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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1848. 4 Sep The death of Muhammad Sháh. [BBR153–4]
  • This precipitates the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. [B147; BBD19; BBR156]
  • For details of his life, fall and death, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
  • The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest is rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
Iran Muhammad Shah; Grand Vizier; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Antichrist; Bahaullah, Life of; Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1864 c. During the time in Adrianople In their efforts to discredit Bahá'u'lláh and His companions, the followers of Azál made complaint to the authorities. They complained that they had insufficient means of livelihood, blaming Bahá'u'lláh for depriving them of their share of the allowances. Àqá Ján Kajkuláh, instigated by Siyyid Muhammad, wrote to dignitaries and government representatives with the false accusation that Bahá'u'lláh had made an alliance with Bulgaria with the purpose of conquering Constantinople.
  • The Persiana ambassador in Constantinople took advantage of the disturbance in Turkey to inform Persian Consuls in Iraq and in Egypt that the Turkish government had withdrawn protection for the Bábí sect. This news precipitated malice and mischief in both countries. [FAA7]
Edirne; Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Aqa Jan Kajkulah; Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Antichrist
1866. 14 Nov The ‘star-fall' of 1866. [RB2:270, 422–6]

  • The falling of stars is predicted in Matthew 24:29.
  • For Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this see ESW131–2.
  • For the symbolism of falling stars see KI41.
  • See The Delight of Hearts pg87 for an account.
The spectacular shower of meteors in the early hours of the morning of 14 November 1866 was observed all over Europe. It was an extraordinary event exciting comment from professional astronomers and laymen alike. The following sample account is from The Times Saturday, 17 November 1866:

The Rev. Robert Main, the Radcliffe Observer at Oxford, gives the following account of the meteorological phenomenon of Tuesday night last: --

'...This great display began about 13h. (or 1 o'clock in the morning), and reached its maximum at about 13h.24m., after which time it gradually began to slacken. The watch, however, was kept up till 18h., though after 15h., there were not many meteors seen. In all there were observed not fewer than 3,000 during the night, of which about 2,000 fell between 13h. and 14h., or between 1 a.m. and 2 a.m. As to the general appearance of the meteors, it was noticed that the majority of them were of a whitish or yellowish colour. Some, however, were reddish or orange-coloured, and one meteor was noticed to be bluish. The brightest left generally a train behind them, which was to be seen for a few seconds after the meteor disappeared.' (Adapted from ‘The Revelation of Baha’u’llah', by Adib Taherzadeh, vol. 2)

Falling stars; Symbolism; Prophecies; Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Bible; Christianity
1868. c. May Bahá'u'lláh sends Nabíl-i-A`zam to Cairo to enquire after Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí. He is thrown into prison and befriends a Christian cellmate, Fáris Effendi, who soon becomes a Bahá'í. [BKG248, 265–6; EB268; GPB178]
  • See BKG265–8 for an account of Nabíl's arrest and imprisonment.
  • Fáris Effendi is probably the first Christian to become a Bahá'í. [RB3:10]
Cairo; Egypt Nabil-i-Azam; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Faris Effendi; Imprisonments; First Bahais by background; Christianity; Conversion; Interfaith dialogue
1868. 30 Oct Christoph Hoffman, founder of the Templers, and Georg David Hardegg, his principal lieutenant, land in Haifa. Hardegg remains in Haifa to head the colony, while Hoffman goes to Jaffa to found a colony there. [BBD224; BBR204, 2 15–16; DH133]
  • DH139 and GPB277 say this was 1863.
  • See BBR215–18 for the relationship between Bahá'u'lláh and the Templers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh several times stayed in the houses of the colony. [BBR234]
  • See BBR236–9 for articles written about the Bahá'ís by Templers.
Haifa; Jaffa Christoph Hoffman; Georg David Hardegg; Templer colony
1870. Jul The Roman Catholic Vatican Council under Pope Pius IX formulates the doctrine of papal infallibility. Shortly afterwards Italian forces under Victor Emmanuel II attack the Papal States and seize and occupy Rome, virtually extinguishing the temporal sovereignty of the pope. [GPB227; PDC54] Rome; Italy Pope Pius IX; Popes; Christianity; History (general)
1872. 22 Jan Three Azalís, among them Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahání, the Antichrist of the Bahá'í Revelation, are murdered by seven Bahá'ís. [BBD163; BKG3256 DH41; GPB189; RB3:235]
  • Siyyid Muhammad Isfahání, Nasr’ulláh Tafríshí, Áqá Ján Ka’j Kuláh and Ridá Qulí these four kept vigil near the land gate to ensure no one would meet Bahá’u’lláh. They kept watch from the second story window of a building overlooking the land gate so that if a pilgrim, after spending some six months traveling on foot, intended to enter the city they could somehow prevent his entrance. This situation lasted for some time. After two years and a few months, Bahá’u’lláh was released from the prison. Some of the friends, including Salmání, decided to get rid of these enemies and during the night went to their place and killed Siyyid Muhammad, Áqá Ján and another person. [Sweet and Enchanting Stories, Aziz Rohani, P 31]
  • Bahá'u'lláh is taken to the Governorate where He is interrogated and imprisoned for 70 hours. [BKG327; GBP190; RB3:237]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá is thrown into prison and kept in chains the first night. Twenty–five of the companions were also imprisoned and shackled. [BKG328; GBP190; RB3:237]
  • See BKG331, GPB191 and RB3:238 for the effect of the murders on the local population.
  • Ilyás `Abbúd puts a barricade between his house and the house of `Údí Khammár, where Bahá'u'lláh lives. [BKG331; GPB191]
  • See BKG330, DH44 and RB3:239 for the fate of the murderers, who are imprisoned for seven years.
Akka Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; House of Udi Khammar; Bahaullah, Houses of; Antichrist; Murders; Opposition; Azali Babis
1913. 9 Jan After a morning of receiving visitors 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to a woman's group that included those of a wide spectrum of conviction on the role of women from suffragists to suffragettes to those opposed of giving women the vote.

'Abdu'l-Bahá visited the painter, John Duncan, (1866 Dundee-1945) a foremost Celtic revivalist painter, on the Management Board of the College of Arts, who was guided along by Patrick Geddes. He married Christine Allen in 1912 and immediately moved to 29 Bernard's Crescent as his home and studio, where this visit took place. Both were members of the Theosophical Society. Christine Duncan née Allen (c1886-) was a spiritualist with connections to Wellesley Tudor Pole and Alice Buckton.

