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Search for tag "Constantinople"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1844. 11 Aug The Báb sends Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivers a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
  • The Shaykh's rejection of the claim leads to violent debate. Mullá `Alí is taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he is sent to Istanbul. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
Constantinople; Istanbul; Iraq; Baghdád; Najaf; Karbalá Bab; Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami; Shaykhi; Mulla `Ali; Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafi; Shi`i; Sunni; `ulama; martyr; Babi; Mulla Hasan Gawhar; Babism
1845. 28 Jun Prince Dolgorukov is appointed Russian ambassador to Tihrán. He was previously first secretary of the Russian legation at Istanbul. He arrives in Tihrán in January 1846. Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey; Tehran; Iran Prince Dolgorukov; Russian
1846. Dec Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí dies in Istanbul naval dockyards. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. Constantinople; Istanbul Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami; martyr; Babi
1861. 25 Jun Death of Sultán ‘Abdu'l-Majíd and accession of Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz to the Ottoman throne. [BBR485]
  • Note: BKG139 says this was 14 August.
Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey death; Sultan ‘Abdu'l-Majid; Sultan ‘Abdu'l-‘Aziz; Ottoman; throne
1862 10 May The Persian ambassador requests that the Ottomans move the Bábís farther from Persia. Constantinople
1863. c. Jan 1863 The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, receives the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order is ignored by the governor, who is sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders will be received and similarly ignored before the governor is compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131] Baghdád; Iraq; Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Baha'u'llah; governor; Namiq Pasha; Grand Vizier; ‘Ali Pasha
1863. 26 Mar Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. [BKG154; GPB147; RB1:228; SA163]

  • The Tablet is recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
  • See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
  • See RB1:228–44 and SA163–5 for descriptions of the Tablet and analyses of its content.
  • Immediately after it is chanted Bahá'u'lláh orders the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. [GBP147; RB1:228–9; SA163]
  • The party has not yet left when a messenger arrives from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the invitation to go to Constantinople. [RB1:229; SA163]
Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh; Iraq; Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Bahá'u'lláh; Tablet; Holy Mariner; Naw-Rúz; Mírzá Áqá Ján; Námiq Páshá
1863. 27 Mar Bahá'u'lláh meets the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news. At first he summons Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]

  • See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
  • See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
  • See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
  • Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Baghdád, the Persian Consul had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68]
  • Baghdád; Iraq; Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Baha'u'llah; deputy; governor; Namiq Pasha; Ottoman citizenship; removal
    1863 Apr Mírzá Yahyá flees Baghdád, travelling to Mosul in disguise. [BKG158; RB252–5]
    • CH59 says that he left Baghdád about two weeks before the larger party.
    • Bahá'u'lláh advised him to go to Persia to disseminate the Writings of the Báb. [RB1:252–3]
    • Mírzá Yahyá abandoned the Writings of the Báb and travelled surreptitiously to Constantinople. [ESW167–8; RB1:255]
    • See ESW167 and RB1:253–4 for Yahyá's movements.
    Baghdád; Mosul; Iraq; Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey; Iran; Persia Mirza Yahya
    1863. 13 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party depart from Sámsún by steamer for Istanbul. [BKG196; GPB157]
    • They touch in Sinope, a port of call on 14 August and in Anyábulí on the 15 August. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    Sámsún; Sinope; Anyábulí; Istanbul; Constantinople;
    1863. 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrive at Constantinople at noon. [BKG197; GPB157; RB2:1]
    • The band of exiles had been augmented along the journey and new numbered about 70. At first the Governor allotted them space in an inn that was inadequate for their numbers and then 'Abdu'l-Bahá asked the governor that the family have a house apart. Mírzá Yáhyá and his family were invited to share the house. [CH59]
    • See The Baha’i Faith in Turkey or Essays and Notes on Babi and Baha’i History Chapter 4 by John Walbridge
    Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Mirza Yahya
    1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh resides in Constantinople. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61]

    • See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
    • Among the works Bahá'u'lláh reveals in Constantinople is Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]

    News is brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He will be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]

    Bahá'u'lláh refuses to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yahyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuade Him to go. [BKG201–3]

    Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz issues an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. [GPB159–60; RB2:57]

    • See BBIC:34, note 68, BKG201 and GPB159 for reasons for the edict.

      On the same day Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá, a Tablet addressed to the Sultán. When the Grand Vizier peruses it he turns pale. The text of this Tablet is lost. [BKG206; GPB160]

    Constantinople; Istanbul; Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; Mathnavi-i-Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mirza Yahya; Sultan ‘Abdu'l-‘Aziz; Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Aziz-Va-Vukala; Grand Vizier
    1863. c. Aug - Nov Death of Sádhijíyyih, 18-month-old daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Her body is buried in a plot of land outside the Ádirnih Gate of Constantinople. [BKG203] Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Death; Sadhijiyyih; daughter; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya; Ádirnih Gate
    1863. 19 Oct Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Bell (Subhánika-Yá-Hú). [BKG206; BW14:632; RB2:18]
    • See SDH41-43 for the story of Hájí Mirzá Haydar-'Alí and the use of this tablet during his imprisonment in Egypt.
    Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Baha'u'llah; Tablet Bell; Subhanika-Ya-Hu
    1863. 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Istanbul for Adrianople. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427]

