||Defeat of Persia at the hands of the British. [BBRSM55]
||British defeat Persia; war; Britain
||The British fleet take `Akká from the Egyptians. [BBR202]
||Britain; British take `Akka; Egyptians
|1863 or earlier
||Colonel Sir Arnold Burrowes Kemball, the British Consul-General in Baghdád, offers Bahá'u'lláh the protection of British citizenship and offers Him residence in India or anywhere of Bahá'u'lláh's choosing. [BBR183, 234; BBRSM65; GPB131]
- Bahá'u'lláh declines the invitation, preferring to remain in Ottoman lands. [GBP131]
- See BBR183, 508 for details on Kemball; see BBR160–1 for a picture.
|Baghdád; Iraq; India; Britain;
||Colonel; Arnold Burrowes Kemball; British; Consul-General; Baha'u'llah; Ottoman
||The British Bahá'ís alert the Foreign Office about the importance of ensuring `Abdu'l-Bahá's safety in Haifa. [BBR332-5; CH219; GPB305-6]
CH219 says this was in the Spring but letters to the Foreign Office are dated Jan 1918.
- For the actions of Lady Blomfield see BBR333, CH219-20, AB425-26 and ER169.
- For the role of Major Wellesley Tudor Pole see BBR332-3; CH222-5; and ER168-70.
||British Foreign Office; `Abdu'l-Baha; Lady Blomfield; Major Wellesley Tudor Pole
||The British Military Administration of Palestine begins. [BBR488]
- Sir Ronald Storrs is detached from Jerusalem to organize the British Administration in Haifa. 'Abdu'l-Bahá offers him His staff and a gift of a little Bokkara rug from the Shrine of the Báb. He returns the visit to Sir Ronald at a later date in Jerusalem. [BW10 194-5]
||British Military Administration; Sir Ronald Storrs
|1920 (in the year)
||The British Mandate for Palestine begins. [BBR488]
- For `Abdu'l-Bahá's attitude to the administration see BBR339.
- For British accounts of `Abdu'l-Bahá and the Bahá'ís in this period see BBR339-43 and CH225-8.
- For details see SA140-3.
||British Mandate; `Abdu'l-Baha
|1920 27 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Bahá is invested with the insignia of the Knighthood of the British Empire in a ceremony in Haifa. [AB443; BBRXXX, 343-5; CH214; DH149; GPB306]
- For the document recommending `Abdu'l-Bahá for knighthood, see BBR344.
- The knighthood is in recognition of `Abdu'l-Bahá's humanitarian work during the war for famine relief. [AB443]
- He accepts the honour as a gift from a `just king'. [AB443]
- He does not use the title. [AB443]
- For Lady Bloomfield's account see AB443-4 and CH214-15.
|Haifa; New York
||`Abdu'l-Baha; Knighthood of the British Empire; Lady Blomfield
||National Spiritual Assemblies are elected in the British Isles, India and Germany. [GPB333]
- The election of the British National Spiritual Assembly is by postal ballot. [ER228]
- For membership of the British National Spiritual Assembly see ER228 and SBR71.
- See also ER223-31 for the election and functioning of the British National Spiritual Assembly.
|British Isles; India; Germany
||National Spiritual Assembly
|1923 13 Oct
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Britain meets for the first time, at the home of Ethel Rosenberg. [ER228; UD13, 163]
- It becomes the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles in 1930 and the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom in 1972.
||National Spiritual Assembly; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assembly of Britain; National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles; National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom
|1924 22 Sep-3 Oct
||The conference `Some Living Religions within the British Empire' is held in London. [BW2:225; ER233; GPB342]
- For details of the planning of the conference and its outcome see ER231-5.
- For Shoghi Effendi's attitude to the conference see UD17, 19, 21-2, 245.
- Two papers about the Bahá'í Faith are read at the conference, one by Horace Holley read by Mountfort Mills and the other by Rúhí Afnán. [BW2:225; ER232-3; SBR73]
- For texts of the papers see BW2:227-42.
||Some Living Religions within the British Empire; Shoghi Effendi; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Ruhi Afnan
|1932 3 Oct
||The term of The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or Mandatory Iraq comes to an end. It had been created in 1921 following the Iraqi Revolt in 1920 and enacted via the 1922 Anglo-Iraqi Treaty. The British chose Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashimi as king of of Iraq and Syria. He fostered unity between Sunni and Shiite Molsems and tried to promote pan-Arabism with the goal of creating an Arab state in Iraq, Syria and the rest of the Fertile Crescent. Faisal died in Switzerland at the age of 48, under what some consider to be suspicious circumstances, while there for a medical examination. [Wikipedia]
- Iraq is admitted to the League of Nations. [BW5p357]
||House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashimi; King Faisal; The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration; Mandatory Iraq
||The publication in Iran of Amir Kabir and Iran, considered perhaps the most influential scholarly work of history published prior to the Islamic Revolution, by Fereidoon Adamiyyat, one of the most influential and widely acknowledged Iranian historians of the 20th century. The book argues that British intelligence officers were behind a plot which led to the creation of the Bahá'í Faith. [Iran Press Watch]
||Amir Kabir; Fereidoon Adamiyyat; historian; British; Britain; officers; Baha'i
||The British at national convention decide to ask the Guardian for their own Six Year Plan. [UDXVI]
- He responds immediately by setting them the task of forming 19 assemblies spread over England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Eire. [UD173]
- Shoghi Effendi describes this as ‘their first collective enterprise’. [UDXVI, 173–4]
- See also BBRSM158, 185
||national convention; Six Year Plan
|1948 14 May
||The British Mandate in Palestine ends and the state of Israel is proclaimed.