He was driven north of the city to see the Forth Railway Bridge, Edinburgh EH30 9TB. This engineering marvel, stretching 2.5 km from South to North Queensferry opened on the 4th of March 1890 and has been designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. [UNESCO]

'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at the Theosophical Society meeting at 28 Great King Street, Edinburgh EH3 6QN. "Several hundred" attended. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913 p.14]

Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; John Duncan; Christine Duncan
1913 17 Feb For the text of an interview, originally published in the Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3:1 (1993), with Pasteur Monnier during which 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke on the relationship between the Bahá'í Faith and Christianity, see Khazeh Fananapazir site.
  • Pasteur Henri Monnier (b. 1871) was the "Professor á la Faculté libre de théologie protestante de Paris", Vice-president of the Protestant Federation of France and Pastor of the Etoile Church [from International Who's Who, 1st ed.]
Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue; Pasteur Monnier
1949 The pamphlet written by by George Townshend to all Christians under the title “The Old Churches and the New World Faith” was sent out to 10,000 so-called “responsible people” in the British Isles on the occasion of his resignation from the church.[UD470] United Kingdom George Townshend; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue
1953 3 – 6 May The All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Chicago. [BW12:133]
  • For the texts of Shoghi Effendi’s messages to the conference see BW12:133–41 and MBW142–6.
  • Twelve Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:143]
  • At the conference, five members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States resign from that body in order to go pioneering: Elsie Austin, Dorothy Baker, Matthew Bullock, Mamie Seto and Dr William Kenneth Christian. [ZK102]
  • Extract from the cecond message to All-American Intercontinental Conference from Shoghi Effendi... [MBW150]
    .....the lands contributed in Latin America for a similar purpose approximate one-half of a million square meters, ninety thousand of which have been set aside near Santiago, Chile, for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of South America..
Chicago; United States; Santiago; Chile Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Pioneering; Elsie Austin; Dorothy Baker; Matthew Bullock; Mamie Seto; William Kenneth Christian; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Land purchases
1954 Jan Kenneth and Roberta Christian arrive in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe); Zimbabwe Kenneth Christian; Roberta Christian; Knights of Bahaullah
1974 Aug The first Bahá’í to settle on Christmas Island, Stanley Foo, arrives from Malaysia. Christmas Island Stanley Foo
2000 17 - 21 Dec The first International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Bábí-Bahá’í Faiths was held in Jerusalem with about 90 persons in attendance. [BWNS84] Jerusalem; Israel Conferences, Interfaith; Interfaith dialogue; Judaism; Christianity; Islam; Firsts, Other; BWNS
2018 Feb Christian Solidarity Worldwide (CSW), an NGO working to promote the right to freedom of religion or belief of all and raising awareness about the persecution of Christians and other religious groups around the world, published a shocking report that revealed the influence of religious persecution on religious minority children. In its Faith and a Future report, CSW focuses on the situation of religious minority children in educational settings in Burma, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan. The report scrutinizes three common acts of persecution in the educational setting specifically bias, discrimination and abuse. In Iran, bias can be seen across various educational materials in the country. School textbooks are focused on the Shi’a Muslim perspective and are silent on any other religions. This has an adverse effect on religious minorities. Children belonging to the Baha’i religion are denied access to schools and often access to higher education. Baha’i children that are lucky to be enrolled in schools are not free to learn or partake in their religious belief. According to the CSW report, a memorandum from the Iran government stated that Baha’i children ‘should be enrolled in schools which have a strong and imposing religious [Shi’a] ideology.’ The situation for children partaking in higher education is no better. According to Article 3 of the Supreme Cultural Revolution Council’s student qualification regulations (1991), students are to be expelled if they are found to be Baha’i. Only Muslim or students belonging to recognized religions are allowed to take the national enrolment exam. The report further alleges that some Baha’i children have been subjected to physical abuse at schools. [Iran Press Watch 18838] Iran Christian Solidarity Worldwide; Faith and a Future; persecution, education; Z****

from the main catalogue

  1. A Study of Baha'u'llah's Tablet to the Christians, by Michael Sours: Review, by Jack McLean, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:3 (1990). [about]
  2. 'Abdu'l-Bahá on Christ and Christianity: Introduction, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). [about]
  3. 'Abdu'l-Bahá on Christ and Christianity: An interview with Pasteur Monnier on the relationship between the Bahá'í Faith and Christianity, Paris, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). From chapter 5 of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on Divine Philosophy. [about]
  4. 'Abdu'l-Baha: A Biblical Figure?, by Combiz Nuri (2009). Biblical prophecies that could relate to Abdu'l-Baha and the Seventh Angel of the Apocalypse, and the nature of the Covenant. [about]
  5. Absolute Poverty and Utter Nothingness, by Rodney H. Clarken, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). Bahá’u’lláh’s ideas of poverty as detachment, and nothingness as selflessness. Cites some commonalities in concepts of detachment and nothingness from Buddha, Confucius, Jesus, Muhammad and Socrates as five of the greatest philosophers or prophets. [about]
  6. African religions; miracles; strange phenomena, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Five questions: the religion of Santeria; relationship to Sabaeanism; Yoruba-based new world religions; visions and miracles of the Virgin Mary and Fatima; UFOs, aliens, and genetic engineering. [about]
  7. Ameen Rihani and the Unity of Religion: The Politics of Time and the Politics of Eternity, by Suheil Bushrui, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:3-4 (2014). Overview of the life and thought of a Lebanese-American writer, intellectual, and political activist, who believed in the oneness of religions and the brotherhood of nations and devoted his life to promoting East-West understanding. [about]
  8. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Baha (1990). [about]
  9. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2014). New 2014 translation (with a version side-by-side with the original). [about]
  10. Apocalypse Unsealed, by Robert Riggs (1981). Early draft of the later book Apocalypse - An Exegesis. [about]
