, more than 30 cases of vandalism, and at least 42 incidents of cemetery desecration were also documented. [BWNS972] Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Justice; Bahai International Community; BWNS
2013 14 May The Bahá'í International Community launches the Five Years Too Many campaign to protest the 20-year prison sentences given to the Bahá'í leaders in Iran, the longest sentence given to prisoners of conscience under the current regime. The harshness of the sentences reflect the Government’s resolve to oppress completely the Iranian Bahá'í community, which faces a systematic, “cradle-to-grave” persecution that is among the most serious examples of state-sponsored religious persecution in the world today. [Five Years Too Many, BWNS954] Tihran; Iran; Worldwide Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Bahai International Community; BWNS
2013 15 Jul Iranian filmmaker and blogger as well as a former Islamist hardliner who has become an outspoken critic of the government, Mohammad Nourizad, kissed the feet of 4 year old Artin whose parents had been arrested for participation in the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education. [Wikipedia entry; Faith and a Future p38-39]
  • Some years later Mr Nourizad repeated this gesture, kissing the feet of a six year old boy named Bashir whose parents, Azita Rafizadeh and Peyman Kushak Baghi had been sentenced to four year prison terms for teaching at the BIHE.
Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Human Rights; Education; Mohammad Nourizad
2013 Jul – Oct The holding of 114 Youth Conferences around the world at the request of the Universal House of Justice. The purpose of the gatherings were to explore such themes as the characteristics inherent to the period of youth, the historical contribution of young people to the transformation of society, the responsibilities of the present generation of youth, the society-building power of the Bahá'í Teachings, and the importance of faith and tenacity to a life of service. [List of places and dates for Youth Conferences] Worldwide Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; BWNS
2013 1 Oct The Bahá'í International Community announced the appointment of Joshua Lincoln as its new Secretary-General. This announcement followed the announcement of the retirement of Mr. Albert Lincoln who had served as Secretary-General for 19 years. [BWNS968, BWNS969] Bahai International Community; Joshua Lincoln; Bahai International Community, Secretary-Generals; Albert Lincoln; Retirements; BWNS
2013 28 Oct The release of the video Violence with Impunity: Acts of Aggression Against Iran's Bahá'í' Community based on the report of the same name. [BWNS972] Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Justice; Bahai International Community; BWNS
2015 12 Feb The official opening of the new location of the Afnan Library Trust at Sandy, close to Cambridge. The Afnan Library Trust was established in 1985 to manage the collection bequeathed by Hasan Balyuzi when he passed away in 1980. It consists of some 10,000 books, as well as a vast quantity of manuscripts, original letters, maps, documents, periodicals, and unpublished items – some of them dating back to the nineteenth century. [BWNS1040] The official website can be found here. Sandy; Cambridge; United Kingdom Afnan Library Trust; Afnan; Hasan Balyuzi; Libraries; Bahai studies; Scholarship; BWNS
2015 14 May A global campaign called "Seven Days in Remembrance of Seven Years in Prison for the Seven Baha'i Leaders" to call attention to the long and unjust imprisonment of seven Iranian Baha'i leaders is launched on the seventh anniversary of their arrest. Each day of the week-long campaign, starting 14 May 2015, was dedicated to one member of the seven: Mahvash Sabet, Fariba Kamalabadi, Jamaloddin Khanjani, Afif Naeimi, Saeid Rezaie, Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Vahid Tizfahm. [7 Days] Tihran; Iran; New York; United States; Worldwide Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Bahai International Community
2016 12 May In commemoration of the incarceration of the Yaran in Iran in 2008 the International Bahá'í Community (BIC) releases a video entitled Enough! Release the Baha’i Seven Now. Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Bahai International Community
2016 23 - 24 May The first World Humanitarian Summit is held in Istanbul, Turkey. The summit, organized by the United Nations, called on government leaders as well as those from business, aid agencies, civil society and faith-based organizations to consult on the question of disaster relief. A statement released by the Baha'i International Community (BIC) for the occasion, titled "Rising Together: Building the Capacity to Recover from Within" is available at their website. Istanbul; Turkey United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Disaster relief; Charity and relief work; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
2016. 6 Sep In a letter the BIC calls on Iranian President Rouhani to end systematic economic oppression. The letter signed by Bani Dugal, Principal Representative of the Baha'i International Community to the United Nations, draws attention to the stark contradiction between statements espoused by the Iranian government regarding economic justice, equality for all and reducing unemployment on one hand, and the unrelenting efforts to impoverish a section of its own citizens on the other. New York; United States Bani Dugal Gujral; Bahai International Community; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
2016 26 Oct The report from the offices of the Bahá'í International Community entitled The Bahá'í Question Revisited: Persecution and Resilience in Iran was formally released.
  • The full report can be read on-line here.
  • A list of resolutions by the United Nations and United Nations bodies that reference the situation of Baha’is in Iran since 1980 can be found at this location.
  • An annex to The Bahá'í Question Revisited is the report called "Inciting Hatred". It is an analysis of approximately 400 anti-Baha'i articles, broadcasts, and webpages from late December 2009 through May 2011 and can be found here.
  • A list of the 222 Baha’is who have been killed in Iran since 1978 can be read here.
Iran; New York; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bahai International Community; Human rights; United Nations
2017. 25 Aug The announcement of the opening of the new Pilgrim Reception Centre. The three-story stone structure, which is located immediately to the west of the Shrine of the Bab, was opened in time to receive the season’s first pilgrim group in October, on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the birth of Baha’u’llah. [BWNS1188] BWC; Haifa Pilgrimage; Pilgrim Reception Centre; Pilgrim Houses; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
2017 6 Nov - 22 Jan An exhibition of Baha’u’llah’s writings opened at the John Addis Gallery in the British Museum. One of the central themes was the power of the Word, which refers to divine revelation, a concept fundamental to the origins of all the world’s great faiths. The exhibition showed original handwriting of Baha’u’llah, as well as other archival items associated with His life such as His reed pens and examples of "revelation writing" by His scribe as he tried keep up with Bahá'u'lláh's dictation. The exhibition, timed to commemorate the period of celebration of the 200th anniversary of His birth, was open to the public until the 22nd of January. [BWNS1220] London; United Kingdom British Museum; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; Relics; Bahaullah, Writings of; Exhibitions; Reed pens; Reed (general); Calligraphy; Revelation writing; Mirza Aqa Jan; Tajalliyat (Effulgences); Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Bahaullah, Pen portraits of; Portraits; Edward Granville Browne; Gifts
2018 18 Jan In response to growing interest in the persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran, a website was launched by the Bahá’í International Community providing a glimpse into several decades of discriminatory treatment against the Bahá’ís in that country. The website, named Archives of Bahá’í Persecution in Iran, made available, for the first time, thousands of official documents, reports, testimonials, and audio-visual material, revealing documentary evidence of years of relentless oppression. BWC; Iran Websites; Internet; Archives; Publications; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai International Community
2018 12 Mar The Bahá'í International Community in New York released the statement "Beyond Mere Economics: A Moral Inquiry into the Roots of Empowerment" to the 62nd session of the Commission on the Status of Women (12 to 23 March 2018). [BWNS1243] New York; United States Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Women; Empowerment; Economics; United Nations; BWNS

from the main catalogue

  1. 100 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe, by Graham Hassall and Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). Overview of the first 100 years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe, including growth and the distinctive aspects of this community, external affairs, the role of women, and Bahá'í studies. [about]
  2. 1970-1995: Newspaper articles archive (1970). Collection of newspaper articles from 1970-1995. [about]
  3. 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, by Bahá'í International Community (2008). Baha'i International Community’s Statement on the occasion of the 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights [about]
  4. 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). Papers from the proceedings from the 1995 National Bahá'í Studies Conference, Australia. [about]
  5. `Abdu'l-Baha in Abu-Sinan: September 1914–May 1915, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The story of Abdu'l-Baha's relocating the Haifa/Akka Baha'i community of some 140 people to a nearby Druze village to keep them safe during World War I. [about]
  6. Abdu'l-Baha in Britain: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2011). Short overview of Abdu'l-Baha's travels to Britain. [about]
  7. 'Abdu'l-Baha Writes to Kansas City, by Duane L. Herrmann (2002). Early history of the Baha'i Faith in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, from 1896 to 1919 and beyond. Includes three new provisional translations. [about]
  8. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
  9. Academic Irrelevance or Disciplinary Blind-Spot?: Middle Eastern Studies and the Baha'i Faith Today, by Ismael Velasco, in Middle East Studies Association Bulletin (2001). Possible reasons for the lack of attention to Baha'i topics in academia. [about]
  10. Accessing literature on the Bahá'í Faith: Emerging search technologies and recent results, by Graham Hassall, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Survey of search technologies that can be used to find documentation on the Bahá'í religion, and a summary of results of such searches for the period 2003-2006. [about]
  11. Account of How I Became a Bahá'í and My Stays in Paris in 1901 and 1937, An: Written at the Request of Mrs. Laura Dreyfus-Barney, by Agnes Baldwin Alexander (1958). [about]
  12. Activities in Support of International Literacy Year - 1990, by Bahá’í International Community (1991). [about]
  13. Activities in the Bahá'í World Community to Improve the Status of Women during the United Nations Decade for Women, by Bahá’í International Community (1985). Report presented to the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace [about]
  14. Advocates for African Food Security: Lessening the Burden for Women, by Bahá'í International Community (1991). A joint statement to the 35th session of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, Agenda Item 4: Monitoring the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women [about]
  15. Afnán Family, The: Some Biographical Notes, by Ahang Rabbani (2007). Genealogy of the Báb and biographies of his descendants; meaning of afnan. [about]
