Bahá'í Library Online
. . . .
.

Search for tag "Bahai"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1862 – 1868 Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a cousin of the Báb, lives in Shanghai during this period. This is the first record of a Bábí or Bahá'í living in China. [PH24]

  • From 1870 he lived in Hong Kong dealing as a merchant and was joined by his brother, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn. [PH24]
Shanghai; Hong Kong; China Haji Mirza Muhammad-Ali (Afnan); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Haji Mirza Muhammad Husayn (Afnan); First Bahais by country or area
1868. c. May Bahá'u'lláh sends Nabíl-i-A`zam to Cairo to enquire after Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí. He is thrown into prison and befriends a Christian cellmate, Fáris Effendi, who soon becomes a Bahá'í. [BKG248, 265–6; EB268; GPB178]
  • See BKG265–8 for an account of Nabíl's arrest and imprisonment.
  • Fáris Effendi is probably the first Christian to become a Bahá'í. [RB3:10]
Cairo; Egypt Nabil-i-Azam; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Faris Effendi; Imprisonments; First Bahais by background; Christianity; Conversion; Interfaith dialogue
1868. 5 Sep Mírzá Yahyá arrives with his entire family but without a single disciple or even a servant. [BBR306]
  • Also exiled to Cyprus were four loyal Bahá'ís and they were:
      Mishkín-Qalam (Áqá Hussain Isfahání)
      Mirzá ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáh-i-Maraghih'í (Mullá Ádí-Guzal)
      Áqá ‘Abdu’l-Ghaffár
      Áqá Muḥammad-Báqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallátí) (coffee-maker)
  • With their arrival Cyprus becomes the first island in the Mediterranean to receive the Faith.
  • See also GPB 182 and AB285, 523.
Famagusta; Cyprus Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile; Cyprus exiles; First Bahais by country or area; Islands
1873. 12 Apr Birth of Hippolyte Dreyfus, the first French Bahá'í, in Paris. Named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area; Births and deaths
1886 In the year Birth of Narayan Rao Sethji Vakil, the first Hindu to become a Bahá'í in Surat Gajarat, India. Surat; Gujarat; India Narayan Rao Sethji Vakil; First Bahais by background; Hinduism
1890 In the decade Bahá'í books are published for the first time, in Bombay and Cairo. [GPB195; SA250] Bombay; India; Cairo; Egypt Bahai literature; Publishing
1890 Ibrahim George Kheiralla (Khayru'lláh) becomes a Bahá'í in Cairo under the tutelage of `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání. [BFA1:19]
  • It is probable that he is the first Bahá'í from Syrian Christian background. [BFA19]
  • See BFA1:175 for pictures.
Cairo; Egypt Ibrahim George Kheiralla; First Bahais by background
1894. 5 Jun Thornton Chase becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BBD53; BFA1:35–6]
  • He is designated by `Abdu'l-Bahá the first American believer. [BBD53; GPB257]
  • See BFA1:35 for his own account of how he became a Bahá'í.
  • See BFA1:33–7 for other Americans who became Bahá'ís around the same time.
  • He was given the name Thábit (Steadfast) by `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD53; GPB257]
Chicago; United States Thornton Chase; First Bahais by country or area Thornton Chase in the newspapers (series of mentions especially 1893-7)
1897 In the year Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, the first Bahá'í to have settled China, dies in Bombay on his way back to Shíráz. [PH24]

The Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh are instructed by `Abdu'l-Bahá to gather to begin the consultations regarding the future organization of the Bahá'í community in Tihrán.

  • This gathering leads to the formation of the Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán in 1899. [BBD98, 114, 115; EB268]
Fifteen Bahá'ís are arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They are taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]

Three Bahá'ís are arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]

The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán are looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]

China; Mumbai; India Tihran; Saysan; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Nayriz; Hamadan; Iran Haji Mirza Muhammad-Ali (Afnan); Afnan; Spiritual Assemblies; Aqa Najafi; Persecution; First Bahais by country or area
1899 Summer Ethel Jenner Rosenberg accepts the Bahá'í Faith, the first English woman to become a Bahá'í in her native land. [AB73–4; ER39; GPB260; SBR20, 33; SEBW55-64, SCU17]
  • For her biography see Rob Weinberg's, Ethel Jenner Rosenberg.
  • She visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá several times in the first decade of the century. [SCU17]
United Kingdom Ethel Rosenberg; First Bahais by country or area
1901 summer Thomas Breakwell, an Englishman living in the United States, learns of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris from May Bolles. Within three days he becomes a believer and immediately writes to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB74–5; BW7:707]
  • For May Bolles' own account see SW7:707–11.
  • He is the first male British Bahá'í. [BFA2:154]
  • He is designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first English believer'. [GPB259]
  • He is the first Western Bahá'í to pay Huqúqu'lláh. [BW7:70]
  • See also AB74–80; BFA2:154; SEBW6572.
Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; May Maxwell (Bolles); Huququllah; First Bahais by country or area; Firsts, Other
1902 12 Oct Birth of `Abdu'l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávarí, Bahá'í scholar, author and translator, in Mashhad. Mashhad; Iran Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari; Bahai scholars
1907 26 Nov The first national Bahá'í conference is held in America. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179]
  • At the invitation of the House of Spirituality of Chicago, nine Bahá'ís from various communities join some ten from the Chicago area at a one-day conference to foster national cooperation on the Temple project and to choose a suitable site for the Temple. [BFA2:280; CT78; GPB262, 349]
Chicago; United States Conferences; Conferences, Bahai; National conference; House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conferences
1908 Sep
Bahá'í Bulletin Published September, 1908 to May 1909
Link (Will open in this window)
              Dates             
              URL   (For cut 'n' paste)      
Volume 1, Issues 1
September 1908
https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_1
Volume 1, Issues 2 and 3
October 1908
https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_2-3
Volume 1, Issue 4
December 1908
https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_4
Volume 1, Issue 5
January-February-March 1909
https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_5
Volume 1, Issue 6
April-May 1909
https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_6

The Bahá'í Bulletin was succeeded a year later by the Bahá'í News which became Star of the West a year after that. See 1910 21 March
Bahai Bulletin; Bahai News; - Periodicals
1909 21 Mar The first American Bahá'í Convention opens in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
  • It is held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
  • It is attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
  • The Convention establishes the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', which is incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution is framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146]
Chicago; United States Conventions; Corinne True; Bahai Temple Unity; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
1910 8 Jan The Persian-American Educational Society is inaugurated in Washington DC. [BFA2:XVII; 355–8]
  • Its primary purpose is to assist the Tarbíyat School in Iran. [BFA2:357]
Washington DC; United States; Iran Persian-American Educational Society; Tarbiyat School; Bahai organizations
1910 21 Mar The first issue of the Bahá'í News is published in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII; BW10:179]
  • See BFA2:320–2, BW8:927 and SBBH1:116–17 for the magazine's development.
  • It is the first Bahá'í magazine published in the West. [BBD2 14]
  • Star of the West is published as Bahá'í News (Volume 1, Issues 1-19 from 21 March, 1910 until 2 March, 1911) and later under Star of the West /The Bahá'í Magazine (Volume 2 to Volume 25, 21 March, 1911 until 25 March,1935).
  • Its editors were Albert Windust and Gertrude Buikema. Others involved with its publication over its history were Albert and Emily Vail, Dr. Zia Bagdadi, Ahmad Sohrab, Edna M. True; with Horace Holley and Stanwood Cobb being singled out as early contributors. [Duane Troxel]

Star of the West Published March 1910 to April 1935
          URL   (For cut 'n' paste)  
         Volume # / Dates (links)   
Vol 1 (Mar 1910) - Vol 10 (Mar 1920)
Vol 11 (Mar 1920) - Vol 20 (Mar 1930)
Vol 21 (Apr 1930) - Vol 25 (Apr 1935)

For an access to the Star of the West archives see http://www.starofthewest.info. This site is not searchable.

Chicago; United States Star of the West; Bahai News; - Periodicals; Firsts, Other
1911 Aug Hájí Muhammad-Taqí Afnán, Vakílu'd-Dawlih, the cousin of the Báb largely responsible for the building of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád, is buried in the newly acquired Bahá'í cemetery in Haifa, the earliest recorded burial in the cemetery. [BBD51; DH182] Haifa Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Firsts, Other
1912 By this year at least 70 Bahá'í books and pamphlets have been produced in English. [BBRSM:103–4]

There are about two dozen Bahá'ís in Canada by this year. [BFA2:158]

Canada; Worldwide Publishing; Bahai literature; English language; Translation; Growth; Statistics
1912 The publication of The Brilliant Proof by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání in Chicago by the Bahai News Service, 1912. The first edition notes state that it was written December 28, 1911, in Syria, "by the pen of Mirza Abul Fazl Gulpaygan."
  • The publication of this book marks the end of an early era of Bahá'í teaching in the West. As 'Abdu'l-Bahá continued his journeys in the United States and Canada, He delivered hundreds of public talks and private addresses which were tailored to Western audiences. The fresh outpouring of teachings which resulted from these encounters produced a new Bahá'í literature of the words of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West. Examples include the following: The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by `Abdu'l-Bahá During His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912, compiled by Howard MacNutt, (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1922-25); Paris Talks: Addresses Given by `Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912 (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1912); 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London..
Chicago; United States Brilliant Proof (book); Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Paris Talks (book); Abdul-Baha in London (book); Bahai literature
1912 30 Apr Talk at Public Meeting Concluding Convention of Bahá’í Temple Unity, Drill Hall, Masonic Temple, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP65,]

Talk at Hull House, Chicago, Illinois. Hull House was a community centre, one of the earliest in Chicago, founded by the National American Woman Suffrage Association [PUP67, MD70]

Talk at Fourth Annual Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Handel Hall, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP69, MD71]

Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Conventions; Bahai Temple Unity; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places
1914 21 Jan Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in Cairo. [AB404; BBD67]
  • For a brief biography see EM263–5, SDH113.
  • His resting place is now next to that of Lua Getsinger in the Bahá'í cemetery in Cairo.
  • His numerous works include Fará'id (The Peerless Gems) 1898; The Brilliant Proof; 1912; Bahá'í Proofs, 1902; and Al-Duraru'l-Bahíyih (The Shining Pearls, published in English as Miracles and Metaphors), 1900. [BBD7]
Cairo; Egypt Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Lua Getsinger; Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1915 19-25 Apr The Panama-Pacific International Exposition is held in San Francisco and the 24th of April is declared International Bahá'í Congress Day. [BW8:797-808] San Francisco; United States Bahai Congresses; Expositions
1916 Apr or May The first Chinese Bahá'í in China, Chen Hai An (Harold A. Chen), becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago through the efforts of Dr Zia Baghdádí. [PH29-30]
  • PH30 says this was 1919 but this is clearly a typographical error.
  • He returns to China in December 1916.
China; Chicago; United States First Bahais by country or area; Zia Baghdadi
1916 1 May Lua Getsinger, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, dies of heart failure in Cairo. [BBD87; SW7, 4:29]
  • For an her obituary see SW7, 4:29-30.
  • She is buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Cairo. In 1939 a court ruling enables the Bahá'ís to reinter her in the first Bahá'í cemetery established in Egypt. Her grave is now beside that of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. [GPB344]
  • See also Sears and Quigley, The Flame.
Cairo; Egypt Lua Getsinger; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1919 The first Norwegian to accept the Faith, Johanna Christensen-Schubarth, `the mother of the Norwegian Bahá'í Community', becomes a Bahá'í in the United States. [BW12:694-6]. Norway First Bahais by country or area
1919 2 Sep The passing of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, entitled Adíbu'l-'Ulamá, know as Adíb in Tihrán. He was born in Talaqán in 1848 and became a Bahá’í around 1889.
  • Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God. [SDH138-140]
  • He was one of the founders of the Tarbíyat Schools in Tihrán. He died in Tihrán. [LoF17-18]
  • Tihran; Talaqan; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools
    1919 20 Sep Martha Root arrives in Argentina, the first recorded visit of a Bahá'í to this country. [MR101]
    • She remains in Buenos Aires until 4 October. [MR101]
    • See MR101-2 and MRHK61-5 for her teaching work in Argentina.
    • See MR103-6 and MRHK66-9 for her journey over the Andes on a mule.
    Buenos Aires; Argentina Martha Root; Andes; First Bahais by country or area
    1920 Hyde and Clara Dunn arrive in Samoa enroute to Australia, the first Bahá'ís to visit the islands. Samoa Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; Islands; First Bahais by country or area
    1920 After Jul The first Argentineans to become Bahá'ís, Hermann Grossman and his sister Elsa Grossman, accept the Faith in Leipzig in 1920.
    • They were born in Argentina and emigrated to Germany in 1909.
    • Dr Grossman hears of the Faith at a public meeting given by Harlan and Grace Ober at the Theosophical Society. [BW13:869]
    Leipzig; Germany Herman Grossmann; Elsa Grossman; Harlan and Grace Ober; Theosophical Society; First Bahais by country or area
    1922 (in the year) Oswald Whitaker, a Sydney optometrist, and Euphemia Eleanor `Effie' Baker, a photographer, become Bahá'ís, the first Australians to accept the Faith. [BW14:320; SBR160-1, BW2p129]
    • In the 1930s Effie Baker travelled to Persia to take photographs of historical sites. [BW14:320]
    • See SETPE1p105-107 for her contribution while serving in Haifa.
    • For Effie Baker's obituary see BW14:320-1.
    Australia; Iran Oswald Whitaker; Effie Baker; Photography; First Bahais by country or area
    1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi calls for the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity to become an elected legislative body. It had been functioning since 1909 concerned mostly with the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship. He addresses his first letter to this body as the "National Spiritual Assembly of the United States" on December 23rd however in God Passes By pg333 he states that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was not formed until 1925. [SETPE1p107, CT160, CoB293] Chicago; United States Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
    • The difference between this body and its forerunner is little more than a change in name. [DP122]
    • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
    • The election procedure followed that used in the United States: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
    Chicago; United States National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 Late May The communities of London, Manchester and Bournemouth elect a Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly for England. [ER213; SBR28, 67]
    • This is also known as the Spiritual Assembly for London and the All-England Bahá'í Council. [ER2 13; SBR67]
    • See ER213 and SBR28 for membership.
    London; Manchester; Bournemouth; United Kingdom Spiritual Assemblies; All-England Bahai Council
    1922 6 Jun The All-England Bahá'í Council meets for the first time. [SBR28; UD9, 468]
    • ER2 13 says it first met 17 June.
    • The meeting is held in the home of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper. [SBR28, 67]
    United Kingdom All-England Bahai Council; Firsts, Other; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper
    1923 12 Feb Bahai Scriptures, edited by Horace Holley, is published. [SBR231]
    • It is the first comprehensive collection of Bahá'í writings made thus far in English. [SBR231]
    Horace Holley; Bahai Scriptures (book); Publications
    1923 Mar An article entitled `Bahai Organization: Its Basis in the Revealed Word' appears in Star of the West. [SW13, 12:323-8]
    • The purpose of the article is to convince those who are opposed to a structured form of Bahá'í administration. [BBRSM123]
    Bahai Organization; Star of the West; Baha'i administration; Opposition
    1924 24 Dec The first Bahá'í News Letter, forerunner of Bahá'í News, is published in New York by the National Assembly of the United States and Canada with Horace Holley as the editor. [BBRSM122; BW10:180; BW13:856; SBR232]
    • For links to the publications see entry at 1990-10-00.
    New York; United States Newsletters; Bahai News; Horace Holley
    1925 spring The International Bahá’í Bureau is established in Geneva by Jean Stannard under the direction of Shoghi Effendi. [BW4:257]
    • For the history and work of the Bureau see BW4:257–61, BW6:130–5, BW7:108–13, BW11:507–8.
    • Its function is to act as intermediary between Haifa and other Bahá’í centres. [BBD118; BW4:261]
    Geneva; Switzerland; Europe International Bahai Bureau; Jean Stannard; Firsts, Other
    1926 The Bahá’í World is first published. [BW1:4; GT77; PP209; SBR232]
    • The first edition, April 1925 to April 1926, is called The Bahá’í Yearbook.
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s impression of it see UD82–4.
    America Bahai World volumes
    1926 Jan Orcella Rexford and her husband Dr Gayne Gregory (the first to accept the Faith in Alaska) come to Haifa on pilgrimage and are technically the first from Alaska to do so. They are in the process of moving from Alaska to the Continental USA. [SETPE1p112-112]
    • See BW11p495-498 for for details of the life of Orella Rexford
    Haifa; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area; Orcella Rexford
    1926 30 Jan Martha Root meets with Queen Marie of Romania for the first time. [BBR59; GBF42; GPB390; PP107, HEC49]
    • For the details of the meeting and the acceptance of the Faith by Queen Marie see GBP389–96 and MR240–6.
    • This was the first of eight meetings between Martha Root and Queen Marie.
    Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie; Bahai royalty
    1926 2 and 4 Aug Two Bahá’í Esperanto conventions are held in conjunction with the Eighteenth Universal Esperanto Congress in Scotland. [BW2:266] Scotland; United Kingdom Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; Esperanto
    1929 14 Feb Work begins on the three additional chambers of the Shrine of the Báb after the rock had been excavated from behind the building during the previous year. [DH154]
    • Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí, the builder who had completed the repairs on the House of Bahá'u'llah in Baghdad was chosen to be in charge of the work.
    • Originally the centre room had been separated by wooden walls and doors. These were removed and replaced by archways. [SETPE1p164]
    • These rooms, when completed, are used as the International Bahá’í Archives. There is a second repository of the archives at this time near the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GPB347]
    Haifa Bab, Shrine of; International Bahai Archives; Haji Mahmud Qassabchi
    1929 9 Sep The British Bahá’ís open their new centre, at Walmar House, Upper Regent Street, London. [PSBW46–7] London; United Kingdom Bahai centres
    1930 Apr A ceremony is held at the American annual convention in dedication of the resumption of the building activities on the Wilmette Temple. [BBRSM183; BW3:47]
    • Shoghi Effendi’s gift to the Temple is ‘the most valuable sacred possession in the Holy Land’ a ‘precious ornament of the Tomb of Bahá’u’lláh’, an exquisite Persian carpet. [BA180–1; BW4:208–12]
    Wilmette; United States annual convention; Bahai Temple; Bahaullah, Shrine of; gift; Mashriqul-Adhkar; Gifts; Carpets
    1930 Dec The first Asian Women’s Conference is held in India. [BW17:180] India Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; First conferences; Asia
    1933 The Tavakkul Bahá’í School in Qazvín, Iran, is closed. [BW18:388] Qazvin; Iran Bahai schools; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1934 The government of Iran takes several measures against the Bahá’ís throughout the country. [BW18:389]
    • Nineteen Bahá’í schools are closed in Káshán, Qazvín, Yazd, Najafábád, Ábádih and elsewhere. [ARG109]
    • Bahá’í meetings are forbidden in many towns, including Tihrán, Mashhad, Sabzivár, Qazvín and Arák.
    • Bahá’ís centres in Káshán, Hamadán and Záhidán are closed by the authorities.
    • Some Bahá’í government employees are dismissed.
    • Some Bahá’í military personnel are stripped of their rank and imprisoned.
    • Bahá’ís in many places are harassed over the filling-in of marriage certificates, census forms and other legal documents.
    Iran; Kashan; Qazvin; Yazd; Najafabad; Ábadih; Tihran; Mashhad; Sabzivar; Arak; Hamadan; Zahidan Persecution; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools
    1934 6 Dec The Tarbíyat Bahá’í Schools in Tihrán and all other Bahá'í schools across the country are closed by order of the Minister of Education (headed by 'Ali-Asghar-i-Hikmat, a well-known Azali) when they fail to open on a holy day. [BBD221–2; BW18:389; CB312; GPB363; PP308; RoB4p313]
    • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR475–9.
    Tihran Tarbiyat Bahai Schools; Bahai schools; Holy days; Persecution
    1936 Mr E. R. and Mrs Loulie Mathews arrive in Guatemala, the first Bahá’í teachers to visit the country. Guatemala E. R. Mathews; Loulie Mathews; Travel teaching; First Bahais by country or area
    1936 Nov Renée Szanto-Felbermann becomes a Bahá’í, the first to accept the Faith in Hungary. She is considered the first person to accept the Faith by some notwithstanding the events of 1913. [BW19:633]
    • See also Renée Szanto-Felbermann, Rebirth: The Memoirs of Szanto-Felbermann p104.
    • This document prepared by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'í Community of Hungary says that Mr. Arminius Vámbéry is the first believer in Hungary. See www.bahai.hu
    • See BW5p329 for the testament written by Professor Vámbéry and published in the Egyptian Gazette September 24th, 1913.
    Hungary; Budapest First Bahais by country or area; Arminius Vambéry
    1937 2 May The Yerrinbool Bahá’í School (originally known as ‘Bolton Place’) is officially opened in Australia. Australia Yerrinbool Bahai School
    1938 William DeForge becomes the first Bahá’í to visit the Dominican Republic. He has made a one-day trip from Puerto Rico. Dominican Republic; Central America First Bahais by country or area find reference
    1938 The first Bahá’í to be resident in Finland, Aminda Josephine Kruka, an American nurse, arrives in the country. Finland First Bahais by country or area find reference
    1938 Jul The first Finnish Bahá’í, Pastor Väinö Rissanen, accepts the Faith. [BW8:935; BW17:129]
    • For a letter from him about Finland see BW8:936.
    Finland First Bahais by country or area
    1939 Feb A.-L.-M. Nicolas, the French consular official and Orientalist who made a study of the Bábí Faith, passes away in Paris.
    • His important collection of manuscripts is auctioned and the items relevant to the Bahá’í and Bábí Faiths are purchased by the Bahá’í World Centre.
    Paris; France A.L.M. Nicolas; Babi studies; Bahai studies
    1939 2 Nov The first people to become Bahá’ís in El Salvador, Luis O. Pérez, Emilio Bermudez and José Manuel Vela, accept the Faith in San Salvador. San Salvador; El Salvador First Bahais by country or area
    1940 13 Jan María Teressa Martín de López (Irizarry), from Puerto Rico, becomes a Bahá’í in the Dominican Republic while on a visit. She is the first Puerto Rican Bahá’í and the first person to become a Bahá’í in the Dominican Republic.
    • For the story of her life see BW8:631–42.
    Dominican Republic First Bahais by country or area
    1940 1 Mar May Bolles Maxwell passes away in Buenos Aires. [BBD153; BW8:631 TG49]
    • Shoghi Effendi awards her the honour of a ‘martyr’s death’ and a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW8:631; MA38]
    • She was the first Bahá'í on European soil and the "mother" of both the French and the Canadian Bahá'í communities. [PP149]
    • For the story of her life see BW17:437–8.
    • Shoghi Effendi asks her husband, Sutherland Maxwell, to design her tomb, which is to be a ‘historic centre’ for ‘pioneer Bahá’í activity’. [BW8:642]
    • For an account of the erection of the monument to her see PSBW83–6.
    Buenos Aires; Argentina May Maxwell (Bolles); Martyrs; Sutherland Maxwell; Architecture; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area
    1940 1 Aug The first four people to become Bahá’ís in Costa Rica accept the Faith after Gayle Woolson and Amelia Ford from the United States arrive in Puerto Limón on 29 March 1940.
    • The first to enrol is Raul Contreras, followed by his cousin Guido Contreras, and by José Joaquin Ulloa and Felipe Madrigal.
    Costa Rica; Central America First Bahais by country or area
    1940 Dec Gerald and Vivian MacBeans, a Jamaican couple, and their niece, Miss May Johnson, become the first people to accept the Faith in Haiti. Haiti First Bahais by country or area
    1941 18 May Yvonne Cuellar, a French woman, becomes a Bahá’í in Bolivia.
    • Although Marina del Prado was the first to become a Bahá’í, on 2 February 1941, she did not remain active, so Yvonne Cuellar is recognized as the first Bahá’í in Bolivia. She was called by Shoghi Effendi ‘Mother of Bolivia’.
    • For the story of her life see BW19:619–22.
    Bolivia First Bahais by country or area
    1942 Dr Malcolm King, a Jamaican who become a Bahá'í in the United States, introduces the Faith to his homeland. [SDSCp425 note 2]
    • He held meetings at 190 Orange Street in Kingston. By 1943, the people he had taught founded a spiritual assembly in Kingston. [The Gleaner]
    Jamaica First Bahais by country or area
    1942 16 Nov Manuel Bergés Chupani, of Sánchez, Dominican Republic, becomes a Bahá’í, perhaps the first native Dominican person to accept the Faith. Dominican Republic First Bahais by country or area
    1944 Apr The first Bahá’í shortwave radio broadcast is beamed from New York towards South America. [BW9:44–5]
    • VV76 says this was 1943.
    New York; United States Bahai radio; Firsts, Other
    1945 1 Aug A children’s hostel is founded in Panchgani, Maharashtra state, India. [BBD171; BBRSM153; BW16:320]
    • It expands into the New Era High School.
    • For the history of the school see BW16:320–6.
    Panchgani; Maharashtra; India New Era High School; Bahai schools
    1946 20 - 25 Jan The first teaching conference in Latin America is held in Panama City on the instructions of Shoghi Effendi. Panama; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1947 The first Chilean Teaching Conference is held in Santiago. Santiago; Chile Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; First conferences
    1947 1 Feb Reflecting the unity in diversity highly valued by the Baha'i community, Amin Banani, Mildred Mottahedeh, Hilda Yen, and Matthew Bullock presented the statement "A Baha'i Declaration of Human Obligations and Rights" to the UN, which ended by quoting a well-known passage by Baha'u'llah: "The earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens."