  11. Apocalypse Unsealed, The: Some thoughts on the use of Christian Scripture in the Bahá'í community, by Robert Riggs: Review and Commentary, by Sen McGlinn (2002). On Baha'i use of Biblical literature, especially interpretations of end-time symbolism and the Book of Revelation. [about]
  12. Apocalypse, The: An Exegesis, by Robert Riggs (1998). Detailed study of astrology, numerology, and other esoterica, in an attempt to understand The Revelation of St. John the Divine through eyes of Baha'i interpretation. [about]
  13. Apostle Paul, a "False Teacher"?, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Whether Baha'i Writings state that Paul was a "false teacher," the relationship between apostles Paul and Peter, and some Baha'i teachings on Christianity. [about]
  14. Applying Christian Prophecy to Baha'u'llah, by William Sears. [about]
  15. Aqasi, Haji Mirza ('Abbas Iravani), by Sholeh A. Quinn, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the prime minister of Iran under Muhammad Shah Qajar from 1835 to 1848, regarded by Bahá’ís as the Antichrist of the Bábí dispensation. [about]
  16. Are there indications of a Second Coming of a Messiah in the Old Testament?, by David Friedman (1999). Some claim that the New Testament teaching of a "Second Coming" is not found in the Old Testament; however, it is easy to find older references to a Return. [about]
  17. Aspects of Isrá'íliyyát and the Emergence of the Bábí-Bahá'í Interpretation of the Bible, Some, by Stephen Lambden (2002). Islamic "Israelitica" literary traditions, the Bible, and their relationship to the Babi and Baha'i religions. Includes discussion of the Greatest Name, Ism Alláh al-A'zam. [about]
  18. Background and Centrality of Apophatic Theology in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions vol. 8 (1997). History of the theological position of the incomprehensibility-unknowability of God in past major Abrahamic religions and its importance and significance for contemporary Bahá'ís. [about]
  19. Bahá'í: History, Beliefs, Practices, Theological Exchanges, and Current Issues, by Christopher Buck, in Handbook of Religion: A Christian Engagement with Traditions, Teachings, and Practices (2014). Brief overviews of Baha'i history and thought. [about]
  20. Bahá'í Approach to the Claim of Uniqueness and Exclusivity in Christianity, A, by Seena Fazel and Khazeh Fananapazir, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:2 (1990). Differing interpretations of scriptural passages about exclusivity have caused conflicts between denominations. A Bahá'í approach, focussing on the Gospels and on progressive revelation, can reconcile these disagreements. [about]
  21. Bahá'í Approaches to Christianity and Islam: Further Thoughts on Developing an Inter-Religious Dialogue, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007). [about]
  22. Bahá'í Faith and Christianity, The. Lecture notes compiled by Masumian for teaching at a community college and a university, partly from other online sources. [about]
  23. Bahá'í Faith and its relationship to Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, The: A brief history, by Adam Berry, in International Social Science Review (2004). [about]
  24. Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings, The by William Miller: "Missionary as Historian: William Miller and the Bahá'í Faith", by Douglas Martin, in Bahá'í Studies, 4 (1978). Lengthy review of Miller's book, and a broad discussion of anti-Bahá'í polemic and historiography. [about]
  25. Bahá'í Proofs, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1902). A book of history and theology composed in America, in which Gulpaygani gives a defense and exposition of the Faith from a Christian point of view. For many years, until Esslemont's Baha'u'llah and the New Era, it was a standard Baha'i textbook. [about]
  26. Bahá'í Understanding of Reincarnation in Relation to the World's Faiths, A, by Sateh Bayat and Vafa Bayat, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). [about]
  27. Bahá'í View of the Bible, A, by Colin Dibdin, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). [about]
  28. Bahá'í World Faith: Redefinition of Religion, by James J. Keene, in Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 6:2 (1967). Baha'is consistently differ from Jews and Christians in the structure of their religious behavior and its relation to personality. Only the Baha'is evidenced a "fully balanced" religious activity. [about]
  29. Bahá'í-Christian Dialogue: Some Key Issues Considered, by Francis Beckwith, in Christian Research Journal (1989). An antagonistic and polemical overview of the Baha'i Faith by a Christian. [about]
  30. Bahá'í-Christian Dialogue: Some Key Issues Considered, by Francis Beckwith: A Bahá'í Response, by David Friedman (1998). Lengthy theological apologia. [about]
  31. Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era Regarding the Explanation of Daniel 12:12: Beckwith's Allegations, by Universal House of Justice (1990). Responses to allegations Francis Beckwith makes in his booklet "Baha'i" about changes to this book. [about]
  32. Bahá'u'lláh's "Most Sublime Vision", by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
  33. Baha'u'llah's prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
  34. Bahaism: An Anti-Christian System, by Samuel Graham Wilson, in Bibliotheca Sacra, 72:285 (1915). A Christian missionary's perspective on the Baha'i Faith's claim to supersede Christianity. [about]
  35. Before Abraham Was, I am, by Thornton Chase (1902). Open letter to a new Baha'i summarizing the Baha'i revelation through a Christian perspective. [about]
  36. Behold the Man: Baha'u'llah on the Life of Jesus, by Juan Cole, in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 65:1 (1997). Baha'u'llah's lessons from the Judeo-Christian experience for founding a new, post-Islamic religion; invoking Christ to illuminate contemporary situations within Babi-Bahá'í history; implications for his relations with Middle Eastern Christians. [about]
  37. Behold the Man: Baha'u'llah on the Life of Jesus, by Juan Cole: Review, by Christopher Buck (1997). [about]
  38. Bible, Preferred English Translation of, by Universal House of Justice (1996). While Shoghi Effendi recommended the use of the King James translation of the Bible, Baha'is are yet welcome to use any translation they wish. [about]
  39. Bible, The: Extracts on the Old and New Testaments, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
  40. Bible, The: King James version in Multilinear Format with Bahá'í References by Verse. [about]
  41. Biblical Questions, Interpretation of: Ezekiel 10:19, Jeremiah 49:38 and Micah 7:12, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Can certain passages from the Hebrew Bible be taken as prophetic references to the Babi or Baha'i Faiths? [about]
  42. Biblical References in Tablets of the Divine Plan, by JoAnn M. Borovicka, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). Knowledge of the Bible is now at an all-time low; a study of the contexts of four biblical references found in Tablets of the Divine Plan, to demonstrate the value that biblical literacy brings to the study and implementation of these Tablets. [about]
