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Search for tag "Covenant"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1871. 1 Nov Birth of `Lua' Getsinger (Lucinda Louisa Aurora Moore), Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Herald of the Covenant and Mother Teacher of the West. `Lua' Getsinger (Lucinda Louisa Aurora Moore); Disciple of `Abdu'l-Baha; Herald of the Covenant; Mother Teacher of the West
1891 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Kitáb-i-`Ahd. [BBD32; CB142; GPB236–40]
  • It was probably written at least one year before His Ascension. CB142]
  • Bahá'u'lláh alludes to it in Epistle to the Son of the Wolf as the `Crimson Book'. [DG16; ESW32; GPB238]
  • In it Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appoints `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
Bahjí Kitab-i-`Ahd; Crimson Book; Covenant
1892. 29 May The Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh

Bahá'u'lláh passes away at Bahjí in His seventy–fifth year. [AB47; BBRXXIX, 233; BKG420; CB148; GPB221; RB4:411]

  • For an account by Túbá Khánum see CH105–9.
  • Bahá'u'lláh has spent 23 years, 8 months and 29 (or 30) days in the Holy Land. [DH12]
  • He passes away eight hours after sunset. [GPB221; UD170]
  • The news of His passing is immediately communicated to Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd by `Abdu'l-Bahá: `the Sun of Bahá has set'. [AB47; BKG420 GPB222]
  • Shortly after sunset, on the very day of His passing, Bahá'u'lláh is buried beneath the floor of a room in the house adjacent to the mansion of Bahjí, the Qiblih of the Bahá'í Faith. [AB47; BBD211; BKG427; GPB222]
  • See CB149 and RB4:149 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's ascension on `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See ARG71-72 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His attempt to convince Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí to be faithful to the Covenant.
  • See AB52–3, CB148–9 and RB4:148–9 for the theft of Bahá'u'lláh's cases containing His seals, papers and other items.
  • See AB52–61, CB148–51 and RB4:148–54 for the Covenant-breaking activities of Bahá'u'lláh's family immediately following His death.
  • See GPB222–3 for the mourning following the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • At this time the Faith has spread to 15 countries. [MBW61]
  • See BBR234–6 for a list of Europeans who met Bahá'u'lláh.
Bahji Sultan `Abdu'l-Hamid; Covenant-breakers; Qiblih
1896. c. 1896 Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí sends letters with misleading statements and calumnies against `Abdu'l-Bahá, thus making widely known his Covenant-breaking activities. [CB151, 178 SDH128-129] Akka Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Covenant-Breaker
1896 In the year `Abdu'l-Bahá is forced to withdraw from `Akká to Tiberias owing to the accusations levelled against Him by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [SBBH1:77] Tiberias; Hisár; Khurásán; Tabríz; Khúzistán Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Covenant-Breakers
1897. c. 1897 Mírzá Áqá Ján, Bahá'u'lláh's amanuensis for 40 years, throws in his lot with Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and becomes a Covenant-breaker. [CB181]
  • For the story of his downfall see CB181–92.
Mirza Áqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Covenant-breaker
1901 20 Aug Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd re-imposes the restrictions confining `Abdu'l-Bahá and His brothers within the walls of `Akká. [AB94; CB226–7; DH67–8; GBP264]
  • This is the result of mischief stirred up by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [AB92–5; CB227; GBP264]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá is subjected to long interviews and detailed questioning. [AB95; GPB2645]
  • For the continued mischief and false allegations of the Covenant-breakers see CB227–30 and GBP265–7.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá suspends the visits of the pilgrims for a time. [GBP267]
  • He directs that all the Bahá'í writings in the possession of His family and secretaries be transferred to Egypt and has His mail redirected through an agent in Egypt. [GBP267]
  • For the work of `Abdu'l-Bahá whilst in confinement 1901–8 see CB231–44 and GBP267–9.