  16. Africa, by Hooper Dunbar (1984). Stories of Dunbar's travels through Africa, its unique energy, and its place in the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  17. African American Baha'is, Race Relations and the Development of the Baha'i Community in the United States, by Richard Thomas (2005). Robert Turner, Susie Steward, Louis Gregory, and the roles played by blacks in the history of the Baha'is of the US. [about]
  18. American Bahá'í Community in the Nineties, The, by Robert Stockman, in America's Alternative Religions, Timothy Miller, ed. (1995). Overview of the contemporary Baha'i community, its activities, and its concerns. [about]
  19. Año Internacional de la Mujer, El, by Bahá'í International Community. Exposición presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í en el 25° período de sesiones de la Comisión de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer. [about]
  20. Aplicación de la Declaración sobre la Eliminación de todas las formas de intolerancia y discriminación fundadas en la religión o las convicciones, 1988, by Bahá'í International Community (1988). intolerancia y discriminación [about]
  21. Aplicación del Programa de acción para el Segundo Decenio de la lucha contra el racismo y la discriminación racial, by Bahá'í International Community (1947). lucha contra el racismo [about]
  22. Arc Project: 1987 Open Letter, by Universal House of Justice (1987). Status of the Arc Project (Baha'i World Center), 1987. [about]
  23. Arc Project: 1991 Open Letter, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Status of the Arc Project (Baha'i World Center), 1991. [about]
  24. Arc Project: 1994 Open Letter, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Status of the Arc Project (Baha'i World Center), 1994. [about]
  25. Ashkhabad (Ashgabat), Bahá'í Community of, by Vahid Rafati, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to full article offsite. [about]
  26. Aspects of the History of the Bahá'í Faith in Switzerland, Some, by John Paul Vader (2009). Switzerland was among the first countries opened to the Bahá’i religion. This paper describes the connections between the Bahá’i Faith and Switzerland and a selection of episodes in the early history of the development of the community there. [about]
  27. Associations for Bahá'í Studies, by Universal House of Justice (2008). Some explanation on when it is appropriate for a country to form an ABS organization. [about]
  28. Atlanta Bahá'í Community and Race Unity, The: 1909-1950, by Mike McMullen, in World Order, 26.4 (1995). History of the Baha'i­ faith in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, a city whose Baha'i community dates back almost to the earliest beginnings of the Baha'is in the United States. [about]
  29. Australia: History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Graham Hassall (1998). Short history of the Baha'i community of Australia. [about]
  30. Australian Bahá'í Studies: Vol. 2 (2000). The complete issue of volume 2. Some papers were delivered at the 18th annual ABS conference "The Creative Inspiration: Arts and Culture in the Bahá’í Faith" (Melbourne, September 1999). [about]
  31. Australian Women and Religious Change: Margaret Dixson and the First Melbourne Baha'is, by Graham Hassall, in Proceedings of the Association for Bahá'í Studies (1988). [about]
  32. Australian-New Zealand Bahá'í Connections, The, by David Brown Carr, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). History and relationship of the early Australian and New Zealand Baha'i communities, the magazine Herald of the South, and some brief biographies. [about]
  33. Babi and Bahá'í Religions, The: An Annotated Bibliography, by Denis MacEoin (1997). [about]
  34. Babi and Bahá'í community of Iran, The: A case of 'suspended genocide'?, by Moojan Momen, in Journal of Genocide Research, 7:2 (2005). A description of the four phases of the persecutions that the Babis and Baha’is in Iran have suffered (the Babis, the early Baha'is, during the Pahlavi dynasty, and following the 1979 Islamic revolution) and how they fit in with categories of genocide. [about]
  35. Bahá'í country notes: China, by Graham Hassall (1997). History of the Baha'i community in China. [about]
  36. Bahá'í country notes: Egypt, by Graham Hassall (1997). History of Baha'is in Egypt from 1860s to 1961 referencing early merchant settlements, Abdu'l-Baha's visits, the Alexandria, Cairo, Port Said and national communities plus persecutions, court decisions, and the Presidential anti-Baha'i decree 263 of 1960. [about]
  37. Bahá'í country notes: Africa, by Graham Hassall (1999). [about]
  38. Bahá'í Faith in the Asia Pacific: Issues and Prospects, by Graham Hassall, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). [about]
  39. Bahá'í Question, The: Cultural Cleansing in Iran, by Bahá'í International Community (2008). [about]
  40. Bahá'í Approach to Cosmopolitan Ideas in International Relations, The, by Nalinie N. Mooten (2005). Link to document offsite. [about]
  41. Bahá'í Approach to Cosmopolitan Ideas in International Relations, The, by Nalinie Mooten (2006). A Bahá’í approach to the cosmopolitan tradition in International Relations theory, and what contributions the Bahá’í model can offer to this growing tradition. [about]
  42. Bahá'í Centenary, The: 100 years of the Bahá'í Faith in Britain, A Brief History: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1998). Short history of the Baha'is of the United Kingdom. [about]
  43. Bahá'í Communities by Country: Research Notes, by Graham Hassall (2000). Brief notes on the history of Baha'i activities and the dates of NSA formation in Africa, China, Australia, and elsewhere. [about]
  44. Bahá'í Communities in the Asia-Pacific: Performing Common Theology and Cultural Diversity on a 'Spiritual Axis', by Graham Hassall and William Barnes (1998). [about]
  45. Bahá'í Community of Ashkhabad, The: Its Social Basis and Importance in Bahá'í History, by Moojan Momen, in Cultural Change and Continuity in Central Asia, ed. Shirin Akiner (1991). Origin and history of the Baha'is in Ishqabad (Ashgabat) in Turkistan, analysis of the social composition of this community, and its importance of in terms of the rest of the Bahá'í world. [about]
  46. Bahá'í Community of Canada, The: A Case Study in the Transplantation of Non-Western Religious Movements to Western Societies, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Origins of the Bahá'í Community of Canada, 1898-1948 (1996). [about]
  47. Bahá'í Community of Iran, The: Patterns of Exile and Problems of Communication, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Refugees and Exiles Since Khomeini, ed. Asghar Fathi (1991). [about]
  48. Bahá'í Community of Randwick: A Survey of 75 Years, by Graham Hassall, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, 1:1 (1999). History of the Baha'i community of Randwick, Australia. [about]
  49. Bahá'í Consultation and Freireian Dialogue in Development: A Comparative Perspective, by Adel Salmanzadeh, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
  50. Bahá'í Contribution to Cosmopolitan International Relations Theory, The, by Nalinie Mooten, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
  51. Baha'i country notes: Australia, by Graham Hassall (1997). [about]
  52. Bahá'í Faith: Origin, Missionary Work, and the Entrance into Vietnam, by Mai Thanh Hai, in Religious Studies Review, 4:2 (2008). An outsider's short history of the Faith in Vietnam since 1954 and current activities in the country. [about]
  53. Bahá'í Faith 1957-1988, The: A Survey of Contemporary Developments, by Peter Smith and Moojan Momen, in Religion, 19 (1989). A general account of developments in the Bahá'í Faith during these three decades. [about]
  54. Bahá'í Faith and Academic Journals, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:2 (1993). [about]
  55. Bahá'í Faith in Africa, The: Establishing a New Religious Movement, 1952-1962, by Anthony Lee (2011). African presence in early Babi and Baha'i history; Baha'i response to crises in Middle East and West Africa; histories of British Camaroons, Calabar. Studies of Religion in Africa series, vol. 39. [about]
  56. Baha'i Faith in America, by William Garlington: Review, by Peter Terry (2017). [about]
  57. Bahá'í Faith in Australia: 75 Years Remembered, by Graham Hassall, in Herald of the South (1995). [about]
  58. Bahá'í Faith in Australia 1947-1963, by Graham Hassall, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). [about]
  59. Bahá'í Faith in England and Germany, 1900-1913, by Robert Stockman, in World Order (1996). Historical overview of the early years of the Faith in the British Isles and Germany. [about]
  60. Bahá'í Faith in Hong Kong, by Graham Hassall (1998). Extensive and detailed overview of the history of the Baha'i community in Hong Kong. [about]
  61. Bahá'í Faith in Iran, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes essay "Three Clerics and a Prince of Isfahan: background to Bahá'u'lláh's Epistle to the Son of the Wolf" and bios of Ayatollah Khomeini and Zill al-Sultan. [about]
  62. Bahá'í Faith in Tasmania 1923-1963, by Graham Hassall, in The Family: Our Hopes and Challenges (1995). Early history of the Baha'i community of Tasmania. [about]
  63. Bahá'í Faith in Turkey, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes bios of individuals from Turkey who figure prominently in Baha'i history. [about]
  64. Bahá'í Faith, Scholarship on, by Moojan Momen (1995). This article is a survey of attempts to analyse and study the Babi and Bahá'í Faith from a scholarly viewpoint. [about]
  65. Baha'i Faith, The, by Marcus Bach, in They Have Found a Faith, Chapter 7 (1946). An outsider's view of the Baha'i community from a "faith-based" perspective. [about]
  66. Baha'i Faith, The: The Emerging Global Religion, by William S. Hatcher and Douglas Martin (1985). Overview of Baha'i history and teachings, designed as an introductory textbook. Available as an ebook in English or a PDF in Persian. [about]
  67. Bahá'í Faith, The: Sect or Religion?, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies, volume 16 (1988). Lengthy study defining the distinguishing features of the Baha'i Faith as contrasted with other contemporary religious movements. [about]
  68. Bahá'í Faith, The: An Introduction, by Bahá'í International Community (1998). An overview of the Baha'i Faith, in words and pictures. [about]
  69. Baha'i Faith, The: 50 Years in Singapore (2000). History of Baha'i activity and teaching in Singapore, from May 26 1950, when the first Baha’i pioneer, Dr. K.M. Fozdar, arrived in Singapore, until the year 2000. [about]
  70. Bahá'í Health Initiatives in Iran: A preliminary survey, by Seena B. Fazel and Minou Foadi, in The Bahá'ís of Iran: Socio-historical Studies, ed. Dominic Parviz Brookshaw & Seena B. Fazel (2008). Baha'i-related initiatives in Iran in the 19th-20th centuries: Baha'is made important contributions to public health such as introducing showers in public baths, school vaccinations, women's health, and privately-financed clinics open to all Iranians. [about]
  71. Bahá'í History, by Firuz Kazemzadeh. Significance of history to the study of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  72. Bahá'í History, by Moojan Momen and Peter Smith (1993). A general survey of the history of the Baha'i Faith, including a brief overview of main events in Babi and Baha'i history. Next, a series of themes that have developed throughout Baha'i history is examined. [about]
  73. Bahá'í History, in Journal of Religious History, 36:4 (2012). A complete issue of this well-known journal was dedicated entirely to Baha'i Studies. So far, only 3 articles from it are online. [about]
  74. Bahá'í Horizons in the 21st Century, by David S. Ruhe (1993). Informal notes transcribed from a talk closing a 1993 Conference on Social and Economic Development in Orlando, Florida, offering an overview of Baha'i activities at the turn of the millennium. [about]
  75. Bahá'í Journal of the United Kingdom (1997). Eight years of news and essays from the Journal of the Bahá'í Community of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. [about]
  76. Bahá'í News: Complete issues, in Bahá'í News (1924). Link to offsite documents. [about]