  43. Biblical References in Baha'i Writings, by Marian Lippitt (1955). Correlation between verses of the Bible and references to these verses in Baha'i literature, including published pilgrim notes. In Excel format. [about]
  44. Birth and Call of Jesus Christ: A Bahá'í-inspired retelling, by David Merrick (2010). The story of the birth of Jesus and his call to the world of humanity. [about]
  45. Body, Mind, Soul and Spirit, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). The Baha'i view of human nature involves an interaction between spirit, soul and body — these three elements exist both in the Semitic religions and in the Far Eastern ones; Western dualist and Eastern monist traditions are in fact all tripartite. [about]
  46. Book of Revelation Revealed in Glory, The: A Summary of Glorious Revelation, by William Ridgers, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). [about]
  47. Brief Account of My Visit to Acca, A, by Mary L. Lucas (1905). Detailed notes of a visit to Haifa, January-February 1905, and Abdu'l-Baha's interpretations of several passages from the Bible. [about]
  48. Catastrophe, Armageddon and Millennium: Some aspects of the Bábí-Bahá'í exegesis of apocalyptic symbolism, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). [about]
  49. Catastrophe, Armageddon and Millennium: Some Aspects of the Bábí-Bahá'í Exegesis of Apocalyptic Symbolism, by Stephen Lambden: Commentary, "The Apocalyptic Upheaval Completed?", by William P. Collins, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). Commentary on earlier article by Stephen Lambden. [about]
  50. Challenge of the Bahá'í Faith: A Non-Bahá'í Assessment of Reasons for Studying the Bahá'í Religion, by Vernon Elvin Johnson, in World Order (1976). Though small and young, the Bahá’í Faith is a subject of central importance not only for the student of the history of religions but for anyone interested in world problems and proposals for their solution. [about]
  51. Chaos of Cults, The: A Study in Present-Day Isms, by Jan Karel van Baalen (1956). Fourteen-page chapter on the Faith from a critical yet somewhat sympathetic Christian perspective ("Baha'ism has some very fine points..."). [about]
  52. Christ and Baha'u'llah, by George Townshend (1957). The Kingdom of God, as foretold in the Bible, has come and Baha'u'llah is the Return of Christ. [about]
  53. Christ, Return of: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1994). Some Christian prophecies and their fulfillment in the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  54. Christian Faith and the Formation of the Principles of Ideas and its Church Organizations, The, by Kamran Ekbal (2011). On the Christian religion and the process of formulating principles, concepts, and organizational structure in relation to the history of religious thought. [article in Persian] [about]
  55. Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2005). [about]
  56. Christianity from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Robert Stockman (1998). Includes two topics: "A Baha'i approach to the Bible" and "Baha'i Writings on Jesus Christ." [about]
  57. Christians, Muhammadans, and Jews, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1940). An address delivered at Temple Emmanu-El, San Francisco, October 12, 1912. [about]
  58. Christmas and Bahá'ís: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2002). [about]
  59. Church and State: A Postmodern Theology, Book One, by Sen McGlinn, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 19 (2005). Review of Bahá'í literature and of the scriptures of Christianity and Islam show that the separation of state from religion is a universal ideal. Excerpt from a lengthy book; includes Contents, Foreword, and Introduction. [about]
  60. Commentary on Verses of John, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2001). Excerpt from a longer Tablet on Jesus' prophecy "It is to your advantage that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Comforter [or "Helper"] will not come to you." [about]
  61. Compare: Bahá'í Faith, Islam, Christianity, Judaism (2009). Comparison charts of statistics, basic beliefs, origins, and history. [about]
  62. Continuing Contest between Exclusivism and Pluralism, The: Thoughts on the 2002 Day of Prayer for Peace, by Julio Savi, in World Order, 33.4 (2002). Origins and purpose of the Catholic "Day of Prayer in Assisi," and interfaith dialogue. [about]
  63. Conversion Movements within Hindu Village Culture, by Susan Maneck (1997). Hindu, Christian, and Baha'i conversion patterns in India. [about]
  64. Course on Teaching Christians about the Bahá'í Faith, by Dianne Bradford (1999). Compilation of quotes from the Baha'i Writings to aid in the teaching of the Faith to Christians, including answers to some questions posed by Christians. [about]
  65. Covenant of Baha'u'llah, The: A Compilation (1963). Lengthy compilation published as a book, first put together in 1950, of quotations from Scripture — Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Bábí, and Bahá’í — about the Covenant of God, the Eternal Covenant, and the Greater and Lesser Covenants. [about]
  66. Covenant, The: Brit Olam, by Peter Terry (1997). The concept of covenant is found in the Bible, the Qur'an, and Baha'i writings. Using the form of an inter-religious dialogue, this paper correlates references to covenant in four religions, demonstrating the distinctive characteristics of each. [about]
  67. Daniel's Prophecies, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
  68. Dates in Baha'u'llah and the New Era: A response to Francis Beckwith, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1992). Response to certain allegations Beckwith makes in his booklet Baha'i. [about]
  69. Day of God (Yawmu'llah) and the Days of God (Ayyamu'llah), by Khazeh Fananapazir, in Scripture and Revelation: Papers presented at the First Irfan Colloquium (1997). Comparison of Biblical and Islamic antecedents of the symbol of the "Day of God." [about]
  70. Declaration Dominus Iesus, The: A Brake on Ecumenism and Interfaith Dialogue?, by Julio Savi, in World Order, 32.2 (2001). Contents of a Declaration by Cardinal Ratzinger in 2000 on the "unicity and the salvific universality of Jesus Christ and the Church," world opinion on it, and how its position compares with the Bahá’í teachings. [about]
  71. Deification of Jesus, The, by Jack McLean, in World Order (1980). The apotheosis of Christ is a common factor to all branches of Christianity. This paper examines the historical development of this belief, from the writings of St. Paul, gnosticism, and the debates between Arius, Cyril, and Nestorius. Also in French. [about]
  72. Does Corinthians 1:15 Teach a Physical or a Spiritual Resurrection?, by David Friedman (1999). While literalists claim that this verse supports a physical resurrection, the evidence seems to show the exact opposite to be true. [about]
  73. Episode in the Childhood of the Bab, An, by Stephen Lambden, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Parallels legends of the Bab's early childhood with those of Jesus. [about]
  74. Essays on Jesus and the New Testament, by Peter Terry (2015). Scripture and progressive revelation, canonization of the Bible, teachings of the New Testament, Baha'i interpretations of the Bible, Apostles of Jesus, and prophecies of Jesus and their fulfilment. [about]
