Search for tag "Constitution"
|1905 - 1911
||The `Constitutional Revolution' takes place in Iran. [BBRSM:87, 219]
- The direct influence of the Bahá'ís in this movement was slight but many in Europe thought the Bahá'í influence was great. [BBR366]
- The Constitutional Movement fails to bring the Bahá'ís any benefit; rather, they suffer as a result. [BBR366 g]
|1906 30 Dec
||The Constitution of Iran is re-established. The Bahá'ís are not included among the recognized religions. [BBR354; B114; CB57; GPB298]
- For the prophecies of Bahá'u'lláh about the constitution see CBM56–8.
||Constitutions; Human rights; Prophecies
||Muhammad-`Alí Sháh undertakes a successful coup d'état in Iran and abolishes the Constitution. [BBR369]
||Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution; Constitutions; History (general)
||Eighteen or nineteen Bahá'ís are brutally assassinated in Nayríz when the Constitutionalists take control of the city. [BBR369; BW18:386; DH71, 138; GPB298; RB1:268]
||Constitutionalists; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1909 16 Jul
||After an armed revolt, Muhammad-`Alí Sháh abdicates and the Iranian Constitution is resurrected. [BBR354, 482]
- The country soon deteriorates and anarchy prevails. It is effectively partitioned into two spheres of influence, British and Russian. [BBRSM:87]
||Muhammad-Ali Shah; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada draws up and publishes a ‘Declaration of Trust’ and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly’. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
- For text see BW2:90–8.
- The Guardian describes it as the Bahá’í ‘national constitution’ heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá’í World Community’. [GPB335; PP302–3]
- The drafting is largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
- In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatum. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
|United States; Canada
||National Spiritual Assembly; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions; By-laws; Recognition; Firsts, Other
|1972 26 Nov
||The constitution of the Universal House of Justice is adopted. [BW15:169; BBRSM132, 138; VV14]
- For full text of the constitution see BW15:555–64.
||Universal House of Justice, Constitution; Universal House of Justice; Constitutions
|1979. 1 Apr
||The declaration of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran after a referendum with a 98.2% supporting vote.
||The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, from which all civil rights stem and which does not give recognition to the Bahá’í Faith, is adopted by referendum. [BI11]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Constitutions; Human rights
||In Pakistan a constitutional amendment names the Bahá’í Faith among the non-Muslim faiths of the country, thus according it legal recognition. [BW18:107; VV67]
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Brazil submits proposals based on Bahá’í principles such as human rights to the National Constitutional Assembly drafting the new constitution. [BINS174:2]
- Favourable responses are received from 46 Senators and Deputies. [BINS174:2]
||The National Spiritual Assembly of South Africa made a submission for the drafting of a new constitution.
- The judge that received it, the President of the South African Law Commission, commented that this document stated the Bahá’ís were the only group whose ideas had a spiritual and moral basis for the constitution. [AWH87-8]
|2014. 28 May
||In the presidential election in Egypt, former Egyptian defence minister Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was elected with 97% of the vote according to government sources. The subsequent 2014 Constitution of the Sisi government, while guaranteeing the ‘inviolable’ right of freedom of religion, extended this only to Islam, Christianity and Judaism – meaning that Bahá’i were still prohibited from many basic freedoms, such as practicing their religious laws and constructing places of worship. Though Bahá’í representatives lobbied during the constitutional drafting processes to expand religious freedoms to their community, this did not occur.
In December 2014, a public workshop was held by the Ministry of Religious Endowments to warn of the dangers of the spread of the Bahá’i faith in Egypt.
||Opposition; Persecution, Egypt; Persecution; Human rights; History (general); Constitutions
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- Bahá'í Horizons in the 21st Century, by David S. Ruhe (1993). Informal notes transcribed from a talk closing a 1993 Conference on Social and Economic Development in Orlando, Florida, offering an overview of Baha'i activities at the turn of the millennium. [about]
- Baha'is and the Constitutional Revolution, The: The Case of Sari, Mazandaran, 1906-1913, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Studies, 41:3 (2008). Accounts of the Constitutional Revolution in Iran have tended to ignore the role of the Baha’is. They educated people about the reforms envisaged and about the modern world, for which they were persecuted. [about]
- Constitucion de la Casa Universal de Justicia, La, by Universal House of Justice (1972). Spanish translation of Constitution of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
- Constitution of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1972). [about]
- Constitutional Movement and the Bahá'ís of Iran, The: The Creation of an 'Enemy Within', by Moojan Momen, in British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 39:3 (2012). Bahá'ís had a complex relationship with the Constitutionalist Movement, sometimes supporting it and sometimes abstaining from involvement, but the impact of the Bahá'ís on the reformers and on the Revolution has been underestimated. [about]
- Deganawida, the Peacemaker, by Christopher Buck, in American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, 26 (2015). Biography of the Iroquois / Haudenosaunee prophet-like figure who lived around 600 or 900 years ago. [about]
- En Perse: La Constitution, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Revue du Monde Musulman, 1:1 (1906). Three documents related to the first Iranian Constitution, with passing mentions of Babis. [about]
- Iran since the Revolution, by Sepehr Zabih (1982). Discussion of the Iranian constitution, with one passing mention of Baha'is not being recognized. [about]
- Law of the Land and the State of the Soul, The: Analyzing Theoretical Frameworks of Bahá'í and Islamic Law Within and Beyond the Nation-State, by Moussa Z. Traore (2012). Details, laws, and constitution of the Baha'i system which, analogous to the United Nations or a Supreme Court, presents a legal framework for a non-State governance structure at the international level. [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in the Nineteenth-century Middle East [introduction only], by Juan Cole, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions (1998). Introduction and first 4 pages of Chapter One. [about]