    Amin Banani was an influential scholar; Mildred Mottahedeh was a member of the International Baha'i Council from 1961-63 and later a representative of the BIC for many years; Hilda Yen was a leading figure in Chinese-American society who worked as a diplomat for many years; and Matthew Bullock was a Knight of Baha'u'llah for the Dutch West Indies, on this day was also a Knight for the Netherlands Antilles, and later a representative of the BIC. [BWNS1172]

    New York; United States UN; Matthew Bullock; Bahai International Community; Firsts, Other
    1947 5 Jul Manuel Garcia Vasquez becomes a Bahá’í in Spain, the first believer in the country. Spain First Bahais by country or area
    1947 Sep Léa Nys becomes a Bahá’í in Belgium, the first Belgian to accept the Faith after World War Two.
    • She is considered the first Belgian Bahá’í.
    Belgium First Bahais by country or area
    1947 12 Dec The first pioneer to Portugal, Valeria Lamb Nicols, arrives from a pioneer post in Denmark. Portugal First Bahais by country or area
    1948 Mar The name ‘Bahá’í International Community’ is first used to refer to the eight existing National Spiritual Assemblies recognized collectively as a non-governmental organization. [BBRSM149; BW11:43; BW12:597]
    • The Bahá’í International Community evolved to become an international non-governmental organization with affiliates in over 180 countries and territories, which together represent over 5-6 million members of the Bahá’í Faith. As an international NGO, the Office interacts and cooperates with the United Nations, its specialized agencies, with governments, as well as with inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations. The BIC seeks to promote and apply principles — derived from the teachings of the Bahá’í Faith — which contribute to the resolution of current day challenges facing humanity and the development of a united, peaceful, just, and sustainable civilization. The work of the BIC focuses on the promotion of a universal standard for human rights, the advancement of women, and the promotion of just and equitable means of global prosperity.
    • Mildred Mottahedeh is appointed to serve as the accredited Bahá’í International Observer, a post she holds as a volunteer for almost 20 years. [BW12:601]
    • The following is a list of UN agencies with whom the BIC has representation: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Health Organization (WHO).
    New York Bahai International Community (general); Mildred Mottahedeh; UNICEF; UNIFEM; ECOSOC; UNEP; World Health Organization (WHO); Firsts, Other
    1948 22 – 26 May The first Bahá’í European Conference is held in Geneva. [BW11:51]
    • For details of the conference see BW11:51–2.
    Geneva; Switzerland Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Europe
    1948 Dec Amjad Ali arrives in East Pakistan, from Chapra in Bihar, northern India, the first pioneer to the country. Bangladesh; Asia First Bahais by country or area
    1949 Agnes Harrison (née Parent), an Athabascan, becomes a Bahá’í in Alaska, the first Native Alaskan to accept the Faith in the country. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area
    1950 Nov Brian Burland, the first Bermudian to become a Bahá’í, accepts the Faith in Canada. Canada; Bermuda First Bahais by country or area
    1950 Nov From Switzerland, Shoghi Effendi invites five Bahá’ís—Lotfullah Hakim, Jessie and Ethel Revell, Amelia Collins and Mason Remey—to Haifa. [PP251]
    • They, together with Ben and Gladys Weeden who are already there, are told that they will constitute the International Bahá’í Council. [PP251–2]
    Switzerland; BWC; Haifa International Bahai Council; Lutfullah Hakim; Jessie Revell; Ethel Revell; Amelia Collins; Charles Mason Remey; Ben Weeden; Gladys Weeden
    1951 Shoghi Effendi receives the original manuscript of The Kitáb-i-Íqán, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá with some marginal additions by Bahá’u’lláh, and places it in the International Bahá’í Archives. Haifa International Bahai Archives; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude)
    1951 9 Jan Shoghi Effendi announced the formation of the International Bahá'í Council. [MBW7,8]

    Proclaim National Assemblies of East and West weighty epoch-making decision of formation of first International Bahá'í Council, forerunner of supreme administrative institution destined to emerge in fullness of time within precincts beneath shadow of World Spiritual Center of Faith already established in twin cities of 'Akká and Haifa....

    • See UD261 for the significance of the establishment of the International Bahá'í Council.
    Between 1951 and 1957 Shoghi Effendi directed the members and used the Council to create an image of an international body handling the Bahá'í affairs in Haifa. According to Shoghi Effendi, the Council's responsibilities were to:
    • establish links with the Israeli authorities, and
    • negotiate with them concerning an establishing of a Bahá'í court to deal with personal matters,
    • Shoghi Effendi to complete the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb
    • as an international Bahá'í secretariat.

      This body functioned until the election of the Universal House of Justice in 1963.

    BWC International Bahai Council
    1951 9 Jan Shoghi Effendi announces the establishment of the International Bahá’í Council. [BBD118; BBRSM127; GBF109; MBW7–8; PP252]
    • It is a forerunner to the Universal House of Justice. [BBD118]
    • For its functions see MBW7–8.
    • Its seat is the Western Pilgrim House. [BBD178]
    • For the stages of its evolution see CB324.
    Haifa International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Western Pilgrim House
    1951 23 May Jamshed and Parvati Fozdar arrive in Kuching with their son, Vijay, the first Bahá’ís to settle in Sarawak. Kuching; Sarawak; Malaysia Jamshed Fozdar; First Bahais by country or area
    1951 2 Aug Músá and Samí‘ih Banání; their daughter, Violette and her husband, ‘Alí Nakhjavání; their baby daughter, Bahíyyih; and Philip Hainsworth from England arrive in Kampala, the first pioneers to Uganda. Kampala; Uganda Musa Banani; Samiih Banani; Violette Nakhjavani; Ali Nakhjavani; Philip Hainsworth; First Bahais by country or area
    1952 Walli Khan, a Fiji Indian, becomes a Bahá’í, the first person in Fiji to accept the Faith. Fiji First Bahais by country or area
    1952 Mar Mariette Bolton of Australia visits New Caledonia, the first Bahá’í to visit the islands.
    • During her visit Mlle Françoise Feminier becomes a Bahá’í, the first person in New Caledonia to accept the Faith.
    New Caledonia First Bahais by country or area; Islands
    1952 8 Mar Shoghi Effendi announces the enlargement of the International Bahá’í Council to eight members. [MBW22; PP252–3]
    • Its members are Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery, Leroy Ioas, Jessie Revell, Ethel Revell and Lotfullah Hakim. [BW12:379; MBW22]
    Haifa International Bahai Council; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Jessie Revell; Ethel Revell; Lutfullah Hakim
    1952 Jun or Jul Mr C. C. Cheng, a newspaper reporter; Professor L. S. Tso, a professor of engineering; and Miss Rosie Du (Ruthy Tu) become Bahá’ís in Taiwan, the first people to accept the Faith in the country. Taiwan; Asia First Bahais by country or area
    1952 Jun Aaron (‘Arthur’) B. Wellesley Cole, a Sierra Leonean barrister, returns to Sierra Leone from England, the first Bahá’í to enter the country. Sierra Leone First Bahais by country or area
    1952 8 Oct Shoghi Effendi announces his decision to launch ‘the fate-laden, soul-stirring, decade-long world-embracing Spiritual Crusade’ in the coming year. [BW12:253–5; MBW411
    • For the objectives of the Crusade see BW12:256–14.
    • Among the goals to be achieved is the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives building. [BBD22; DH168; MBW43]
    • He calls upon the Hands of the Cause to appoint during Ridván 1954 five auxiliary boards to act as their adjuncts or deputies to work with the national spiritual assemblies to execute the projected national plans. [MBW44, BW13p335]
    Haifa Ten Year Crusade; International Bahai Archives; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; NSA
    1953 12–18 Feb The first Intercontinental Teaching Conference is convened by the British National Spiritual Assembly in Kampala, Uganda. [BW12:121, MBW135-140]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:121–4.
    • For a report of the conference see BW12:124–30.
    • It is attended by ten Hands of the Cause, Bahá’ís from 19 countries and representatives of over 30 tribes. [PP413]
    • Over a hundred new African believers attend as personal guests of the Guardian. [PP413]
    • With this conference the Ten Year World Crusade is launched. [BBRSM158–9; BW12:253; MBW41]
    Kampala; Uganda Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Ten Year Crusade; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; First conferences
    1953 Ridván Mrs Meherangiz Munsiff, the wife of an Indian diplomat in London, arrives in Madagascar and is acknowledged as the first Bahá’í in the country. [news.bahai.org/story/288]
    • There was one other Bahá’í in Madagascar before Mrs Munsiff but he was not a Bahá’í in good standing.
    • Suffering ill health, Mrs. Munsiff left in January 1954 a day after Danile Randrianarivo, 29, accepted the Faith, becoming the first Malagasy Baha'i.
    Madagascar Meherangiz Munsiff; Danile Randrianarivo; First Bahais by country or area
    1953 3 – 6 May The All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Chicago. [BW12:133]
    • For the texts of Shoghi Effendi’s messages to the conference see BW12:133–41 and MBW142–6.
    • Twelve Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:143]
    • At the conference, five members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States resign from that body in order to go pioneering: Elsie Austin, Dorothy Baker, Matthew Bullock, Mamie Seto and Dr William Kenneth Christian. [ZK102]
    • Extract from the cecond message to All-American Intercontinental Conference from Shoghi Effendi... [MBW150]
      .....the lands contributed in Latin America for a similar purpose approximate one-half of a million square meters, ninety thousand of which have been set aside near Santiago, Chile, for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of South America..
    Chicago; United States; Santiago; Chile Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Pioneering; Elsie Austin; Dorothy Baker; Matthew Bullock; Mamie Seto; William Kenneth Christian; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Land purchases
    1953 21 – 26 Jul The European Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Stockholm. [BW12:167]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:167–71.
    • For a report of the conference see BW12:171–8.
    • Fourteen Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:171]
    • 374 Bahá’ís from 30 countries attend, of these 110 come from the ten goal countries. [BW12:171]
    Stockholm; Sweden; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities
    1953 Oct Albert Nyarko Buapiah becomes a Bahá’í in Ghana, the first Ghanaian to become a Bahá’í in the country. Ghana First Bahais by country or area find reference
    1953 7 – 15 Oct The Asian Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in New Delhi. [BW12:178]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:178–81.
    • For a report of the conference see BW12:181–8.
    • This is the first international Bahá’í gathering ever to be held in the East. [BW12:181; SBR171]
    • It is attended by 489 Bahá’ís representing 31 countries. [BW 12:181]
    • The design for the International Bahá’í Archives is revealed to the Bahá’ís of the world for the first time at this conference. [DH168]
    New Delhi; India; Asia International Bahai Archives; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; First conferences
    1953 Oct Enoch Olinga arrives in Victoria (Limbé) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the British Cameroons. [BW13:449]
    • The first Cameroonian to become a Bahá’í in British Cameroon is a youth, Jacob Tabot Awo.
    • The first Cameroonian adult to become a Bahá’í is Enoch Ngompek of the Bassa tribe.
    • The first Cameroonian woman to become a Bahá’í is Esther Obeu, the wife of David Tanyi.
    Victoria (Limbé); British Cameroons; Cameroon; Nigeria Enoch Olinga; Knights of Bahaullah; First Bahais by country or area
    1953 Late in the year ‘Abdu’l-Karím Amín Khawja becomes a Bahá’í in Algeria, the first person to accept the Faith in that country. Algeria; Africa First Bahais by country or area find reference
    1954 The first Tlinget from Alaska to become a Bahá’í, Eugene King, enrols. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area find reference
    1954 The first person to become a Bahá’í in the Balearic Islands, C. Miguel, enrols. Balearic Islands First Bahais by country or area; Islands
    1954 José Mingorance Fernandez and his wife, Carmen Tost, a Spanish couple, accept the Bahá’í Faith, the first to enrol in Andorra. Andorra First Bahais by country or area
    1954 4 Mar The arrival of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Elena (Marsella) and Roy Fernie in Kiribati. [BWNS301, BW13:452]

    They had left their home in Panama and their service on the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama to pioneer. They arrived on the island of Abaiang (aka Charlotte Island, of the Gilbert Islands), on March 4, 1954 and for this service they were named Knights of Baha'u'llah. About the first of June 1954, former Catholic seminarian and mission teacher Peter Kanere Koru became the first convert on the island.

    Their teaching work brought opposition from the Roman Catholic priest who told his congregation not to attend the Bahá'í meetings. He began to criticize them in the Roman Catholic newsletter and actually contributed to the knowledge of the Faith because the newsletter had a wide distribution.

    The priest persisted in his opposition by informing his bishop who asked the government to send the Fernies away and to send Peter Kanere back to his native island of Tabiteuea. At the time, to be a registered religious organization required a membership of at least 100 believers so the government approved sending the Fernies away however, in a single night some 300 people registered. A certificate of registration was issued on the 24th of September, 1955, but not before they managed to send Roy Fernie away. Elena continued the teaching work on her own and was responsible for firmly establishing the Faith on Abaiang.

    Meanwhile, Peter Kanere, back on his home island, managed to teach a Protestant minister who was under discipline of his church at the time. Together they spread the Faith on Tabiteuea. [Island Churches: Challenge and Change by Makisi Finau page 101]