`Akka; Egypt Sultan `Abdu'l-Hamid; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Covenant-breakers
1901 26 Nov The first celebration of the Day of the Covenant, the `Master's Day', in North America. [BFA2:XV, 56; SA245] New York Day of the Covenant; the `Master's Day'
1904 Through the year the Covenant-breakers plot until the friendly governor of `Akká is replaced by one hostile to `Abdu'l-Bahá, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí stirring up opposition in certain elements of the population. [AB111; CB232]
  • Newspapers in Egypt and in Syria write false reports about `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB111; CB232]
  • Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí draws up an official indictment against `Abdu'l-Bahá full of false accusations. [AB112; CB232]
These actions result in the arrival of a Commission of Inquiry, sent by Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd. [AB112; CB233]
  • The Commission summons `Abdu'l-Bahá to answer the accusations levelled against Him and upon His replies the inquiry collapses. [AB113–14; CB233]
Haifa; Akka Covenant-breakers; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Commission of Inquiry; Sultan `Abdu'l-Hamid
1904 Mahd-i-`Ulyá (Fátimih Khánum), the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, dies. She and all her four surviving children are Covenant-breakers. [CB117] Haifa; Akka Mahd-i-`Ulya; Fatimih Khanum; Covenant-breaker
1912 29 Apr Mírzá Yahyá dies in Famagusta. [BBD243; BBR312]
  • He had been deserted by most of his followers and is given a Muslim funeral. [BKG426; GPB233]
  • Years later his sons and their relatives reconcile themselves to the authority of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [Ch237-238]
Famagusta Mirza Yahya; Covenant-breakers; Subh'i'Azal
1912 19 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá names New York the `City of the Covenant'. [239D:93; AB22; BBD55]
  • See 239D:92–3 and DJT311–17 for a description of this event.
New York City of the Covenant; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
1913 1 Aug Shoghi Effendi, the Greatest Holy Leaf and the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrive in Egypt. [AB401]
  • During this period Tamaddun'ul-Mulk (who had been in London during His first visit) attempts to divide the Bahá'ís of Tehran and Dr Amínu'llah Farid's increasingly erratic behaviour brought Him much suffering and sorrow. [AB402]
Ramlih; Egypt Greatest Holy Leaf; Covenant-breakers
1914 Middle of the year The defection of Dr Amín Faríd, `Abdu'l-Bahá's translator while in America, becomes publicly known. [AB407]
  • For his activities against `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB230, 402, 407–9.
Dr Amin Farid; Covenant-breakers
1919 Ibrahim Kheiralla dies, having been abandoned by all of his followers. [CB252] Ibrahim Kheiralla; Covenant-breaker
1919 26 Apr-1 May The 14 Tablets of the Divine Plan are unveiled in a dramatic ceremony at the Hotel McAlpin in New York, during the `Convention of the Covenant'. [BBD219; PP437; SBBH1:134; SBBH2:135; SBR86; TDPXI]
  • For details of the convention programme, Tablets and talks given see SW10, 4:54-72; SW10, 5:83-94; SW10, 6:99-103, 111-12 SW10, 7:122-7, 138; SW10, 10:197-203; and SW10, 12:2279.
  • Mary Maxwell (Rúhíyyih Khánum) is among the young people who unveil the Tablets. [PP437]
  • Agnes Parsons arrives from her pilgrimage just before the close of the convention and is able to convey the instructions from `Abdu'l-Bahá to arrange a Convention for `the unity of the coloured and white races'. [BW5:413; SBR87]
  • Hyde and Clara Dunn and Martha Root respond immediately to the appeal, the Dunns going to Australia where they open 700 towns to the Faith, and Martha Root embarking on the first of her journeys which are to extend over 20 years. [GPB308; MR88]
  • See also CT138-9.
Hotel McAlpin in New York; Australia Tablets of the Divine Plan; `Convention of the Covenant; Mary Maxwell (Ruhiyyih Khanum); Agnes Parsons; pilgrimage; `Abdu'l-Baha; Hyde and Clara Dunn; Martha Root
1921 Following `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí publishes far and wide that he is the successor to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB277]
  • The Egyptian Bahá'ís respond to this by publishing a refutation of his claims. [CB276; SW12, 19:294-5]
Egypt Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; successorship; `Abdu'l-Baha; Covenant-breakers
1923 Jan The Guardian sends `Abdu'l-Husayn, Ávárih, to Europe to deepen the believers. [CB335, SBR68]
  • For his life and eventual Covenant-breaking see CB334-42 and PP120.