  75. Facilitating Spiritual Joy: Workshop on Christianity, by Ted Brownstein (1999). Introduction to the history and philosophy of Christianity from a Baha'i perspective, and deepening materials. [about]
  76. Female Representations of the Holy Spirit in Bahá'í and Christian writings and their implications for gender roles, by Lil Osborn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). A response to feminist theologian Mary Daly's argument that a male representation of God reinforces patriarchy with the suggestion that sexual equality is independent of, and unrelated to, gender images of the Divine. [about]
  77. Fighting for the Nuṣayrī Soul: State, Protestant Missionaries and the ʿAlawīs in the Late Ottoman Empire, by Necati Alkan, in Die Welt des Islams, 52 (2012). Overview of the Alawites/Nusayris (Syrian Shi'is) in the start of the 19th century, political attitudes in Syria and Istanbul, and the influence of Protestant missionaries. [about]
  78. Five Questions: Loss of Voting Rights, Mani, Magi, Five-Pointed Star, Joseph Smith, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:3-4:4 (1991). Responses to various questions. Closes with quotations on Confucianism and Genesis. [about]
  79. Forum Concerning St. Paul, by Christopher Buck and Juan Cole, in World Order, 13:4 (1979). Responses to Hatcher's review (World Order, 1978) of Schaefer's Light Shineth in Darkness, by Buck, Hatcher, Gregory Shaw, Willibald Duerschmid, and Marzieh Gail (World Order, 13:4) and by Cole (World Order 13:2, Winter 1978). [about]
  80. From Adam to Bahá'u'lláh: The Idea of a Chain of Prophecy, by Zaid Lundberg, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
  81. From Moorish Cordova to the Bahá'ís of Iran: Islamic Tolerance and Intolerance, by Boris Handal Morales, in IDEA: A Journal of Social Issues, 12:1 (2007). Though Baha'is are persecuted in Iran, Muhammad taught understanding and respect towards religious minorities. Cordova, Spain is an example of historical tolerance where Muslims, Christians and Jews co-existed harmoniously under Islamic rule. [about]
  82. Heart of the Gospel: The Bible and the Bahá'í Faith, by George Townshend (1939). Using only the text of the Bible, Townshend provides a new reading of Scripture as a guidebook for those who seek a universal view of religion and the contemporary world. [about]
  83. Heaven, Hell and the Afterlife, by Lynette Thomas, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). Judeo-Christian and Muslim views of life after death are often seen literally as bodily resurrection and a judgement day, vs. the Baha'i perspective of the nature of the soul and its existence after the death of the body, heaven/hell, and the afterlife. [about]
  84. Hermes Trismegistus and Apollonius of Tyana in the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, by Keven Brown, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 8 (1997). History of alchemy, magic, and the hermetic arts, and their reflection in the later teachings of Baha'u'llah. [about]
  85. History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, by John William Draper (1864). A selection of excerpts from the book. Contains no mention of the Baha'i Faith, but is of interest partly because Abdu'l-Baha referred to this book in Secret of Divine Civilization. [about]
  86. How Bahá'u'lláh Taught Christians: The Rhetoric and Pedagogy of Bahá'u'lláh's Writings to Followers of Jesus Christ, by Ted Brownstein (1998). How Baha'u'llah prepared his message to attract Christians; poetic and rhetorical devices he used in declaring his mission to them; themes of Tablets to the Kings, Tablet to the Pope, and Lawh-i-Aqdas. [about]
  87. I Daniel: index, by Bruce Limber (1999). An index to the contents of Robert Riggs' book I, Daniel. [about]
  88. I, Daniel, by Robert Riggs (1998). [about]
  89. Illuminator vs. Redeemer: Was Ebionite Adam/Christ Prophetology "Original," Anti-Pauline, or "Gnostic"?, by Christopher Buck (1982). Contains no mention of the Baha'i Faith, but is of interest because of the phenomenological resonance between the Ebionite Christian doctrine of the "True Prophet" with the Bahá’í doctrine of the “Manifestation of God.” [about]
  90. Images of Christ in the writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, The, by Maryam Afshar, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
  91. Infallible Institutions?, by Udo Schaefer, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, 13 (2002). Historical and Bahá'í interpretations of infallibility. [about]
  92. Intelligent Life in the Universe and Exotheology in Christianity and the Bahá'í Writings, by Duane Troxel (1996). Theological statements on extraterrestrial life in Christian and Baha'i texts, and in the work of Giordano Bruno and Galileo. [about]
  93. Inter-religious gathering in New Delhi, and Address to Pope John Paul II, by Zena Sorabjee and National Spiritual Assembly of India (1999). Brief address by Counsellor Sorabjee to an inter-religious gathering organised by the Roman Catholic Church in New Delhi with with Pope John Paul II, and a short description of the event by the NSA of India, as shared by the House of Justice. [about]
  94. Internet Communications; Virgin Birth; Encyclopedia; Administrative Order, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Questions on email discussion groups and the Covenant, the Baha'i stance on the Virgin Birth of Christ, the spirituality of administrating, the spiritual destiny of the American Baha'i community, and the status of the Baha'i Encyclopedia. [about]
  95. Is It Unethical to Evade Taxes in an Evil or Corrupt State?: A Look at Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Mormon and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Robert W. McGee, in Journal of Accounting, Ethics & Public Policy, 2:1 (1999). The ethics of tax evasion has been a neglected topic in both the accounting and ethical literature. This article reviews the recent literature, focusing on the question of whether tax evasion is ethical in a corrupt country. [about]
  96. Islam, the Baha'i Faith and the Eternal Covenant of Alast, by Susan Maneck (2009). [about]
  97. Jesus and Early Christianity in the Gospels: A New Dialogue, by Daniel Grolin: Review, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). [about]
  98. Jesus asks all people 'Who do people say that I am?': Replies from several non-Christians, by Christopher Buck and et al., in Ottawa Citizen (1997). A short collection of non-Christian perspectives on Jesus, published in commemoration of Easter. [about]
  99. Jesus Christ in the Bahá'í Writings, by Robert Stockman, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). While Christians traditionally believe the Gospels to be substantially accurate, little is known about Jesus and what he actually taught; the Baha'i writings fill in many of these gaps. [about]
  100. Jesus Christ in the Bahá'í Writings, by Robert Stockman: Review: Commentary concerning the differences between Christian and Bahá'í terminology, by Michael W. Sours, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Discusses the station and titles of Christ in an attempt to find common ground with Christians. [about]
  101. Jesus Christ, Resurrection of, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