  77. Baha'i Religious History: Introduction, by Todd Lawson, in Journal of Religious History, 36:4 (2012). Introduction to a special issue of this journal titled "Baha'i History," summarizing the prophetic record, the divine hierarchy of history, and the primacy of science and education. [about]
  78. Bahá'í Review: Should the 'red flag' law be repealed?, by Barney Leith, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Argument that the current provisions for review may be anachronistic and that the benefits of deregulation might outweigh possible disadvantages. Includes responses by Roxanne Lalonde and Sepideh Taheri. [about]
  79. Bahá'í Schools, by Vahid Rafati, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  80. Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
  81. Bahá'í Statement on Nature, The, by Bahá'í International Community (1987). Prepared as official statement by the BIC Office of Public Information for the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). [about]
  82. Bahá'í Studies Bulletin: Index by volume, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin (1998). List of articles in all issues of Bahai Studies Bulletin, 1982-1992. [about]
  83. Baha'i Studies in Iran: A Preliminary Survey, by Bijan Ma'sumian and Adib Ma'sumian, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 20 (2014). Overview of the cultivation and evolution of religious education in the Baha’i Faith in Iran in the 19th and 20th centuries. [about]
  84. Bahá'í studies Seminar in Cambridge, 30 September - 1 October 1978: Message to Participants, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice, 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age, (1996). Harmony of science and religion; faith and reason; spiritual scholarship; and the institution of review. [about]
  85. Bahá'í Teachings, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Authenticity of Statements; Mathnavi; Quranic quotations; Marriage Prayer; 'Sun' and 'Moon'; Hands of the Cause; Night of Power; Khatt-i-Badi; Sarcophagus for Baha'u'llah; International Baha'i Library Building; Lunar Calendar and Holy Days; Leiden; Kings. [about]
  86. Bahá'í World 2004–2005, The: Activities Report, by Bahá'í International Community, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 33 (2004-2005) (2007). [about]
  87. Bahá'í World 2005–2006, The: Activities Report, by Bahá'í International Community, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 34 (2005-2006) (2008). [about]
  88. Bahá'í World Centre, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the spiritual center of the Bahá’í Faith, established in the twin cities of Acre and Haifa, the focal points of devotion for Bahá’ís around the world, and edifices of the administrative center. [about]
  89. Bahá'í World, The: Complete issues (1925). [about]
  90. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 01 (1925-1926), in Bahá'í World (1926). Then titled Baha'i Year Book. [about]
  91. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 02 (1926-1928), in Bahá'í World (1928). Then titled The Bahá'í World: a biennial international record. [about]
  92. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 03 (1928-1930), in Bahá'í World (1930). [about]
  93. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 04 (1930-1932), in Bahá'í World (1932). [about]
  94. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 05 (1932-1934), in Bahá'í World (1936). [about]
  95. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 06 (1934-1936), in Bahá'í World (1937). [about]
  96. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 07 (1936-1938), in Bahá'í World (1939). [about]
  97. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 08 (1938-1940), in Bahá'í World (1942). [about]
  98. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 09 (1940-1944), in Bahá'í World (1945). [about]
  99. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 10 (1944-1946), in Bahá'í World (1948). [about]
  100. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 11 (1946-1950), in Bahá'í World (1952). [about]
  101. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 12 (1950-1954), in Bahá'í World (1956). [about]
  102. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 13 (1954-1963), in Bahá'í World (1970). Includes formatted, proofread version (of pp. 1-478 only). [about]
  103. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 14 (1963-1968), in Bahá'í World (1974). [about]
  104. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 15 (1968-1973), in Bahá'í World (1976). [about]
  105. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 16 (1973-1976), in Bahá'í World (1978). [about]
  106. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 17 (1976-1979), in Bahá'í World (1981). So far only a portion of this volume is available: the table of contents, and pages 1-48. [about]
  107. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
  108. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 23 (1994-1995), in Bahá'í World (1996). [about]
  109. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 24 (1995-1996), in Bahá'í World (1997). [about]
  110. Bahá'ís of the United States, The, by Robert Stockman, in New Religions (1995). [about]
  111. Bahá'ísm: History, Transfiguration, Doxa, by Hutan Hejazi Martinez (2010). An outsider's view of the role of ideologies in a postmodern era, focusing on Baha'i history, conversion narratives, ideology, and other competing philosophies. (Link to thesis, offsite.) [about]
  112. Bahai Reference Library Wiki Overlay, by Brett Zamir (2013). Firefox add-on (software) overlaying the official Bahá'í Reference Library (reference.bahai.org) with links back to collaboratively editable wikis (at bahai9.com, bahaikipedia.org, wikipedia.org, and bahaitext.org) for compiling info by work/paragraph. [about]
  113. Bahai Religious Faith and Tradition in Bangladesh, by Muhammad Jahangir Alam, in Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology, 8:1 (2011). History of the Faith in eastern Bengal and a sketch of current distribution, organization, and activities of Baha'is in Bangladesh. [about]
  114. Bahaism: A Study of a Contemporary Movement, by Albert Ross Vail, in The Harvard Theological Review, 7 (1914). Scholarly analysis of the influence of the Baha'i Faith and the psychology of its followers. [about]
  115. Bahaism, by Alban G. Widgery, in Living Religions and Modern Thought (1936). Chapter-length overview of Baha'i theology. [about]
  116. Bahaism - Its Origins and Role: A Rebuttal, by Bahá'í International Community (1983). The complete Iranian document "Bahaism — its origins and its role" together with BIC commentary on that document. [about]
  117. Barbados, by Patricia Paccassi (1995). [about]
  118. Baron Rosen's Archive Collection of Bábí and Bahá'í Materials, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
  119. Base Espiritual de la Igualdad, La, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
  120. Bausani, Alessandro, by Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2008). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  121. Bibliography of English-Language Works on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths 1844-1985, by William Collins: Review, by Roger Dahl, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:3 (1991). [about]
  122. Black Roses in Canada's Mosaic: Four Decades of Black History, by Will C. van den Hoonaard and Lynn Echevarria-Howe (1994). Survey of African-Americans in Canada, their activities in the Baha'i community, and statistical information. [about]
  123. Broad Contours of the Canadian Baha'i Community, by Will C. van den Hoonaard and Deborah K. van den Hoonaard (1994). Historical and sociological overview of the Canadian Baha'i community. [about]
  124. Browne, Edward Granville: Babism and Bahaism, by Juan Cole, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  125. Canadian Bahá'ís 1938-2000, The: Construction of Oneness in Personal and Collective Identity, by Lynn Echevarria-Howe, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). On how globalization includes greater consciousness of the whole world, and a sociological perspective on how this consciousness has been nurtured within the Canadian Baha'i community. [about]
  126. Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
  127. Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts 2 (Continued from Page 499), by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
  128. Celestial Burning, A: A Selective Study of the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Jack McLean (2012). Style, content, and context of World Order of Baha'u'llah and Dispensation of Baha'u'llah: part of chapter 1 of this lengthy analysis of the work of Shoghi Effendi (pages 1-71), offered as a sample. [about]
  129. Century of Light, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Survey of the history and dramatic changes of the 20th Century and the Bahá'í Faith's emergence from obscurity, "demonstrating on a global scale the unifying power with which its Divine origin has endowed it." [about]
  130. Challenge of the Bahá'í Faith: A Non-Bahá'í Assessment of Reasons for Studying the Bahá'í Religion, by Vernon Elvin Johnson, in World Order (1976). Though small and young, the Bahá’í Faith is a subject of central importance not only for the student of the history of religions but for anyone interested in world problems and proposals for their solution. [about]
  131. Challenges to Bahá'í Studies, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). Discussion of the intellectual presentation of the Baha'i Faith, and of the related topics of review, apologetics, and contemporary political contexts. [about]
  132. Change of Culture, A, by Moojan Momen (2007). An overview of the process of cultural change in the Baha'i community. [about]
  133. Changing Reality: The Bahá'í Community and the Creation of a New Reality, by Moojan Momen, in História Questões & Debates, 43 (2005). [about]
  134. Chart of the Eras and Epochs of Bahá'í History, by Arjen Bolhuis (2000). Diagram of the periods of Bahá'í history. Available in English and Russian. [about]
  135. Charter for Bahá'í Schools, A, by Stephen Waite and National Spiritual Assembly of India, in Bahá'í National Review, 128 (1990). Basic principles which may guide the development of Bahá'í schools and other educational projects [about]
  136. Chase, Thornton, by Robert Stockman (1995). [about]
  137. Chase, Thornton, by Robert Stockman, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the first person in the West to become a steadfast Bahá’í, one of the founders of the Chicago Bahá’í community, included by Shoghi Effendi among a number of prominent early Bahá’ís he designated "Disciples of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá." [about]
  138. Chronicle of `Abdu'l-Ahad Zanjani: Personal Reminiscences of the Insurrection at Zanjan, by Aqa Abdu'l-Ahad Zanjani, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 29 (1897). [about]
  139. Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 1 (1850-1853), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
  140. Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 2 (1854-1876), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
  141. Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 3 (1873-1895), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
  142. Chronology of Bahá'í Literature (2005). A table, sorted by date, of all major English-language publications from the Central Figures, the Universal House of Justice, and reference materials. [about]
  143. Circumpolar Regions (Arctic): History of the Baha'i Faith, by Will C. van den Hoonaard (1994). [about]
  144. Ciudadanía Mundial: Ética Global Para El Desarrollo Sostenible, by Bahá'í International Community (1993). Comunidades Sostenibles en un Mundo Integrante [about]
  145. Combatiendo el Racismo, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración presentada a la Segunda Conferencia Mundial para Combatir el Racismo y la Discriminación Racial. Ginebra, Suiza, 1­12 de agosto de 1983 [about]
  146. Community Functioning, Issues Concerning: Fostering the Development of Bahá'í Communities, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). Extensive guidance on community development. Includes extracts from letters written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi on fostering the evolution of Baha'i communities. [about]