Europe Guardian; `Abdu'l-Husayn; avarih; Covenant-breakers
1927 mid-Oct Shoghi Effendi announces the defection of 'Abdu'l-Husayn Ávarih. He had been a very successful teacher and the author of a book on the history of the Faith but opposed Shoghi Effendi's efforts to build the Administrative Order. He was insistent that the Universal House of Justice be formed at that time. He was denounced by the believers in Egypt and Iran. [SETPE1p149, BA137-139, Ruhi8.2-20, CoC294-296] Haifa Covenant-breaker; 'Abdu'l-Husayn Àvarih
1928 Jan A Covenant-breaker, Jamil Irani, tries to still up trouble by implicating the Bahá'ís with Saláru'd-Dawlih, an ambitious brother of Muhammad-'Ali Sháh who had been deposed by the 1909 Revolution in Iran. The allegation was investigated by Lord Plummer, the British High Commissioner in Palestine who learned the truth of the matter. [SETPE1p151-152] Iran; Haifa Covenant-breaker; Jamil Irani; Lord Plummer
1928 31 Dec Ruth White, who had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York in 1912 and who had been on pilgrimage in 1922, writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine with a charge that the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá is a forgery. [SETPE1p157] Palestine Covenant-breaker; Ruth White
1929 27 Feb The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada forwarded a pamphlet published by Ruth White to Shoghi Effendi. His advice is to abstain from any provocation and to avoid hurting her feelings. [SETPET1p157, Baha'i News p230, 298] Covenant-breakers; Ruth White
1929 27 Nov The Mansion at Bahjí is evacuated by the Covenant-breakers after the occupation by Muhammad-Alí and his relatives for about 40 years. [DH116; GPB355–6; PP231-232, SETPE1p174]
  • During this time they showed no respect for the Holy Site; a blacksmith shop was set up near the entrance to the Shrine. [SE125]
  • For details of how the building is left see GBP356.
  • For pictures of its neglected state see DH116.
  • Covenant-breakers continue to occupy the adjacent house until June 1957. [PP233]
  • See SE126 for Shoghi Effendi's plan for a Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh.
Bahjí; Mansion at Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Bahji; Shrine of Baha'u'llah
1930 39 May With respect to the New History Society and Ahmad Sohrab, Shoghi Effendi writes to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada to make a definitive statement regarding that organization and the Cause.
  • "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station ot Baha'u'lkih, To be a Baha'I is to accept the Cause in its entirety. To take exception to one basic principle is to dcny the authority and sovereignty of Baha'u'lIah, and therefore is to deny the Cause. The administration is the social order of Bahi'u'llah. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric t,hat Baha'u'lhih has prescribed, it is to disobey His law."
  • The message goes on to say that "unfailing kindness and goodwill" should be paid to the individuals and that the doors to Bahá'í fellowship should always remain open. [Bahá'í News p333]
Haifa New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breaker
1930 Aug The National Spiritual Assembly published a statement in the Bahá'í News entitled The Case of Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society. Summarized, the article stated that the “New History Society was begun in New York early in 1929 by Sohrab and "one of its avowed purposes being to spread the Bahá'í teachings. Neither the local nor the National Assembly was consulted in the matter, and the meetings and activities of the New History Society have been maintained apart from the principles of consultation which today, under the Will and Testament of 'Abdu’l-Bahá, form the basis of Bahá'í unity and the protection of the Cause."

"Both the local and National Assembly on several occasions attempted, through oral and written communications, to bring about full and frank consultation with the leaders of the New History Society, but without success.

"Under these conditions it becomes the obvious responsibility of the National Spiritual Assembly to inform the friends that activities conducted by Ahmad Sohrab through the New History Society are to be considered as entirely independent of the Cause, as outside the jurisdiction of the local and National Assembly, and hence in no wise entitled to the cooperation of Bahá'ís."

This statement also quoted from a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by his Secretary to the National Spiritual Assembly on May 30, 1930: "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá’u’lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety...." "The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed, it is to disobey His law." [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society]

New York; NY Covenant-Breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; Mrs Chandler; New History Society
1930 7 Oct Ruth White writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she has sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requests she sends that same evidence to him and he forwards it to the Governor of Haifa who requests to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declares the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157] Haifa; England; Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Dr Ainsworth Mitchell
1930 Nov The National Assembly published a detailed supplementary statement in the Bahá’í News, quoting passages from the Aqdas, from the Master's Will and Testament, and from the Guardian's letters published in Bahá’í Administration, followed by a reprint of the exchange of correspondence and cables with Mrs. Chanler, and with the Guardian, including the Guardian's cable to New York believers: "True unity can only be preserved by maintenance paramount position National Spiritual Assembly," and his cable approving the statement published in August, 1930, Bahá'í News. Further, in a letter from Haifa to the Yonkers Assembly, “The Guardian pointed out the difference between the freedom defined by Bahá'u'lláh ("To have liberty is to observe My commandments") and that advocated by Sohrab ("The other kind of freedom which is in defiance of law He (Bahá'u'lláh) considers to be animal, and far from being of any good to man"). [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society] New York; NY Covenant-Breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; Mrs Chanler; New History Society
1931 10 Jul The administration in Palestine writes to Ruth White advising her that they will take no further action with respect to her claim that the will of 'Abdu'l-Bahá is a forgery.