||British Mandate in Palestine
||Cora Oliver arrives in British Honduras (Belize) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449]
||British Honduras (Belize)
||Cora Oliver; Knight of Baha’u’llah
||Shirley Warde arrives in British Honduras (Belize) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449]
||British Honduras (Belize)
||Shirley Warde; Knight of Baha’u’llah
||Dr Malcolm King, an American pioneer in Jamaica, arrives in British Guiana and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449]
||Malcolm King; Knight of Baha’u’llah
||Enoch Olinga arrives in Victoria (Limbé) and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the British Cameroons. [BW13:449]
- The first Cameroonian to become a Bahá’í in British Cameroon is a youth, Jacob Tabot Awo.
- The first Cameroonian adult to become a Bahá’í is Enoch Ngompek of the Bassa tribe.
- The first Cameroonian woman to become a Bahá’í is Esther Obeu, the wife of David Tanyi.
|Victoria (Limbé); British Cameroons
||Enoch Olinga; Knight of Baha’u’llah; Jacob Tabot Awo; Enoch Ngompek; Esther Obeu
||The arrival of Knight Mr. Enoch Olinga in British Cameroon [BWNS291]
||British Cameroon; Africa
||Knight; Enoch Olinga
||The arrival of Knight Edward Tabe in British Togoland (now part of Ghana) [BWNS249]
||British Togoland; Ghana; Africa
||Knight; Edward Tabe
||Edward Tabe and Albert Buapiah arrive in British Togoland and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450]
||Edward Tabe; Albert Buapiah; Knight of Baha’u’llah
||The first local spiritual assembly is formed in British Cameroons.
||Reginald Stone and Allan Delph become Bahá’ís in British Guiana, the first two people to accept the Faith in that country.
||Reginald Stone; Allan Delph
||Fowzieh Sobhi arrives in British Somaliland from Egypt, the first Bahá’í to reside in the country.
||Christian and Elanzo Callwood, Norris Duport and Ethien Chinnery, the first people to become Bahá’ís on the island of Jost Van Dyke in the British Virgin Islands, enrol.
||Jost Van Dyke; British Virgin Islands
||Christian Callwood; Elanzo Callwood; Norris Duport; Ethien Chinnery
||The first local assembly in the British Virgin Islands is formed on Tortola.
||Tortola; British Virgin Islands
|1992 15 Sep
||Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum was officially invited to open the Exhibition of Bahá'í Manuscripts at the British Museum in London. [VV134]
||Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum; Exhibition of Bahá'í Manuscripts; British Museum
|1993 10 Apr
||The passing of Roger White, writer, editor and "poet laureate" of the Bahá'í community, in Richmond, British Columbia (b. in Toronto on 2 June 1929).
- Served at the World Centre for some twenty years as a secretary and as manager of the publishing department when many important new volumes were published. Under the supervision of the Universal House of Justice, he was responsible for compiling and publishing volumes XIV to XIX of The Bahá'í World, as well as editing the invaluable compendium of volumes I to XII, published in 1981.
- Published, at his own expense, a book of poetry called Summer Window for which he did the drawing on the front cover.
- Another Song, Another Season (1979), The Witness of Pebbles (1981) and a tender and eloquent novel which presented a semi-fictionalized account of the early days of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris, A Sudden Music, was also published by George Ronald in 1983.
- This was followed by a biographical tribute to the poet Emily Dickinson in the form of more than 100 poems: One Bird, One Cage, One Flight (Naturegraph, 1983).
- A short, historical account of the martyrdom of 'Alí-Asghár of Yazd entitled The Shell and the Pearl was published by George Ronald in 1984.
- “Occasions of Grace” (George Ronald, 1992) was published after he retired from service in Haifa in 1991 following a major heart surgery.
- returned to Canada and was diagnosed with terminal cancer shortly after.
- His last two collected works of poetry were “Notes Postmarked the Mountain of God” (New Leaf, 1992) and “The Language of There” (New Leaf, 1992).
- He also completed the text for Raghu Rai's photographic celebration of the Bahá'í House of Worship in New Delhi, Forever in Bloom. [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol7, 1997]
- See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg249 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Roger White.
- See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies Vol. 26 no 1-2, 2016 p91 "Reflections on the Art of My Poetry" by John Hatcher. It is based on a telephone interview with him shortly before his passing.
- For obituary see BW92-93p276
|Richmond; British Columbia; Canada
||Roger White; In Memoriam; John Hatcher; Raghu Rai'; Anne Boyes
||A Maoris teaching team visited British Columbia. The visit was reciprocated by The Journey of Teech-ma, the First Nations Travel Teaching Trip to the South Pacific. See entry for 24 March, 1997. [SDSC370]
||First Nations Travel Teaching Trip to the South Pacific; Maoris Teaching Team
|2004 11 Feb
||A member of the British Baha'i community, Lois Hainsworth, received the award of Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) at Buckingham Palace.
- The announcement of the award for services to three organizations that promote the rights of women was made in the United Kingdom's New Year's Honours List. The citation refers to Mrs. Hainsworth's services to the Women's National Commission, the Baha'i Office for the Advancement of Women, and UNIFEM UK. [BWNS273]
|Buckingham Palace; England
||Lois Hainsworth; Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE); Women's National Commission