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||Defeat of Persia at the hands of the British. [BBRSM55]
||Wars; Britain; History (general)
|1863 or earlier
||Colonel Sir Arnold Burrowes Kemball, the British Consul-General in Baghdád, offers Bahá'u'lláh the protection of British citizenship and offers Him residence in India or anywhere of Bahá'u'lláh's choosing. [BBR183, 234; BBRSM65; GPB131]
- Bahá'u'lláh declines the invitation, preferring to remain in Ottoman lands. [GBP131]
- See BBR183, 508 for details on Kemball; see BBR160–1 for a picture.
|Baghdad; Iraq; India; Britain
||Colonel; Arnold Burrowes Kemball; British; Consul-General; Bahaullah, Life of; Ottoman
|1882 11 Jul
||The British navy bombarded Alexandria, beginning or provoking fires that destroyed the city and forced a mass exodus of its population to the interior. In August-September the British invaded the country, restored Khedive Tawfiq to his throne, arrested 'Urabi, the Muslim modernist Muhammad 'Abduh, and other constitutionalists, and imposed a "veiled protectorate" on the country that differed only in name from direct colonial rule. The official British sources attempted to suggest that they had saved Egypt from a military junta allied to Islamic fanaticism, but more impartial observers have characterized the British invasion as the quashing of a grassroots democratic movement by an imperial power in the service of the European bond market. [BFA15, Wilmette Institute faculty notes]
||Britain; History (general); Muhammad Abduh
||The British Bahá'ís alert the Foreign Office about the importance of ensuring `Abdu'l-Bahá's safety in Haifa. [BBR332-5; CH219; GPB305-6]
CH219 says this was in the Spring but letters to the Foreign Office are dated Jan 1918.
- For the actions of Lady Blomfield see BBR333, CH219-20, AB425-26 and ER169.
- For the role of Major Wellesley Tudor Pole see BBR332-3; CH222-5; and ER168-70.
||British Foreign Office; Britain; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Lady Blomfield; Major Wellesley Tudor Pole
||The British Military Administration of Palestine begins. [BBR488]
- Sir Ronald Storrs is detached from Jerusalem to organize the British Administration in Haifa. 'Abdu'l-Bahá offers him His staff and a gift of a little Bokkara rug from the Shrine of the Báb. He returns the visit to Sir Ronald at a later date in Jerusalem. [BW10 194-5]
||Britain; Sir Ronald Storrs; Gifts; Carpets
|1920 (in the year)
||The British Mandate for Palestine begins. [BBR488]
- For `Abdu'l-Bahá's attitude to the administration see BBR339.
- For British accounts of `Abdu'l-Bahá and the Bahá'ís in this period see BBR339-43 and CH225-8.
- For details see SA140-3.
||Britain; History (general); Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1948 14 May
||The British Mandate in Palestine ends and the state of Israel is proclaimed.
||Britain; History (general)