    Tabiteuea; Kiribati; Oceania; Gilbert Islands Knights of Bahaullah; First Bahais by country or area
    1954 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces that plans for the International Bahá’í Archives have been completed and that steps have been taken to begin its construction. [BBD22–3; DH169; GBF117–8; MBW64] Haifa; Mount Carmel International Bahai Archives
    1954 19 Jun The first Canary Islander to become a Bahá’í, Sr. José Jacinto Castillo y Gonzalez, enrols. Canary Islands First Bahais by country or area
    1954 Jul Reginald Stone and Allan Delph become Bahá’ís in British Guiana, the first two people to accept the Faith in that country. British Guiana; Latin America First Bahais by country or area
    1954 Second half of the year The first Somali to become a Bahá’í in Djibouti, ‘Alí ‘Abdu’lláh, a 21-year old employee of a commercial firm, enrols. Djibouti; Somalia; Africa First Bahais by country or area find reference
    1954 Oct The first person to become a Bahá’í in Nassau, Bahamas, Winfield Small, a young police officer from Barbados, enrols.
    • Mr Small opened Barbados to the Faith.
    Nassau; Bahamas; Barbasos First Bahais by country or area
    1954 Nov A plot of land of slightly less than half an acre owned by Farah Sprague, a Covenant-breaker, is purchased, overcoming the final obstacle to beginning the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives. [DH169; MBW73–4] Haifa Farah Sprague; Covenant-breakers; International Bahai Archives Was she the Iranian-born wife of Sidney Sprague? See BFA2p155
    1954 20 Nov The first person to become a Bahá’í in Tonga, Harry Terepo, born in Rarotonga, Cook Islands, enrols.
    • He is a teacher, interpreter and guide living in Ohonua on the island of Eua.
    Tonga First Bahais by country or area
    1955 The first indigenous Samoan to become a Bahá’í, Sa’ialala Tamasese, enrols.
    • He is a member of one of the three royal families of Samoa. [BINS, No. 100, 1 MARCH 1979, p. 1]
    Samoa First Bahais by country of region; Bahai royalty
    1955 Labíb Isfahání arrives in Abidjan, French West Africa, from Dakar, the first Bahá’í to settle in what is now the Ivory Coast. Abidjan; French West Africa Habib Isfahani; First Bahais by country or area
    1955 The first person to become a Bahá’í in Spanish Sahara, ‘Abdu’l-Salam Salím Al-Sbintí, enrols. Spanish Sahara; Africa First Bahais by country or area
    1955 Feb The first local person to become a Bahá’í in Mauritius, Mr Yam-Lim, a Chinese Catholic, enrols. Mauritius First Bahais by country or area
    1955 8–15 Feb The first people to become Bahá’ís in Réunion, Paul and Françoise Tayllamin (8 Feb) and Jean Donat and Julien Araye (15 Feb), enrol. Reunion Island; France First Bahais by country or area
    1955 Mar The first person to become a Bahá’í in the Solomon Islands, William Gina, a 43-year-old Solomon Islander from the Western Solomon Islands, enrols. Solomon Islands; Oceania First Bahais by country or area
    1955 4 Mar The first Tongan to become a Bahá’í in Tonga, Tevita Ngalo’afe, enrols. Tonga First Bahais by background
    1955 20 Mar Shoghi Effendi announces the commencement of the excavation for the foundations of the International Bahá’í Archives. [MBW75] Haifa International Bahai Archives
    1955 4 May Sylvia Ioas is appointed to the International Bahá’í Council as its ninth member. [BW19:612; GBF110; MBW86; PP253] Haifa Sylvia Ioas; International Bahai Council
    1955 23 May The Bahá’í International Community submits its Proposals for Charter Revision to the United Nations for the Conference for Revision of the UN Charter. [BW13:788, 795–802] New York; United States Bahai International Community; UN Charter; United Nations
    1955 Aug Appeals are made by National Spiritual Assemblies around the world through the Bahá’í International Community to the UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld to ask the Iranian government to halt the attacks on the Bahá’ís. [BW13:789–91; BW16:329; MBW88–9; PP304, 311]
    • The intervention of the Secretary-General of the UN, along with the efforts of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, bring an end to the physical persecution of the Bahá’ís, although their human rights are still denied. [BW13:790; BW16:329]
    • This marks the first time the Faith is able to defend itself with its newly born administrative agencies. An “Aid the Persecuted Fund” was established.
    • Historian Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi noted that the 1955 anti-Bahá'í campaign was both the apogee and the point of separation of the state-clergy co-operation. The Shah succumbing to international pressure to provide human rights, withdrew support. The result was that the period from the late fifties until 1977-1978 was a period of relative safety. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
    New York; United States; Iran Bahai International Community; Dag Hammarskjöld; NSA; Persecution
    1955. 23 - 25 Sep International Teaching Conference held in Nikko, Japan. [Japan Will Turn Ablaze p87, 97] Nikko; Japan Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; First conferences
    1956 The first Tlinget to become a Bahá’í in Alaska, Joyce Anderson Combs, enrols. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area
    1956 c. The first person in Tibet to become a Bahá’í, Chiten Tashi, a young businessman from the village of Chombethan, enrols. Tibet First Bahais by country or area
    1956 12 Feb The first four people to become Bahá’ís in Hong Kong, Nari Sherwani, Ng Ying Kay, Chan Lie Kun and Chan Lie Fun, enrol. [PH75] Hong Kong First Bahais by country or area
    1956 11 - 12 Nov First All-Taiwan Teaching Conference held in Tainan, Taiwan. Tainan; Taiwan Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; First conferences find reference
    1957 Charles Winfield Small, a native of Barbados and the first to become a Bahá’í in the Bahamas, returns to Barbados, the first Bahá’í to settle in the country. Barbados; Central America First Bahais by country or area
    1957 c. Apr - 1958 Apr The first Tuareg to become a Bahá’í enrols in Rabat, Morocco. Rabat; Morocco First Bahais by background
    1957 Ridván The International Bahá’í Archives is completed. [DH169; GBF63–4; PP264–5]
    • For details of its construction and photographs see BW13:403–33.
    Haifa International Bahai Archives
    1957 4 Nov Shoghi Effendi passes away in London of coronary thrombosis after a bout of Asian influenza. [CB377; PP446]
    • He was in London to purchase some furniture to complete the interior of the International Archives Building. [PP445]
    • For a tribute to Shoghi Effendi written by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW13:58–226.]
    • See also Rabbání, The Guardian Of The Bahá’í Faith and The Priceless Pearl.
    London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; International Bahai Archives; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; - Basic timeline
    1957 19 Nov Nine Hands of the Cause are chosen by Rúhíyyih Khánum to examine Shoghi Effendi’s apartment. [BW 13:341]
    • These are the five members of the International Bahá’í Council (Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery and Leroy Ioas), an Afnán (Hasan Balyuzi), a representative of the Hands of the Western Hemisphere (Horace Holley), a representative of the Hands of the African continent (Músá Banání) and the Trustee of the Huqúqu’lláh (‘Alí Muhammad Varqá). [BW13:341]
    • After seeing that the seals are intact, the Hands examine the contents of Shoghi Effendi’s safe and desk. [BW13:341]
    • The nine Hands sign a document testifying that no Will or Testament of any nature executed by Shoghi Effendi has been found. This is reported to the entire body of Hands assembled in the Mansion of Bahjí. [BW13:341]
    • See CB378–9 for an explanation of why Shoghi Effendi left no Will.
    Haifa; Bahji Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Horace Holley; Musa Banani; Ali-Muhammad Varqa
    1957 Nov-1963 Apr The six year ministry of the Hands of the Cause residing in the Holy Land, or ‘Custodians’. [BW16:90; WG45–6]
    • This period is known as the ‘interregnum’. [BBD 120]
    • See BW14:467 for a summary of the work of the Hands of the Cause during this period.
    • The International Bahá’í Council continues to perform its duties at the World Centre under the direction of the Custodians. [BBD118]
    • See also The Ministry of The Custodians 1957–1963.
    Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Custodians; Interregnum; Ministry of The Custodians (book); International Bahai Council
    1958 The first Aleut to become a Bahá’í, Vassa Lekanoff, enrols in Unalaska. Unalaska; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area
    1958 23–28 Jan The first Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Kampala, Uganda. [BW13:317]
    • Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by Dr Lutfu’lláh Hakím.
    • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC56–60.
    • For a report of the conference see BW13:317.
    Kampala; Uganda Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Lutfullah Hakim; Bahai conferences
    1958 21–24 Mar The second Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Sydney, Australia. [BW13:319]
    • Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative and who is the architect of the Mother Temple of Australasia, attends, accompanied by four other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:317]
    • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC72–5.
    • For a report of the conference see BW13:319–21.
    Sydney; Australia Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Ten Year Crusade; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects
    1959 The first Eskimo in Alaska to become a Bahá’í, William Wiloya, enrols in Nome. Nome; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area; Eskimos
    1959 1 Feb The ‘first Dependency of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in Wilmette’, the Bahá’í Home for the Aged, opens. [BW13:747]
    • For the history of its building see BW13:743–8.
    • For pictures see BW13:742, 744–7.
    Wilmette; United States Bahai Home for the Aged; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1959 4 Nov The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their third Conclave. [MC166–70]
    • The date for the election of the Universal House of Justice is fixed at Ridván 1963. [MC166]
    • They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of 21 national spiritual assemblies in Latin America. [MC167–8]
    • They call for the election at Ridván 1962 of 11 national spiritual assemblies in Europe. [MC168]
    • They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of the International Bahá’í Council by postal ballot of the members of the national and regional spiritual assemblies constituted at Ridván 1960. [MC168]
    • The name of Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey is missing from the list of signatories to this letter. [MC170]
    ‘Akka Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Universal House of Justice, Election of; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
    1960 (In the decade) A number of Bahá’í primary schools are opened in Bolivia. Bolivia Bahai schools
    1960s, early Two Bahá’í primary schools open in Uganda. Uganda Bahai schools
    1960 27 Apr The International Bahá’í Council by unanimous vote rejects the claim of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC206–7] Haifa International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 13 May The International Bahá’í Council writes to the Custodians recording its decision taken on 27 April to reject the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [Mc206–7] Haifa International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Custodians; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 12 Jul Horace Hotchkiss Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 April, 1887 in Torrington, CT) [MC226-227, BW13:849]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW13:849–858.
    • For cable from the Hands of the Cause see MC217–18.
    • See also SBR214-247, LoF253-264 and Holley, Horace Hotchkiss by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram.
    • His publications Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion, Religion for Mankind, World Unity, Bahai, The Spirit of the Age, Baha'i Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha, Read-aloud Plays, Divinations and Creation, The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh, The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse .
    Haifa; Torrington; CT Horace Holley; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Bahai Scriptures (book); Read-aloud Plays; Plays
    1961 Knud Jensen (of mixed Danish, St Thomanian parentage), the first local person to become a Bahá’í in the Virgin Islands, enrols. Virgin Islands; United States First Bahais by country or area
    1961 Ridván The International Bahá’í Council is elected for the first time, by postal ballot of the members of the national spiritual assemblies. [BW13:397; MC282]
    • The members are Jessie Revell, ‘Alí Nakhjavání, Lutfu’lláh Hakím, Ethel Revell, Charles Wolcott, Sylvia Ioas, Mildred Mottahedeh, Ian Semple and Borrah Kavelin. [MC282]
    • See BW13:398 for picture.
    • See also BBD118; BBRSM131; BW16:90; CB324; MC168, 242.
    Haifa International Bahai Council; Jessie Revell; Ali Nakhjavani; Lutfullah Hakim; Ethel Revell; Charles Wolcott; Sylvia Ioas; Mildred Mottahedeh; Ian Semple; Borrah Kavelin
    1961 25 – 26 Jun The newly-elected International Bahá’í Council meets for the first time. [BW13:397; MC285–6]
    • For details of the meeting and excerpts from its minutes see MC285–91.
    Haifa International Bahai Council
    1961 autumn/winter The International Bahá’í Archives is opened to Bahá’í pilgrims. [BW13:429; MC20]
    • For details of the Archives building and several pictures see BW13:403–34.
    • Marble for the the International Baha’i Archives building was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
    Haifa International Bahai Archives; Pilgrimage; Marble
    1962 Mar Aboubacar Kâ, a school teacher and the first Senegalese known to become a Bahá’í, enrols. Senegal; Africa First Bahais by country or area
    1962 22 May The first Athabascan Indian north of the Arctic Circle to become a Bahá’í, Charley Roberts, enrols. [BW15:455] Canada First Bahais by country or area; Native Americans
    1962 autumn A property is acquired outside of Gwalior, India, for a teaching institute. [DM192]
    • The institute is later converted into a boarding hostel solely for Indian children and still later into the ‘Rabbani School’, now an accredited agricultural school. [DM192–3; VV82]
    Gwalior; India teaching institutes; Rabbani School; Bahai schools
    1965 15 Jul Hendrik Olsen, the first indigenous Greenlander to become a Bahá’í, enrols. Greenland Hendrik Olsen; First Bahais by country or area
    1965 19 Sep Walter Garland and Miss Annie Lourie Williams, the first to become Bahá’ís on Grand Turk Island, enrol. Grand Turk Island; Central America First Bahais by country or area
    1966 17 April Ivor Ellard, a British resident of the United States, arrives Dominica, the first pioneer to the island.
    • Two days later William Nedden settles on the island.
    Dominica First Bahais by country or area
    1967. 24 - 26 Mar The Arctic Policy Conference was held in Toronto. Present were 16 attendees, Hand of the Cause John Robarts, representatives of the National Spiritual Assembly, the Auxiliary Board, the National Pioneer Committee and individuals involved in the teaching work in the Arctic. It was decided to establish Bahá'í houses in Frobisher Bay in the District of Franklin, Baker Lake in the District of Keewatin and Yellowknife in the District of Mackenzie. [SDSC278]
    • Photo of Bahá'í House in Baker Lake.
    Toronto; Frobisher Bay; Baker Lake; Yellowknife John Robarts; Bahai centres
    1967. 11 Dec The Bahá'í Campus Club was inaugurated at the University of New Brunswick. Moncton; New Brunswick; Canada Bahai associations; Universities find reference
    1968 19 Feb His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa, the first reigning monarch to become a Bahá’í, writes to the Universal House of Justice confirming his acceptance of the Faith. [BW15:180–3] Western Samoa Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Bahai royalty; Firsts, Other
    1968 27 – 28 Jul The first National Youth Conference of Honduras opens in Santa Rosa de Copán. [BW15:328–9] Santa Rosa de Copan; Honduras Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1969 29 Dec - 1970 2 Jan The First Pacific Area Bahá’í Youth Conference takes place in Apia, Western Samoa. [BW15:329–30]
    • For picture see BW15:330.
    Apia; Western Samoa; Oceania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1970 25 Jan Valde Nyman, the first full Gypsy in Finland to become a Bahá’í, enrols in Helsinki. Finland First Bahais by country or area; Gypsies
    1970 19 – 21 Jun Rúhíyyih Khánum interrupts her African teaching safari to meet with more than 2,000 youth at the National Youth Conference in the United States. [BW15:331; VV10] United States; Africa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1970 Dec Canadian Bahá’ís hold a Victory Conference in Iceland to prepare the community to achieve assembly status in 1972. [BW15:335] Iceland Bahai conferences
    1971 Apr The International Bahá’í Youth Conference takes places at Oteppe-Namur, Belgium, launching a two-year youth campaign for Europe. [BW15:333–4]
    • For picture see BW15:334.
    Oteppe-Namur; Belgium; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1971 31 Jul - 11 Aug The European Youth Conference takes place in Fiesch, Switzerland, attended by 1,200 youth from 50 countries. [BW15:336–8]
    • About 200 people enrol in the Bahá’í Faith during the conference. [BW15:336]
    • For pictures see BW15:337.
    Fiesch; Switzerland; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1971 27 – 30 Aug The first Bahá’í Youth Conference for Western Asia takes place in New Delhi. [BW15:335]
    • Two thousand people enrol during the conference and the week following. [BW15:335]
    New Delhi; India; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences; Mass conversion
    1971 Nov The first Bahá’í Youth Conference of the Antilles takes place in the Dominican Republic. [BW 15:217] Dominican Republic Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1972 1 May The international teaching conference in Panama held in conjunction with the dedication of the House of Worship opens. [BW15:635]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:635–7.
    Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International
    1972 Dec The first International Youth Conference of Surinam takes places in Paramaribo. [BW15:341] Paramaribo; Suriname; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1972 29 - 31 Dec The first West African Bahá’í Youth conference is held in The Gambia. The Continental Board of Counsellors sponsored the first West African Bahá’í Youth Conference in conjunction with the National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa. The Conference was held in The Gambia on the campus of Yundum College some fifteen miles from the capital city of Bathurst. Youth representing nine countries in this zone attended: Nigerin, Upper Volta, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, Senegal and Mauritania, plus pioneers originating from the United States, Mauritius, Malaysia, Iran, and friiq. A young Bahá’í from Sweden was able to greet the friends during a brief stop on a boat cruise. Counsellors Mr. H. R. Ardikani and Dr. William Maxwell Jr., were present as well as six of their Auxiliary Board members, Mr. Amos Agwu, Mr. Muhammad Al-Salihi, Mrs. H. Vera Edwards, Mr. Friday Ekpe, Mr. Shidan Kouchekzadeh and Dr. B. Sadiqzadeh. A total of fifty-six persons attended.[Bahá'í Works 504] Banjul (Bathurst); Gambia, The; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1973 The first International Youth Conference of Mexico takes place in Puebla City, attended by 200 youth from five countries. [BW15:343] Puebla City; Mexico Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences; North America
    1973 Nov The first youth conference of Papua New Guinea takes place in Sogeri with 40 youth and visitors. [BW16:276] Sogeri; Papua New Guinea Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1974 The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward and Virgin Islands holds its first annual National Teaching Conference. [BW16:187] Leeward and Virgin Islands Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; First conferences
    1974 The Canadian Association for Studies on the Bahá’í Faith is created. [BW16:200]
    • For its history; terms of reference and programmes and publications see BW17:197–201.
    Canada Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1974 21 Mar In its Naw-Rúz Message the Universal House of Justice announced that there would be eight International Teaching Conferences will be held during the middle part of the Five Year Plan; two for the Arctic, one in Anchorage and one in Helsinki during July 1976, one in Paris in August 1976, one in Nairobi in October 1976, one in Hong Kong in November 1976, one in Auckland and one in Bahia, Brazil in January 1977 and one in Mérida, Mexico in February 1977. The theme of these conferences was the urgent need for the Bahá'ís to ARISE to teach the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh. (Arise-Reach-Individual-Souls-Everywhere). 14,500 Bahá'ís attended. [Naw-Rúz 1974.] Worldwide Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; Arising; UHJ
    1974 May c. The first National Youth Conference of Burma takes place during the visit of Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum. [BW16:251] Myanmar (Burma) Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1974 13 July The dedication of the Bosch Bahá'í School north of Santa Cruz, California. (Bosch Bahá'í School site, Bahá'´News page 716] Santa Cruz; California Bosch Bahai School; Bahai schools
    1975 The first international Quechua conference is held in Cusco, Peru, attended by Bahá’ís from Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. Cusco; Peru Quechua; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; First conferences
    1975 Feb The first National Teaching Conference in Sierra Leone takes place in Bo. [BW16:172] Bo; Sierra Leone Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; First conferences
    1975 Feb The first Bahá’í Women’s Conference of the Solomon Islands takes place at Auki, Malaita Island, attended by more than 90 women. [BW16:282] Solomon Islands; Oceania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences
    1975 29 Mar The first Bahá’í Youth Conference of the Canary Islands is held in Santa Cruz. [BW16:313] Santa Cruz; Canary Islands Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1975 9 – 12 Jul The first International Bahá’í Youth Conference of Iceland takes place in Njardvik with youth from nine countries. [BW16:301] Njardvik; Iceland; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1975 Dec The first National Teaching Conference to be held in Senegal takes place in Dakar. [BW16:175] Dakar; Senegal Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching
    1976 24 – 25 Mar The first Continental Youth Conference of Western Asia takes place in Karachi, Pakistan. [BW16:265] Karachi; Pakistan; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1976 5 – 8 Jul An International Teaching Conference is held in Helsinki, Finland, attended by some 950 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:129–30.
    • For pictures see BW17:109, 112, 114–15.
    Helsinki; Finland Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1976 9 – 11 Jul An International Youth Conference is held in Ivory Coast, attended by nearly 200 Bahá’ís. [BW17:150, 153] Ivory Coast; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1976 23 – 25 Jul An International Teaching Conference is held in Anchorage, Alaska, attended by 1,005 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:130–1.
    • For pictures see BW17:110, 113, 116–17.
    Anchorage; Alaska; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1976 3 – 6 Aug An International Teaching Conference is held in Paris, attended by some 5,700 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; DM416; VV33]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:131–2.
    • For the message of Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General of the United Nations, see BW17:140.
    • For pictures see BW17:109, 117–19.
    Paris; France; Europe Kurt Waldheim; United Nations; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1976 15 – 17 Oct An International Teaching Conference is held in Nairobi, Kenya, attended by 1,363 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:133–4.
    • For pictures see BW17:110, 119–21.
    Nairobi; Kenya; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1976 27 – 30 Nov An International Teaching Conference is held in Hong Kong, attended by 506 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:135–6.
    • For pictures see BW17:110, 111, 121–2.
    Hong Kong; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1977 The Hemispheric Bahá’í Radio and Television Conference is held in Panama, with 125 participants from 24 countries. [BW17:219] Panama Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; Bahai radio; Television; Media
    1977 19 – 22 Jan An International Teaching Conference is held in Auckland, New Zealand, attended by 1,195 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:136–7.
    • For pictures see BW17:111, 122–4.
    Auckland; New Zealand; Asia-Pacific Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1977 27 – 30 Jan An International Teaching Conference is held in Bahia, Brazil, attended by 1,300 Bahá’ís, the largest such gathering of Bahá’ís to date in Brazil. [BW17:81; VV33]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:137–8.
    • For pictures see BW17:110, 124–5.
    Bahia; Brazil; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1977 4 – 6 Feb An International Teaching Conference is held in Mérida, Mexico, attended by more than 2,000 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:139.
    • Three Hands of the Cause were present – Paul Haney, Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir, and Enoch Olinga, as well as Counsellor Florence Mayberry who had been on the first national assembly of Mexico.
    • For pictures see BW17:112, 126–7.
    • VV33 says this was 2–6 Feb.
    Merida; Mexico; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1977 Apr The first National Bahá’í Children’s Conference of Samoa takes place. [BW17:211] Samoa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Children; First conferences
    1977 16 – 17 Apr The first annual Bahá’í Studies Seminar supported by the Departments of Religious Studies and of Sociology at the University of Lancaster, England, takes place. [BW18:204] Lancaster; United Kingdom Bahai Studies, Associations for; Firsts, Other
    1977 May The Himalayan Conference is held in Gangtok, Sikkim. [BW17:180–2] Gangtok; Sikkim; India Himalayan Conference; Conferences, Bahai
    1977 19 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador is granted permission to operate a radio station at Otavalo. [BW17:169] Otavalo; Ecuador Bahai radio stations
    1977 12 – 14 Aug An International Bahá’í Youth Conference is held in Enugu, Nigeria, attended by over 250 Bahá’ís from 19 countries. [BW17:150, 153] Enugu; Nigeria; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1977 12 Oct The first Bahá’í educational and cultural radio station, HCRN-1 Radio Bahá’í del Ecuador, makes its inaugural broadcast at 1420kHz, 20 watts, in Spanish and Quechua from studios in Otavalo. [BBD193; BW17:169, 215–17; BW19:120; VV77]
    • For pictures see BW17:216, 218 and VV77.
    • Full time programming (six hours a day) as initiated on the 12th of December, 1977. The 1 kiloWatt transmitter is located at Cahas, 20km south of Otavalo. [Radio Bahá'í Ecuador p23, 52]
    • On December 12th, 1979, programming was initiated in the short wave band on 2340 kHz in the 120-metre band. The 1 kilowatt transmitter is located about 30 km north of Otavalo at an altitude of 10,000 feet. In 1982 the transmission frequency was switched to 4990 kHz on the 60-meter band. [Radio Bahá‘Í Ecuador p205 note 23]
    Otavalo; Cahas; Ecuador Bahai radio stations; Firsts, Other
    1977 13 – 16 Oct The Asian Bahá’í Women’s Conference is held in New Delhi, attended by more than a thousand women from across Asia. 1,200 women from 36 countries were in attendance. [BW17:180]
    • For picture see BW17:212.
    New Delhi; India; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women
    1977 17 Oct At the end of the Asian Bahá’í Women’s Conference Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum lays the foundation stone of the Mother Temple of the Indian Subcontinent. [BW17:85, 180, 368–70; VV35] New Delhi; India; Asia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Foundation stones; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women
    1977 Dec The first International Conference of Bahá’í Women in South America is held in Lima, Peru, attended by 200 women from 12 countries. [BW17:172]
    • For picture see BW17:211.
    Lima; Peru Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences
    1978 Mar The first Bahá’í-owned school in Pakistan, the New Day Montessori, opens in Karachi. Karachi; Pakistan Bahai schools
    1978 Aug An International Bahá’í Youth Conference is held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, attended by some 380 Bahá’ís from 19 countries. [BW17:150, 153] Yaounde; Cameroon; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1978 28 – 30 Dec The West African Bahá’í Women’s Conference is held in Monrovia, Liberia. [BW17:154] Monrovia; Liberia; Africa Women; Bahai conferences
    1980 Yee Wah Sing, the first Fiji-born person to become a Bahá’í in Fiji, enrols. [BN596:14] Fiji First Bahais by country or area
    1980 2 May The first Bahá’í International Conference on Health and Healing is held in Ottawa, Canada, under the sponsorship of the Association for Bahá’í Studies. [BW 18:201] Ottawa; Canada Bahai Studies, Associations for; Bahai conferences; Health conferences
    1981 The Comunicación Intercambio y Radiodifusión Bahá’í para America Latina y el Caribe (CIRBAL) is established by the Universal House of Justice to promote the development of Bahá’í radio and mass media activities in Latin America. [BW19:59] Latin America Bahai radio stations; Universal House of Justice
    1981 Apr The Canadian Association for Studies on the Bahá’í Faith is renamed the Association for Bahá’í Studies. [BBD202; VV24–5] Canada Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1981 5 Dec The Bahá'í cemetery in Tehran was seized "by order of the Revolutionary Court. Five caretakers and eight temporary workers were arrested and the cemetery was closed. [Mess63-86p510] Tihran; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; Persecution
    1982 10 – 11 Apr The Bahá’í International Health Agency is established as an affiliate of the Association for Bahá’í Studies. [BW18:201; VV25] Canada Bahai Studies, Associations for; Health
    1982 25 – 27 Jun A Bahá’í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf is held in Dublin, Ireland, attended by some 1,900 Bahá’ís from 60 countries. [BW18:100; VV61]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:156–7.
    • For a pictorial report see BW18:138–40.
    Dublin; Ireland Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
    1982 27 Jun The Bahá’í Youth Academy is established in Panchgani, India. [BW18:230–2] Panchgani; India Bahai Youth Academy; Bahai Academy; Youth
    1982 6 – 8 Aug A Bahá’í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf is held in Quito, Ecuador, attended by some 1,450 Bahá’ís from 43 countries. [BW18:100; VV61]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:157–8.
    • For a pictorial report see BW18:141–3.
    Quito; Ecuador Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
    1982 19 – 22 Aug A Bahá’í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf is held in Lagos, Nigeria, attended by some 1,110 Bahá’ís from 46 countries representing some 90 ethnic groups. [BW18:100; VV61]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:158–9 In the message the Universal House of Justice reported that in a little more than three decades there were 37 National Spiritual Assemblies, 4,490 Local Assemblies, 29,000 localities with believers drawn from 1,152 tribes.
    • For a pictorial report see BW18:144–6.
    Lagos; Nigeria Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
    1982 2 – 5 Sep A Bahá’í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf is held in Montreal, Canada, attended by 9,400 Bahá’ís from 101 countries. [BW18:100; VV61]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:161–2.
    • For a pictorial report see BW18:151–4.
    Montreal; Canada Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
    1982 2 – 5 Sep A Bahá’í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf is held in Canberra, Australia, attended by some 2,400 Bahá’ís, twice as many as were expected, from 45 countries. [BW18:100; VV61]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:159–60.
    • For a pictorial report see BW18:147–50.
    Canberra; Australia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
    1982 Nov The West African Centre for Bahá’í Studies is established in Nigeria. [BW18:167; BW19:366]
    • For a report of its activities see BW19:366–7.
    Nigeria; Africa Bahai studies
    1983 The Association for Bahá’í Studies, German-Speaking Europe, is established in Austria. [BW19:357–8] Austria Bahai Studies, Associations for; German language
    1983 The Association for Bahá’í Studies, India, is established. [BW19:360] India Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1983 The Association for Bahá’í Studies, English-Speaking Europe, is established in the Republic of Ireland.
    • Responsibility for the Association is transferred to the United Kingdom in 1989.
    Ireland; United Kingdom; Europe Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1983 The Association for Bahá’í Studies of Francophone Europe is established in Switzerland. Switzerland Bahai Studies, Associations for; French language
    1983. 24 Feb The inauguration of the Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women at Indore, India. It offers rural women residential courses on literacy, health care and income generating skills. The success of this school was recognized in 1992 when it won one of the Global 500 Environmental Action awards that was presented at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro [The Baha'ismagazine]. Indore; India Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Sustainable development; Bahai schools
    1983 5 – 7 Aug The first Los Angeles Bahá’í History Conference is held at the University of California at Los Angeles. [BW19:369–70] Los Angeles; United States Bahai history; Bahai conferences; Conferences; First conferences
    1984 Jun The Association for Bahá’í Studies, Australia, is established in Perth. [BW19:356] Perth; Australia Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1984 4 Jun Vladimir Malai, the first Moldovan to become a Bahá’í in Moldova, enrols. [Candle 9] Moldova First Bahais by country or area
    1984 30 Aug - 2 Sep An International Teaching Conference is held to coincide with the dedication of the House of Worship at Apia, Western Samoa. [BW19:548–54; VV64]
    • For a report of the conference see BW19:548–54.
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW19:555–6.
    • For pictures see BW19:475, 547–57 and VV64.
    Apia; Western Samoa Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1984 Nov The International Bahá’í Refugee Office, responsible for coordinating efforts to resettle Iranian Bahá’í refugees, is established by the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada at the request of the Universal House of Justice. [BW19:50]
    • For a report of the work of the Office see BW19:50–3.
    Canada International Bahai Refugee Office; Refugees
    1984 28 – 30 Dec The first National Bahá’í Youth Conference to be held in Greece takes place in Athens. [BW19:319] Athens; Greece Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1985 5 – 8 Apr An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Bophuthatswana, attended by 198 people. [BW19:300] Bophuthatswana; South Africa; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1985 30 Apr - 1 May The first annual conference of the Association for Bahá’í Studies, Brazil, takes place in Saõ Paulo. [BW19:358] Sao Paulo; Brazil; Latin America Bahai Studies, Associations for; Bahai conferences; Conferences, Bahai studies; First conferences
    1985 3 – 7 Jul An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Columbus, Ohio, United States attended by more than 3,200 youth from 42 nations. [BW19:300] Columbus; Ohio; United States; North America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1985 15 – 26 Jul Ten representatives of the Bahá’í International Community attend the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women and Forum ‘85 in Nairobi. [BW19:147–8, 412; VV28–9]
    • For a report of the Bahá’í participation see BW19:4.12–15.
    • For pictures see BW19:413, 415.
    Nairobi; Kenya Bahai International Community; United Nations; Women
    1985 6 – 9 Jul The European Bahá’í Youth Conference was held in Antwerp, Belgium, in July 1985, and was attended by some 1,450 youth from 45 nations. The youth addressed the European Parliament and the Council of Europe in letters which told of their resolve to put into action the International Youth Year themes of ‘Participation, Development and Peace’. The youth spoke of programs in which Bahá’ís were supporting the themes, including human rights education and social and economic development projects. [BW19:301]
    • For picture see BW19:315.
    Antwerp; Belgium; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year; European Union
    1985 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Molepolole, Botswana, attended by 119 youth from six countries. [BW19:300]
    • For picture see BW19:320.
    Molepolole; Botswana; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1985 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in New Delhi, India, attended by more than 550 youth from 24 countries. [BW19:300] New Delhi; India; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1985 1 – 4 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Port Dickson, Malaysia, attended by 1,300 youth from 15 countries, the largest gathering of Bahá’ís ever held in Malaysia. [BW19:301] Port Dickson; Malaysia; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1985 2 – 5 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Lima, Peru, attended by 500 youth from 18 countries and representing four native tribes. [BW19:300]
    • For picture see BW19:322.
    Lima; Peru; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, International; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1985 8 – 11 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Kauai, Hawaii, attended by 300 youth from nine Pacific countries. [BW19:301]
    • For picture see BW19:321.
    Kauai; Hawaii; Oceania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1985 Sep The first Bahá’í Studies conference in Hawaii takes place at the national Bahá’í centre. [BW19:360] Hawaii Bahai Studies; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; First conferences
    1985 Oct The first National Bahá’í Youth Conference in Nepal takes place, attended by 120 Bahá’ís, the largest Bahá’í gathering ever held in the country. [VV74] Nepal Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1985 19 Oct The Association for Bahá’í Studies, Chile, is established in Santiago. [BW19:358–9] Santiago; Chile; Latin America Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1985 22 Nov The Promise of World Peace is presented to the Secretary-General of the United Nations Javier Perez de Cuellar by Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and representatives of the Bahá’í International Community. [BW19:33, 382; VV87] United Nations; Javier Perez de Cuellar; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Promise of World Peace (statement); Bahai International Community
    1985 27 Dec - 1986 2 Jan The Universal House of Justice convenes a Counsellors’ Conference at the Bahá’í World Centre. [AWH39; BW19:29; VV122]
    • The gathering, held in the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, consulted on the opportunities and challenges facing the Bahá’í world community. [BW19:29]
    • See BW19:494, 504 for pictures.
    Haifa; BWC Counsellors; Bahai conferences; Counsellors conferences
    1986 The founding of the Ruaha Secondary School in southwestern rural Tanzania near Iringa, about 500kms from Dar-es-salaam. [The Mona Project (Info on the Iringa School no longer available on this web site), One Country]