  • "All Mrs White ever achieved was to stir up a temporary and insignificant cloud of dust". [PP119]
  • Mrs White wrote letters to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada as well as to some believers objecting to the directives of Shoghi Effendi and to the administration of the Cause through local and national assemblies. One of her converts was Dr Wilhelm Herrigel, one of the founding members of the German community. Later, Dr Herrigel became conscious of the mistake he had made. [SETPE1p158]
  • Likewise, Ruth White's husband was repentant, was offered a path back into the Faith but failed to take it. [SETPE1p158]
Ruth White; Covenant-breaker
1937 Dec The writing of Episodes in the History of the Covenant by Shoghi Effendi originally written as "Waqáy-i-Tárikhiyyih dar 'Ahd wa Mitháq-i-Iláhi" for the friends in Iran. In 1997 it was translated by Khazeh Fananapazir and edited by Mehdi Wolf. [Episodes in the History of the Covenant BWC; Iran; Episodes in the History of the Covenant
1937 20 Dec Muhammad-‘Alí, half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Arch-breaker of the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, dies. [CB355; GPB320; MA11]
  • For details of his death and funeral see DH117 and GPB320.
‘Akká Muhammad-‘Alí; Covenant -breaker
1940 Jul Gerrard Sluter, a German with Canadian citizenship and previously a pioneer in Guatemala, arrives in Colombia, the first Bahá’í to settle in the country.
  • He later becomes a Covenant-breaker and causes much difficulty to the Bahá’ís in many South American countries.
Colombia Gerrard Sluter; Covenant-breaker
1941 Nov The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada distributed a mimeographed statement concerning the New History Society entitled The Basis of the Bahá’í Community, which explained the purpose and outcome of the lawsuit entered against the founders of the New History Society to prevent their misuse of the name "Bahá’í” on which the National Spiritual Assembly had obtained a trade mark patent. The court took the position that it was not authorized to decide religious questions. [The Basis of the Bahá'í Community: A Statement Concerning the New History Society] Covenant-Breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab title; title
1941 Dec The excommunication of Shoghi Effendi's sister, Mehrangíz Rabbáni with this message.

"Sister Mehrangis [Mehrangiz] followed example Ruhi's sister. Justice demands announce believers her expulsion."(UD149)

The reason for her being declared a Covenant-breaker was that she followed the example of Ruhi's sister by marrying to one of his cousins without the Guardian's consent. Mehrangiz married to Hassan Afnan, the son of Furughiyyih Khanum, a daughter of Bahá'u'lláh by his third wife Gawhar.[15]

BWC Covenant-breakers
1944 Nov Shoghi Effendi sent the cable below to the Bahá'í world: "Monib Shahid, grandson of both `Abdu'l-Bahá and the King of Martyrs, married according to the Moslem rites the daughter of a political exile who is nephew of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. This treacherous act of alliance with enemies of the Faith merits condemnation of entire Bahá'í world." [Bahá'í News, December, 1944 No. 172] BWC Covenant-Breakers; Munib Shahid
1945 Apr Shoghi Effendi sent the following cable to the Bahá'í world: "My faithless brother Husayn, after long period of dishonourable conduct, has abandoned the Master's home to consort with his sister and other Covenant-breakers". [Bahá'í News, No. 174, p.2] BWC Covenant-Breakers; Husayn Ali Rabbani
1950 Mar In March 1950, Shoghi Effendi would send a further cable: "Faithless brother Hussein, already abased through dishonorable conduct over period (of) years followed by association with Covenant-breakers (in) Holy Land and efforts (to) undermine Guardian's position, recently further demeaned himself through marriage under obscure circumstances with lowborn Christian girl (in) Europe". [Bahá'í News, No. 229, p.1]

Shoghi Effendi would later defend the use of the term "lowborn Christian girl" as follows: "Regarding his cable concerning Hussein: he has been very surprised to note that the terms 'low-born Christian girl ' and 'disgraceful alliance' should arouse any question; it seems to him that the friends should realize it is not befitting for the Guardian's own brother, the grandchild of the Master, an Afnán and Aghsán mentioned in the Will and Testament of the Master, and of whom so much was expected because of his relation to the family of the Prophet, to marry an unknown girl, according to goodness knows what rite, who is not a believer at all". [Bahá'í News, No. 236, p.4]

BWC Covenant-Breakers; Husayn Rabbani; Hussein Rabbani
1950 12 Nov Mírzá Badí‘u’lláh, the youngest son of Bahá’u’lláh, (b.1867 in Adrianople) described by Shoghi Effendi as the ‘chief lieutenant’ of the ‘archbreaker’ of the ‘divine Covenant’ dies. [CB340, 355–6; CF89, BIC162, MSBR63, BBR460, RoB3pg230, CH209, SoB92, CoB340, 355-6, CoF89]