  102. Jesus the Son of God and the Incarnation Doctrine, by Antonella Khursheed and Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 1 (1996). The Baha'i approach to the sonship and divinity of Christ is consistent with Old and New Testament usage. It examines the Incarnation Doctrine, the roots of which can be traced to pagan influences coloring Christian belief in its early centuries. [about]
  103. Jews and the Crucifixion, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1980). [about]
  104. Kaleidoscope: Some Aspects of Angelology, Light, the Divine Throne and Color Mysticism in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, by Stephen Lambden, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
  105. Keys to the Proper Understanding of Islam in The Dispensation of Baha'u'llah, by Brian Wittman, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). [about]
  106. Kitab-i-Iqan: Key to Unsealing the Mysteries of the Holy Bible, by Brent Poirier (1998). Examination of the Bible in light of interpretations of its symbolism offered by Baha'u'llah's Kitab-i-Iqan. [about]
  107. Letters and Essays, 1886-1913, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1985). Treatises of "the greatest and most learned of all Bahá'í scholars" about Alexander Tumansky; on meeting Abdu'l-Baha; and on the meaning of angels, resurrection, civilization, tests, angels, holy spirit, and the saying "Knowledge is twenty-seven letters." [about]
  108. Letters of the Quranic Dispensation and Letters of the Living (huruf), by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). Some meanings of the term huruf ("letters") in Baha'i texts, including Letters of the Bayan, Letters of the Living, and Letters of the Quranic Dispensation. [about]
  109. Letters Written on Behalf of the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Three questions: Letters Written on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi; Status of Research Department Memoranda; Bahá'í Writings Based in Fact? [about]
  110. Liberation Theology and its Potential for Guidance Towards Peace on Earth: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Fleur Fallon, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). [about]
  111. List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Babi studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
  112. Lot and His Daughters, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Discussion of two Bahá'í references on the Biblical story of Lot; an interpretation of a Bible verse is not inevitably dependent on the Biblical source being authentic or reliable. [about]
  113. Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer, Nicola Towfigh, and Ulrich Gollmer: Review, by Seena Fazel, in Interreligious Insight, 2:1 (2004). [about]
  114. Mary Magdalene: Lioness of God in the Bahai Faith, by Lil Osborn (2013). On the symbolic role of Mary Magdalene in the Baha’i tradition as a female archetype in the context of the doctrine of "return," and thus linked to the poet Tahirih, heroine of the Babi-Baha’i dispensation. [about]
  115. Medieval Islam: The Influence of Islam on Judaism and Christianity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). Prior to the Renaissance, Islam inspired revivals in the cultural traditions of Christianity and Judaism, indicating a harmony between the three religions. The reforms inspired by Islam were a prelude to the modern scientific revolution. [about]
  116. Messianic Expectations in Nineteenth Century Christian and Islamic Communities, by Ahang Rabbani (2006). The phenomenon of messianism and its manifestations in early-modern American Christianity and in Iranian Islam. [about]
  117. Messianic Roots of Babi-Bahá'í Globalism, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). Contrast of the continuity between the globalism of the Bab’s Qayyum al-asma’ and Baha’u’llah’s globalism, verses breaks between the two, e.g. the abandoning of jihad as a means of promoting a globalisation process. [about]
  118. Miracles and Metaphors, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1981). Collection of essays on metaphysical topics and Bahá'í answers to old religious controversies: are the Scriptures to be taken literally? Do miracles occur? What is an angel? Are the stories of the Old Testament to be believed? [about]
  119. Miracles in Religion: A Study of the miraculous in religion in context of the Baha'i Faith, by Anil Sarwal (1996). [about]
  120. Missionary Principles and Practice: A Discussion of Christian Missions and of some Criticisms upon them, by Robert E. Speer (1902). Brief testimonial of a "converted Moslem" who turned to Babism, but then became a Christian. [about]
  121. Mystic Journey of the Soul, The, by Gul Afroz Zaman, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). On the journey a soul must make to attain union with the Eternal from the confines of material life on earth; Christian and Sufi esoteric traditions vs. Baha'i mysticism; the central theme of attaining a "Heavenly Homeland" and closeness with the Creator. [about]
  122. Notes on Bahá'í Proofs Based on the Bible, Some (1963). First published (as a book) in Africa in 1963, reprinted in India in 1988. [about]
  123. Notes on the Christian "Antichrist" and Titles of Christ, by Dann J. May (1997). Intro for a Baha'i-Christian dialogue on the meaning of the antichrist, titles of Jesus in the Baha'i Sacred Writings, and brief compilation of Baha'i writings. [about]
  124. Oath of the Prophet Mohammed to the Followers of the Nazarene, The, by Muhammad and Ali ibn 'Abu-Talib (1902). Promise of fair-treatment from Muhammad to the Christians, with commentary by Imam Ali, given in the year A.H. 2 (623 A.D.), published by the Baha'is as a 7-page booklet. [about]
  125. Out of Jewish Roots: Studies of Prayer Patterns in Jewish, Christian, Muslim and Bahá'í Worship, by Ted Brownstein, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
  126. Paradise and Paradigm: Key Symbols in Persian Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Christopher Buck (1999). Study of Baha'i and Christian symbology, the "first academic monograph comparing Christianity and the Baha'i Faith." [about]
  127. Paradise and Paradigm, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Harold Coward (1999). [about]
  128. Paradise and Paradigm, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Daniel Grolin (1999). [about]
  129. Paradise and Paradigm, by Christopher Buck: Reviews, by Andrew Rippin and John Renard (2000). Three short reviews from Studies in Religion, Middle East Studies Association Bulletin, and Humanities. [about]
  130. Paradise and Paradigm, by Christopher Buck: Review, by William P. Collins, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). [about]
  131. Paradise and Paradigm, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Kathleen E. McVey, in International Journal of Middle East Studies, volume 35 (2003). [about]
  132. Parallels in the Ministries of Táhirih and Paul, by JoAnn M. Borovicka, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). Stories of early believers of the Bahá’í Faith as presented in "Memorials of the Faithful" compared with the lives of early believers in Christianity as recorded in the New Testament; Táhirih and Paul represent a similar type of early convert. [about]