    In 2001 the school received a grant to build a girls dormitory. [BWNS145]

    Tanzania; Iringa; Dar-es-salaam. Africa Ruaha Secondary School; Bahai schools
    1986 23 May Fourteen State Bahá’í Councils are elected in India by members of local spiritual assemblies. [BW19:162; VV99–100]
    • For a description of the Councils and their responsibilities see BW19:162–4.
    India State Bahai Councils
    1986 6 Aug The Brazilian Society of Physicians for Peace is formed by Bahá’í physicians in Pôrto Alegre at a ceremony attended by 120 medical professionals. [BINS159:2–3] Pôrto Alegre; Brazil Bahai associations; Health; Peace
    1986 7 Dec Radio Bahá’í Liberia, the first Bahá’í radio station in Africa, makes its test broadcast. [BINS164:6] Liberia Bahai radio stations; Firsts, Other
    1986. 23 - 27 Dec International Teaching Conference was held in New Delhi in conjunction with the opening of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. It was attended by 8,000 Bahá'ís from 114 countries. [BW20p731-753] New Delhi; India Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple
    1987 The establishment of the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education (BIHE) to meet the educational needs of young people who had been systematically denied access to higher education by the Iranian government. [Closed Doors, Chapter IV] Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution; Human Rights; Education
    1987 The Bayan Hospital, the first Bahá’í hospital in Honduras, opens in Palacios. Palacios; Honduras Bahai hospitals
    1987 The first National Children’s Camp in Australia is held in Yerrinbool School with 36 children between 9 and 13 years of age in attendance. [BINS173:10] Australia Yerrinbool Bahai School; Children
    1987 16 – 17 Jan The first Youth Conference of the Bahamas is held with representation from three islands. [BINS173:9] Bahamas Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1987 24 Mar Radio Bahá’í of Liberia, the first Bahá’í radio station in Africa, is inaugurated in Maynesville. [BINS164:6; BW19:121; VV77] Maynesville; Liberia Bahai radio stations; Firsts, Other
    1987 31 Aug The Universal House of Justice calls for the erection of the remaining three buildings along the arc at the Bahá’í World Centre—the Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts, the Seat of the International Teaching Centre and the International Bahá’í Library—as well as an expansion of the International Archives building and the creation of 19 monumental terraces from the foot of Mount Carmel to its crest. [AWH50–4, 90; BBD21; VV96] Mount Carmel Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; International Teaching Centre, Seat; International Bahai Library; International Bahai Archives; Terraces; Arc project
    1987 Sep The United Nations Secretary-General designates the Bahá’í International Community and the National Spiritual Assemblies of Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Kenya and Lesotho as Peace Messengers, an honour given to only 300 organizations worldwide for their support of the UN Year of Peace 1986. [BINS173:4] New York; United States United Nations; Bahai International Community; International Year of Peace; Peace; Australia; Belgium; Brazil; Kenya; Lesotho
    1987 3 Oct The Bahá’í International Community joins the Network on Conservation and Religion of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the sixth major religion to do so. [AWH56; BBD38; VV106] Bahai International Community; World Wide Fund for Nature; Nature; Environment
    1987 Dec The first Children’s Conference of Uganda is held in Kikaaya, Kampala. [BINS173:7] Kikaaya; Kampala; Uganda Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Children; First conferences
    1988 The opening of the School of the Nations in Taipa, Macau with 5 students enrolled in kindergarten. [SoN, BWNS460] Taipa; Macau School of the Nations; Bahai schools
    1988 ‘Arts for Nature’, a fund-raising programme held to benefit the work of the World Wide Fund for Nature, is held in London with the collaboration of the Bahá’í International Community. [AWH61; VV106] London; United Kingdom Bahai International Community; Arts; Nature; World Wide Fund for Nature; Environment
    1988 The Bahá’í International Community becomes a founding member of ‘Advocates for African Food Security: Lessening the Burden for Women’, a coalition of agencies and organizations formed to act on behalf of farm women in Africa, and is convener for 1988–92. Africa Bahai International Community; Rural development; Social and economic development; Women; NGOs
    1988 15 Jul The first International Women’s Conference of Paraguay opens, attended by 130 women from seven countries. [BINS180:5] Paraguay; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women
    1988 3 – 7 Aug The first Iberian Youth Conference is held in Lisbon, attended by 120 Bahá’ís from nine European countries. [BINS181:6] Lisbon; Portugal; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
    1988 24 – 25 Sep The first annual Bahá’í Studies Conference of Spain is held in Barcelona. [BINS192:5] Barcelona; Spain Bahai Studies; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; First conferences
    1988 24 Dec The first National Youth Conference of Côte d’Ivoire takes place. [BINS196:9] Côte d’Ivoire Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1989 Fourteen-year-old Olga Anatolevna Kirushkin becomes a Bahá’í in Minsk, the first known native person to become a Bahá’í in Belarus. Minsk; Belarus First Bahais by country or area
    1989 The establishment of the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment in New York. Ridván Message 1992 [AWH75; VV54 106] New York; United States Bahai International Community; Environment
    1989 Feb The inaugural publication of One Country, the newsletter of the Bahá'í International Community. It is a publication of the Office of Public Information of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. The periodical reports mainly on activities of the worldwide Bahá'í community in relation to issues of sustainable development, peace and world order, human rights, and the advancement of women. [BW'86-‘92 p.539] New York; United States One Country; Newsletters; Bahai International Community Find date
    1989 17 Mar The Bahá’í International Community enters into a ‘working relationship’ with the World Health Organization (WHO) for the period 1989–91. [AWH61; BINS201:1] Bahai International Community; World Health Organization (WHO)
    1989 Apr The Association for Bahá’í Studies of Malaysia is established. [BINS206:8] Malaysia; Asia Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1989 Jul - Aug Five European Regional ‘Peace Moves’ Youth Conferences are held in different parts of the continent. Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Peace
    1989 3 Aug The first Latvian resident in Latvia to become a Bahá’í, Lilita Postaza, a renowned tapestry artist, enrols after visiting the Bahá’í temple in India. Latvia Lilita Postaza; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; First Bahais by country or area
    1989 Summer The founding of the Maxwell International Bahá'í School. It was a co-ed Bahá'í school located on Shawnigan Lake, British Columbia, Canada. It offered boarding students and day students instruction from grades 7-12. Its educational philosophy was based on the principles of the Bahá'í Faith. Students attended from all over the world. The school was opened with guest of honour Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum (Mary Maxwell, daughter of May and Sutherland) and wife of the Bahá'í Faith's Guardian, Shoghi Effendi. A tree was planted in dedication to the opening of the school. In the early 2006-2007 school year, the school board decided to drop "Bahá'í" from its name, changing it to "Maxwell International School". The school closed on its 20th anniversary in 2008. [Wiki] Shawnigan Lake; Canada Maxwell International School; Bahai schools; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
    1989 Sep The Bahá’í Office of the Environment is established as part of the Bahá’í International Community in New York. [AWH75; VV54, 106] New York; United States Bahai Office of the Environment; Environment; Bahai International Community
    1989 Oct One Country, the newsletter of the Bahá'í International Community, now published in five other languages - French, Spanish, Chinese, Russian, and German. The first French language edition of the publication was launched in Paris in October, 1989. Each issue contains two or three in-depth feature stories on the United Nations, noteworthy social and economic development projects, environmental efforts or educational programs, along with an editorial that addresses world problems from a Bahá'í point of view. Bahai International Community; One Country; Firsts, Other; Newsletters
    1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan During the Youth Winter School in Traben-Trarback participants from 12 countries including East Germany, Romania, Hungary and the Soviet Union gather for the first time since the Second World War. [BINS215:2] Traben-Trarback; Germany; Eastern Europe; Soviet Union; Russia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Conferences, International; Winter schools; First conferences
    1990 An Association for Bahá'í Studies is established in Kenya. Kenya; Africa Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1990 The Italian Association for Bahá'í Studies is established in Rome. [BINS232:5]
    • It lapses in 1991 but is re-established in 1992.
    Rome; Italy; Europe Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1990 The founding of the European Bahá'í Business Forum as an informal network. Their goal is exploring how to contribute to a more prosperous, just and sustainable civilization, through their daily work and discourse. [EBBF] Europe European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF)
    1990 The University of Maryland announced its decision to establish "The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace" in its Centre for International Development and Conflict Management. In 1992 Professor Suheil Bushrú’í was named as the first scholar to hold the Chair. [AWH76; VV108] Maryland; United States University of Maryland; Bahai Chair for World Peace; Suheil Bushrui; Firsts, Other
    1990 The Asian Buddhist Conference for Peace was held in Mongolia.
    • A representative of the International Bahá'í Community was the only non-Buddhist speaker invited to address a public meeting held in conjunction with the conference. [AWH88] [VV101]
    Mongolia Buddhism; Conferences, Peace; Bahai International Community; Interfaith dialogue
    1990 The Bahá'í International Community, through the Office of the Environment in collaboration with other environmental organizations, re-instituted the annual World Forestry Charter Gathering that had be founded in 1945 by Richard St. Barbe Baker. [AWH75] [VV106] Bahai International Community; Environment; Richard St Barbe Baker
    1990 The Bahá'í International Community was invited to participate in the World Conference on Education for All in Thailand because of its involvement in the work of the Task Force for Literacy under the aegis of UNESCO. [AWH75] Thailand Bahai International Community; Education; Literacy; UNESCO
    1990 A branch of the Bahá'í International Community's United Nations Office for the Pacific region was opened in Suva, Fiji. [AWH76; VV54] Suva; Fiji Bahai International Community
    1990 The formation of the European Bahá'í Business Forum in France with members from 26 countries in Europe and elsewhere. [VV115]
    • Formed by a group of Bahá'ís active in business and management meeting in Chamonix, France, due to concern about the decline of ethics and values in business.
    • Forum created to promote the moral and spiritual wisdom and principles of the great religious traditions of the world (sources included Judaism, Hinduism, and Christianity as well as the 19th century revelation of Baha'u'llah) such as adherence to the principles of justice, respect, trustworthiness, integrity and unity.
    • Beginning as an informal network, its membership grew requiring the election of a Governing Board.
    • Members have attached importance to sharing their broad experience and to contributing to the improvement of management in emerging free-market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. [ebbf]
    Chamonix; France; Europe European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
    1990 Jan – Feb The Brazilian Society of Educators for Peace, conceived and initiated by Bahá'ís, is officially recognized by the Amazonas State Government. [BINS219:3] Brazil Bahai associations; Peace; Education
    1990 24 Jan – 5 Feb The first All-Union Bahá'í Conference was held in Moscow with 250 people gathered from all over the Soviet Union and from 17 other countries. This was the first national Bahá'í conference held in the USSR in about 60 years. [BINS224:8; VV112] Moscow; Russia Bahai conferences; First conferences
    1990 26 Jan The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace is established at the University of Maryland's Centre for International Development and Conflict Management at the official signing of the Memorandum of Understanding. [AWH76; BINS217:7; VV108]
    • Professor Suheil Bushrui is appointed to the Chair in 1992.
    • For picture see VV108.
    Maryland; United States Bahai Chair for World Peace; Suheil Bushrui
    1990 9 Apr The first professorial Chair in Bahá'í Studies is established at Indore University, India. [BINS222:8; VV108] Indore; India Chair in Bahai Studies; University of Indore; Universities
    1990 9 Apr The establishment of the Chair for Bahá'í Studies at the University of Indore (later renamed Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya). Dr. Vishnudatta Nagar was appointed to the position. [BW'86-‘92pg454] Indore; India Chair in Bahai Studies; University of Indore; Universities; Vishnudatta Nagar
    1990 18 - 20 May The first of seven European women's conferences sponsored by the Continental Board of Counsellors is held in Iskenderun, Turkey. [BINS230:1] Iskenderun; Turkey Conferences, Women; Conferences, Bahai; Counsellors
    1990 10 Jun The Paraguay International Chinese Teaching Symposium, the first of its kind in South America, is held in Asuncion, attended by 80 people from 10 countries. [BINS226:4] Asuncion; Paraguay; South America Conferences, International; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences; China
    1990 Jul The first youth conference of Estonia is held in Kabli, near Parnu, attended by some 113 participants from all parts of Europe Kabli; Estonia Parnu; Estonia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1990 1 - 2 Sep The European Bahá'í Business Forum is formed at a meeting in Chamonix, France, attended by people from eight countries. [BINS244:8; VV115]
    • For picture see VV115.
    Chamonix; France European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
    1990 6 Sep The Bahá'í International Community opens a branch of its United Nations Office for the Pacific region in Suva, Fiji. [AWH76; BINS233:4–5; VV54] Suva; Fiji Bahai International Community; United Nations; Pacific
    1990 Oct The publication of the last issue of the Bahá'í News by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States after nearly 70 years of uninterrupted service. [CBN Feb1991pg15]
    • Issues 1 to 40 were published under the name Bahá'í News Letter. Subsequent issues, from #41 to #714, were entitled simply Bahá'í News.


    Bahá'í News Published December 1924 to October 1990
              Link (Will open in this window)            
             Dates        
    Pages
                  URL   (For cut 'n' paste)      
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 001-110
    Dec 1924 - Sep 1937
    969
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn01.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 111-210
    Oct 1937 - Aug 1948
    1186
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn02.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 211-280
    Sep 1948 - Jun 1954
    1072
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn03.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 281-345
    Jul 1954 - Nov 1959
    1088
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn04.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 346-400
    Dec 1959 - Jul 1964
    849
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn05.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 401-440
    Aug 1964 - Nov 1967
    716
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn06.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 441-490
    Dec 1967 - Jan 1972
    1008
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn07.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 491-525
    Feb 1972 - May 1975
    958
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn08.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 526-580
    Jun 1975 - Jul 1979
    1019
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn09.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 581-630
    Aug 1979 - Sep 1983
    958
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn10.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 631-670
    Oct 1983 - Jan 1987
    780
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn11.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 671-714
    Feb 1987 - Oct 1990
    847
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn12.pdf