  147. Comunidades Sostenibles en un Mundo Integrante, by Bahá'í International Community (1996). Enunciado presentó por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í a la Conferencia sobre Domicilios Humanos (Albergue II) de las Naciones Unidas. Estanbul, Turquía, 3 al 14 de junio de 1996. [about]
  148. Concept of Process in the Bahá'í Writings, The, by Vargha Taefi (2005). Thesis is in Persian only, no English translation is available. [about]
  149. Condicion juridica y social de la mujer, La, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
  150. Condition of non-Bahá'í Relatives after Death, The, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Four questions: Do the non-Bahá'í parents of believers become Bahá'ís in the next world? What is the definition of "kin"? What is the requisite spiritual state of the believer? What conditions are associated with the divine bounty? [about]
  151. Conferencia Mundial del Año Internacional de la Mujer: Declaración presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í (en carácter consultivo con el Consejo Económico y Social — Categoría II) Ciudad de México, México, 1975 [about]
  152. Conferencia Mundial para el Examen y la Evaluación de los Logros del Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer: Igualdad, Desarrollo y Paz, by Bahá'í International Community (1985). Informe presentado por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í acerca de las actividades de la Comunidad Bahá'í Mundial para mejorar la condición de la mujer durante el Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer y Programas Futuros para el Adelanto de la Muje [about]
  153. Conservación y el Desarrollo Sostenible en la Fe Bahá'í, La, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
  154. Conspiracies and Forgeries: The Attack upon the Bahá'í Community in Iran, by Moojan Momen, in Persian Heritage, 9:35 (2004). [about]
  155. Contemporary developments in Baha'i studies: An examination using citation analysis, by Seena Fazel, in H-Baha'i Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies, 7:1 (2003). Investigation of contemporary developments using the technique of citation analysis, a widely used method to report trends in academia. [about]
  156. Convention for the Election of the UHJ, and Completion of the Seat of the UHJ (1983), by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Two documents from Baha'i World 18 part four section one, The World Order of Baha'u'llah: The Universal House of Justice: Fifth Int'l Convention for the Election of the UHJ, and Completion of Construction of the Seat of the UHJ. [about]
  157. Conversion of Religious Minorities to the Bahá'í Faith in Iran: Some Preliminary Observations, by Susan Maneck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:3 (1990). Conversion patterns of Zoroastrians and Jews in the period 1877-1921. [about]
  158. Coordinates of Baha'i Holy Sites and the Junaynih Garden (2016). Latitude, longitude, and brief descriptions of key sites such as Akka prison, Bahji, Ridvan Garden, Baha'i cemetery, cave of Elijah, and the houses of Baha'u'llah, Abbud, Udi Khammar, and Abdu'l-Baha, followed by a history of the Junaynih Garden. [about]
  159. Copyright options for submissions to the Bahá'í Library Online, by Brett Zamir (2006). [about]
  160. Copyright Status of Bahá'í Texts, by United States Bahá'í Publishing Trust (1996). Questions regarding copyright and posting of Sacred Writings on the Internet. [about]
  161. Course on Bahá'í Symbolism, by Ernesto Fernandez (2013). Symbolic forms in the Writings and Baha'i architectural systems, and their analogues in universal religious symbolism. Includes Spanish translation, "Curso de simbología bahá ́í." [about]
  162. Covenant-Breakers in Bahá'í Historiography, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 5:3-6:1 (1991). Baha'i scholars may, when needed, use books by Covenant Breakers. [about]
  163. Creación De Familias Liberadas De La Violencia, La: Un Informe Resumido Del Simposio Llevado Acabo, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
  164. Crisis in Babi and Bahá'í Studies, The: Part of a Wider Crisis in Academic Freedom?, by Denis MacEoin, in British Society for Middle Eastern Studies, 17:1 (1990). Response to Cole's review of MacEoin's "Hierarchy, Authority, and Eschatology in Early Babi Thought" with comments on "outsider" scholarship versus faith-based approaches. [about]
  165. Critical Examination of 20th-Century Baha'i Literature, A, by Vance Salisbury (1997). Explores the claim, first made by E. G. Browne, that some Baha'is suppress or distort historical texts. Includes tables of changes made in different editions of four popular Baha'i books. [about]
  166. Cyprus Exiles, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 5:3-6:1 (1991). History of Mirza Yahya's family and the four followers of Baha'u'llah exiled with them in Cyprus. Includes genealogies. [about]
  167. Dawn-Breakers: Nabil's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Nabil-i-A'zam (1932). The extensive and preeminent history of Babism and the early Baha'i Faith, by Nabil-i-A'zam [aka Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí, aka Nabíl-i-Zarandí]. [about]
  168. Dear Co-worker: Messages from Shoghi Effendi to the Benelux countries, by Shoghi Effendi (2009). Messages from Shoghi Effendi to the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg). [about]
  169. Dear Parent ... a Message to a non-Bahá'í Parent: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2000). A letter written to the parents of British Baha'i converts to dispel anxiety and misinformation. [about]
  170. Debunking the Myths: Conspiracy Theories on the Genesis and Mission of the Bahá'í Faith, by Adib Ma'sumian (2009). Response to Iranian conspiracy theories portraying the Baha'i Faith as a subversive political group, Zionist spies, affiliates of the secret police, British agents, etc. Available in English and Persian. Includes interview with author. [about]
  171. Declaración bahá'í sobre obligaciones y derechos humanos, 1947, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í ante la Conferencia Internacional de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Relación Entre el Desarme y el Desarrollo, Wilmette, Illinois, Febrero de 1947 [about]
  172. Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í ante la Conferencia Internacional de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Uso Indebido y el Tráfico Ilícito de Drogas, by Bahá'í International Community (1987). Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í ante la Conferencia Internacional de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Uso Indebido y el Tráfico Ilícito de Drogas, Viena, Austria, 17-26 de junio de 1987 [about]
  173. Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í ante la Conferencia Internacional de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Relación Entre el Desarme y el Desarrollo, by Bahá'í International Community (1987). El Año Internacional de la Mujer. Nueva York, Nueva York, 24 de agosto-11 de septiembre de 1987 [about]
  174. Demystifying Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of the Holy Mariner: History, Translations, Interpretations and Analysis, by Hui Bau (2016). Lengthy compilation, with background information on the Tablet, and commentary from Bau, Adib Taherzadeh, Michael Sours, Jamsheed Samandari, and Aziz Mboya. [about]
  175. Desarme y la Paz, El, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
  176. Descripción de La Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í, by Bahá'í International Community. Descripción de La Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í [about]
  177. Developing a Participatory Approach to Learning, by Maija Pihlainen, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:2 (1991). [about]
  178. Developing Distinctive Bahá'í Communities: Guidelines for Spiritual Assemblies, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1998). A guide to community development. Links to document offsite. [about]
  179. Development of the Babi/Bahá'í Communities, The: Exploring Baron Rosen's Archives, by Youli A. Ioannesyan (2013). 19th-century private letters and diplomatic correspondence from a prominent Russian scholar, one of the first to study the rise of the Babis. Excerpt from book: contents and Introduction. (Offsite.) [about]
  180. Digital Archiving at the Bahá'í World Centre Library, by Bahá'í International Archives, in Scriptum, 8 (1999). A paper written by staff at the Bahá'í World Centre Library (and approved for publication) about organization and methods of electronic-media archiving, as of 1999. [about]
  181. Divisions and Authority Claims in Babism (1850-1866), by Denis MacEoin, in Studia Iranica, 18:1 (1989). Factors leading to the division of Babism into the Azalís and the Bahá'ís, and the question of succession and the claims of Mírzá Yahyá, Dayyán, and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
  182. Doing Bahá'í Scholarship in the 1990s: A Religious Studies Perspective, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:2 (1993). Argues that Baha'i studies must address contemporary world issues, dialogues in pluralism, the New Age movement, and secular ideologies. [about]
  183. Early Western Accounts of the Babi and Bahá'í Faiths, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
  184. El Desarrollo Sostenible y el Espíritu Humano, by Bahá'í International Community. El Desarrollo Sostenible y el Espíritu Humano, presentado Río de Janeiro, Brasil, junio de 1992 [about]
  185. El Papel de la religión en el desarrollo social, by Bahá'í International Community. Comentarios al borrador de la Declaración y Programa de Acción para el desarrollo social. Presentado durante la reunión del Comité Preparatorio para la Cumbre Mundial sobre el Desarrollo Social, New York, New York, 1994 [about]
  186. Election and Infallibility of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Answers to three questions: Why were steps taken to elect a Universal House of Justice with the foreknowledge that there would be no Guardian? Was the time ripe for such an action? Could not the International Baha'i Council have carried on the work? [about]
  187. Emergence of the Bahá'í Faith in Singapore (1950-1972), The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 1 (1996). The first two decades of the Faith in Singapore, from the arrival of pioneers in 1950 to the formation of the NSA in 1972; the activities of the LSA of Singapore; strategies used to proclaim the existence of the Faith; features of the early community. [about]
  188. Enrollments and limited growth of the Bahá'í community, by Universal House of Justice (2002). The lack of significant numerical growth in certain Western Baha'i communities is related to the preceding decades of struggle, achievement and disappointment. [about]
  189. Eradicating Poverty: Moving Forward as One, by Bahá'í International Community (2008). BIC statement on poverty. [about]
  190. Establishment of Regional Bahá'í Councils in Certain Countries, Their Characteristics and Functions, The, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Outline of various policies governing the formation and functioning of Regional Baha'i Councils. [about]
  191. Establishment of Regional Bahá'í Councils in the United States, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Announcement of the historic event of the founding of a new administrative level in the United States, the "Baha'i Councils." [about]
  192. Establishment of Regional Councils: Introduction, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Nature, functioning, and establishment of the administrative bodies known as Regional Baha'i Councils. [about]
  193. Estudios Preliminares Sobre la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer en la Comunidad Mundial Bahá'í, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración presentada al 25° período de sesiones de la Comisión de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer, New York, 1974. [about]