  133. Perception Into Faith: A Radical Discontinuity Within Unity, by William Barnes, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). [about]
  134. Pilgrimage and Religious Identity in the Bahá'í Faith, by Per-Olof Akerdahl, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). [about]
  135. Prolegomena to a Bahá'í Theology, by Jack McLean, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:1 (1992). Groundbreaking and thorough essay on the basic concerns of scholarly Bahá'í theology. [about]
  136. Proof Based on Establishment (Dalíl-i-taqrír) and the Proof Based on Verses (Hujjiyyat-i-ayát), The: An Introduction to the Bahá'í-Muslim Polemics, by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani and Leila Rassekh Milani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:4 (1997). Study of Bahá'í apologetics based largely on the work of Mirza Abu'l-Fadl. [about]
  137. Prophecies fullfilled by Baha'u'llah, by William Sears. [about]
  138. Prophecy in the Johannine Farewell Discourse: The Advents of the Paraclete, Ahmad and Comforter, by Stephen Lambden, in Scripture and Revelation: Papers presented at the First Irfan Colloquium (1997). [about]
  139. Prophecy of Daniel; Modifications of Baha'u'llah and the New Era, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Two topics: the fulfilment of the Biblical prophecy of Daniel concerning 1,335 days, and modifications made to Baha'u'llah and the New Era. [about]
  140. Prophets and Mountains, by Moshe Sharon, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
  141. Quranic Witness to Biblical Authority, The, by Sam Shamoun (1999). Written for a Muslim audience, this article expounds on the Muslim view that the Bible is authentically the Word of God. The article does not mention the Baha'i Faith, but its topic is relevant to Baha'i studies. [about]
  142. Reconciliation of Races and Religions, The, by Thomas Kelly Cheyne (1914). Early history of the Babi and Baha'i movements, life stories of their participants, and their contemporary religious context. [about]
  143. Reconciling the Other: The Bahá'í Faith in America as a Successful Synthesis of Christianity and Islam, by Anthony Lee (1995). [about]
  144. References to Christ in His Tablet to Pope Pius IX, by Dianne Bradford (1998). [about]
  145. Relativism: A Basis For Bahá'í Metaphysics, by Moojan Momen, in Studies in Honor of the Late Husayn M. Balyuzi, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 5, ed. Moojan Momen (1988). "Relativism" as a means of reconciling the often widely-divergent theologies of the world's religions. [about]
  146. Religion in the Middle East: Three Religions in Concord and Conflict: Volume 1, Judaism and Christianity, by Arthur J. Arberry (1969). Three mentions of the Babis and Baha'is. [about]
  147. Religious Behavior and Neuroticism, Spontaneity, and Worldmindedness, by James J. Keene, in Sociometry, 30:2 (1967). Baha'is were included in a broad survey of religious thoughts and actions, and their attitudes statistically compared with followers of other faiths. [about]
  148. Resurrection: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Mark A. Foster (1993). Personal reflections and interpretations. [about]
  149. Resurrection and Return of Jesus, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). The body of Christ; the burial of Christ; His return; and explaining the Baha'i view to Christians. [about]
  150. Resurrection of Christ and the Bible, by Universal House of Justice (1987). Information on Baha'i concepts related to the Resurrection of Christ. [about]
  151. Return of the Dreamtime, by Pym Trueman, in The Family: Our Hopes and Challenges (1995). Brief history of Christianity and missionary work in Samoa and Australia, and how native Samoan customs and beliefs were changed or lost. [about]
  152. Sapiential Theosis: A New Reading of Ephrem the Syrian's Hymns on Paradise, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of the Assyrian Academic Society, 9.2 (1995). Prepublication chapter from Paradise and Paradigm: Key Symbols in Persian Christianity and the Baha’i Faith (Albany: SUNY Press, 1999). St. Eprem the Syrian is generally regarded as the greatest Christian poet of Late Antiquity. [about]
  153. Scripture as Literature: Sifting through the layers of the text, by Frank Lewis, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Literary and religious antecedents to some of the styles and genres of Baha'i scripture. [about]
  154. Seeing With the Eye of God: Relationships Between Theology and Interpretation, by Michael W. Sours, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 1:1 (1991). Various spheres of interpretation and how their hierarchies reflect theological truth. [about]
  155. Selected Talks and Statements on Interfaith Issues by Religious Leaders and Scholars, by George Townshend and Swami Vivekananda, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). Compilation of addresses to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Inter-Religious Organisation of Singapore; also includes talks by Jonathan Sacks, Abdullah Yusof Ali, Robert Runcie, and Pope John Paul II. [about]
  156. Selected Topics of Comparison in Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Peter Mazal (1999). Comparison of Baha'i and Christian morality, archetypal events and people (e.g. the ideal woman) in early Christian and Bábí-Bahá'í history plus concepts of Christ (Christology) and the Messiah compared to Prophets, Messengers and Manifestations of God. [about]
  157. Shoghi Effendi: An approach to his artistic contribution to style in English literature and to standards in translation, by Nobel Perdu and Ismael Velasco, in Traducción, cultura e inmigración. Reflexiones interdisciplinares, ed. García Marcos et al. (2004). [about]
  158. Shoghi Effendi's View of Providential History in Light of the Judaeo-Christian Tradition, by Jack McLean, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The Guardian's letters reveal six feature of his historicity: palingenesis and transitional history; providential synchronization; teleological history; organically whole history; periodisation of ages and epochs; history as community identity-creation. [about]
  159. Sin-covering Gaze, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Brief explanation of a possible source for a story of Christ told by Abdu'l-Baha about encountering a dead dog and commenting on the beauty of its teeth; i.e., having a "sin-covering gaze." [about]
  160. Spiritual Footprints in the Sands of Time, by Kevin Brogan, in Solas, 3 (2003). The covenantal relationship between God and humankind; the lives of the founders of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism; the societies in which these religions developed; and some of their common features. [about]
  161. Station of Baha'u'llah: Three Letters, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Three letters on the station of Baha'u'llah, the souls of the Manifestations, the varying intensities of their Revelations, the phrase "most precious Being," and on teaching the Faith to Christians. [about]
  162. Story of Joseph in Five Religious Traditions, by Jim Stokes, in World Order, 28:3 (1997). The parable of Joseph in the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament, and Islam. Prefaced by comments by Moojan Momen. [about]