    Subscribers in the United States received an insert entitled US Supplement from 1958 to 1967 and the name of the insert was changed to National Bahá'í Review from 1968 until the Bahá'í News discontinued publication in 1990.
    United States Bahai News; Newsletters
    1990 30 Nov - 2 Dec The First National Teaching Conference of the Bahá'ís of Romania was held near Poiana Brasov, in the Carpathian mountains. [CBN Feb 91p14] Poiana Brasov; Romania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, teaching; First conferences
    1990 8 - 9 Dec The first All-Union Bahá'í Consultative Conference was held in Moscow attended by Bahá'ís from every part of the Soviet Union, members of three Continental Boards of Counsellors and representatives of all those National Spiritual Assemblies having responsibility for the work of the Faith in that area. [BINS 238:6] [CBN Mar91Vol3no8] [VV112] Moscow; Russia Bahai conferences; First conferences
    1991 The administration of the Bahá'í Faith in Zaire is devolved to a system of subordinate regional councils. Democratic Republic of Congo Regional Bahai Councils Find ref
    1991 15 – 21 Jul The first European Bahá'í Youth Conference of Romania is held in Neptune. [BINS253:9; VV74]
    • For picture see VV74.
    Neptune; Romania; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International
    1991 Sep The ground was broken for the construction of the Centre for the Study of the Texts and for the Extension to the International Archives Building. [Ridván Message 1992] Haifa; BWC Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; International Bahai Archives; Arc project
    1992 The Universal House of Justice announces its decision to establish an Office for the Advancement of Women at the headquarters of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. [VV29, 54] New York; United States Bahai International Community; Women; Office for the Advancement of Women Find ref
    1992 The establishment of the Bahá'í Chair for Peace at the University of Maryland in the United States. The mission of the Bahá'í Chair for Peace, in part, is to develop alternatives to the violent resolution of conflict, promote global education and spiritual awareness, and reflect the beliefs of the Bahá'í world community in building a global society. Suheil Bushrui held the chair from 1992 until 2005. [ news.bahai.org/story/282 ] Maryland; Unted States Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland
    1992 A Chair for Bahá'í Studies was established at the University of Indore, India. [VV108] Indore; India Chair in Bahai Studies; Universities
    1992 The Bahá'í International Community's Office for the Advancement of Women established in New York. [VV54] New York; United States Bahai International Community; Women; Office for the Advancement of Women
    1992 The establishment of the Townshend International School situated in the heart of Europe in Hluboká, South Bohemia, Czech Republic.
    • This private, non-affiliated, co-educational high school, accredited by the Ministry of Education with English as the teaching language, is a non-profit project and sponsors a number of students from its host country. [TIS Web Site]
    Hluboka; South Bohemia; Czech Republic Townshend International School; Bahai schools
    1992 Jan The first teaching conference of Southern Yugoslavia is held, attended by 40 Bahá'ís representing 12 nationalities. [BINS264:8] Yugoslavia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, teaching; First conferences
    1992 10 – 11 Jan The first teaching conference of Croatia and Slovenia is held in Kranj. [BINS263:1–2] Kranj; Croatia; Slovenia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, teaching; First conferences
    1992 3 – 6 Feb The Association of Bahá'í Publishers and Distributors is established at a Bahá'í Publishers' Conference in Oakham, England, with its headquarters in the Netherlands. [BINS273:4-5; VV71] Oakham; United Kingdom; Netherlands Publishing Trusts; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other
    1992 5 Jun The Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women, a non-profit education project based in Indore, India, is one of 74 individuals and institutions presented with the United Nations Environment Programme ‘Global 500' award in Rio de Janeiro. [BINS272:5; BW92–3:125; VV110]
    • For picture see BW92–3:183.
    Rio de Janeiro; Brazil; Indore; India Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Sustainable development; United Nations; Environment; Awards
    1992 19 - 22 Jun Graduation ceremonies were held for the thirty-eight members of the first graduating class of the Maxwell International Bahá'í School. More than seven hundred participated in the ceremonies. ["Maxwell Eagle" Sep/Oct 1992 Vol IV no. 1 page 1] British Columbia; Canada Maxwell International School; Bahai schools
    1992 15 Sep Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum was officially invited to open the Exhibition of Bahá'í Manuscripts at the British Museum in London. [VV134] London; United Kingdom Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts; British Museum
    1992 17 Sep The Bahá'í Professional Society of Hong Kong is inaugurated. [BINS292:8; BW92–3:129] Hong Kong Bahai Professional societies
    1992 25 - 27 Sep The first Bahá'í Youth Conference of Lithuania takes places in Kaunas, attended by 32 Bahá'ís. [BINS281:1] Kaunas; Lithuania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1992 Dec The Universal House of Justice announces the establishment of the Office for the Advancement of Women in New York. [BW92–3:136; VV29] New York; United States Bahai International Community; Women; Office for the Advancement of Women
    1993 In the year The opening of the Bádi School with an enrollment of 12 students by the Torrez family members in Las Cumbres Villa Zaita, Panamá City, Republic of Panama. They rented a small, dismantled house from the Panama Social Security Agency, remodeled it and closed the garage in order to use it as a classroom.
    • Over the years, two more buildings were added to expand the facility and enrollment capacity to its present 3200 square meters and 156 students. Badi's first high school graduation was scheduled for 2004, when Badi Tutorial University was scheduled to open its door. [Bádi School , Wiki Bahá'í Faith in Panama]
    Las Cumbres Villa Zaita; Panama City; Republic of Panama Badi School; Bahai schools
    1993 In the year EBBF was registered in Paris as an official non-profit association. Its statutes provide that membership is open to Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís alike. [ebbf] Paris; France European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
    1993 19 Jan The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace at the University of Maryland is inaugurated. It is situated in the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences. [BW92–3:140–1]

    The Baha’i Chair for World Peace is an academic program that conducts and publishes research with a diverse group of scholars on global issues. The organization’s purpose is to study worldwide challenges and discuss solutions that could advance peace and promote tolerance. In addition to conducting academic research and releasing publications, the chair hosts events at the University of Maryland that are available to students, university staff and the general public. Although the chair was inspired by the spiritual teachings of the Bahá'í faith’s focus on humanity’s unity, the program emphasizes science-based analysis along with the values the Faith provides. [Unwind Magazine]

    Maryland; United States Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland
    1993 29 – 31 Jan The first Latin American Bahá'í Social and Economic Development Seminar takes place in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. [BINS308:2; BW92–3:139] Santa Cruz; Bolivia; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Social and economic development; First conferences
    1993 20 Feb The first National Youth Conference of Hungary is held in Debrecen, attended by 60 youth. [BINS289:3] Debrecen; Hungary Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1993 26 May The Office for the Advancement of Women officially opens at the headquarters of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. [BINS296:2; BW93–4:83–9; VV29]
    • For pictures see BW93–4:83, 86.
    New York; United States Bahai International Community; Women; Office for the Advancement of Women
    1993 Jun The bodies of Bahá'ís buried in the Bahá'í section of a Tihrán cemetery are exhumed and taken by lorry to unknown destinations. [BW93–4:153] Tihran; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; Persecution
    1993 Aug The first International Bahá'í Youth Conference of Belarus is held, attended by 164 people from 16 countries. [BINS299:8; BINS306:7; BW93–4:123] Belarus; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
    1993 16 Oct The passing of Marzieh Nabíl Carpenter Gail, the second child and eldest daughter of the first Persian-American marriage in the Bahá'í Faith between Persian diplomat Ali-Kuli Khan and Boston debutante Florence Breed. (b. 1 April, 1908) [BW1993-1994p320-321, Find a grave]
    • A translator (Arabic and Persian into English) and author. Poet Roger White would say of his friend: "She is the first lady of Bahá'í literature and I and many writers are indebted to her for leading the way."
    • translations include: The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys (1945) and The Secret of Divine Civilization (1957) with her father; Memorials of the Faithful (1971); Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1976) with a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre; My Memories of Bahá'u'lláh (1982).
    • author of a dozen Bahá'í and non-Bahá'í books in addition to countless essays, articles, and short stories. Her remembrances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá are contained in The Sheltering Branch (1959), and those of His Exalted Sister in Khanum: The Greatest Holy Leaf (1981).
    • Many of her essays and pioneering stories are contained in Dawn Over Mount Hira (1976) and Other People, Other Places (1982). As well she wrote “Six Lessons in Islam” (1953), Summon Up Remembrance (1987), Arches of the Years (1991) and, “Bahá'í Glossary” (1955). [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol6, 1996]
    San Francisco; United States Marzieh Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; Bahai scholars; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1993 24 Oct The establishment of the India Hindi Bahá'í Academy (The Rashtriya Bahá'í Uchcha Shiksha Sansthan) in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh).
    • It is a national institute for higher learning of the Bahá'í Faith.
    • There are three courses of study, a three year Advanced Bahá'í Studies course, a two year, post-graduate, Specialised Course and short courses for 3-5 days. The study scheme employs correspondence courses and campus contact, a programme for personal clarifications for the learners’ difficulties. Two question papers are also sent to them in each semester.
    • The evaluation employs a two fold method: Viva voce examination based on the study materials and practical input in the field of service. Paper presentations, self reflection in the form of stories, songs, pictures, etc., and assignments in the active service of the Faith as well as making formal speeches all form a part of the final evaluation. [Bahá'í India website]
    Lucknow; India Bahai study centers; Bahai studies
    1994 May 22 The first Bahá'í Children and Youth Conference of Martinique is held in Fort-de-France, attended by 22 people. [BINS318:4–5] Fort-de-France; Martinique Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1994 Jul 20 – 25 The European Bahá'í Youth Council sponsors five regional ‘Shaping Europe' conferences, in Berlin, Bucharest, St Petersburg, Barcelona and Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. [BINS323:3–5; BW94–5:177–8, 189] Berlin; Germany; Bucharest; Romania; St Petersburg; Russia; Barcelona; Portugal; Wolverhampton; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
    1994 Sep 9 – 11 The first National Youth Conference of Liberia is held, attended by 75 youth. [BW94–5:188–9]
    • For picture see BW94–5:189.
    Liberia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1994 Oct The Bahá'í Health Association for Central and Eastern Europe and the European Bahá'í Dental Association are formed at the second Bahá'í Health Conference held at De Poort, Netherlands. [BW94–5:116] De Poort; Netherlands Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Health; Health
    1995 23 Jan To respond to the increased attention given to the issues of social and economic development following the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992, the Universal House of Justice asked the Bahá'í International Community's Office of Public Information to prepare a statement on the concept of global prosperity in the context of the Bahá'í teachings. The statement is entitled The Prosperity of Humankind. [Mess86-01p417-8, The Prosperity of Humankind] BWC Prosperity of Humankind (statement); Social and economic development; Social action; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    1995 Mar 3 – 12 The Bahá'í International Community and Bahá'ís from many countries participate in the United Nations World Summit for Social Development and the parallel Forum ‘95 for non-governmental organizations in Copenhagen. [BINS337:1–2]
    • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement in the Summit see BW94–5:37–6.
    • For the text of The Prosperity of Humankind, the Bahá'í International Community statement released at the Summit, see BW94–5 273–96.
    • For pictures see BW94–5:39, 43, 45.
    Copenhagen; Denmark United Nations Summits; Bahai International Community; Social and economic development; Prosperity of Humankind (statement); BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    1995 May 30 – Jun 1 The first International Medical/Surgical Conference of Tirana is held under the auspices of Health for Humanity and the University of Tirana, attended by more than 400 Albanian physicians. [BINS343:2–3] Tirana; Albania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Health; Conferences, International; Health
    1995 Jun 8 – 11 The first European Bahá'í Conference on Law and International Order is held at De Poort Conference Centre, Netherlands. [BINS345:4] De Poort; Netherlands; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Law
    1995 Oct The publication of Turning Point For All Nations by the Bahá'í International Community, United Nations Office, in New York in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations. It was a call for world leaders to define a role for the UN. [Turning Point for all Nations, en français] New York; United States Turning Point For All Nations (statement); Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations
    1995 Dec 28 – 30 The first teaching conference of Lithuania is held in Vilnius, attended by Bahá'ís from five countries. [BINS355:1] Vilnius; Lithuania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, teaching; First conferences
    1996 15 Jan A Chair for Bahá'í Studies is inaugurated at the University of Lucknow. [BINS354:3] Lucknow; India Chair in Bahai Studies; Universities; Firsts, Other
    1996 3 Mar The establishment of the Ocean of Light School in Tonga. [OoL Website, BWNS195] Tonga Bahai schools
    1996 23 – 24 Mar The first National Women's Seminar of Bulgaria is held in Sofia, organized by the European Task Force for Women. [BINS365:8] Sofia; Bulgaria Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences
    1997 In the year In 1997 One Country launched its Web site that contains all the English issues of the newsletter published over the past three years. [One Country Vol 23 Issue3, BW’86-92p539] One Country; Newsletters; Internet; Bahai International Community
    1997 30 May The Universal House of Justice, in a message to all National Spiritual Assemblies, announces the formation of a new administrative body, the Regional Bahá'í Council, something that is already in practice in a few areas. [See 23 May, 1986 for example.]
    • Attached to the message is the document outlining the policies governing the formation and functioning of the Regional Bahá’í Councils entitled THE ESTABLISHMENT OF REGIONAL BAHÁ’Í COUNCILS IN CERTAIN COUNTRIES, THEIR CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTIONS. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 30 May, 1997]
    BWC Regional Bahai Councils
    1997 24-26 Oct The International Environment Forum was launched at the first International Bahá'í Environment Conference in de Poort, Netherlands, with participants from nine countries, who were joined electronically by people from 21 countries participating in the e-mail version of the conference.
    • A BAHÁ'Í PERSPECTIVE ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT was presented by Michael Richards of the Overseas Development Institute in London.
    • At the conference, the objectives, activities and structure of the Forum were agreed and statutes adopted, and a governing board of five people was elected.
    • It is a Bahá'í-inspired non-governmental organization that links together Bahá'ís and others interested in the fields of environment and sustainable development. Development of the Forum has been encouraged and guided by the Bahá'í International Community, although it has no formal link with the Bahá'í administration.
    De Poort; Netherlands International Environment Forum; Bahai International Community; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; First conferences Environment iefworld.org/conf1.htm
    1998 Feb The Bahá’í Open University resumed activities after the seizure of much of their assets four months earlier by the Iranian government. Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1998 29 Sep Starting this date until October 2nd, in Iran, government raids on 500 private homes and the arrest of some 30 faculty members in efforts to close the Bahá’í Institute for Higher Education, a decentralized university that aimed to give Bahá’í students access to the education they have been otherwise denied.
    • The Institute offered Bachelor's degrees in ten subject areas: applied chemistry, biology, dental science, pharmacological science, civil engineering, computer science, psychology, law, literature and accounting. Within these subject areas, which were administered by five "departments," the Institute was able to offer more than 200 distinct courses each term.
    • In the beginning, courses were based on correspondence lessons developed by Indiana University, which was one of the first institutions in the West to recognize the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education. Later on, course offerings were developed internally.
    • Teaching was done principally via correspondence, or, for specialized scientific and technical courses and in other special cases, in small-group classes that were usually held in private homes. Over time, however, the Institute was able to establish a few laboratories, operated in privately owned commercial buildings in and around Teheran, for computer science, physics, dental science, pharmacology, applied chemistry and language study. The operations of these laboratories were kept prudently quiet, with students cautioned not to come and go in large groups that might give the authorities a reason to object.
    • Among other significant human rights conventions, Iran is a party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966. Parties to this Covenant "recognize the right of everyone to education" and more specifically that "higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means." [“The New York Times” article dated 29 October, 1998, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
    Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution; Human Rights; Education
    1998 6 - 8 Nov The 2nd International Conference of the Environment Forum was held in the Netherlands with wide electronic participation on the themes of sustainable consumption and the Earth Charter. The first theme of the conference, sustainable consumption, was introduced by a keynote address on "Sustainable Consumption and True Prosperity" by Arthur Dahl. [ iefworld.org/conf2.htm ] Netherlands Arthur Dahl; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Environment; Conferences, International; Environment; International Environment Forum
    1998 23 Nov The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States announced the results of the elections for their first Regional Councils. Four were elected in the regions corresponding to those mentioned in The Tablets of the Divine Plan. [Results of the First Regional Bahá'í Council Election] United States Regional Bahai Councils; Tablets of the Divine Plan (book)
    1999 The Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity was established as a non-profit organization in association with the Bahá'í International Community. One of the purposes of the Institute was to explore, with others, the complementary roles that science and religion – as co-evolving systems of knowledge and practice – must play in the advancement of civilization. [ISPG Web site] Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Bahai International Community; Science; Social discourse
    1999 June The dedication of the first academic chair in Bahá'í studies in Israel at Hebrew University of Jerusalem with the appointment of Prof. Moshe Sharon. The position was made possible because of an anonymous donation. [Jerusalem Post, June 7, 1999, BWNS84] Jerusalem; Israel Chair in Bahai Studies; Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Universities; Moshe Sharon; Firsts, Other; Donations
    1999 21 Jun The passing of Meherangiz Munsiff in London (b. 23 November, 1923 Bombay, India) Born into a Bahá'í family she travelled in India with Martha Root at the age of 14 years. She was appointed Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the French Cameroons. In addition she visited more than 150 countries to teach and assist in the development of Bahá'í communities and was know as a lecturer and an activist among the international humanitarian community. [The Bahá'í World99-00p308-309] London; United Kingdom Meherangiz Munsiff; First Bahais by country or area
    1999 15 - 18 Aug The third conference was held Sidcot, Avon, United Kingdom, jointly with the Bahá'í Agency for Social and Economic Development - UK. It brought together 44 participants from 13 countries on 5 continents, as well as internet connection with an additional 70 "electronic" conference participants in 29 countries, for a total of 114 participants from 38 countries, including 8 in Africa. (From web site) United Kingdom Social and economic development; Bahai Agency for Social and Economic Development; Conferences, Bahai Find ref
    2000 Jan The establishment of a high school at the Malagwane hill site in Mbabane, the capital of Swaziland, a small cosmopolitan city of about 90,000 inhabitants.
    • The school, located on the outskirts of the city, has been named "The Setsembiso Sebunye High School." In Siswati, the language of Swaziland, it means "the promise of unity."
    • It opened with a double stream (two sections) with 120 students in Forms One and Two (the 8th and 9th year of school). In subsequent years a minimum of 70 new students will be admitted.
    • A two-story, twelve-room building was completed just before the opening of school. This building contains 7 classrooms, a science lab/classroom, and a modern computer room, a library and an administrative/staff room. Each classroom is equipped with computer capabilities to provide both access to a network in support of the curriculum and the internet. This building is the first of a complex of facilities to serve the needs of a modern high school, eventually having about 400 students.
    • The total enrolment for all of the schools (high, primary and pre-primary schools) now exceeds 500. [Home Page]
    Mbabane; Swaziland Bahai schools
    2000 12 - 14 Dec The 4th Annual Conference of the International Environment Forum (IEF) was held in Orlando, Florida. The theme was Applying the Baha'i Teachings to the Environmental Challenges Facing the World. (IEF Web Site) Orlando; Florida; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; International Environment Forum; Environment
    2001 30 Apr – 2 May The Bahá'í International Community today issued a statement, entitled Sustainable Development: the Spiritual Dimension, for the first session of the United Nations Preparatory Committee of the World Summit on Sustainable Development at the UN in New York. [BWNS93]

    For the complete text with footnotes see: Statement.

    New York; NY Bahai International Community; Sustainable Development; United Nations; United Nations Summits
    2001 28 - 31 May Global Form on Fighting Corruption II was held in The Hague. [IAACA Web Site]
    • The paper entitled Overcoming Corruption and Safeguarding Integrity in Public Institutions: A Baha’i Perspective was prepared by the Bahá’í World Centre at the request of the United States government and for use of the Bahá’í representative to the forum. [Text]
    Hague, The; Netherlands Corruption; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    2001 25 - 27 Jun The Baha'i International Community issued this statement for the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS in New York entitled HIV/AIDS and Gender Equality: Transforming Attitudes and Behaviours". [Text] New York Bahai International Community; United Nations; HIV/AIDS; Gender; Equality Find ref
    2001 Jul The inauguration of the new campus of the Townshend International School in the Czech Republic.
    • Since its opening in 1992 the co-educational high school has gained accreditation from the Ministry of Education and has welcomed students from over thirty countries in addition to sponsoring students from the Czech Republic. This private, non-affiliated, co-educational high school is accredited by the Ministry of Education with English as the teaching language. [TIS Web Site]
    Czech Republic Townshend International School; Bahai schools
    2001 31 Aug – 7 Sep United Nations World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, was held in Durban, South Africa. The Bahá'í International Community issued a statement entitled One Same Substance: Consciously Creating a Global Culture of Unity. See BWNS133 for the full text or on the BIC Site. Durban; South Africa United Nations; Racism; Discrimination; Bahai International Community
    2001 23 - 25 Nov International Consultative Conference on School Education in relation with Freedom of Religion and Belief, Tolerance and Non-discrimination, a United Nations conference was held in Madrid, Spain. The Bahá'í International Community presented a statement, entitled Belief and Tolerance: Lights Amidst the Darkness. For the text of the document see BWNS141 or on the BIC Site. Madrid; Spain United Nations conferences; Tolerance; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    2001 13 Dec The passing of Giovanni (Gianni) Ballerio in Geneva at the age of 58 after a battle with cancer. He was 58.
    • He had been a representative of the Bahá'í International Community at the United Nations in Geneva and in New York since 1981. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 3]
    Geneva; Switzerland Giovanni (Gianni) Ballerio; Bahai International Community; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    2002 19 Mar The establishment of the seventh Bahá'í radio station in Bulac, Philippines, located in a rural district some 30 kilometers from the city of San José on the main island of Luzon.
    • The station operates at 1584 kHz on the AM band, broadcasting at a power of 1,000 watts. Due to the flat topography of the region, it reaches a wide area encompassing the entire province of Nueva Ecija and a portion of Tarlac and Pangasinan provinces, with a potential listenership of more than 2.3 million people. [BWNS181]
    Bulac; Philippines Bahai radio stations Find ref
    2002 6 June City Montessori School in Lucknow, India wing the UNESCO Peace Education award in recognition of its efforts to promote the universal values of education for peace and tolerance and to renew the principles of secularism at a time when these values and principles are increasingly being challenged. The school was founded by Mr. Jagdish Gandhi and his wife Bharti in 1959 with only 5 students and has since earned a reputation for a high level of academic excellence — and for a distinctive program of moral and spiritual education. In 1999 the Guinness Book of World Records recognized City Montessori School as the world's largest school by enrollment. The school had some 22,000 students that year. In 2002 it had 26,000 students in grade levels ranging from pre-primary to college and in 2010-11 enrolment was 39,437. In 2014-14 it was over 47,000. Technically speaking, CMS is not so much a school as a school district, with some 20 branches spread throughout Lucknow. [CMS site, BWNS165, BWNS146, One CountryVol.14,Issue 1] Lucknow; India Awards; UNESCO; City Montessori School; Bahai schools
    2002 26 Jun – 2 Jul In commemoration of the Second Bahá'í World Congress 23-26 November in 1992 in New York, a Festival of the Arts is celebrated in that same city. The project is an independent initiative of Global Music, Inc., a Bahá'í-owned company, and associated individuals. It is not under the sponsorship of any Bahá'í institution. The centerpiece event is held at Carnegie Hall featuring a 550-voice choir under the direction of Mr. Tom Price and known as the Voices of Baha. It is composed of Bahá'ís from some 24 countries. [BWNS162] New York; United States Bahai World Congresses; Arts; Music; Carnegie Hall; Tom Price; Voice of Baha; Choirs
    2002 26 Aug – 4 Sep World Summit on Sustainable Development, a United Nations conference in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Bahá'í International Community issues a statement, entitled Religion and Development at the Crossroads: Convergence or Divergence?. [BWNS169, BWNS170] Johannesburg; South Africa United Nations; Sustainable Development; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    2002 21 Sep The dedication , at the Green Acre Bahá'í School in Eliot Maine, the oldest permanent Bahá'í school in the world, of a new classroom and lecture hall designated as The Harriet and Curtis Kelsey Center, with an attendant Manny Reimer Hall. [BWNS175] Green Acre; Eliot; Maine; United States Green Acre; Bahai schools; Curtis Kelsey; Harriet Kelsey; First schools
    2002 26 Nov The inauguration of a new radio station at Bulac, Philippines. The station operates at 1584 kHz on the AM band, broadcasting at a power of 1,000 watts with a potential listenership of more than 2.3 million people. [BWNS181] Bulac; Philippines Bahai radio stations
    2003 11 Mar Bani Dugal Gujral was appointed Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations.
    • Ms. Dugal Gujral had been serving as interim Principal Representative since the resignation of Techeste Ahderom in 2001.
    • Ms. Dugal Gujral came to the Bahá'í International Community in 1994 and served as Director of the Community's Office for the Advancement of Women. A native of India, where she practiced law before coming to the United States, Ms. Dugal Gujral holds a Master's degree in Environmental Law from Pace University School of Law in New York. [One Country Vol.14 Issue4]
    New York; United States Bani Dugal Gujral; Bahai International Community; Women; Techeste Ahderom; United Nations
    2003 25 Jul The passing of Elisabeth Charlotte (Lottie) Tobias while on her way home to Voorburg from a summer school held in De Poort. She was described by the National Spiritual Assembly as being the "mother" of the Netherlands Baha'i community. [BW03-04p238] Netherlands First Bahais by country or area; Lottie Tobias
    2003 6 - 7 Sep The celebration of the Jubilee of the opening of the Faith in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was commemorated in Kinshasa by some 600 participants. Among those at the celebrations in the capital were three of the first Congolese Baha'is: Louis Selemani, 81, Remy Kalonji, 83, and Valerien Mukendi, 83. One guest who could not make it was Ola Pawlowska, 93, though she participated in the celebrations by sending from her home in Canada a message of congratulations and love to a community to which she devoted three decades of her life. Guests of honour at the jubilee included Mr. Nakhjavani, former member of the Universal House of Justice, and Mrs. Nakhjavani, as well as Joan Lincoln, counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre, and Albert Lincoln, secretary-general of the Baha'i International Community. All four had spent many years as pioneers in Africa.