  194. Europe, Eastern, and the Soviet Union, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3.1 (1993). [about]
  195. Falta de crecimiento y el cambio de cultura, La, by Universal House of Justice (2002). [about]
  196. First Public Mentions of the Bahá'í Faith in the West, by Bahá'í Information Office of the UK (1998). Short essay based on research by Moojan Momen and Derek Cockshutt. The first mention for the Faith in the West was not in 1893, but rather in a number of earlier talks on the Faith in England, and reports on the Babis in the 1850s. [about]
  197. For the Betterment of the World: The Worldwide Bahá'í Community's Approach to Social and Economic Development, by Office of Social and Economic Development (2018). Essays, photographs, and overviews of local projects around the world, illustrating how Bahá'í principles are being carried out in practice, prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development of the Bahá'í International Community. [about]
  198. For the Student of Religion, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
  199. From: Ron Price's Epic Autobiographical History: Pioneering Over Five Epochs: A History of The Bahá'í Faith in The Northern Territory and Adjoining Regions of Australia: 1947 to 1997, by Ron Price, in Published Essays in Cyberspace, At: Bahai Library Online (2001). This Bahai Library Online document contains The History of the Baha'i Community in the Northern Territory of Australia and adjacent regions: 1947-1997. This history is written in some three dozen short instalments totalling about 10000 words. [about]
  200. Gender perspectives and the work of the United Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (2007). Statement to the UN Human Rights Council on integrating gender perspectives. [about]
  201. Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in Middle Eastern Modernity, The, by Juan Cole, in ISIM Newsletter, 2 (1999). Middle Eastern religion is seldom mentioned in the same breath with modernism. The Baha'i faith, which originated in Iran, poses key conundrums to our understanding of the relationship between modernity and religion in the global South. [about]
  202. Germany, France, Italy, and Switzerland, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Compilation of new perspectives on the future of European civilization. Includes introduction by Julio Savi. [about]
  203. Globalization of the Bahá'í Community: 1892-1921, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). On the connection between Abdu’l-Baha’s thinking and his practical directives in the global expansion of the Baha’i religion, considered in light of Jan Aart Scholte's globalization categories: normative, psychological, economic, and institutional. [about]
  204. Good Tree, The: Distinguishing the Bahá'í Faith From Destructive Cults, by Stephen Vaccaro (1996). Examination of some fundamental characteristics of a cult, to determine whether or not the Baha'i Faith can be so defined. [about]
  205. Greatest Holy Leaf's Unparalleled Role in Religious History and the Significance of the Arc, the Site of Her Resting Place, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Biography of Abdu'l-Baha's sister, who acted as his "deputy, His representative and vicegerent, with none to equal her." Her burial place on Mount Carmel determined the location of the Arc and the later buildings of the World Centre. [about]
  206. Grenada, by Patricia Paccassi (1995). [about]
  207. Growth and Spread of the Baha'i Faith, The, by Arthur Hampson (1980). A detailed attempt to describe and account for the spread of the Baha'i Faith, including the roles played by its centralized leadership, its belief system, and its policies, as well as attitudes and conditions outside the control of the Baha'i movement. [about]
  208. Guidance for Bahá'í Groups, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (2000). The purpose, organization, functioning, limitations, privileges and responsibilities of Bahá'í groups; guidance for individuals about application of Bahá'í laws, such as marriage and divorce; and guidance for Assemblies that have reverted to group status. [about]
  209. Hacia un modelo de desarrollo para el siglo XXI, by Bahá'í International Community. Hacia un modelo de desarrollo para el siglo XXI [about]
  210. Handicapped facilities at the Bahá'í World Center pilgrimage sites, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Two letters giving an overview of wheelchair access to various points on pilgrimage tours. [about]
  211. Historia de su Cooperacion con las Naciones Unidas, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
  212. Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
  213. Historical Background of the Panama Temple, by Ruth Pringle, in Bahá'í News (1972). A history of the Bahá’í Faith in Panama during the first and second U.S. Seven Year Plans, from the arrival of the first pioneers in 1939 to the formation of the first Regional Assembly in 1951. [about]
  214. Historical Development of Genoa Square in Acre Israel from the Seventh Century to the Present Day, The, by Amy Suzanne Hollander (1995). A study of the structure, development, space, and historic preservation of a portion of Akka, including discussion of its place in Baha'i history. [about]
  215. History of the Bahá'í Faith in Arizona, The: The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950, by Maureen M. Thur (2004). Historical details and biographies about Arizona, from Nellie French moving from Chicago to Bisbee in 1900, to the formation of LSAs in 1949. Includes biographies of Amelia Collins and Orcella Rexford aka Louise Cutts-Powell (Appendices 1-2). [about]
  216. History of the Bahá'í Faith in Boston, by The Pluralism Project (2010). Two short documents by Harvard University's religious pluralism project: "Timeline of the Bahá’í Faith in Greater Boston" and "The Bahá’í Faith in Greater Boston." [about]
  217. Holy Places at the Bahá'í World Centre, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1968). [about]
  218. Hora Decisiva para todas las Naciones, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í con motivo del 50 aniversario de Naciones Unidas Octubre 1995 [about]
  219. House of Abdu'llah Pasha, The, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Short history and restoration of a house associated with "some of the most dramatic and historically significant events of the Heroic Age of the Bahá'í Faith." [about]
  220. Human environment interactions and collaborative adaptive capacity building in a resilience framework, by Peter T. Bruss (2012). Lengthy study of human effects on the environment informed by a Baha'i perspective, with passing mentions of the Faith and the Native American Baha'i Institute. Link to offsite document. [about]
  221. Humanity's Coming Encounter with Baha'u'llah, by Douglas Martin, in American Bahá'í (1992). Retrospective look at the previous 100 years of Baha'i history, current shifts of focus and teaching plans, and the prospects for the future which the new Message can bring. [about]
  222. Indexes to Bahá'í World volumes: Obituaries, chronologies, contents, illustrations, in Bahá'í World (2013). Seven separate indexes for Bahá'í World, in PDF, Word, and Excel versions. [about]
  223. Individual Rights and Freedoms, by Universal House of Justice (1988). An important and often-quoted letter about rights and freedom of expression in the Bahá'í community, as contrasted with those in American civil society. [about]
  224. Insider and Outsider Scholarship in Bahá'í Studies, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
  225. Integracion de la mujer en el desarrollo enocomico y social de America Latina y el Caribe, La, by Bahá'í International Community. Revisión y evaluación crítica de algunos aspectos de la condición de la mujer en la region, incluso su integración en el mercado laboral, mujeres jefes de familia y el papel de la mujer en el comercio en el Caribe. [about]
  226. Intellectual life and the future of Bahá'í studies, by Universal House of Justice (2013). Observations on the current state of intellectual pursuits in the Baha'i community and guidance for the Association for Baha'i Studies of North America and training institutes. [about]
  227. Interdependence of Bahá'í Communities, The: Services of North American Bahá'í Women to Iran, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). [about]
  228. International Bahá'í Council, by Duane L. Herrmann, in Bahá'í News (1990). History of the formation of the IBC. [about]
  229. International Bahá'í Library and the Library of Alexandria, The, by William P. Collins, in Scriptum, 5 (1996). Similarities between the ancient Library of Alexandria and the contemporary Baha'i archive. [about]
  230. Internet and Literature Review, The, by Bahá'í Internet Agency (2011). Guidance from the Baha'i World Centre to two NSAs, that the process of "literature review" does not apply to the Internet for informal publications (like personal blogs), but it does apply for formal ones (like e-journals). [about]
  231. Interracial "Bahá'í Movement" and the Black Intelligentsia, The: The Case of W. E. B. Du Bois, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Religious History, 36:4 (2012). Du Bois’s encounters with the Baha’i religion from 1910 to 1953, his connection to the New York Baha’i community, and discussion of segregated Baha’i meetings in Tennessee in 1937. [about]
  232. Interreligious and Intercultural Cooperation, by Bahá'í International Community (2007). Statement to the United Nations on best practices and strategies for interreligious and intercultural cooperation. [about]
  233. Interreligious Dialogue and the Bahá'í Faith: Some Preliminary Observations, by Seena Fazel, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions vol. 8 (1997). An overview of pluralistic approaches and their relevance to Bahá'í studies. [about]
  234. Introduction: Aims and Purposes of the Bahá'í Faith, by David Hofman, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Introduction to this Baha'i World volume. [about]
  235. Introduction to Green Acre Bahá'í School, by Anne Gordon Atkinson, in Green Acre on the Piscataqua: A Centennial Celebration (1990). Brief summary of the history contained in the book-length history "Green Acre on the Piscataqua: A Centennial Celebration". [about]
  236. Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law , by Ignaz Goldziher (1981). An early academic overview of Babi and Baha'i history and theology. From translation of a 1910 book Vorlesungen uber den Islam, "Lectures on Islam." [about]
  237. Iran: History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
  238. Iran: Province of Ádharbáyján, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
  239. Iran: Province of Fárs, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
  240. Iran: Province of Gílán, by Moojan Momen (1994). History of the Baha'i Faith in the Iranian province of Gilan. [about]
  241. Iran: Province of Isfahan, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
  242. Iran: Province of Káshán and Central Provinces (Sultánábád, Mahallát, and Gulpáygán), by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
  243. Iran: Province of Khamsih (Zanján), by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
  244. Iran: Province of Khurásán, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
  245. Iran: Province of Khúzistán, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
  246. Iran: Province of Qazvín, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
  247. Iran: Province of Tehran (including Qumm, Simnán, and Dámghán), by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
  248. Iran: Province of Yazd, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
  249. Iran: Provinces of Kirmán and Sístán, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
  250. Iran: Provinces of Kirmánsháh, Hamadán, Kurdistán, and Luristán, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
  251. Iran: Provinces of Mázandarán and Gurgán, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
  252. Iranian Believers Throughout the World, Message to, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Inspirational discussion of the history of the Baha'is in Iran, including exhortations for the education of Persian children and youth. [about]