  • A close companion of Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí. [CoB165]
  • All his family became Covenant-breakers. [CoB362]
  • He had a short-lived repentance. [CoB152-3, GPB263, Historical Dictionary of the Baha'i Faith p321, Interview with Badi'u'llah by Howard MacNutt]
  • He opposed both 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi. [CoB165]
  • He may have written a brochure entitled “The Epistle to the Bahai World”. [FT28]
Mirza Badi‘u’llah; Covenant-breaker
1951 Dec Shoghi Effendi's brother Riáz Rabbáni was the last of his siblings to become a Covenant-Breaker. "With feeling profound concern, grief, indignation, am compelled disclose Bahá'í world recent developments Holy Land furnishing further incontestable proof relationship established old and new Covenant-breakers demonstrating increasing boldness, marked, tragic decline in character and spiritual condition grandchildren `Abdu'l-Bahá. Their shameful attitude and conduct receiving approbation their elders. Evidences multiplying attesting Ruhi's increasing rebelliousness, efforts exerted my eldest sister pave way fourth alliance members family Siyyid Ali involving marriage his granddaughter with Ruha's son and personal contact recently established my own treacherous, despicable brother Riaz with Majdi'd-Din, redoubtable enemy Faith, former henchman Muhammad-'Ali, Archbreaker Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant. Convey information all National Assemblies." [MBW16, CoB358, 362, 364] BWC Covenant-breakers; Riaz Rabbani
1952 18 May The case brought against Shoghi Effendi by the Covenant-breakers in connection with the demolition of a house adjoining the Shrine and Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí is removed from the civil courts by the government of Israel. [CB330; GBF138–9; PP233–4, 290]
  • For the history of this case and the outcome see BW12:384–7.
Israel Shrine and Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí; Covenant-breakers
1952 1 Jun In a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by the Assistant Secretary, the National Spiritual Assembly was informed that Ahmad Sohrab had cabled the Israeli Minister of Religion to influence the court case brought by the Covenant-breakers, against the Guardian, and which resulted in complete vindication of the Guardian's control of the Bahá'í Shrines and properties. Sohrab's cable identified the Caravan with the Covenant-breakers and stated that the organization was not under the authority of Shoghi Effendi. In a letter dated May 25, 1941, the Guardian wrote through his Secretary that Sohrab "is no doubt the most subtle, resourceful and indefatigable enemy the Faith has had in America." Covenant-Breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Mrs Chandler
1953 29 Oct Opal Jensen arrives on Réunion Island from the United States and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
  • She is later declared a Covenant-breaker.
Réunion Island Opal Jensen; Knight of Baha’u’llah; Covenant-breaker
1954 25 Mar Leland Jensen arrives on Réunion Island from the United States and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
  • He is later declared a Covenant-breaker.
Réunion Island Leland Jensen; Knight of Baha’u’llah; Covenant-breaker
1954 Nov A plot of land of slightly less than half an acre owned by Farah Sprague, a Covenant-breaker, is purchased, overcoming the final obstacle to beginning the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives. [DH169; MBW73–4] Haifa Farah Sprague; Covenant-breaker; International Baha’i Archives Was she the Iranian-born wife of Sidney Sprague? See BFA2p155
1956 20 Dec The publication in the Official Gazette of the government of Israel of the issue of an expropriation order against the Covenant-Breakers in possession of the holy Shrines at Bahji. This order was immediately appealed by the Covenant-Breakers to the Supreme Court. BWC Bahji; Covenant-Breakers find reference
1957 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces that the Treasury Department of Israel has issued an expropriation order for the remaining property held by Covenant-breakers at Bahjí, mainly the dilapidated building north of the mansion. [MBW109] ‘Akká Bahji; Covenant-breakers
1957 31 May The Supreme Court of Israel finds in their judgement against the Covenant-Breakers resulting in their removal from the properties in Bahjí. Bahjí Bahji; Covenant-Breakers find reference
1957 Jun The Covenant-breakers completely abandon Bahjí. [CB367–9; DH215; MBW120–2; PP233–4] ‘Akká Bahji; Covenant-breakers
1957 6 Sep Shoghi Effendi announces ‘the complete evacuation of the remnant of Covenant-breakers and the transfer of all their belongings from the precincts of the Most Holy Shrine’. [MBW124]
  • See VSE166 for Audrey Robarts' observation of the Covenant-breakers at Bahjí during her pilgrimage in 1955.