    • The journey takes twelve days and they pass through the following villages en route. [BKG204; GPB161,The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    • chik-Chakmachih
      Buyúk-Chakmachih
      Salvarí
      Birkás
      Bábás
      Bábá-Iskí
      
    • See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter is extremely cold and the travellers are not clad for freezing weather.
    Constantinople; Istanbul; Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; winter; journey
    1863 probably near end Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-Mulúk (Súrih of Kings). [BKG245; GPB171–2; RB2:301-336]
    • This is described by Shoghi Effendi as ‘the most momentous Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh', in which He, ‘for the first time, directs His words collectively to the entire company of the monarchs of East and West'. [GPB171]
    • See GPB172–5 and RB2:301–25 for a description of the content of the Tablet.
    • In The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p41 Shoghi Effendi dates this tablet as "1863". Given the intense activity of that year an assumption was made that it was revealed near the end of the year in either Constantinople or Adrianople.

    Chronological list of significant events related to Bahá'u'lláh's historic pronouncement in the Súriy-i-Múlúk
         Fall of the French Monarchy (1870)
         Virtual Extinction of the Pope's Temporal Sovereignty (1870)
         Assassination of Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz (1876)
         Assassination of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh (1896)
         Overthrow of Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd II (1909)
         Fall of the Portuguese Monarchy (1910)
         Fall of the Chinese Monarchy (1916)
         Fall of the Russian Monarchy (1917)
         Fall of the German Monarchy (1918)
         Fall of the Austrian Monarchy (1918)
         Fall of the Hungarian Monarchy (1918)
         Fall of the Turkish Monarchy (1922)
         Collapse of the Caliphate (1924)
         Fall of the Qájár Dynasty (1925)
         Fall of the Spanish Monarchy (1931)
         Fall of the Albanian Monarchy (1938)
         Fall of the Serbian Monarchy (1941)
         Fall of the Italian Monarchy (1946)
         Fall of the Bulgarian Monarchy (1946)
         Fall of the Rumanian Monarchy (1947) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p41-42]
    Adrianople; Constantinople Suriy-Muluk
    1868. Apr Seven Bahá'ís in Constantinople are arrested and interrogated by a commission of inquiry whose mandate it is to verify the claims of Bahá'u'lláh and Mírzá Yahyá. [BKG250–2; GPB179; MF99–100 RB2:3289]
    • See RB2:329–32 for the conduct of the interrogations.
    • Among those arrested is Mishkín-Qalam, the calligrapher. He is particularly distraught because he is not allowed pen or paper. Eventually these are given to him. [BKG252]
    Constantinople Mishkin-Qalam
    1876. 4 Jun `Abdu'l-`Azíz either commits suicide or is assassinated. [BBD2; BBR485; GPB225]
    • Bahá'u'lláh predicted his downfall in the Lawh-i-Fu'ád. RB3:87]
    • Bahá'u'lláh stated that the tyranny of Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz exceeded that of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh because the Sultán exiled Bahá'u'lláh to the Most Great Prison without any reason whereas the Sháh had reason to be fearful of the Bahá'ís because of the attempt on his life. [BKG412]
    • Bahá'u'lláh addressed two Tablets to the Sultán including the Súriy-i-Mulúk (Tablet to the Kings) but he did not respond. [BBD2]
    Accession of Murád V to the throne. [BBR485]
    Constantinople Sultan `Abdu'l-`Aziz; Nasiri'd-Din Shah; Murad V; Lawh-i-Fu'ad; Suriy-i-Muluk
    1876. 31 Aug Deposition of Murád V. Accession of `Abdu'l-Hamíd II becomes Sultan, upon which the banishment decree of Sultan 'Abdu'l-Aziz is relaxed. Constantinople Murad V; `Abdu'l-Hamid II
    1901 Apr The Iranian ambassador to the Ottoman government at Istanbul, `Ala'u'l-Mulk, filed a report with the Office of Foreign Ministry in Tihran which was subsequently presented to the Shah. Constantinople Report to the Shah
    1908 24 Jul In Constantinople, a bomb intended for Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd as he returned from the mosque on Friday, killed and injured a number of people. This event prompted the authorities to recall all the members of the Commission. Some months later the "Young Turk" revolutionaries demanded the release of all political and religious prisoners. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was free by the summer. [AB123; BBD4; BBRXXX; CB237; DH71; GPB272]
    • A cable is sent to Constantinople to enquire whether `Abdu'l-Bahá is included in the amnesty. `Abdu'l-Bahá is set free. [AB123; GPB272]
    Constantinople
    1996 30 May - 14 Jun The Bahá'í International Community and 150 Bahá'ís from many countries participate in the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) and the parallel Non-Governmental Organization Forum in Istanbul. [BINS365:5] Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey BIC; UN; NGO
     
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