  253. Iranian National Bahá'í Archives (INBA) index (1996). A title/content catalogue of the 105 volumes of the Iranian National Baha'i Archives Manuscript Collection. [about]
  254. Is the Bahá'í Faith a "World Religion" or a "New Religious Movement"?, by Denis MacEoin and Robert Stockman (1997). Compilation of emails about the socio-religious classification of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  255. Is the Baha'i Faith a World Religion?, by Moojan Momen, in Soundings: Essays in Bahá'í Theology, ed. Sen McGlinn (1989). [about]
  256. Is the Bahá'í Faith a World Religion?, by Seena Fazel, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:1 (1994). Examination of the terms "world religion" and "new religious movement" to demonstrate that the Bahá'í Faith is best categorized as a "world religion." [about]
  257. Islam and Minorities: The Case of the Baha'is, by Christopher Buck, in Studies in Contemporary Islam, 5.1–2 (2003). Includes a Persian translation of the original article. [about]
  258. Islands of the North Sea, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). [about]
  259. Islands of the South Pacific, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). [about]
  260. Jamal Effendi and Sayyid Mustafa Rumi in Celebes: The Context of Early Bahá'í Missionary Activity in Indonesia, by Jelle de Vries, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007). [about]
  261. Jamál Effendi and the early history of the Bahá'í Faith in South Asia, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). Includes maps on Jamal Effendi's journeys in India, and journeys in Southeast Asia. [about]
  262. Juan Cole manuscript and book collection: Shaykhi, Babi, and Baha'i texts (1997). Manuscripts and books in Cole's library and selected Iranian National Baha'i Archive contents. [about]
  263. Judeo-Persian Communities of Iran in the Qajar Period: Conversion to the Bahá'í Faith, by Mehrdad Amanat, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2009). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  264. Kashan: Religious Communities: Bahá'í Community, by Mehrdad Amanat, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, 16:1 (2012). [about]
  265. Kitab-i-Aqdas: its place in Bahá'í literature, in Bahá'í World, 1992-1993 (1993). Offers a broad introduction to the Aqdas and its themes. [about]
  266. La Libertad de Expresión, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Spanish translation of "Individual Rights and Freedoms" by the Casa Universal de Justicia. [about]
  267. Laymen vs. Scholars in Bahá'í Studies, by Universal House of Justice (1996). No distinction should be drawn between "laypeople" and "scholars" in Baha'i studies. [about]
  268. Learning from History, by Moojan Momen, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1989). [about]
  269. Legislación Internacional para el Medio Ambiente y el Desarrollo, by Bahá'í International Community. Una declaraciòn presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í al Comité Preparatorio para la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Medio Ambiente y el Desarrollo. Ginebra Suiza, Agosto 1991. [about]
  270. Les Béhahis et le Bâb, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Journal Asiatique, vol. 222 (April-June) (1933). [about]
  271. Letters and Extracts of Writings from the Guardian Published in the US Bahá'í News 1924 - 1934, by Shoghi Effendi (1924). [about]
  272. Letters to Bahá'í princesses: Tablets revealed in honour of the women of Ibn-i Asdaq's household, by Dominic Parvis Brookshaw, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
  273. List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Babi studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
  274. List of useful published resources for Bahá'í Studies, by Jonah Winters (1998). A (now-outdated) bibliography of academic books helpful to Baha'i studies. [about]
  275. Literary Criticism, Theology and Deconstructionism, by Jack McLean (2001). A dynamic tension exists between literary criticism and theology as distinct but mutually beneficial forms of discourse, which can enrich Baha'i Studies by deepening exegesis and by correlating Baha'i teachings with progressive movements. [about]
  276. Lucha Contra el Hambre, La, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración a la 11a Sesión de Ministros del Consejo Mundial de la Alimentación de las Naciones Unidas, París, Francia, 1985. [about]
  277. Macau Bahá'í Community in the Early Years, by Barbara R. Sims (1991). Brief overview of the history of Macau, and a detailed account of Baha'i involvement 1953-1975, and stories of early believers. [about]
  278. Majestic Process, The: Cycles, Eras, Epochs and Stages (2004). A one page chart developed as a class handout on the "Majestic Process," the Ages and Epochs of the Faith. [about]
  279. Mandate of the Bahá'í Library Online, by Jonah Winters (2003). Formal statement of content, intent, and functioning of the Baha'i Library Online. Now outdated (having been written in 2003), but still a serviceable mandate statement. [about]
  280. Map of Stages in Baha'u'llah's Successive Exiles from Tihran to Akka, by Muhammad Labib (1968). Map of Stages in Baha'u'llah's Successive Exiles from Tihran to Akka, compiled and designed by Muhammad Labib in 1968, includes an extensive list of which tablets Baha'u'llah revealed and where. [about]
  281. Map of the Travels of Baha'u'llah (1991). The progressive exiles of Baha'u'llah through the Middle East. [about]
  282. Meaning of Baha'i History, The, by Moshe Sharon (1999). [about]
  283. Men and the Baha'i Faith: The role of indigenous men in the early Baha'i community in the British Isles, by Lil Osborn (2016). Includes slide-show included when presenting the paper at the Baha'i Studies Seminar, Kellogg College, Oxford (July 2016). [about]
  284. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
  285. Methodology in Bahá'í studies, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). How Bahá'í scholars can interact with secular academia. Bahá’í scholarship can develop in two ways: interior (scholarship that develops within the Bahá’í community, based on faith) and exterior (academic scholarship based on rationalistic methodology). [about]
  286. Military Metaphor in Bahá'í Sacred Literature, The, by Jack McLean (2005). Martial symbology is common in the Baha'i Writings, especially those of Shoghi Effendi, yet the Writings are expressly pacifistic. This article examines the apparent contradiction. [about]
  287. Millennium Forum, by Universal House of Justice (2000). [about]
  288. Ministry of the Custodians: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause 1957-1963, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Account of the stewardship of the Hands of the Cause of God from 1957-63, from the passing of Shoghi Effendi to the election of the House, riding the waves of crisis to the moment of victory — the fulfillment of prophecy. [about]
  289. Mobilizing Institutional, Legal and Cultural Resources to Achieve Gender Equality, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
  290. Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in the Nineteenth-century Middle East [introduction only], by Juan Cole, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions (1998). Introduction and first 4 pages of Chapter One. [about]
  291. More Constructive Encounter, A: A Bahá’í View of Religion and Human Rights, by Barney Leith, in Does God Believe in Human Rights? Essays on Religion and Human Rights, ed. Nazila Ghanea et al. (2007). Relationship between religion and human rights, and the work of the Bahá’í community in wholeheartedly supporting the theory and practice of universal rights. [about]
  292. "Most Great Reconstruction": The Bahá'í Faith in Jim Crow South Carolina, 1898-1965, by Louis E. Venters (2010). The Faith enjoyed a period of growth from the 1960s-1980s that was largely inspired by interracial teaching campaigns in the South. The Baha'i movement in South Carolina was a significant, sustained response to racist ideologies. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
  293. Moths Turned Eagles: The Spiritual Conquests of Sabri and Raissa Elias, by Gamal Hassan (2008). Introduction of the Baha'i Faith to Ethiopia and Djibouti, and the activities of Gila Bahta. [about]
  294. Mujeres y Hombres, Una Sociedad para un Planeta Saludable, by Bahá'í International Community. Exposición presentada al "World Women's Congress for a Healthy Planet", Miami, Florida, 8-12 Noviembre, 1991. [about]
  295. Nature of the Persecution against the Bahá'ís in Iran, by Bahá'í International Community (2010). [about]
  296. Netherlands: History of the Baha'i Faith, by Will C. van den Hoonaard (1993). [about]
  297. New Religion, Babism, A, by Paul Carus, in The Open Court, 18:6-18:7 (1904). Overview of early Baha'i history, the Faith in Chicago, a review of Myron Phelps' book Life and Teachings of Abbas Effendi (1903), and a review of Ibrahim Kheiralla's book Beha Ullah (1900). [about]
  298. New York, History of the Bahá'í Faith In, by Robert Stockman (1995). [about]
  299. No Jim Crow Church: The Origins of South Carolina's Bahá'í Community, by Louis Venters: Review, by Richard W. Thomas, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies (2016). [about]
  300. Notes on the Babi and Bahá'í Religions in Russia and its territories, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:3 (1993). Overview of the history of Babi and Baha'i communities in Russia and Russian territories. [about]
  301. Notes on the Twentieth Century, by Douglas Martin (2001). Multiple transcriptions of talks given in Atlanta, New York, and Massachusetts in September and October, 2001, largely based on the document Century of Light. [about]
  302. Notes on the Zuhuru'l-Haqq series, by John Walbridge (1996). Brief overview of this historical work. Includes letter from the World Centre explaining that no official translation is forthcoming. [about]
  303. Ocean: Bahá'í Writings search engine (1998). Complete search engine for Baha'i texts and books from other religions. [about]
  304. Origins of the Bahá'í Faith in the Pacific Islands: The Case of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 16:1-4 (2006). [about]
  305. Our Precious Heritage: The Coming of the Faith to Wales, by C. Edmund Card (n.d.). History of Baha'i activities in Wales 1942-1973, focusing especially the active sixteen-year period 1946-1962. [about]
  306. Outpost of a World Religion: The Bahá'í Faith in Australia 1920-1947, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Religious History, 16:3 (1991). An updated version of a paper published in two places. [about]
  307. Pacific Bahá'í Communities 1950-1964, by Graham Hassall, in Pacific History: Papers from the 8th Pacific History Association Conference, Donald H. Rubinstein, ed. (1992). Detailed overview of the history of Baha'is in Pacific island states. [about]
  308. Papel de la educación, los medios de información y las artes en el desarrollo social, El, by Bahá'í International Community. El papel de la educación, los medios de información [about]
  309. Papel de la Juventud en los Derechos Humanos, El, by Bahá'í International Community (1985). [about]
  310. Part of the Baha'i History of the Family of Charles and Maria Ioas, by Viola Tuttle and Margarite Ioas Ullrich (1978). Biographies of Charles and Maria: from his birth in 1859, their introduction to the Faith in 1898, experiences with 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 1912, and four Tablets from 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
  311. Paz y el Desarrollo, La, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración presentada al Seminario de las Naciones Unidas para las regiones de Asia, el Pacífico y Asia Occidental, para el Año Internacional de la Paz, Bangkok, Tailandia, 20 al 24 de mayo de 1985 [about]
  312. Persecution of the Baha'is in Iran: 1979-1986: A 7-year campaign to eliminate a religious minority, by Bahá'í International Community (1986). Overview of activities and propaganda against Baha'is in Iran, and the responses of the United Nations. [about]