    Active teaching in the area began in 1953. Before that time, colonial authorities did not permit the promotion of the Faith and that is when Ali Nakhjavani and his wife, Violette, driving across Africa from Uganda, took Ugandan Baha'i Samson Mungongo to the city of Kamina. The first local assembly was formed in 1957 and the National Assembly was inaugurated in 1970. This event also marked the first time the National Spiritual Assembly had been able to meet in Kinshasa since 1998 because of the war. [BWNS248]

    • For further details on the development of the Faith in the DRC see Legacy of Courage: The Life of Ola Pawlowska, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh by Suzanne Schuurman.
    Kinshasa; The Democratic Republic of the Congo; DRC Bahai history by country
    2005 23 Jul The purchase of a new Bahá'í Centre at 44 Albany Street, Edinburgh EH1 3QR. [bahai.org.uk Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Bahai centres
    2005 Nov Dr. John Grayzei was appointed to the Bahá'í Chair for Peace at the University of Maryland in the United States. He succeeds Suheil Bushrui who held the position since its inauguration in 1992. [BWNS404] Maryland; United States John Grayzei; Suheil Bushrui; Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland
    2005 1 Nov A new Bahá'í Centre is obtained at 44 Albany Street in Edinburgh, Scotland. [BWNS347, BWNS395] Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Bahai centres
    2005 27 – 31 Dec The gathering, at the Bahá'í World Centre, the members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors [BWNS418] BWC Counsellors; Bahai conferences; Counsellors conferences
    2006 15 Jul The Bahá'í Academy has entered into a formal agreement with one of India's top-ranked universities to offer specialized training in education for moral development to its students, faculty, and staff. [BWNS470] Pune; India Bahai Academy; University of Pune; Education; Moral development
    2007 5 Mar The start of Bahaikipedia - The Bahá’í collaborative encyclopedia. The name Bahaikipedia is a portmanteau of Bahá’í, wiki and encyclopedia. [Bahaikipedia] Bahaikipedia
    2007 11 May The passing of His Highness Susuga Malietoa Tanumafili II, the Samoan head of state. He was one of the longest reigning monarchs in the world and had been head of state since independence from New Zealand in 1962. [BWNS543] Western Samoa Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; In memoriam; Births and deaths; Bahai royalty
    2007. 14 Nov In a letter to the Students, Staff, Parents and Supporters of Maxwell International School the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada announced that the school would close (at the end of the term). Financial considerations were cited as the reason. Maxwell had provided an accredited academic program for grades 7–12 leading to British Columbia high school graduation certification. The school had been established in 1989 as a non-profit educational institution with a strong emphasis on the performing arts. The Maxwell Dance Workshop used dance, music and drama to challenge young people to find new solutions for the issues facing their generation. The school also had an ESL (English as a Second Language) program to accommodate foreign students who came from diverse religious and cultural backgrounds. [Maxwell International School on A-Channel News] Shawnigan Lake,BC Maxwell International School; Bahai Schools; Dance
    2008 14 Feb The publication of a new statement from the Bahá'í International Community entitled Eradicating Poverty: Moving Forward as One. In English [Moving Forward as One, In Farsi] New York; United States Poverty; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    2009 2 – 3 Jul More than 20 members of the European Bahá'í Business Forum participated in the Global Ethics Forum, held at United Nations headquarters in Geneva. [BWNS722] Geneva; Switzerland; Europe Global Ethics Form; European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
    2010 May The publication of Rethinking Prosperity: Forging Alternatives to a Culture of Consumerism," for the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. The statement can be read at BIC10-0503. [BWNS770] New York; United States Sustainable Development; Prosperity; Consumerism; Materialism; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations
    2010 7 Dec In an open letter to Ayatollah Mohammad Sadeq Larijani, the Head of the Judiciary, the Bahá'í International Community today contrasted the country's persecution of Bahá'ís with Iran's own call for Muslim minorities to be treated fairly in other countries. [BWNS801] Iran Ayatollah Mohammad Sadeq Larijani; Open letters; Bahai International Community; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Human rights
    2010 28 Dec – 1 Jan The conference of the Continental Boards of Counsellors held at the World Centre attended by 79 of the world's 81 Counsellors, from some 58 countries. [BWNS804] BWC Counsellors; Counsellors conferences; Bahai conferences
    2011 24 Sep The arrest of Abdolfattah Soltani, a senior member of the legal team representing a number of Bahá'ís in Iran await trial for providing higher education to youth barred from university. [BWNS849] Iran Abdolfattah Soltani; Lawyers; Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution; Human Rights; Education
    2012 Jul The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace was assumed by Professor Hoda Mahmoudi who previously headed a research department at the Bahá'í World Center in Israel. [Bio Professor Hoda Mahmoudi] Maryland; United States Hoda Mahmoudi; Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland; Firsts, Other
    2013 15 Jul Iranian filmmaker and blogger Mohammad Nourizad, kissed the feet of 4 year old Artin whose parents had been arrested for participation in the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education. [Wikipedia entry ] Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution; Human Rights; Education
    2013 Jul – Oct The holding of 114 Youth Conferences around the world at the request of the Universal House of Justice. The purpose of the gatherings were to explore such themes as the characteristics inherent to the period of youth, the historical contribution of young people to the transformation of society, the responsibilities of the present generation of youth, the society-building power of the Bahá'í Teachings, and the importance of faith and tenacity to a life of service. [List of places and dates for Youth Conferences] Worldwide Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
    2013 1 Oct The Bahá'í International Community announced the appointment of Joshua Lincoln as its new Secretary-General. This announcement followed the announcement of the retirement of Mr. Albert Lincoln who had served as Secretary-General for 19 years. [BWNS968, BWNS969] Bahai International Community; Joshua Lincoln; Bahai International Community, Secretary-Generals; Albert Lincoln; Retirements
    2014 Apr In Shiraz, the Revolutionary Guard began excavation of some 200 square meters of the Bahá'í cemetery. The site, which had been in use since the 1920s, had been confiscated by the government in 1983 and the Revolutionary Guard had taken ownership of the site some three years earlier with plans to build a cultural and sports centre. It is the site of the remains of the ten Bahá'í of Shiraz who were hanged in 1983 for the crimes of being Zionists and teaching children's classes. [BWNS993, BWNS994] Shiraz; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; Persecution
    2014 8 May Despite a worldwide outcry, the Iranian Revolutionary Guards is continuing to destroy an historic Bahá'í cemetery in Shiraz. Between 2005 and 2012 some 42 Bahá'í-owned cemeteries were desecrated in a similar fashion. [BWNS993, BWNS1016] Shiraz; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; Persecution
    2015 12 Feb The official opening of the new location of the Afnan Library Trust at Sandy, close to Cambridge. The Afnan Library Trust was established in 1985 to manage the collection bequeathed by Hasan Balyuzi when he passed away in 1980. It consists of some 10,000 books, as well as a vast quantity of manuscripts, original letters, maps, documents, periodicals, and unpublished items – some of them dating back to the nineteenth century. [BWNS1040] Sandy; Cambridge MA; United States Afnan Library Trust; Hasan Balyuzi; Libraries; Bahai studies
    2016 23 - 24 May The first World Humanitarian Summit is held in Istanbul, Turkey. The summit, organized by the United Nations, called on government leaders as well as those from business, aid agencies, civil society and faith-based organizations to consult on the question of disaster relief. A statement released by the Baha'i International Community (BIC) for the occasion, titled "Rising Together: Building the Capacity to Recover from Within" is available at their website. Istanbul; Turkey United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Disaster relief; Charity and relief work; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    2016. 6 Sep In a letter the BIC calls on Iranian President Rouhani to end systematic economic oppression. The letter signed by Bani Dugal, Principal Representative of the Baha'i International Community to the United Nations, draws attention to the stark contradiction between statements espoused by the Iranian government regarding economic justice, equality for all and reducing unemployment on one hand, and the unrelenting efforts to impoverish a section of its own citizens on the other. New York; United States Bani Dugal Gujral; Bahai International Community; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    2016 26 Oct The report from the offices of the Bahá'í International Community entitled The Bahá'í Question Revisited: Persecution and Resilience in Iran was formally released.
    • The full report can be read on-line here.
    • A list of resolutions by the United Nations and United Nations bodies that reference the situation of Baha’is in Iran since 1980 can be found at this location.
    • An annex to The Bahá'í Question Revisited is the report called "Inciting Hatred". It is an analysis of approximately 400 anti-Baha'i articles, broadcasts, and webpages from late December 2009 through May 2011 and can be found here.
    • A list of the 222 Baha’is who have been killed in Iran since 1978 can be read here.
    Iran Persecution; BIC; Bahai Question, The
    2018 18 Jan In response to growing interest in the persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran, a website was launched by the Bahá’í International Community providing a glimpse into several decades of discriminatory treatment against the Bahá’ís in that country. The website, named Archives of Bahá’í Persecution in Iran, made available, for the first time, thousands of official documents, reports, testimonials, and audio-visual material, revealing documentary evidence of years of relentless oppression. BWC Websites; Internet; Archives; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Bahai International Community