‘Akká Bahji; Most Holy Shrine; Covenant-breaker; Shrine of Baha'u'llah
1957. 2 Dec The title to the Shrine of the Báb, the Mansion of Bahjí, and all other buildings and lands which the Covenant-Breakers had owned were transferred to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. BWC Covenant-Breakers; title find reference
1957 25 Dec The Hands of the Cause announce the destruction of the long, two-storey house previously occupied by Covenant-breakers which was located near the garden wall of the Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh and of which Shoghi Effendi had acquired legal possession shortly before his passing. [MC11, 51]
  • The rubble is used to complete the terraces begun by Shoghi Effendi north of the mansion and completing the northern gardens planned by him.
‘Akká Bahjí; Covenant-breaker
1958 20 Apr Mírzá Ahmad (Esphahani) Sohrab, the Covenant-breaker who rebelled against Shoghi Effendi, dies. [MC90]
  • For the story of his defection from the Faith see CB343–7.
  • He is burried in the Saint Paul Episcopal Church Cemetery, Glen Cove, Nassau County, New York.
Glen Cove; Nassau County; New York Mirza Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breaker; New History Society
1960 27 Apr The International Bahá’í Council by unanimous vote rejects the claim of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC206–7] Haifa International Baha’i Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-Breaker
1960 28 Apr The Custodians call upon all believers to join the Hands in repudiation of the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC196–7] Haifa Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-Breaker
1960 30 Apr – 10 May Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions send messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of France votes to recognize the claim. [MC203]
NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-Breaker
1960 5 May Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí is sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
  • After consultation, five members of the assembly continue to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resign from the assembly. The national assembly is dissolved. [MC203]
France Hand of the Cause; Abu’l-Qasim Faizi; NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-Breaker
1960 12 – 31 May Six national spiritual assemblies send messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC207–8] NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-Breaker
1960 13 May The International Bahá’í Council writes to the Custodians recording its decision taken on 27 April to reject the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [Mc206–7] Haifa International Baha’i Council; Charles Mason Remey; Custodians; Covenant-Breaker
1960 26 Jul The Hands of the Cause of God declare Charles Mason Remey a Covenant-breaker. [BBRSM221; MC224–5] Haifa Hand of the Cause of God; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breaker
1960. 3 Aug Cable from the Hands of the Cause of God announcing the expulsion as Covenant Breakers of John Carre, Barnard Fillon, Moneer Darakhshan, Joel Marangela, Jaques Soghomonian, Donald Harvey, John Byers and Mary Wilkin. [Ministry of the Custodians p223] BWC Covenant-Breakers; John Carre; Barnard Fillon; Moneer Darakhshan; Joel Marangela; Jaques Soghomonian; Donald Harvey; John Byers; Mary Wilkin
1964 5 Nov Followers of Charles Mason Remey file suit in the United States District Court for Northern Illinois against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, claiming they are the rightful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States. [BW14:95]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States files a counter claim asking the court to restrain the Covenant-breakers from using Bahá’í names and symbols protected by trademark. [BW14:95]
US Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breaker; NSA
1965 23 Mar The case filed by the followers of Charles Mason Remey against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States is dismissed on technical grounds. [BW14:95]
  • The Covenant-breakers file a further suit. [BW14:95]
US Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; NSA
1965 11 Nov The Universal House of Justice announces that the ‘final step’ in the ‘process’ of the ‘purification’ of the Bahá’í properties in Bahjí has been taken with the removal of the remains of the Covenant-breaker Mírzá Díyá’u’lláh from the immediate precincts of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW14:82–3] ‘Akká Bahji; Covenant-breaker; Mirza Diya’u’llah; Shrine of Baha’u’llah
1966 8 Mar The second suit brought against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States by the followers of Charles Mason Remey, who claim to he the lawful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States, is dismissed. [BW14:95] US Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
1966 1 Jun The counter-claim of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States against the followers of Charles Mason Remey restraining them from using Bahá’í names and symbols, is upheld when the Covenant-breakers fail to appear at the trial. [BW14:95] US Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; NSA
1974 4 Feb The death of Charles Mason Remey, Hand of the Cause of God (1951-60) and subsequently a Covenant-breaker. in Florence, Italy. (b.15 May 1874) [Wikipedia]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • He was declared a Covenant-breaker by the Hands of the Cause on the 26th of July, 1960.