  313. Persian Bahá'ís in Australia, by Graham Hassall, in Religion and Ethnic Identity, An Australian Study, Abe Ata, ed. (1989). Overview of the history and modern activities (ca. 1989) of the Persian Baha'i community in Australia. [about]
  314. Persian, Arabic, and Provisional Translations, by Iraj Ayman and Robert Stockman (1999). Words relating to the titles of Baha'i Writings, "Pure" Persian and "Pure" Arabic, and information on provisional translations. [about]
  315. Picture Gallery of Early British Bahá'ís (1998). Published in honor of the UK Baha'i Centenary, 1998/99. [about]
  316. Preliminary Bibliography of works in French making mention of the Babí or Bahá'í religions (1945–2000), by Thomas Linard, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
  317. Preliminary History of the Bahá'í Community of Samarkand, Uzbekistan, by Duane L. Herrmann and Hasan T. Shodiev, in Bahá'í Vizier (2004). Since repression of religion ended in the USSR, Baha'is in former Soviet territories resumed practice of their faith and become curious about their history, most of which had been destroyed. This article is an early step at rediscovering this history. [about]
  318. Preliminary Survey of the Bahá'í Community of Iran during the Nineteenth Century, A, by Moojan Momen, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Enstehung der Baha'i Religion, ed. Christoph Burgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). [about]
  319. Preparación para Vivir en Paz, el Papel de la Juventud, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
  320. Preparación Para Vivir En Paz, La, by Bahá'í International Community. Charla presentada durante el Seminario Regional de las Naciones Unidas para Latinoamérica y el Caribe, auspiciado por la Comisión Económica y Social para Latinoamérica y el Caribe (ECLAC) 26 de febrero de 1985 [about]
  321. Preparación para Vivir en Paz, La Contribución de la Mujer, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración preparada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í para el Seminario Regional Europeo para el Año Internacional de la Paz, Viena, Austria: 6 al 10 de mayo de 1985 [about]
  322. Prevención de Discriminaciones y Protección a las Minorías, 1988, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
  323. Prevención de Discriminaciones y Protección a las Minorías, 1989, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
  324. Primary Source Texts, Access to, by Universal House of Justice and Susan Maneck (1998). One scholar's query why the Baha'i World Centre's copies of primary sources in Babi and Baha'i history are not available for study, followed by the House's response. [about]
  325. Proposals to the United Nations for Charter Revision, by Bahá'í International Community (1955). Proposals from the Bahai International Community for revision of the U.N. charter in its capacity as a non-governmental organization with consultative status at the U.N. [about]
  326. Proposed changes for Version 5, by Jonah Winters (2013). Structural or systemic improvements necessary for future Baha'i Library expansion (excluding minor changes or new content), projected for 2018. [about]
  327. Proselytizing, Development, and the Covenant, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986, The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Teaching vs. proselytization; applying Baha'i social teachings without becoming ensnared in prevailing cultural mores; and the uniqueness of the Baha'i covenant. [about]
  328. Prosperity of Humankind, by Bahá'í International Community (1995). A statement prepared by the Bahá'í International Community Office of Public Information, Haifa, first distributed at the United Nations World Summit on Social Development, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1995. [about]
  329. Publishing, Bahá'í, Memorandum on: Materials to be Deposited with the Bahá'í World Centre Library, by Bahá'í International Archives and Universal House of Justice (1998). Overview of Literature Review, publishing, translations, and details of the requirement of sending copies of all materials to the World Center archives. [about]
  330. Radio Bahá'í del Lago Titicaca, 20 años de historia, by Rene Quiñonez, in La Pluma del Conocimiento, 2 (2002). Un breve relato sobre los logros de un proyecto de desarrollo socio económico al servicio de los pobladores del altiplano peruano boliviano. [about]
  331. Radio Baha'i Ecuador, by Kurt Hein: Review, by Des O'Shea, in CADE: Journal of Distance Education, 4:1 (1989). [about]
  332. Rationalisation and re-enchantment in Malaysia: Temiar religion 1964-1995, by Geoffrey Benjamin (1996). Extensive discussion of the Baha’i Faith among the Temiars of Malaysia. Link to paper (offsite). [about]
  333. Rationality in Academic Disciplines, by K. P. Mohanan, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). For an academic community to construct knowledge through teamwork, its members must have a shared language with the same pairings of concepts and words, and they must have shared epistemic values by which to "dialogue" and base collective decisions. [about]
  334. Recognition of the Next Manifestation by the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Бахаулла говорит, что следующее Богоявление тоже столкнётся с преследованиями, но восторжествует над Своими гонителями. [about]
  335. Recognition of the Next Manifestation of God, by Universal House of Justice (1997). On concerns that a future Universal House of Justice might not recognize the next Manifestation of God. [about]
  336. Reflections on “Questions” and Bahá'í Studies, Some, by Matt Weinberg (2005). [about]
  337. Regional Bahá'í Councils of the United States, Messages to, by Universal House of Justice (1997). In these two short letters, the House of Justice first sends greetings to the newly-formed United States' four Regional Baha'i Councils, followed by the Councils' vow of firmness. [about]
  338. Religious Chic, by Zuo Xuan, in Global Times (2010). A portrait of the Baha'is in contemporary China. [about]
  339. Resource Guide for the Scholarly Study of the Bahá'í Faith, by Robert Stockman and Jonah Winters (1997). A comprehensive research and educational tool for the student or teacher of the Bahá'í Faith. Includes curriculum guides, lecture outlines, annotated bibliographies, and lists of educational materials. [about]
  340. Response to MacEoin's "Problems of Scholarship" and "A Critique of Moojan Momen's Response," A, by Moojan Momen and Denis MacEoin, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 1:4 (1983). A discussion touching on many topics, including scientific objectivity in the study of religion, faith vs reason, liberalism, academic standards, and the nature of sects vs "world religion." [about]
  341. Results of Talisman Attitudes Survey, by Eric Hadley-Ives (2000). Detailed analysis of the beliefs and community interactions of participants in the listserver Talisman2 (circa 1999). [about]
  342. Results of the First Regional Bahá'í Council Election, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). Results of the first US Regional Baha'i Councils election, posted here because it was a "historic event." [about]
  343. Rethinking Prosperity: Forging Alternatives to a Culture of Consumerism, by Bahá'í International Community (2010). The BIC's contribution to the 18th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, New York. [about]
  344. Reviewing: Practice and Functions of Literature Review, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice (1989). Overview of Literature Review, publishing, and the requirement of sending copies of all materials to the Baha'i World Center library. [about]
  345. Rise of the Bahá'í Community of 'Ishqábád, The, by Anthony Lee, in Bahá'í Studies, 5: "The Bahá'í Faith in Russia: Two Early Instances" (1979). Materials about the early history of Ishqabad, site of the first Baha'i Temple, based in part on interviews with former residents. [about]
  346. Russia, by Moojan Momen (1995). Overview of the development of the Baha'i community in Russia. [about]
  347. Sacred Mythology and the Bahá'í Faith, by William P. Collins, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:4 (1990). [about]
  348. Scholar Meets Prophet: Edward Granville Browne and Bahá'u'lláh (Acre, 1890), by Christopher Buck and Youli Ioannesyan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 20 (2014). Details of E.G. Browne's handwritten notes about his meeting with Baha'u'llah, his stay in Akka in April 1890, and his correspondence with Russian academics. [about]
  349. Schools owned by Bahá'ís and "Bahá'í schools", by Universal House of Justice (1994). Are schools owned by or run by Baha'is always considered "Baha'i" schools, and does the word "Baha'i" always appear in their title? [about]
  350. Scripture, by Robert Stockman (1995). [about]
  351. Search for Values in an Age of Transition, The: includes Study Guide , by Bahá'í International Community (2005). A statement on the 60th anniversary of the United Nations, new paradigms taking hold, and the place of the UN. Includes study guide to assist readers in their understanding and examination of the concepts presented in the statement. [about]
  352. Secret of Divine Civilization translation, capital punishment, and other quesions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On the capitalization of pronouns, reference to "we Muslims," works of Abdu'l-Baha revealed during the time of Baha'u'llah, the first person to recognize Baha'u'llah, and designer of the temple in Ishqabad. Includes a compilation on capital punishment. [about]
  353. Servants of the Glory: A Chronicle of Forty Years of Pioneering, by Adrienne Morgan and Dempsey Morgan (2017). Memoirs of a black couple from the United States who lived and spread the Bahá’í Faith in across parts of east Asia and Africa in the 1950s-1980s. Text by Dempsey Morgan, poems by Adrienne Morgan. Link to document offsite. [about]
  354. Seventy Five Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Victoria, Australia, by Graham Hassall (1998). History of the Baha'i community of Victoria, Australia. [about]
  355. Shoghi Effendi: Recollections, by Ugo Giachery (1973). Biography of Shoghi Effendi from the close standpoint of the author's personal experiences. Short excerpt from book; Part 1 only. [about]
  356. Shoghi Effendi's View of Providential History in Light of the Judaeo-Christian Tradition, by Jack McLean, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The Guardian's letters reveal six feature of his historicity: palingenesis and transitional history; providential synchronization; teleological history; organically whole history; periodisation of ages and epochs; history as community identity-creation. [about]
  357. Sin-covering Gaze, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Brief explanation of a possible source for a story of Christ told by Abdu'l-Baha about encountering a dead dog and commenting on the beauty of its teeth; i.e., having a "sin-covering gaze." [about]
  358. Situation of the Bahá'ís in Egypt, by Bahá'í International Community (2007). Oral Statement of the Bahá’í International Community to the Human Rights Council (6th Session of the Human Rights Council), Geneva, Switzerland. [about]
  359. Social Activism Among Some Early Twentieth-Century Bahá'ís, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Socialist Studies, 2:1 (2006). Socialist involvement of some of Canada's earliest Baha'is, before and after the prohibition of involvement in political affairs. [about]
  360. Social Organization of Mentorship in Bahá'í Studies, The, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:3 (1998). [about]
  361. St. Petersburg 19th Century Orientalist Collection of Materials on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths, The: Primary and Other Sources, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
  362. Star of the West: Use of, in Electronic Form, by Universal House of Justice (1999). Guidance on use of the publication Star of the West in electronic form as well as advice on how to describe the authoritativeness of the material [about]