    from the main catalogue

    1. 100 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe, by Graham Hassall and Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). Overview of the first 100 years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe, including growth and the distinctive aspects of this community, external affairs, the role of women, and Bahá'í studies. [about]
    2. 1970-1995: Newspaper articles archive (1970). Collection of newspaper articles from 1970-1995. [about]
    3. 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, by Bahá'í International Community (2008). Baha'i International Community’s Statement on the occasion of the 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights [about]
    4. 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). Papers from the proceedings from the 1995 National Bahá'í Studies Conference, Australia. [about]
    5. `Abdu'l-Baha in Abu-Sinan: September 1914–May 1915, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The story of Abdu'l-Baha's relocating the Haifa/Akka Baha'i community of some 140 people to a nearby Druze village to keep them safe during World War I. [about]
    6. Abdu'l-Baha in Britain: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2011). Short overview of Abdu'l-Baha's travels to Britain. [about]
    7. 'Abdu'l-Baha Writes to Kansas City, by Duane L. Herrmann (2002). Early history of the Baha'i Faith in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, from 1896 to 1919 and beyond. Includes three new provisional translations. [about]
    8. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
    9. Academic Irrelevance or Disciplinary Blind-Spot?: Middle Eastern Studies and the Baha'i Faith Today, by Ismael Velasco, in Middle East Studies Association Bulletin (2001). Possible reasons for the lack of attention to Baha'i topics in academia. [about]
    10. Accessing literature on the Bahá'í Faith: Emerging search technologies and recent results, by Graham Hassall, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Survey of search technologies that can be used to find documentation on the Bahá'í religion, and a summary of results of such searches for the period 2003-2006. [about]
    11. Account of How I Became a Bahá'í and My Stays in Paris in 1901 and 1937, An: Written at the Request of Mrs. Laura Dreyfus-Barney, by Agnes Baldwin Alexander (1958). [about]
    12. Activities in Support of International Literacy Year - 1990, by Bahá’í International Community (1991). [about]
    13. Activities in the Bahá'í World Community to Improve the Status of Women during the United Nations Decade for Women, by Bahá’í International Community (1985). Report presented to the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace [about]
    14. Advocates for African Food Security: Lessening the Burden for Women, by Bahá'í International Community (1991). A joint statement to the 35th session of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, Agenda Item 4: Monitoring the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women [about]
    15. Afnán Family, The: Some Biographical Notes, by Ahang Rabbani (2007). Genealogy of the Báb and biographies of his descendants; meaning of afnan. [about]
    16. American Bahá'í Community in the Nineties, The, by Robert Stockman, in America's Alternative Religions, Timothy Miller, ed. (1995). Overview of the contemporary Baha'i community, its activities, and its concerns. [about]
    17. Año Internacional de la Mujer, El, by Bahá'í International Community. Exposición presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í en el 25° período de sesiones de la Comisión de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer. [about]
    18. Aplicación de la Declaración sobre la Eliminación de todas las formas de intolerancia y discriminación fundadas en la religión o las convicciones, 1988, by Bahá'í International Community (1988). intolerancia y discriminación [about]
    19. Aplicación del Programa de acción para el Segundo Decenio de la lucha contra el racismo y la discriminación racial, by Bahá'í International Community (1947). lucha contra el racismo [about]
    20. Aspects of the History of the Bahá'í Faith in Switzerland, Some, by John Paul Vader (2009). Switzerland was among the first countries opened to the Bahá’i religion. This paper describes the connections between the Bahá’i Faith and Switzerland and a selection of episodes in the early history of the development of the community there. [about]
    21. Associations for Bahá'í Studies, by Universal House of Justice (2008). Some explanation on when it is appropriate for a country to form an ABS organization. [about]
    22. Australia: History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Graham Hassall (1998). Short history of the Baha'i community of Australia. [about]
    23. Australian Bahá'í Studies: Vol. 2 (2000). The complete issue of volume 2. Some papers were delivered at the 18th annual ABS conference "The Creative Inspiration: Arts and Culture in the Bahá’í Faith" (Melbourne, September 1999). [about]
    24. Australian Women and Religious Change: Margaret Dixson and the First Melbourne Baha'is, by Graham Hassall, in Proceedings of the Association for Bahá'í Studies (1988). [about]
    25. Bahá'í country notes: China, by Graham Hassall (1997). History of the Baha'i community in China. [about]
    26. Bahá'í country notes: Egypt, by Graham Hassall (1997). History of Baha'is in Egypt from 1860s to 1961 referencing early merchant settlements, Abdu'l-Baha's visits, the Alexandria, Cairo, Port Said and national communities plus persecutions, court decisions, and the Presidential anti-Baha'i decree 263 of 1960. [about]
    27. Bahá'í country notes: Africa, by Graham Hassall (1999). [about]
    28. Bahá'í Faith in the Asia Pacific: Issues and Prospects, by Graham Hassall, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). [about]
    29. Bahá'í Question, The: Cultural Cleansing in Iran, by Bahá'í International Community (2008). [about]
    30. Bahá'í Centenary, The: 100 years of the Bahá'í Faith in Britain, A Brief History: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1998). Short history of the Baha'is of the United Kingdom. [about]
    31. Bahá'í Communities by Country: Research Notes, by Graham Hassall (2000). Brief notes on the history of Baha'i activities and the dates of NSA formation in Africa, China, Australia, and elsewhere. [about]
    32. Bahá'í Communities in the Asia-Pacific: Performing Common Theology and Cultural Diversity on a 'Spiritual Axis', by Graham Hassall and William Barnes (1998). [about]
    33. Bahá'í Community of Canada, The: A Case Study in the Transplantation of Non-Western Religious Movements to Western Societies, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Origins of the Bahá'í Community of Canada, 1898-1948 (1996). [about]
    34. Bahá'í Community of Iran, The: Patterns of Exile and Problems of Communication, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Refugees and Exiles Since Khomeini, ed. Asghar Fathi (1991). [about]
    35. Bahá'í Community of Randwick: A Survey of 75 Years, by Graham Hassall, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, 1:1 (1999). History of the Baha'i community of Randwick, Australia. [about]
    36. Baha'i country notes: Australia, by Graham Hassall (1997). [about]
    37. Bahá'í Faith: Origin, Missionary Work, and the Entrance into Vietnam, by Mai Thanh Hai, in Religious Studies Review, 4:2 (2008). An outsider's short history of the Faith in Vietnam since 1954 and current activities in the country. [about]
    38. Bahá'í Faith 1957-1988, The: A Survey of Contemporary Developments, by Peter Smith and Moojan Momen, in Religion, 19 (1989). A general account of developments in the Bahá'í Faith during these three decades. [about]
    39. Bahá'í Faith in Africa, The: Establishing a New Religious Movement, 1952-1962, by Anthony Lee (2011). African presence in early Babi and Baha'i history; Baha'i response to crises in Middle East and West Africa; histories of British Camaroons, Calabar. Studies of Religion in Africa series, vol. 39. [about]
    40. Baha'i Faith in America, by William Garlington: Review, by Peter Terry (2017). [about]
    41. Bahá'í Faith in Australia: 75 Years Remembered, by Graham Hassall, in Herald of the South (1995). [about]
    42. Bahá'í Faith in Australia 1947-1963, by Graham Hassall, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). [about]
    43. Bahá'í Faith in England and Germany, 1900-1913, by Robert Stockman, in World Order (1996). Historical overview of the early years of the Faith in the British Isles and Germany. [about]
    44. Bahá'í Faith in Hong Kong, by Graham Hassall (1998). Extensive and detailed overview of the history of the Baha'i community in Hong Kong. [about]
    45. Bahá'í Faith in Iran, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes essay "Three Clerics and a Prince of Isfahan: background to Bahá'u'lláh's Epistle to the Son of the Wolf" and bios of Ayatollah Khomeini and Zill al-Sultan. [about]
    46. Bahá'í Faith in Tasmania 1923-1963, by Graham Hassall, in The Family: Our Hopes and Challenges (1995). Early history of the Baha'i community of Tasmania. [about]
    47. Bahá'í Faith in Turkey, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes bios of individuals from Turkey who figure prominently in Baha'i history. [about]
    48. Bahá'í Faith, Scholarship on, by Moojan Momen (1995). This article is a survey of attempts to analyse and study the Babi and Bahá'í Faith from a scholarly viewpoint. [about]
    49. Baha'i Faith, The: The Emerging Global Religion, by William S. Hatcher and Douglas Martin (1985). Overview of Baha'i history and teachings, designed as an introductory textbook. Available as an ebook in English or a PDF in Persian. [about]
    50. Bahá'í Faith, The: Sect or Religion?, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies, volume 16 (1988). Lengthy study defining the distinguishing features of the Baha'i Faith as contrasted with other contemporary religious movements. [about]
    51. Bahá'í Faith, The: An Introduction, by Bahá'í International Community (1998). An overview of the Baha'i Faith, in words and pictures. [about]
    52. Baha'i Faith, The: 50 Years in Singapore (2000). History of Baha'i activity and teaching in Singapore, from May 26 1950, when the first Baha’i pioneer, Dr. K.M. Fozdar, arrived in Singapore, until the year 2000. [about]
    53. Bahá'í Health Initiatives in Iran: A preliminary survey, by Seena B. Fazel and Minou Foadi, in The Bahá'ís of Iran: Socio-historical Studies, ed. Dominic Parviz Brookshaw & Seena B. Fazel (2008). Baha'i-related initiatives in Iran in the 19th-20th centuries: Baha'is made important contributions to public health such as introducing showers in public baths, school vaccinations, women's health, and privately-financed clinics open to all Iranians. [about]
    54. Bahá'í History, by Firuz Kazemzadeh. Significance of history to the study of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
    55. Bahá'í History, by Moojan Momen and Peter Smith (1993). A general survey of the history of the Baha'i Faith, including a brief overview of main events in Babi and Baha'i history. Next, a series of themes that have developed throughout Baha'i history is examined. [about]
    56. Bahá'í History, in Journal of Religious History, 36:4 (2012). A complete issue of this well-known journal was dedicated entirely to Baha'i Studies. So far, only 3 articles from it are online. [about]
    57. Bahá'í Horizons in the 21st Century, by David S. Ruhe (1993). Informal notes transcribed from a talk closing a 1993 Conference on Social and Economic Development in Orlando, Florida, offering an overview of Baha'i activities at the turn of the millennium. [about]
    58. Bahá'í Journal of the United Kingdom (1997). Eight years of news and essays from the Journal of the Bahá'í Community of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. [about]
    59. Bahá'í News: Complete issues, in Bahá'í News (1924). Link to offsite documents. [about]
    60. Baha'i Religious History: Introduction, by Todd Lawson, in Journal of Religious History, 36:4 (2012). Introduction to a special issue of this journal titled "Baha'i History," summarizing the prophetic record, the divine hierarchy of history, and the primacy of science and education. [about]
    61. Bahá'í Schools, by Vahid Rafati, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    62. Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
    63. Bahá'í Statement on Nature, The, by Bahá'í International Community (1987). Prepared as official statement by the BIC Office of Public Information for the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). [about]
    64. Bahá'í Studies Bulletin: Index by volume (1998). List of articles in all issues of Bahai Studies Bulletin, 1982-1992. [about]
    65. Bahá'í studies Seminar in Cambridge, 30 September - 1 October 1978: Message to Participants, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice, 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age, (1996). Harmony of science and religion; faith and reason; spiritual scholarship; and the institution of review. [about]
    66. Bahá'í Teachings, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Authenticity of Statements; Mathnavi; Quranic quotations; Marriage Prayer; 'Sun' and 'Moon'; Hands of the Cause; Night of Power; Khatt-i-Badi; Sarcophagus for Baha'u'llah; International Baha'i Library Building; Lunar Calendar and Holy Days; Leiden, Kings. [about]
    67. Bahá'í World 2004–2005, The: Activities Report, by Bahá'í International Community, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 33 (2004-2005) (2007). [about]
    68. Bahá'í World 2005–2006, The: Activities Report, by Bahá'í International Community, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 34 (2005-2006) (2008). [about]
    69. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 01 (1925-1926), in Bahá'í World (1926). Then titled Baha'i Year Book. [about]
    70. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 02 (1926-1928), in Bahá'í World (1928). Then titled The Bahá'í World: a biennial international record. [about]
    71. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 03 (1928-1930), in Bahá'í World (1930). [about]
    72. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 04 (1930-1932), in Bahá'í World (1932). [about]
    73. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 05 (1932-1934), in Bahá'í World (1936). [about]
    74. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 06 (1934-1936), in Bahá'í World (1937). [about]
    75. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 07 (1936-1938), in Bahá'í World (1939). [about]
    76. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 08 (1938-1940), in Bahá'í World (1942). [about]
    77. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 09 (1940-1944), in Bahá'í World (1945). [about]
    78. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 10 (1944-1946), in Bahá'í World (1948). [about]
    79. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 11 (1946-1950), in Bahá'í World (1952). [about]
    80. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 12 (1950-1954), in Bahá'í World (1956). [about]
    81. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 13 (1954-1963), in Bahá'í World (1970). Includes formatted, proofread version (of pp. 1-478 only). [about]
    82. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 14 (1963-1968), in Bahá'í World (1974). [about]
    83. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 15 (1968-1973), in Bahá'í World (1976). [about]
    84. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 16 (1973-1976), in Bahá'í World (1978). [about]
    85. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 17 (1976-1979), in Bahá'í World (1981). So far only a portion of this volume is available: the table of contents, and pages 1-48. [about]
    86. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
    87. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 23 (1994-1995), in Bahá'í World (1996). [about]
    88. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 24 (1995-1996), in Bahá'í World (1997). [about]
    89. Bahá'ís of the United States, The, by Robert Stockman, in New Religions (1995). [about]
    90. Bahai Reference Library Wiki Overlay, by Brett Zamir (2013). Firefox add-on (software) overlaying the official Bahá'í Reference Library (reference.bahai.org) with links back to collaboratively editable wikis (at bahai9.com, bahaikipedia.org, wikipedia.org, and bahaitext.org) for compiling info by work/paragraph. [about]
    91. Bahai Religious Faith and Tradition in Bangladesh, by Muhammad Jahangir Alam, in Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology, 8:1 (2011). History of the Faith in eastern Bengal and a sketch of current distribution, organization, and activities of Baha'is in Bangladesh. [about]
    92. Bahaism - Its Origins and Role: A Rebuttal, by Bahá'í International Community (1983). The complete Iranian document "Bahaism — its origins and its role" together with BIC commentary on that document. [about]
    93. Barbados, by Patricia Paccassi (1995). [about]
    94. Baron Rosen's Archive Collection of Bábí and Bahá'í Materials, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
    95. Base Espiritual de la Igualdad, La, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    96. Bausani, Alessandro, by Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2008). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    97. Bibliography of English-Language Works on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths 1844-1985, by William Collins: Review, by Roger Dahl, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:3 (1991). [about]
    98. Black Roses in Canada's Mosaic: Four Decades of Black History, by Will C. van den Hoonaard and Lynn Echevarria-Howe (1994). Survey of African-Americans in Canada, their activities in the Baha'i community, and statistical information. [about]
    99. Broad Contours of the Canadian Baha'i Community, by Will C. van den Hoonaard and Deborah K. van den Hoonaard (1994). Historical and sociological overview of the Canadian Baha'i community. [about]
    100. Browne, Edward Granville: Babism and Bahaism, by Juan Cole, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    101. Canadian Bahá'ís 1938-2000, The: Construction of Oneness in Personal and Collective Identity, by Lynn Echevarria-Howe, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). On how globalization includes greater consciousness of the whole world, and a sociological perspective on how this consciousness has been nurtured within the Canadian Baha'i community. [about]
    102. Celestial Burning, A: A Selective Study of the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Jack McLean (2012). Style, content, and context of World Order of Baha'u'llah and Dispensation of Baha'u'llah: part of chapter 1 of this lengthy analysis of the work of Shoghi Effendi (pages 1-71), offered as a sample. [about]
    103. Century of Light, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Survey of the history and dramatic changes of the 20th Century and the Bahá'í Faith's emergence from obscurity, "demonstrating on a global scale the unifying power with which its Divine origin has endowed it." [about]
    104. Challenge of the Bahá'í Faith: A Non-Bahá'í Assessment of Reasons for Studying the Bahá'í Religion, by Vernon Elvin Johnson, in World Order (1976). Though small and young, the Bahá’í Faith is a subject of central importance not only for the student of the history of religions but for anyone interested in world problems and proposals for their solution. [about]
    105. Challenges to Bahá'í Studies, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). Discussion of the intellectual presentation of the Baha'i Faith, and of the related topics of review, apologetics, and contemporary political contexts. [about]
    106. Change of Culture, A, by Moojan Momen (2007). An overview of the process of cultural change in the Baha'i community. [about]
    107. Changing Reality: The Bahá'í Community and the Creation of a New Reality, by Moojan Momen, in História Questões & Debates, 43 (2005). [about]
    108. Chart of the Eras and Epochs of Bahá'í History, by Arjen Bolhuis (2000). Diagram of the periods of Bahá'í history. Available in English and Russian. [about]
    109. Charter for Bahá'í Schools, A, by Stephen Waite and National Spiritual Assembly of India, in Bahá'í National Review, 128 (1990). Basic principles which may guide the development of Bahá'í schools and other educational projects [about]
    110. Chase, Thornton, by Robert Stockman, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the first person in the West to become a steadfast Bahá’í, one of the founders of the Chicago Bahá’í community, included by Shoghi Effendi among a number of prominent early Bahá’ís he designated "Disciples of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá." [about]
    111. Chronicle of `Abdu'l-Ahad Zanjani: Personal Reminiscences of the Insurrection at Zanjan, by Aqa Abdu'l-Ahad Zanjani, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 29 (1897). [about]
    112. Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 1 (1850-1853), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
    113. Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 2 (1854-1876), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
    114. Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 3 (1873-1895), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
    115. Chronology of Bahá'í Literature (2005). A table, sorted by date, of all major English-language publications from the Central Figures, the Universal House of Justice, and reference materials. [about]
    116. Circumpolar Regions (Arctic): History of the Baha'i Faith, by Will C. van den Hoonaard (1994). [about]
    117. Ciudadanía Mundial: Ética Global Para El Desarrollo Sostenible, by Bahá'í International Community (1993). Comunidades Sostenibles en un Mundo Integrante [about]
    118. Combatiendo el Racismo, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración presentada a la Segunda Conferencia Mundial para Combatir el Racismo y la Discriminación Racial. Ginebra, Suiza, 1­12 de agosto de 1983 [about]
    119. Community Functioning, Issues Concerning: Fostering the Development of Bahá'í Communities, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). Extensive guidance on community development. Includes extracts from letters written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi on fostering the evolution of Baha'i communities. [about]
    120. Comunidades Sostenibles en un Mundo Integrante, by Bahá'í International Community (1996). Enunciado presentó por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í a la Conferencia sobre Domicilios Humanos (Albergue II) de las Naciones Unidas. Estanbul, Turquía, 3 al 14 de junio de 1996. [about]
    121. Concept of Process in the Bahá'í Writings, The, by Vargha Taefi (2005). Thesis is in Persian only, no English translation is available. [about]
    122. Condicion juridica y social de la mujer, La, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    123. Condition of non-Bahá'í Relatives after Death, The, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Four questions: Do the non-Bahá'í parents of believers become Bahá'ís in the next world? What is the definition of "kin"? What is the requisite spiritual state of the believer? What conditions are associated with the divine bounty? [about]
    124. Conferencia Mundial del Año Internacional de la Mujer: Declaración presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í (en carácter consultivo con el Consejo Económico y Social — Categoría II) Ciudad de México, México, 1975 [about]
    125. Conferencia Mundial para el Examen y la Evaluación de los Logros del Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer: Igualdad, Desarrollo y Paz, by Bahá'í International Community (1985). Informe presentado por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í acerca de las actividades de la Comunidad Bahá'í Mundial para mejorar la condición de la mujer durante el Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer y Programas Futuros para el Adelanto de la Muje [about]
    126. Conservación y el Desarrollo Sostenible en la Fe Bahá'í, La, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    127. Conspiracies and Forgeries: The Attack upon the Bahá'í Community in Iran, by Moojan Momen, in Persian Heritage, 9:35 (2004). [about]
    128. Contemporary developments in Baha'i studies: An examination using citation analysis, by Seena Fazel, in H-Baha'i Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies, 7:1 (2003). Investigation of contemporary developments using the technique of citation analysis, a widely used method to report trends in academia. [about]
    129. Conversion of Religious Minorities to the Bahá'í Faith in Iran: Some Preliminary Observations, by Susan Maneck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:3 (1990). Conversion patterns of Zoroastrians and Jews in the period 1877-1921. [about]
    130. Copyright options for submissions to the Bahá'í Library Online, by Brett Zamir (2006). [about]
    131. Copyright Status of Bahá'í Texts, by United States Bahá'í Publishing Trust (1996). Questions regarding copyright and posting of Sacred Writings on the Internet. [about]
    132. Covenant-Breakers in Bahá'í Historiography, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 5:3-6:1 (1991). Baha'i scholars may, when needed, use books by Covenant Breakers. [about]
    133. Creación De Familias Liberadas De La Violencia, La: Un Informe Resumido Del Simposio Llevado Acabo, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    134. Crisis in Babi and Bahá'í Studies, The: Part of a Wider Crisis in Academic Freedom?, by Denis MacEoin, in British Society for Middle Eastern Studies, 17:1 (1990). Response to Cole's review of MacEoin's "Hierarchy, Authority, and Eschatology in Early Babi Thought" with comments on "outsider" scholarship versus faith-based approaches. [about]
    135. Critical Examination of 20th-Century Baha'i Literature, A, by Vance Salisbury (1997). Explores the claim, first made by E. G. Browne, that some Baha'is suppress or distort historical texts. Includes tables of changes made in different editions of four popular Baha'i books. [about]
    136. Cyprus Exiles, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 5:3-6:1 (1991). History of Mirza Yahya's family and the four followers of Baha'u'llah exiled with them in Cyprus. Includes genealogies. [about]
    137. Dear Co-worker: Messages from Shoghi Effendi to the Benelux countries, by Shoghi Effendi (2009). Messages from Shoghi Effendi to the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg). [about]
    138. Dear Parent ... a Message to a non-Bahá'í Parent: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2000). A letter written to the parents of British Baha'i converts to dispel anxiety and misinformation. [about]
    139. Debunking the Myths: Conspiracy Theories on the Genesis and Mission of the Bahá'í Faith, by Adib Ma'sumian (2009). Response to Iranian conspiracy theories portraying the Baha'i Faith as a subversive political group, Zionist spies, affiliates of the secret police, British agents, etc. Available in English and Persian. Includes interview with author. [about]
    140. Declaración bahá'í sobre obligaciones y derechos humanos, 1947, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í ante la Conferencia Internacional de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Relación Entre el Desarme y el Desarrollo, Wilmette, Illinois, Febrero de 1947 [about]
    141. Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í ante la Conferencia Internacional de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Uso Indebido y el Tráfico Ilícito de Drogas, by Bahá'í International Community (1987). Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í ante la Conferencia Internacional de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Uso Indebido y el Tráfico Ilícito de Drogas, Viena, Austria, 17-26 de junio de 1987 [about]
    142. Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í ante la Conferencia Internacional de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Relación Entre el Desarme y el Desarrollo, by Bahá'í International Community (1987). El Año Internacional de la Mujer. Nueva York, Nueva York, 24 de agosto-11 de septiembre de 1987 [about]
    143. Demystifying Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of the Holy Mariner: History, Translations, Interpretations and Analysis, by Hui Bau (2016). Lengthy compilation, with background information on the Tablet, and commentary from Bau, Adib Taherzadeh, Michael Sours, Jamsheed Samandari, and Aziz Mboya. [about]
    144. Desarme y la Paz, El, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    145. Descripción de La Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í, by Bahá'í International Community. Descripción de La Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í [about]
    146. Development of the Babi/Bahá'í Communities, The: Exploring Baron Rosen's Archives, by Youli A. Ioannesyan (2013). 19th-century private letters and diplomatic correspondence from a prominent Russian scholar, one of the first to study the rise of the Babis. Excerpt from book: contents and Introduction. (Offsite.) [about]
    147. Digital Archiving at the Bahá'í World Centre Library, by Bahá'í International Archives, in Scriptum, 8 (1999). A paper written by staff at the Bahá'í World Centre Library (and approved for publication) about organization and methods of electronic-media archiving, as of 1999. [about]
    148. El Desarrollo Sostenible y el Espíritu Humano, by Bahá'í International Community. El Desarrollo Sostenible y el Espíritu Humano, presentado Río de Janeiro, Brasil, junio de 1992 [about]
    149. El Papel de la religión en el desarrollo social, by Bahá'í International Community. Comentarios al borrador de la Declaración y Programa de Acción para el desarrollo social. Presentado durante la reunión del Comité Preparatorio para la Cumbre Mundial sobre el Desarrollo Social, New York, New York, 1994 [about]
    150. Election and Infallibility of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Answers to three questions: Why were steps taken to elect a Universal House of Justice with the foreknowledge that there would be no Guardian? Was the time ripe for such an action? Could not the International Baha'i Council have carried on the work? [about]
    151. Enrollments and limited growth of the Bahá'í community, by Universal House of Justice (2002). The lack of significant numerical growth in certain Western Baha'i communities is related to the preceding decades of struggle, achievement and disappointment. [about]
    152. Eradicating Poverty: Moving Forward as One, by Bahá'í International Community (2008). BIC statement on poverty. [about]
    153. Establishment of Regional Bahá'í Councils in Certain Countries, Their Characteristics and Functions, The, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Outline of various policies governing the formation and functioning of Regional Baha'i Councils. [about]
    154. Establishment of Regional Bahá'í Councils in the United States, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Announcement of the historic event of the founding of a new administrative level in the United States, the "Baha'i Councils." [about]
    155. Establishment of Regional Councils: Introduction, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Nature, functioning, and establishment of the administrative bodies known as Regional Baha'i Councils. [about]
    156. Estudios Preliminares Sobre la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer en la Comunidad Mundial Bahá'í, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración presentada al 25° período de sesiones de la Comisión de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer, New York, 1974. [about]
    157. For the Student of Religion, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    158. From: Ron Price's Epic Autobiographical History: Pioneering Over Five Epochs: A History of The Bahá'í Faith in The Northern Territory and Adjoining Regions of Australia: 1947 to 1997, by Ron Price, in Published Essays in Cyberspace, At: Bahai Library Online (2001). This Bahai Library Online document contains The History of the Baha'i Community in the Northern Territory of Australia and adjacent regions: 1947-1997. This history is written in some three dozen short instalments totalling about 10000 words. [about]
    159. Gender perspectives and the work of the United Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (2007). Statement to the UN Human Rights Council on integrating gender perspectives. [about]
    160. Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in Middle Eastern Modernity, The, by Juan Cole, in ISIM Newsletter, 2 (1999). Middle Eastern religion is seldom mentioned in the same breath with modernism. The Baha'i faith, which originated in Iran, poses key conundrums to our understanding of the relationship between modernity and religion in the global South. [about]
    161. Globalization of the Bahá'í Community: 1892-1921, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). On the connection between Abdu’l-Baha’s thinking and his practical directives in the global expansion of the Baha’i religion, considered in light of Jan Aart Scholte's globalization categories: normative, psychological, economic, and institutional. [about]
    162. Growth and Spread of the Baha'i Faith, The, by Arthur Hampson (1980). A detailed attempt to describe and account for the spread of the Baha'i Faith, including the roles played by its centralized leadership, its belief system, and its policies, as well as attitudes and conditions outside the control of the Baha'i movement. [about]
    163. Hacia un modelo de desarrollo para el siglo XXI, by Bahá'í International Community. Hacia un modelo de desarrollo para el siglo XXI [about]
    164. Historia de su Cooperacion con las Naciones Unidas, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    165. Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