Florence; Italy. Mason Remey; Appointment Hand - First Contingent; Covenant-Breaker
1998 29 Sep Starting this date until October 2nd, in Iran, government raids on 500 private homes and the arrest of some 30 faculty members in efforts to close the Bahá’í Institute for Higher Education, a decentralized university that aimed to give Bahá’í students access to the education they have been otherwise denied.
  • The Institute offered Bachelor's degrees in ten subject areas: applied chemistry, biology, dental science, pharmacological science, civil engineering, computer science, psychology, law, literature and accounting. Within these subject areas, which were administered by five "departments," the Institute was able to offer more than 200 distinct courses each term.
  • In the beginning, courses were based on correspondence lessons developed by Indiana University, which was one of the first institutions in the West to recognize the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education. Later on, course offerings were developed internally.
  • Teaching was done principally via correspondence, or, for specialized scientific and technical courses and in other special cases, in small-group classes that were usually held in private homes. Over time, however, the Institute was able to establish a few laboratories, operated in privately owned commercial buildings in and around Teheran, for computer science, physics, dental science, pharmacology, applied chemistry and language study. The operations of these laboratories were kept prudently quiet, with students cautioned not to come and go in large groups that might give the authorities a reason to object.
  • Among other significant human rights conventions, Iran is a party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966. Parties to this Covenant "recognize the right of everyone to education" and more specifically that "higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means." [“The New York Times” article dated 29 October, 1998, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
Iran Baha’i Institute for Higher Education; Iranian persecution; International Covenant on Economic; Social and Cultural Rights; UN General Assembly

from the main catalogue

  1. A Lost History of the Baha'i Faith, by Eric Stetson: Review, by Grover Gonzales (2016). Critical review of a book about the history of some covenant-breaker groups. [about]
  2. Aspects of the Bahá'í Teachings, Conditions for Membership, and Voting Rights: Seven various questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On Baha'i status and community membership, spiritual primacy, Most Great Spirit, studying the Covenant, revelation of the Bab, civil elections, and definition of a pioneer. Includes short compilation "Conditions for Membership in the Baha'i Community." [about]
  3. Authority of the International Teaching Centre in Expelling Covenant-Breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1998). On the role of the Counsellors and the ITC in protecting the Faith, and the process of expelling a person whose behavior is in conflict with the Covenant. [about]
  4. Bahá'í Covenant, The, by Ali Nakhjavani, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
  5. Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit: Chapter 31 of Some Answered Questions, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). [about]
  6. Commentary on a Passage in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Short biography of the Son of the Wolf, Aqa Najafi; summary of persecutions from 1874-1903; and the Epistle's references to Qayyumu’l-Asma and the Muslim dawn prayer for Ramadan. [about]
  7. Covenant, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). [about]
  8. Covenant and Administration, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1971). [about]
  9. Covenant, Day of the (November 26), by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
  10. Covenant-breakers and other Enemies of the Faith, Writings of; Photographs of Baha'u'llah, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (2000). Baha'i scholars may, when needed, use books by Covenant Breakers, including William Miller's The Baha'i Faith. [about]
  11. Covenant-breakers, Non-association with, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1999). Includes extracts regarding electronic communication with Covenant-Breakers. [about]
  12. Demystifying Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of the Holy Mariner: History, Translations, Interpretations and Analysis, by Hui Bau (2016). Lengthy compilation, with background information on the Tablet, and commentary from Bau, Adib Taherzadeh, Michael Sours, Jamsheed Samandari, and Aziz Mboya. [about]
  13. Fifteen Years of Failed Prophecy: Coping with cognitive dissonance in a Bahá'í sect, by Robert W. Balch and John Domitrovich, in Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem: Contemporary Apocalyptic Movements, ed. Thomas Robbins and Susan J. Palmer (1997). An academic article about the prophetic expectations of a covenant-breaker group, Baha’is Under the Provisions of the Covenant. Followed by "The End is Nearish," Chase's predictions satirized by Harper's. [about]
  14. Guardianship and the House of Justice, by Sen McGlinn (1997). [about]
  15. Guardianship, Anticipation of, in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Did Baha'u'llah anticipate the Institution of the Guardianship in the Kitab-i-Aqdas? [about]
  16. "He hath known God who hath known himself": A Deepening Course on the Bahá'í Revelation (2012). A lengthy compilation by the granddaughter of Howard Colby Ives designed to be a study guide to the Writings, covering knowledge of God, the station of the Manifestations, the nature of the Covenant, and the dynamics of creation, constancy, and servitude. [about]