  363. Statement in Rebuttal of Accusations Made against the Bahá'í Faith by the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (1982). In a document distributed to the UN, "Human Rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran," Iran made a number of false and damaging statements concerning the Baha'i Faith. The BIC wishes to refute these false statements and to present the true facts. [about]
  364. Statement on Bahá'u'lláh, A, by Bahá'í International Community (1992). Introduction to the life and work of Baha'u'llah, released in 1992 in honor of the centenary of his death, at the request of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
  365. Stories of Baha'u'llah and Some Notable Believers, by Adib Taherzadeh (2003). Extracts compiled from Adib Taherzadeh’s The Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh, Volumes 1-4. [about]
  366. Story of the Last One Hundred Years of the Baha'i Faith in Seattle, The, by Zabine Van Ness (2007). Compiled for the 2007 centenary of the Seattle and Spokane Bahá’í assemblies, detailing the 100 year history of the Bahá'í Faith in Seattle. [about]
  367. Study of Religion, The: Some Comments on Methodology of Studying Religion, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 1:1 (1991). Reasons for the broad variety of different theoretical frameworks from which to view religious phenomena and the lack of a unified model. [about]
  368. Study of the Bahá'í Faith, Comment on Issues Related to the, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). A follow-up to the "Issues Related to the Study of the Baha'i Faith" lettter. [about]
  369. Study of the Bahá'í Faith, Issues Related to the, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Letters from the House and the International Teaching Center, and compilation on the nature of opposition to the Faith from within academia, especially as conducted via the Internet. [about]
  370. Sweet and Enchanting Stories (2005). Stories and memoirs by and about ‘Abdu’l-Baha, Mirza Haydar ‘Ali, Zia Baghdadi, ‘Ali Akbar Furutan, Adib Tahirzadih, Abul-Qasim Faizi, and other loved and historic figures. [about]
  371. Tablet of the Centennial, by Shoghi Effendi (1998). An epistle to the Persian-speaking Baha'is. Includes English translation of Muhammad Varqa's "Le Style persan du Gardien." [about]
  372. Tablet to Napoleon III (Lawh-i-Napulyún): Biography of Napoleon, in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). First Tablet to Napoleon. [about]
  373. Tablet to Pope Pius IX (Lawh-i-Páp): Biography of Pope Pius IX, in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). [about]
  374. Tablet to Tsar Alexander II (Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus): Biography of Tsar Alexander, in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). Short biography of Tsar Alexander ll describing him as a great historical figure without the charisma of a great man. Suggests history should view what he did, such as abolishing serfdom and building railroads, as more important than who he was. [about]
  375. Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle: An Historical Record of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Faith in Taiwan, by Barbara R. Sims (1994). Baha'i activities in Taiwan and personal histories, 1952-1992. Includes earliest pamphlet published in Chinese. [about]
  376. Tehran, Iran, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the capital city of Iran and birthplace of Bahá’u’lláh, called by Him the "Land of Tá" (Ard-i-Tá), site of numerous important events in Bahá’í history. [about]
  377. Television Address of Iranian President Khatami, by Universal House of Justice and Bahá'í International Community (1998). Questions and answers about a historically unique television interview of Iranian President Khatami, given on CNN Wednesday, Jan 7, 1998. [about]
  378. Texts, Sacred, Permission to Distribute Electronic Copies of, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Sacred Writings and anything produced by the Baha'i World Center or the Baha'i International Community may be electronically redistributed. [about]
  379. The Bahá'í Revelation, by Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, in The Open Court (1905). Article, with photographs, correcting and expanding on some of Open Court's previous articles on the Faith. Introduced by Paul Carus with a brief essay, "The Behaist Movement." [about]
  380. "'The Objectivity Question' and Bahá'í Studies: A Reply to MacEoin" and "A Few Words in Response to Cole's 'Reply to MacEoin'", by Juan Cole and Denis MacEoin, in British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 18:1 (1991). Two responses to MacEoin's article "Crisis in Babi and Bahá'í Studies." [about]
  381. Thoughts on the Establishment of a Permanent Bahá'í Studies Center and Research Institute, Some, by Stephen Lambden, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Present state and future possibilities of Baha'i studies and academic curricula, and answers to various objections. Includes short compilation on the importance of scholarship. [about]
  382. Traces That Remain: A Pictorial History of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Faith among the Japanese, by Barbara R. Sims (1989). Extensive history of Baha'i events and personages in Japan, 1914-1983. [about]
  383. Translation and Review, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Whether certain scholars were authorized as translators, and that the institution of review is not being abrogated at this time. [about]
  384. Turkmenistan, by Moojan Momen (1995). History of the Baha'i Faith in Turkmenistan. [about]
  385. Turning Point for All Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (1995). A statement on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations, about the scope, function, and mandate of the UN, and world concerns it must address. [about]
  386. Una misma sustancia: Crear conscientemente una cultura mundial de unidad, by Bahá'í International Community. Exposición escrita presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'i en la Conferencia Mundial contra el Racismo, la Discriminación Racial, la Xenofobia y las Formas Conexas de Intolerencia [about]
  387. Unassailable Foundation of the Cause of God: Questions about the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1965). Why were steps taken to elect a Universal House of Justice with the foreknowledge that there would be no Guardian? Was the time ripe for such an action? Could not the International Baha'i Council have carried on the work? [about]
  388. Understanding Bahá'í History: Introduction to the study of history, by Moojan Momen (2013). Video and transcript, prepared for the Wilmette Institute, about how to approach and understand the study of history, biases of eyewitnesses, and the subjective construction of facts. [about]
  389. United Kingdom: History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Moojan Momen (1998). A short history of the Baha'i community of the United Kingdom. [about]
  390. United States of America: History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Robert Stockman (1995). History of the Baha'i community of the United States. [about]
  391. Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Bahá'í Scriptures, The, by Juan Cole, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies, 3:2 (1999). [about]
  392. Valorando la espiritualidad en el Desarrollo: Consideraciones Iniciales en cuanto a la Creación de Indicadores de Base Espiritual para el Desarrollo, by Bahá'í International Community. Consideraciones Iniciales en cuanto a la Creación de Indicadores de Base Espiritual para el Desarrollo, presentado al "Diálogo Mundial de las Fes y el Desarrollo", 1998 [about]
  393. Views of Acca [Akka], Haifa, Mt. Carmel, and Other Places: Photographs of "The Dwelling Place of the Most High," Authorized by Abdu'l-Baha (1911). Pictures of Akká taken between 1903-1911, with historical annotations and bibliographical data by Troxel. Link to book at Afnan Library. [about]
  394. Violence with Impunity: Acts of aggression against Iran's Bahá'í community, by Bahá'í International Community (2013). Book-length report on the rising tide of violence directed against the Iranian Baha'i community 2005-20012, and the degree to which attackers enjoy impunity from prosecution or punishment. [about]
  395. Virgin Islands, U.S. and British, by Patricia Paccassi (1995). [about]
  396. Visits of the Hands of the Cause of God to Ireland, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 3 (2003). An overview of all known visits by the Hands, the highest-ranking officers of the Bahá’í Faith, to Ireland. Review of the many historical sources about this largely-uninvestigated topic. Includes timeline of the visits between 1952 and 1986. [about]
  397. What is a Content Management System?, by Jonah Winters (2003). A brief overview of the technology underlying the Baha'i Library Online, and why this technology represents the next step in the Internet's evolution [since this was written, the term "Web 2.0" has been coined for the "next step" I described]. [about]
  398. What's New in Version 4.0, by Jonah Winters (2012). Some useful search and interface changes for 2012, in conjunction with the 15th birthday of the Baha'i Library. [about]
  399. Who is Writing the Future?: Reflections on the Twentieth Century, by Bahá'í International Community (1999). A statement on the current state of human society and its evolution, by the BIC's Office of Public Information. [about]
  400. Why We Need Bahá'í Theology, by Jack McLean (1995). A short definition of theology, its relationship with scholarship in general, and the role of apologetics. [about]
  401. Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
  402. Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, by Ahang Rabbani (1996). Multiple volumes of historical materials, translations, and original research. [about]
  403. "Wonderful True Visions": Magic, Mysticism, and Millennialism in the Making of the American Bahai Community, 1892-1895, by Richard Hollinger, in Search for Values: Ethics in Bahá'í Thought (2004). The early growth of the American, and especially the Chicago, communities was more gradual and eclectic than previously thought, and Kheiralla's influence was less crucial. [about]
  404. Work of A.L.M. Nicolas (1864-1937), The, by Moojan Momen, in The Bábí and Bahá'í Religions: Some Contemporary Western Accounts (1981). Short bio, including list of the works of Nicolas. [about]
  405. World Order of Baha'u'llah: Six Talks on the Various Aspects of, by Ali Nakhjavani (2004). Transcripts of six talks given at a week-long course on the World Order of Baha'u'llah, sponsored by the NSA of Italy. Document includes compilation and outline. (This online version compiled from three different editions of this book.) [about]
  406. Writings, Bahá'í: Importance of collecting and safeguarding, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). [about]
  407. Year Amongst the Persians, A, by E. G. Browne (1893). [about]
  408. Yerrinbool Bahá'í School 1938 - 1988: An Account of the First Fifty Years, by Graham Hassall (1988). History of an early Australian Baha'i school. [about]
  409. Yerrinbool Report on Scholarship: 1997, by Graham Hassall (1998). Overview of worldwide Baha'i scholarship projects, publications, and events - 1997. [about]
  410. Yerrinbool Report on Scholarship: 1998, by Graham Hassall (1999). Overview of worldwide Baha'i scholarship projects, publications, and events - 1998. [about]
  411. Yerrinbool Report on Scholarship: 1999, by Graham Hassall, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). Overview of worldwide Baha'i scholarship projects, publications, and events - 1999; includes a progress report on the growth of the Baha'i Library Online. [about]
  412. Zuhur al-Haqq, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2002). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  413. 谁在写我们的未来 (Who's Writing the Future?): 二十世纪的省思 (Reflections on the Twentieth Century), by Bahá'í International Community. Prepared by the Office of Public Information. [about]
 
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
Home Site Map Forum Links Copyright About Contact
.
. .