    166. Historical Background of the Panama Temple, by Ruth Pringle, in Bahá'í News (1972). A history of the Bahá’í Faith in Panama during the first and second U.S. Seven Year Plans, from the arrival of the first pioneers in 1939 to the formation of the first Regional Assembly in 1951. [about]
    167. Historical Development of Genoa Square in Acre Israel from the Seventh Century to the Present Day, The, by Amy Suzanne Hollander (1995). A study of the structure, development, space, and historic preservation of a portion of Akka, including discussion of its place in Baha'i history. [about]
    168. History of the Bahá'í Faith in Arizona, The: The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950, by Maureen M. Thur (2004). Historical details and biographies about Arizona, from Nellie French moving from Chicago to Bisbee in 1900, to the formation of LSAs in 1949. Includes biographies of Amelia Collins and Orcella Rexford aka Louise Cutts-Powell (Appendices 1-2). [about]
    169. History of the Bahá'í Faith in Boston, by The Pluralism Project (2010). Two short documents by Harvard University's religious pluralism project: "Timeline of the Bahá’í Faith in Greater Boston" and "The Bahá’í Faith in Greater Boston." [about]
    170. Hora Decisiva para todas las Naciones, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í con motivo del 50 aniversario de Naciones Unidas Octubre 1995 [about]
    171. House of Abdu'llah Pasha, The, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Short history and restoration of a house associated with "some of the most dramatic and historically significant events of the Heroic Age of the Bahá'í Faith." [about]
    172. Humanity's Coming Encounter with Baha'u'llah, by Douglas Martin, in American Bahá'í (1992). Retrospective look at the previous 100 years of Baha'i history, current shifts of focus and teaching plans, and the prospects for the future which the new Message can bring. [about]
    173. Indexes to Bahá'í World volumes: Obituaries, chronologies, contents, illustrations, in Bahá'í World (2013). Seven separate indexes for Bahá'í World, in PDF, Word, and Excel versions. [about]
    174. Individual Rights and Freedoms, by Universal House of Justice (1988). An important and often-quoted letter about rights and freedom of expression in the Bahá'í community, as contrasted with those in American civil society. [about]
    175. Insider and Outsider Scholarship in Bahá'í Studies, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
    176. Integracion de la mujer en el desarrollo enocomico y social de America Latina y el Caribe, La, by Bahá'í International Community. Revisión y evaluación crítica de algunos aspectos de la condición de la mujer en la region, incluso su integración en el mercado laboral, mujeres jefes de familia y el papel de la mujer en el comercio en el Caribe. [about]
    177. Intellectual life and the future of Bahá'í studies, by Universal House of Justice (2013). Observations on the current state of intellectual pursuits in the Baha'i community and guidance for the Association for Baha'i Studies of North America and training institutes. [about]
    178. International Bahá'í Library and the Library of Alexandria, The, by William P. Collins, in Scriptum, 5 (1996). Similarities between the ancient Library of Alexandria and the contemporary Baha'i archive. [about]
    179. Internet and Literature Review, The, by Bahá'í Internet Agency (2011). Guidance from the Baha'i World Centre to two NSAs, that the process of "literature review" does not apply to the Internet for informal publications (like personal blogs), but it does apply for formal ones (like e-journals). [about]
    180. Interracial "Bahá'í Movement" and the Black Intelligentsia, The: The Case of W. E. B. Du Bois, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Religious History, 36:4 (2012). Du Bois’s encounters with the Baha’i religion from 1910 to 1953, his connection to the New York Baha’i community, and discussion of segregated Baha’i meetings in Tennessee in 1937. [about]
    181. Interreligious and Intercultural Cooperation, by Bahá'í International Community (2007). Statement to the United Nations on best practices and strategies for interreligious and intercultural cooperation. [about]
    182. Interreligious Dialogue and the Bahá'í Faith: Some Preliminary Observations, by Seena Fazel, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions vol. 8 (1997). An overview of pluralistic approaches and their relevance to Bahá'í studies. [about]
    183. Introduction: Aims and Purposes of the Bahá'í Faith, by David Hofman, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Introduction to this Baha'i World volume. [about]
    184. Iran: Province of Káshán and Central Provinces (Sultánábád, Mahallát, and Gulpáygán), by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
    185. Iranian Believers Throughout the World, Message to, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Inspirational discussion of the history of the Baha'is in Iran, including exhortations for the education of Persian children and youth. [about]
    186. Iranian National Bahá'í Archives (INBA) index (1996). A title/content catalogue of the 105 volumes of the Iranian National Baha'i Archives Manuscript Collection. [about]
    187. Is the Bahá'í Faith a "World Religion" or a "New Religious Movement"?, by Denis MacEoin and Robert Stockman (1997). Compilation of emails about the socio-religious classification of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
    188. Is the Baha'i Faith a World Religion?, by Moojan Momen, in Soundings: Essays in Bahá'í Theology, ed. Sen McGlinn (1989). [about]
    189. Is the Bahá'í Faith a World Religion?, by Seena Fazel, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:1 (1994). Examination of the terms "world religion" and "new religious movement" to demonstrate that the Bahá'í Faith is best categorized as a "world religion." [about]
    190. Jamal Effendi and Sayyid Mustafa Rumi in Celebes: The Context of Early Bahá'í Missionary Activity in Indonesia, by Jelle de Vries, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007). [about]
    191. Jamál Effendi and the early history of the Bahá'í Faith in South Asia, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). Includes maps on Jamal Effendi's journeys in India, and journeys in Southeast Asia. [about]
    192. Judeo-Persian Communities of Iran in the Qajar Period: Conversion to the Bahá'í Faith, by Mehrdad Amanat, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2009). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    193. Kitab-i-Aqdas: its place in Bahá'í literature, in Bahá'í World, 1992-1993 (1993). Offers a broad introduction to the Aqdas and its themes. [about]
    194. Laymen vs. Scholars in Bahá'í Studies, by Universal House of Justice (1996). No distinction should be drawn between "laypeople" and "scholars" in Baha'i studies. [about]
    195. Legislación Internacional para el Medio Ambiente y el Desarrollo, by Bahá'í International Community. Una declaraciòn presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í al Comité Preparatorio para la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Medio Ambiente y el Desarrollo. Ginebra Suiza, Agosto 1991. [about]
    196. Les Béhahis et le Bâb, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Journal Asiatique, vol. 222 (April-June) (1933). [about]
    197. Letters and Extracts of Writings from the Guardian Published in the US Bahá'í News 1924 - 1934, by Shoghi Effendi (1924). [about]
    198. Letters to Bahá'í princesses: Tablets revealed in honour of the women of Ibn-i Asdaq's household, by Dominic Parvis Brookshaw, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
    199. Literary Criticism, Theology and Deconstructionism, by Jack McLean (2001). A dynamic tension exists between literary criticism and theology as distinct but mutually beneficial forms of discourse, which can enrich Baha'i Studies by deepening exegesis and by correlating Baha'i teachings with progressive movements. [about]
    200. Lucha Contra el Hambre, La, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración a la 11a Sesión de Ministros del Consejo Mundial de la Alimentación de las Naciones Unidas, París, Francia, 1985. [about]
    201. Macau Bahá'í Community in the Early Years, by Barbara R. Sims (1991). Brief overview of the history of Macau, and a detailed account of Baha'i involvement 1953-1975, and stories of early believers. [about]
    202. Majestic Process, The: Cycles, Eras, Epochs and Stages (2004). A one page chart developed as a class handout on the "Majestic Process," the Ages and Epochs of the Faith. [about]
    203. Mandate of the Bahá'í Library Online, by Jonah Winters (2003). Formal statement of content, intent, and functioning of the Baha'i Library Online. Now outdated (having been written in 2003), but still a serviceable mandate statement. [about]
    204. Map of Stages in Baha'u'llah's Successive Exiles from Tihran to Akka, by Muhammad Labib (1968). Map of Stages in Baha'u'llah's Successive Exiles from Tihran to Akka, compiled and designed by Muhammad Labib in 1968, includes an extensive list of which tablets Baha'u'llah revealed and where. [about]
    205. Map of the Travels of Baha'u'llah (1991). The progressive exiles of Baha'u'llah through the Middle East. [about]
    206. Meaning of Baha'i History, The, by Moshe Sharon (1999). [about]
    207. Men and the Baha'i Faith: The role of indigenous men in the early Baha'i community in the British Isles, by Lil Osborn (2016). Includes slide-show included when presenting the paper at the Baha'i Studies Seminar, Kellogg College, Oxford (July 2016). [about]
    208. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-86, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    209. Military Metaphor in Bahá'í Sacred Literature, The, by Jack McLean (2005). Martial symbology is common in the Baha'i Writings, especially those of Shoghi Effendi, yet the Writings are expressly pacifistic. This article examines the apparent contradiction. [about]
    210. Millennium Forum, by Universal House of Justice (2000). [about]
    211. Ministry of the Custodians: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause 1957-1963, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Account of the stewardship of the Hands of the Cause of God from 1957-63, from the passing of Shoghi Effendi to the election of the House, riding the waves of crisis to the moment of victory — the fulfillment of prophecy. [about]
    212. Mobilizing Institutional, Legal and Cultural Resources to Achieve Gender Equality, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    213. Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in the Nineteenth-century Middle East [introduction only], by Juan Cole, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions (1998). Introduction and first 4 pages of Chapter One. [about]
    214. "Most Great Reconstruction": The Bahá'í Faith in Jim Crow South Carolina, 1898-1965, by Louis E. Venters (2010). The Faith enjoyed a period of growth from the 1960s-1980s that was largely inspired by interracial teaching campaigns in the South. The Baha'i movement in South Carolina was a significant, sustained response to racist ideologies. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
    215. Moths Turned Eagles: The Spiritual Conquests of Sabri and Raissa Elias, by Gamal Hassan (2008). Introduction of the Baha'i Faith to Ethiopia and Djibouti, and the activities of Gila Bahta. [about]
    216. Mujeres y Hombres, Una Sociedad para un Planeta Saludable, by Bahá'í International Community. Exposición presentada al "World Women's Congress for a Healthy Planet", Miami, Florida, 8-12 Noviembre, 1991. [about]
    217. Nature of the Persecution against the Bahá'ís in Iran, by Bahá'í International Community (2010). [about]
    218. Netherlands: History of the Baha'i Faith, by Will C. van den Hoonaard (1993). [about]
    219. Notes on the Babi and Bahá'í Religions in Russia and its territories, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:3 (1993). Overview of the history of Babi and Baha'i communities in Russia and Russian territories. [about]
    220. Notes on the Twentieth Century, by Douglas Martin (2001). Multiple transcriptions of talks given in Atlanta, New York, and Massachusetts in September and October, 2001, largely based on the document Century of Light. [about]
    221. Ocean: Bahá'í Writings search engine (1998). Complete search engine for Baha'i texts and books from other religions. [about]
    222. Origins of the Bahá'í Faith in the Pacific Islands: The Case of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 16:1-4 (2006). [about]
    223. Our Precious Heritage: The Coming of the Faith to Wales, by C. Edmund Card (n.d.). History of Baha'i activities in Wales 1942-1973, focusing especially the active sixteen-year period 1946-1962. [about]
    224. Outpost of a World Religion: The Bahá'í Faith in Australia 1920-1947, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Religious History, 16:3 (1991). An updated version of a paper published in two places. [about]
    225. Pacific Bahá'í Communities 1950-1964, by Graham Hassall, in Pacific History: Papers from the 8th Pacific History Association Conference, Donald H. Rubinstein, ed. (1992). Detailed overview of the history of Baha'is in Pacific island states. [about]
    226. Papel de la educación, los medios de información y las artes en el desarrollo social, El, by Bahá'í International Community. El papel de la educación, los medios de información [about]
    227. Papel de la Juventud en los Derechos Humanos, El, by Bahá'í International Community (1985). [about]
    228. Part of the Baha'i History of the Family of Charles and Maria Ioas, by Viola Tuttle and Margarite Ioas Ullrich (1978). Biographies of Charles and Maria: from his birth in 1859, their introduction to the Faith in 1898, experiences with 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 1912, and four Tablets from 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    229. Paz y el Desarrollo, La, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración presentada al Seminario de las Naciones Unidas para las regiones de Asia, el Pacífico y Asia Occidental, para el Año Internacional de la Paz, Bangkok, Tailandia, 20 al 24 de mayo de 1985 [about]
    230. Persecution of the Baha'is in Iran: 1979-1986: A 7-year campaign to eliminate a religious minority, by Bahá'í International Community (1986). Overview of activities and propaganda against Baha'is in Iran, and the responses of the United Nations. [about]
    231. Persian Bahá'ís in Australia, by Graham Hassall, in Religion and Ethnic Identity, An Australian Study, Abe Ata, ed. (1989). Overview of the history and modern activities (ca. 1989) of the Persian Baha'i community in Australia. [about]
    232. Persian Rival to Jesus, and His American Disciples, The, by Robert P. Richardson, in The Open Court, 29:8 (1915). History and teachings of the Bábi and Bahá'í religions and contemporary American disagreements, from an unsympathetic outsider's perspective. Followed by three letters-to-the-editor from three subsequent issues. Needs a second proofreading. [about]
    233. Persian, Arabic, and Provisional Translations, by Iraj Ayman and Robert Stockman (1999). Words relating to the titles of Baha'i Writings, "Pure" Persian and "Pure" Arabic, and information on provisional translations. [about]
    234. Picture Gallery of Early British Bahá'ís (1998). Published in honor of the UK Baha'i Centenary, 1998/99. [about]
    235. Preliminary History of the Bahá'í Community of Samarkand, Uzbekistan, by Duane L. Herrmann and Hasan T. Shodiev, in Bahá'í Vizier (2004). Since repression of religion ended in the USSR, Baha'is in former Soviet territories resumed practice of their faith and become curious about their history, most of which had been destroyed. This article is an early step at rediscovering this history. [about]
    236. Preliminary Survey of the Bahá'í Community of Iran during the Nineteenth Century, A, by Moojan Momen, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Enstehung der Baha'i Religion, ed. Christoph Burgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). [about]
    237. Preparación para Vivir en Paz, el Papel de la Juventud, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    238. Preparación Para Vivir En Paz, La, by Bahá'í International Community. Charla presentada durante el Seminario Regional de las Naciones Unidas para Latinoamérica y el Caribe, auspiciado por la Comisión Económica y Social para Latinoamérica y el Caribe (ECLAC) 26 de febrero de 1985 [about]
    239. Preparación para Vivir en Paz, La Contribución de la Mujer, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración preparada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í para el Seminario Regional Europeo para el Año Internacional de la Paz, Viena, Austria: 6 al 10 de mayo de 1985 [about]
    240. Prevención de Discriminaciones y Protección a las Minorías, 1988, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    241. Prevención de Discriminaciones y Protección a las Minorías, 1989, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    242. Primary Source Texts, Access to, by Universal House of Justice and Susan Maneck (1998). One scholar's query why the Baha'i World Centre's copies of primary sources in Babi and Baha'i history are not available for study, followed by the House's response. [about]
    243. Proposals to the United Nations for Charter Revision, by Bahá'í International Community (1955). Proposals from the Bahai International Community for revision of the U.N. charter in its capacity as a non-governmental organization with consultative status at the U.N. [about]
    244. Proposed changes for Version 5, by Jonah Winters (2013). Structural or systemic improvements necessary for future Baha'i Library expansion (excluding minor changes or new content), projected for 2018. [about]
    245. Proselytizing, Development, and the Covenant, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986, The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Teaching vs. proselytization; applying Baha'i social teachings without becoming ensnared in prevailing cultural mores; and the uniqueness of the Baha'i covenant. [about]
    246. Prosperity of Humankind, by Bahá'í International Community (1995). A statement prepared by the Bahá'í International Community Office of Public Information, Haifa, first distributed at the United Nations World Summit on Social Development, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1995. [about]
    247. Publishing, Bahá'í, Memorandum on: Materials to be Deposited with the Bahá'í World Centre Library, by Bahá'í International Archives and Universal House of Justice (1998). Overview of Literature Review, publishing, translations, and details of the requirement of sending copies of all materials to the World Center archives. [about]
    248. Radio Bahá'í del Lago Titicaca, 20 años de historia, by Rene Quiñonez, in La Pluma del Conocimiento, 2 (2002). Un breve relato sobre los logros de un proyecto de desarrollo socio económico al servicio de los pobladores del altiplano peruano boliviano. [about]
    249. Radio Baha'i Ecuador, by Kurt Hein: Review, by Des O'Shea, in CADE: Journal of Distance Education, 4:1 (1989). [about]
    250. Rationalisation and re-enchantment in Malaysia: Temiar religion 1964-1995, by Geoffrey Benjamin (1996). Extensive discussion of the Baha’i Faith among the Temiars of Malaysia. Link to paper (offsite). [about]
    251. Reflections on “Questions” and Bahá'í Studies, Some, by Matt Weinberg (2005). [about]
    252. Regional Bahá'í Councils of the United States, Messages to, by Universal House of Justice (1997). In these two short letters, the House of Justice first sends greetings to the newly-formed United States' four Regional Baha'i Councils, followed by the Councils' vow of firmness. [about]
    253. Religious Chic, by Zuo Xuan, in Global Times (2010). A portrait of the Baha'is in contemporary China. [about]
    254. Resource Guide for the Scholarly Study of the Bahá'í Faith, by Robert Stockman and Jonah Winters (1997). A comprehensive research and educational tool for the student or teacher of the Bahá'í Faith. Includes curriculum guides, lecture outlines, annotated bibliographies, and lists of educational materials. [about]
    255. Results of Talisman Attitudes Survey, by Eric Hadley-Ives (2000). Detailed analysis of the beliefs and community interactions of participants in the listserver Talisman2 (circa 1999). [about]
    256. Results of the First Regional Bahá'í Council Election, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). Results of the first US Regional Baha'i Councils election, posted here because it was a "historic event." [about]
    257. Rethinking Prosperity: Forging Alternatives to a Culture of Consumerism, by Bahá'í International Community (2010). The BIC's contribution to the 18th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, New York. [about]
    258. Reviewing: Practice and Functions of Literature Review, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice (1989). Overview of Literature Review, publishing, and the requirement of sending copies of all materials to the Baha'i World Center library. [about]
    259. Rise of the Bahá'í Community of 'Ishqábád, The, by Anthony Lee, in Bahá'í Studies, 5: "The Bahá'í Faith in Russia: Two Early Instances" (1979). Materials about the early history of Ishqabad, site of the first Baha'i Temple, based in part on interviews with former residents. [about]
    260. Sacred Mythology and the Bahá'í Faith, by William P. Collins, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:4 (1990). [about]
    261. Schools owned by Bahá'ís and "Bahá'í schools", by Universal House of Justice (1994). Are schools owned by or run by Baha'is always considered "Baha'i" schools, and does the word "Baha'i" always appear in their title? [about]
    262. Search for Values in an Age of Transition, The: includes Study Guide , by Bahá'í International Community (2005). A statement on the 60th anniversary of the United Nations, new paradigms taking hold, and the place of the UN. Includes study guide to assist readers in their understanding and examination of the concepts presented in the statement. [about]
    263. Secret of Divine Civilization translation, capital punishment, and other quesions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On the capitalization of pronouns, reference to "we Muslims," works of Abdu'l-Baha revealed during the time of Baha'u'llah, the first person to recognize Baha'u'llah, and designer of the temple in Ishqabad. Includes a compilation on capital punishment. [about]
    264. Servants of the Glory: A Chronicle of Forty Years of Pioneering, by Adrienne Morgan and Dempsey Morgan (2017). Memoirs of a black couple from the United States who lived and spread the Bahá’í Faith in across parts of east Asia and Africa in the 1950s-1980s. Text by Dempsey Morgan, poems by Adrienne Morgan. Link to document offsite. [about]
    265. Seventy Five Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Victoria, Australia, by Graham Hassall (1998). History of the Baha'i community of Victoria, Australia. [about]
    266. Shoghi Effendi: Recollections, by Ugo Giachery (1973). Biography of Shoghi Effendi from the close standpoint of the author's personal experiences. Short excerpt from book; Part 1 only. [about]
    267. Shoghi Effendi's View of Providential History in Light of the Judaeo-Christian Tradition, by Jack McLean, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The Guardian's letters reveal six feature of his historicity: palingenesis and transitional history; providential synchronization; teleological history; organically whole history; periodisation of ages and epochs; history as community identity-creation. [about]
    268. Sin-covering Gaze, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Brief explanation of a possible source for a story of Christ told by Abdu'l-Baha about encountering a dead dog and commenting on the beauty of its teeth; i.e., having a "sin-covering gaze." [about]
    269. Situation of the Bahá'ís in Egypt, by Bahá'í International Community (2007). Oral Statement of the Bahá’í International Community to the Human Rights Council (6th Session of the Human Rights Council), Geneva, Switzerland. [about]
    270. Star of the West: Use of, in Electronic Form, by Universal House of Justice (1999). Guidance on use of the publication Star of the West in electronic form as well as advice on how to describe the authoritativeness of the material [about]
    271. Statement in Rebuttal of Accusations Made against the Bahá'í Faith by the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (1982). In a document distributed to the UN, "Human Rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran," Iran made a number of false and damaging statements concerning the Baha'i Faith. The BIC wishes to refute these false statements and to present the true facts. [about]
    272. Statement on Bahá'u'lláh, A, by Bahá'í International Community (1992). Introduction to the life and work of Baha'u'llah, released in 1992 in honor of the centenary of his death, at the request of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    273. Stories of Baha'u'llah and Some Notable Believers, by Adib Taherzadeh (2003). Extracts compiled from Adib Taherzadeh’s The Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh, Volumes 1-4. [about]
    274. Story of the Last One Hundred Years of the Baha'i Faith in Seattle, The, by Zabine Van Ness (2007). Compiled for the 2007 centenary of the Seattle and Spokane Bahá’í assemblies, detailing the 100 year history of the Bahá'í Faith in Seattle. [about]
    275. Study of the Bahá'í Faith, Comment on Issues Related to the, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). A follow-up to the "Issues Related to the Study of the Baha'i Faith" lettter. [about]
    276. Study of the Bahá'í Faith, Issues Related to the, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Letters from the House and the International Teaching Center, and compilation on the nature of opposition to the Faith from within academia, especially as conducted via the Internet. [about]
    277. Tablet of the Centennial, by Shoghi Effendi (1998). An epistle to the Persian-speaking Baha'is. Includes English translation of Muhammad Varqa's "Le Style persan du Gardien." [about]
    278. Tablet to Napoleon III (Lawh-i-Napulyún): Biography of Napoleon, in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). First Tablet to Napoleon. [about]
    279. Tablet to Pope Pius IX (Lawh-i-Páp): Biography of Pope Pius IX, in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). [about]
    280. Tablet to Tsar Alexander II (Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus): Biography of Tsar Alexander, in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). Short biography of Tsar Alexander ll describing him as a great historical figure without the charisma of a great man. Suggests history should view what he did, such as abolishing serfdom and building railroads, as more important than who he was. [about]
    281. Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle: An Historical Record of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Faith in Taiwan, by Barbara R. Sims (1994). Baha'i activities in Taiwan and personal histories, 1952-1992. Includes earliest pamphlet published in Chinese. [about]
    282. Tehran, Iran, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the capital city of Iran and birthplace of Bahá’u’lláh, called by Him the "Land of Tá" (Ard-i-Tá), site of numerous important events in Bahá’í history. [about]
    283. Television Address of Iranian President Khatami, by Universal House of Justice and Bahá'í International Community (1998). Questions and answers about a historically unique television interview of Iranian President Khatami, given on CNN Wednesday, Jan 7, 1998. [about]
    284. Texts, Sacred, Permission to Distribute Electronic Copies of, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Sacred Writings and anything produced by the Baha'i World Center or the Baha'i International Community may be electronically redistributed. [about]
    285. Thoughts on the Establishment of a Permanent Bahá'í Studies Center and Research Institute, Some, by Stephen Lambden, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Present state and future possibilities of Baha'i studies and academic curricula, and answers to various objections. Includes short compilation on the importance of scholarship. [about]
    286. Traces That Remain: A Pictorial History of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Faith among the Japanese, by Barbara R. Sims (1989). Extensive history of Baha'i events and personages in Japan, 1914-1983. [about]
    287. Translation and Review, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Whether certain scholars were authorized as translators, and that the institution of review is not being abrogated at this time. [about]
    288. Turning Point for All Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (1995). A statement on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations, about the scope, function, and mandate of the UN, and world concerns it must address. [about]
    289. Una misma sustancia: Crear conscientemente una cultura mundial de unidad, by Bahá'í International Community. Exposición escrita presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'i en la Conferencia Mundial contra el Racismo, la Discriminación Racial, la Xenofobia y las Formas Conexas de Intolerencia [about]
    290. Unassailable Foundation of the Cause of God: Questions about the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1965). Why were steps taken to elect a Universal House of Justice with the foreknowledge that there would be no Guardian? Was the time ripe for such an action? Could not the International Baha'i Council have carried on the work? [about]
    291. Understanding Bahá'í History: Introduction to the study of history, by Moojan Momen (2013). Video and transcript, prepared for the Wilmette Institute, about how to approach and understand the study of history, biases of eyewitnesses, and the subjective construction of facts. [about]
    292. United Kingdom: History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Moojan Momen (1998). A short history of the Baha'i community of the United Kingdom. [about]
    293. United States of America: History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Robert Stockman (1995). History of the Baha'i community of the United States. [about]
    294. Valorando la espiritualidad en el Desarrollo: Consideraciones Iniciales en cuanto a la Creación de Indicadores de Base Espiritual para el Desarrollo, by Bahá'í International Community. Consideraciones Iniciales en cuanto a la Creación de Indicadores de Base Espiritual para el Desarrollo, presentado al "Diálogo Mundial de las Fes y el Desarrollo", 1998 [about]
    295. Violence with Impunity: Acts of aggression against Iran's Bahá'í community, by Bahá'í International Community (2013). Book-length report on the rising tide of violence directed against the Iranian Baha'i community 2005-20012, and the degree to which attackers enjoy impunity from prosecution or punishment. [about]
    296. Virgin Islands, U.S. and British, by Patricia Paccassi (1995). [about]
    297. Visits of the Hands of the Cause of God to Ireland, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 3 (2003). An overview of all known visits by the Hands, the highest-ranking officers of the Bahá’í Faith, to Ireland. Review of the many historical sources about this largely-uninvestigated topic. Includes timeline of the visits between 1952 and 1986. [about]
    298. What is a Content Management System?, by Jonah Winters (2003). A brief overview of the technology underlying the Baha'i Library Online, and why this technology represents the next step in the Internet's evolution [since this was written, the term "Web 2.0" has been coined for the "next step" I described]. [about]
    299. What's New in Version 4.0, by Jonah Winters (2012). Some useful search and interface changes for 2012, in conjunction with the 15th birthday of the Baha'i Library. [about]
    300. Who is Writing the Future?: Reflections on the Twentieth Century, by Bahá'í International Community (1999). A statement on the current state of human society and its evolution, by the BIC's Office of Public Information. [about]
    301. Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
    302. Work of A.L.M. Nicolas (1864-1937), The, by Moojan Momen, in The Bábí and Bahá'í Religions: Some Contemporary Western Accounts (1981). Short bio, including list of the works of Nicolas. [about]
    303. World Order of Baha'u'llah: Six Talks on the Various Aspects of, by Ali Nakhjavani (2004). Transcripts of six talks given at a week-long course on the World Order of Baha'u'llah, sponsored by the NSA of Italy. Document includes compilation and outline. (This online version compiled from three different editions of this book.) [about]
    304. Year Amongst the Persians, A, by E. G. Browne (1893). [about]
    305. Yerrinbool Report on Scholarship: 1997, by Graham Hassall (1998). Overview of worldwide Baha'i scholarship projects, publications, and events - 1997. [about]
    306. Yerrinbool Report on Scholarship: 1998, by Graham Hassall (1999). Overview of worldwide Baha'i scholarship projects, publications, and events - 1998. [about]
    307. Yerrinbool Report on Scholarship: 1999, by Graham Hassall, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). Overview of worldwide Baha'i scholarship projects, publications, and events - 1999; includes a progress report on the growth of the Baha'i Library Online. [about]
    308. Zuhur al-Haqq, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2002). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    309. 谁在写我们的未来 (Who's Writing the Future?): 二十世纪的省思 (Reflections on the Twentieth Century), by Bahá'í International Community. Prepared by the Office of Public Information. [about]
     
    Tips:
    Home Site Map Forum Links Copyright About Contact
    .
    . .