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Search for tag "Constitution"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1905 - 1911 The `Constitutional Revolution' takes place in Iran. [BBRSM:87, 219]
  • The direct influence of the Bahá'ís in this movement was slight but many in Europe thought the Bahá'í influence was great. [BBR366]
  • The Constitutional Movement fails to bring the Bahá'ís any benefit; rather, they suffer as a result. [BBR366 g]
Iran Constitutional Revolution
1906 30 Dec The Constitution of Iran is re-established. The Bahá'ís are not included among the recognized religions. [BBR354; B114; CB57; GPB298]
  • For the prophecies of Bahá'u'lláh about the constitution see CBM56–8.
Iran Constitutions; Human rights; Prophecies
1907 8 Jan The death of Muzaffari'd-Dín Sháh just a few days after he had signed the constitution. [BBR354, 482] Iran Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths; Iran, General history; History (general); Constitutions
1908 Jun Muhammad-`Alí Sháh undertakes a successful coup d'état in Iran and abolishes the Constitution. [BBR369] Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution; Constitutions; History (general); Iran, General history
1909 Mar Eighteen or nineteen Bahá'ís are brutally assassinated in Nayríz when the Constitutionalists take control of the city. [BBR369; BW18:386; DH71, 138; GPB298; RB1:268] Nayriz; Iran Constitutionalists; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1909 16 Jul After an armed revolt, Muhammad-`Alí Sháh abdicates and the Iranian Constitution is resurrected. [BBR354, 482]
  • The country soon deteriorates and anarchy prevails. It is effectively partitioned into two spheres of influence, British and Russian. [BBRSM:87]
Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution
1927 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada draws up and publishes a ‘Declaration of Trust’ and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly’. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
  • For text see BW2:90–8.
  • The Guardian describes it as the Bahá’í ‘national constitution’ heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá’í World Community’. [GPB335; PP302–3]
  • The drafting is largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
  • In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatum. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
United States; Canada NSA; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions; By-laws; Recognition; Firsts, Other
1972 26 Nov The constitution of the Universal House of Justice is adopted. [BW15:169; BBRSM132, 138; VV14] BWC Universal House of Justice, Constitution; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Constitutions; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1979. 1 Apr The declaration of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran after a referendum with a 98.2% supporting vote. Iran Constitutions
1979 Dec The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, from which all civil rights stem and which does not give recognition to the Bahá’í Faith, is adopted by referendum. [BI11] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Constitutions; Human rights
1981 Apr In Pakistan a constitutional amendment names the Bahá’í Faith among the non-Muslim faiths of the country, thus according it legal recognition. [BW18:107; VV67] Pakistan Constitutions; Recognition
1987 autumn The National Spiritual Assembly of Brazil submits proposals based on Bahá’í principles such as human rights to the National Constitutional Assembly drafting the new constitution. [BINS174:2]
  • Favourable responses are received from 46 Senators and Deputies. [BINS174:2]
Brazil NSA; Constitutions
1990 The National Spiritual Assembly of South Africa made a submission for the drafting of a new constitution.
  • The judge that received it, the President of the South African Law Commission, commented that this document stated the Bahá’ís were the only group whose ideas had a spiritual and moral basis for the constitution. [AWH87-8]
South Africa NSA; Constitutions
2014. 28 May In the presidential election in Egypt, former Egyptian defence minister Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was elected with 97% of the vote according to government sources. The subsequent 2014 Constitution of the Sisi government, while guaranteeing the ‘inviolable’ right of freedom of religion, extended this only to Islam, Christianity and Judaism – meaning that Bahá’i were still prohibited from many basic freedoms, such as practicing their religious laws and constructing places of worship. Though Bahá’í representatives lobbied during the constitutional drafting processes to expand religious freedoms to their community, this did not occur.

In December 2014, a public workshop was held by the Ministry of Religious Endowments to warn of the dangers of the spread of the Bahá’i faith in Egypt.

Egypt Opposition; Persecution, Egypt; Persecution; Human rights; History (general); Constitutions

from the main catalogue

  1. Bahá'í Horizons in the 21st Century, by David S. Ruhe (1993). Informal notes transcribed from a talk closing a 1993 Conference on Social and Economic Development in Orlando, Florida, offering an overview of Baha'i activities at the turn of the millennium. [about]
  2. Baha'is and the Constitutional Revolution, The: The Case of Sari, Mazandaran, 1906-1913, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Studies, 41:3 (2008). Accounts of the Constitutional Revolution in Iran have tended to ignore the role of the Baha’is. They educated people about the reforms envisaged and about the modern world, for which they were persecuted. [about]
  3. Constitucion de la Casa Universal de Justicia, La, by Universal House of Justice (1972). Spanish translation of Constitution of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
  4. Constitution of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1972). [about]
  5. Constitutional Movement and the Bahá'ís of Iran, The: The Creation of an 'Enemy Within', by Moojan Momen, in British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 39:3 (2012). Bahá'ís had a complex relationship with the Constitutionalist Movement, sometimes supporting it and sometimes abstaining from involvement, but the impact of the Bahá'ís on the reformers and on the Revolution has been underestimated. [about]
  6. Deganawida, the Peacemaker, by Christopher Buck, in American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, 26 (2015). Biography of the Iroquois / Haudenosaunee prophet-like figure who lived around 600 or 900 years ago. [about]
  7. En Perse: La Constitution, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Revue du Monde Musulman, 1:1 (1906). Three documents related to the first Iranian Constitution, with passing mentions of Babis. [about]
  8. Iran since the Revolution, by Sepehr Zabih (1982). Discussion of the Iranian constitution, with one passing mention of Baha'is not being recognized. [about]
  9. Law of the Land and the State of the Soul, The: Analyzing Theoretical Frameworks of Bahá'í and Islamic Law Within and Beyond the Nation-State, by Moussa Z. Traore (2012). Details, laws, and constitution of the Baha'i system which, analogous to the United Nations or a Supreme Court, presents a legal framework for a non-State governance structure at the international level. [about]
  10. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
  11. Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in the Nineteenth-century Middle East [introduction only], by Juan Cole, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions (1998). Introduction and first 4 pages of Chapter One. [about]
 
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