  17. In the Days of the Guardian, by Leroy Ioas (1958). Includes the well-known comments by Shoghi Effendi about his reactions to being appointed Guardian. [about]
  18. Kitab-i-Aqdas and the Expulsion of Covenant Breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Discussion of a reference in the Kitab-i-Aqdas to the possible end of the Guardianship, and the authority of the Hands of the Cause to expel Covenant-breakers. [about]
  19. Kitáb-i-Aqdas as a Lens with which to Examine some of the Dilemmas of Modernity, The, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 2 (2002). Contrast between the Aqdas - the source of laws of future society - and issues of the modern world as it had evolved up to the 19th century. Discussion of Houses of Worship, universal language, financial principles, justice, the Covenant, and unity. [about]
  20. Loyalty to the Covenant and Critical Thought, by Udo Schaefer (2001). A commentary for Bahá’ís examining the balance of critical thought with loyalty to Bahá’í institutions. [about]
  21. Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer and Nicola Towfigh, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Two pages on a prophecy concerning the advent of Man Yuzhiruhu'llah. [about]
  22. Mírzá Yahyá Azal, Designation of in the Writings of the Báb, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
  23. National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States vs. New Mexico Covenant-Breakers, in United States Patent Quarterly, 150 (1966). Documents from the lawsuit by the NSA vs. the New Mexico covenant-breaker group "The National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States of America Under the Hereditary Guardianship, Inc." for their use of Baha'i names and titles. [about]
  24. Obedience, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1995). The meanings of infallibility, obedience to Baha'u'llah, the covenant of God with humanity, and the paradox of law being the instrument of liberation, not limitation. [about]
  25. Obedience: Liberation through Love of God in Practice, by Roxanne L. Lalonde, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4 (1998). The virtue of obedience in light of the Covenant, contemporary secular notions of obedience, attitudes and behavior of Baha'is in the West, and some incidents of expulsion or resignation from the Faith. [about]
  26. Present Structure of Bahá'í Administration, by Duane Troxel (2005). One-page illustration showing the full structure of the Baha'i Institutions and their inter-connections. [about]
  27. Principle of Succession in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, The: Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Brent Poirier (1999). [about]
  28. Role of the Scholar: Scholarship and the Covenant, by John S. Hatcher and Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian (1996). Essays "The New Role of the Scholar in Baha'i Society" and "Scholarship and the Covenant." [about]
  29. Russian Publication of Baha'u'llah's Last Will and Testament, The: An Academic Attestation of 'Abdu'l-Baha's Successorship, by Christopher Buck and Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 19 (2013). On the content of the Kitab-i-Ahdi, its manuscript history, and textual variants; Andalib's eyewitness account of its unveiling; Tumanski's scholarly work; contemporary attestation of 'Abdu'l-Baha's successorship by Tumanski and other Russian notables. [about]
  30. Seeing Double: The Covenant and the Tablet of Ahmad, by Todd Lawson, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). The Tablet of Ahmad is believed to have special potency. "Seeing double" means both looking at the words of Scripture, and looking in the direction beyond the words, as indicated by the context. This paper also discusses the meaning of Covenant in Islam. [about]
  31. Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Baha Concerning Arius, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Arius was an early Christian theologian whose rejection of the Trinity, Abdu'l-Baha said, destroyed the unity of the Church. [about]
  32. Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Bahá'u'lláh (1988). [about]
  33. Unassailable Foundation of the Cause of God: Questions about the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1965). Why were steps taken to elect a Universal House of Justice with the foreknowledge that there would be no Guardian? Was the time ripe for such an action? Could not the International Baha'i Council have carried on the work? [about]
  34. When the Bombs Drop: Reactions to Disconfirmed Prophecy in a Millennial Sect, by Robert W. Balch and Gwen Farnsworth, in Sociological Perspectives, 26:2 (1983). An academic article about the prophetic expectations of a covenant-breaker group, Baha’is Under the Provisions of the Covenant, who claimed the world would end on April 29, 1980. [about]
  35. Will and Testament of The Báb, by Báb, The, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). One-page scan of a document commonly, though inaccurately, referred to as the "Will and Testament." [about]
  36. Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
  37. WIPO Domain Name Dispute: Case D2005-0214, "uhj.net" (2005). A legal ruling finding, against the Baha'is, that covenant breakers are allowed to use the domain uhj.net. [about]
  38. World Order of Baha'u'llah: Six Talks on the Various Aspects of, by Ali Nakhjavani (2004). Transcripts of six talks given at a week-long course on the World Order of Baha'u'llah, sponsored by the NSA of Italy. Document includes compilation and outline. (This online version compiled from three different editions of this book.) [about]
 
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