  163. Striving Together: A Way Forward in Christian-Muslim Relations, by Charles Kimball: A Jihad for All Seasons: Review, by Seena Fazel, in World Order, 26:2 (1994). [about]
  164. Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Baha Concerning Arius, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Arius was an early Christian theologian whose rejection of the Trinity, Abdu'l-Baha said, destroyed the unity of the Church. [about]
  165. Tablet of the Son (Jesus) (2001). A tablet, partly written to a Christian priest, on the effect of Christ's revelation and Baha'u'llah's status as the return of Christ. [about]
  166. Tablet of the Temple (Súratu'l-Haykal): Comparison with the Prophecies of Zechariah, by Cynthia C. Shawamreh (1998). Comparison of Baha'u'llah's symbol of the Manifestation as "temple" and its analogues from the Hebrew Bible. [about]
  167. Tablet on Understanding the Cause of Opposition to the Manifestations of God, by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). Summary of some themes from the Kitab-i-Iqan, concluding with a long prayer inviting the reader to see with his/her "own eyes." [about]
  168. Tablet to Hájí Mírzá Kamálu'd-Dín: Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). Brief comments by Bahá'u'lláh on the Isaac/Ishmael controversy. [about]
  169. Tablet to Pope Pius IX (Lawh-i-Páp): Biography of Pope Pius IX, in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). [about]
  170. Tablet to Rad'ar-Rúh, by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). Raḍ’ar-Rúḥ, a believer from Mashad, received this tablet shortly after Baha'u'llah arrived in Akka. In it, Baha'u'llah describes being pleased about the recent declaration of Christian doctor named Faris. [about]
  171. Tablet to Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandar II, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh (1985). [about]
  172. Tafsir and the Meaning of the Qur'an: The Crucifixion in Muslim Thought, by Todd Lawson (2010). Using Qur'án 4:156-7 as an example, classical tafsīr, “scholastic" exegesis, has not always taken account of the way all Muslims understand the Quranic text. Other understandings may be found in poetry, philosophy, mysticism and even historical writing. [about]
  173. Ten Plagues of the Exodus in Light of the Bahá'í Writings, The, by JoAnn M. Borovicka, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). The historical accuracy of Exodus is not essential to an appreciation of it; scholarship regarding the historicity of the Exodus story in general and the ten plagues specifically; contemporary significance of the metaphor of the plagues. [about]
  174. Themes of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablets of The Divine Plan Illustrated by Scriptural References to the Bible and the Qur'án, by Lameh Fananapazir, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). The Tablets of the Divine Plan, as well as Abdu'l-Baha's Will and Testament and the Tablet of Carmel, are three “Charters” for promotion of the Cause of God, which can also heal the problems facing humanity in its crisis of faith. [about]
  175. Thief in the Night: The Case of the Missing Millennium, by William Sears (1961). In the early 19th-century there was world-wide and fervent expectation that during the 1840s the return of Christ would take place. Did this happen, or was it all a dream? [about]
  176. Towards the Elimination of Religious Prejudice: Potential Christian Contributions From a Bahá'í Perspective, by Chris Jones Kavelin, in Interreligious Insight, 2:4 (2004). [about]
  177. Truth Triumphs: A Bahá'í Response to Misrepresentations of the Bahá'í Teachings and Bahá'í History, by Peter Terry (1999). Rebuttal of Francis Beckwith's thesis "Baha'i, A Christian response to Baha'ism, the religion which aims toward one world government and one common faith." [about]
  178. Typological Figuration and the Meaning of "Spiritual": The Qurʾanic Story of Joseph, by Todd Lawson, in Journal of the American Oriental Society, 132:2 (2012). Meanings of the famous shirt (qamís) as a symbol of Joseph's spiritual journey and travails in the Qur'an and tafsír. Does not mention the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  179. Um Estado Laico numa Sociedade Confessional, by Marco Oliveira, in Jornal Público (2005). "A Lay State in a Religious Society": opinion article by a Portuguese Baha’i about the presence of Christian symbols in the classrooms of Portuguese public schools. [about]
  180. Understanding Exclusivist Texts, by Seena Fazel, in Scripture and Revelation: Papers presented at the First Irfan Colloquium (1997). Contemporary religions, esp. Christianity, must examine their exclusivist claims to account for other paths to salvation. [about]
  181. Unique Eschatological Interface, A: Baha'u'llah and Cross-Cultural Messianism, by Christopher Buck, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Baha'i History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Tracing themes of messianism through the Occidental religions. [about]
  182. United States Policies in Support of Religious Freedom: Focus on Christians, by United States Department of State (1997). The US Department of State report "United States Policies in Support of Religious Freedom: Focus on Christians" includes a few brief mentions of Baha'is in Iran; the relevant passages are excerpted here. [about]
  183. Unity and Progressive Revelation: Comparing Bahá'í Principles with the Basic Concepts of Teilhard de Chardin, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
  184. Unity of Religions in This Century, Jews and the Crucifixion, and the Sacrifice of Ishmael, The, by Universal House of Justice (1990). [about]
  185. Universality of the Church of the East, The: How Persian was Persian Christianity?, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of the Assyrian Academic Society, 10.1 (1996). Prepublication chapter from Paradise and Paradigm: Key Symbols in Persian Christianity and the Baha’i Faith (Albany: SUNY Press, 1999. [about]
  186. Unknown Hour, The, by David Friedman (1998). Christians believe the Bible does not specify the time of Christ's return, but the Baha'i teachings are that an exact year, 1844, is indicated in the Bible for the time of the Second Coming. [about]
  187. "What I Want to Say is Wordless": Mystical Language, Revelation and Scholarship, by Ismael Velasco, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). [about]
  188. Women and Religious Change: A case study in the colonial migrant experience, by Miriam Dixson, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). The story of Margaret Dixson, and one woman's growth from Anglicanism, via numerology and astrology, to commitment to the world ideals of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  189. Word is the Master Key for the Whole World, The: The Bahá'í Revelation and the "Teaching and Spirit of the Cause" in Dialogical and Personal Thinking, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
  190. Wrathful God of Martin Luther and Baha'u'llah: Tablet of Ahmad-i-Farsi and Martin Luther (A comparison), by Roberta Law (1998). Comparison of the theologies of Baha'u'llah's Tablet of Ahmad (Persian) and early Protestantism. [about]
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