Search for tag "Covenant"
|1891 (In the year)
||Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Kitáb-i-`Ahd. [BBD32; CB142; GPB236–40, BKG420–5; RB4:419–20]
- It was probably written at least one year before His Ascension. CB142]
- Bahá'u'lláh alludes to it in Epistle to the Son of the Wolf as the `Crimson Book'. [DG16; ESW32; GPB238]
- In it Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appoints `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
||Kitab-i-Ahd (Book of the Covenant); Bahaullah, Will and Testament of; Crimson Book; Covenant (general); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahji; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1892. 29 May
||The Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh passes away at Bahjí in His seventy–fifth year. [AB47; BBRXXIX, 233; BKG420; CB148; GPB221; RB4:411]
- He cited these last words, two verses from the Kitáb-i-Aqdas:
“Say: Let not your hearts be perturbed, O people, when the glory of My Presence is withdrawn, and the ocean of My utterance is stilled. In My presence amongst you there is a wisdom, and in My absence there is yet another, inscrutable to all but God, the Incomparable, the All-Knowing. Verily, We behold you from Our realm of glory, and shall aid whosoever will arise for the triumph of Our Cause with the hosts of the Concourse on high and a company of Our favoured angels.”
“Be not dismayed, O peoples of the world, when the day-star of My beauty is set, and the heaven of My tabernacle is concealed from your eyes. Arise to further My Cause, and to exalt My Word amongst men. We are with you at all times, and shall strengthen you through the power of truth. We are truly almighty. Whoso hath recognized Me will arise and serve Me with such determination that the powers of earth and heaven shall be unable to defeat his purpose.” [GWB137]
- For an account by Túbá Khánum see CH105–9.
- Bahá'u'lláh has spent 23 years, 8 months and 29 (or 30) days in the Holy Land. [DH12]
- He passes away eight hours after sunset. [GPB221; UD170]
- The news of His passing is immediately communicated to Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd by `Abdu'l-Bahá: `the Sun of Bahá has set'. [AB47; BKG420 GPB222]
- Shortly after sunset, on the very day of His passing, Bahá'u'lláh is buried beneath the floor of a room in the house adjacent to the mansion of Bahjí, the Qiblih of the Bahá'í Faith. [AB47; BBD211; BKG427; GPB222]
- See CB149 and RB4:149 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's ascension on `Abdu'l-Bahá.
- See ARG71-72 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His attempt to convince Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí to be faithful to the Covenant.
- See AB52–3, CB148–9 and RB4:148–9 for the theft of Bahá'u'lláh's cases containing His seals, papers and other items.
- See AB52–61, CB148–51 and RB4:148–54 for the Covenant-breaking activities of Bahá'u'lláh's family immediately following His death.
- See GPB222–3 for the mourning following the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh.
- At this time the Faith has spread to 15 countries. [MBW61]
- See BBR234–6 for a list of Europeans who met Bahá'u'lláh.
||Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bahaullah, Life of; Holy days; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Covenant-breakers; Covenant (general); Qiblih; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1892. 7 Jun
||On the ninth day after Bahá'u'lláh's passing the Will and Testament of Bahá'u'lláh, the Kitáb-i-`Ahd, is read at Bahjí before a large assembly in His Most Holy Tomb. [AB51–2; BBD132; CB150; DH113; GPB238; RB4:419–20, BKG420-425]
- In it Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appoints `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
- See CB150, 164 for the effect this has on the believers.
||Kitab-i-Ahd (Book of the Covenant); Bahaullah, Will and Testament of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bahaullah, Ascension of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1893 28 May
||Mírzá Áqá Ján, Bahá'u'lláh's amanuensis for 40 years, throws in his lot with Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and becomes a Covenant-breaker. [CB181, RoB1p315-319]
- For the story of his downfall see CB181-182].
||Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
|1896. c. 1896
||Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí sends letters with misleading statements and calumnies against `Abdu'l-Bahá, thus making widely known his Covenant-breaking activities. [CB151, 178 SDH128-129]
||Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
|1896 In the year
||`Abdu'l-Bahá is forced to withdraw from `Akká to Tiberias owing to the accusations levelled against Him by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [SBBH1:77]
||Tiberias; Hisar; Khurasan; Tabriz; Khuzistan
||Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
|1899. c. 1 May and period following
||Kheiralla returns to the United States from `Akká. [BFA1:xxix, 158]
- His ambitions to lead the Bahá'í Faith cause a crisis in the American Bahá'í community. [BFA1:158–84; CB247–9, GPB259–260; 319; SBBH194, 239; AY119; WOB82-83]
- In the coming months `Abdu'l-Bahá dispatches successive teachers to heal the rift:
- Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání, who had taught Kheiralla the Faith, from c. 26 Apr to 5 Aug 1900. [BFA1:173–6; BFA2:17–29]
- Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, from 29 Nov 1900 to Aug 1901. [BFA2:35, 389]
- Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, from 29 Nov 1900 to 12 May 1902. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
- Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl, from Aug 1901 to Dec 1904. [BFA2:XV-XVI, 80–7; BW9:855–60]
- "...four chosen messenger of 'Abdu'l-Bahá who, in rapid succession, were dispatched by Him to pacify and reinvigorate that troubled community. ...were commission to undertake, the beginnings of that vast Administration, the corner-stone of which these messengers were instructed to lay... [WOB83-84; AY119]
- See BFA1:177–8 for lists of believers who sided with Kheiralla, left the Faith or remained loyal to `Abdu'l-Bahá.
- See SBBH1:98–101 for Kheiralla's teachings.
|United States; Akka
||Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Covenant-breakers; Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani
|1900. c. 1900
||For the state of affairs in Haifa just after the turn of the century see CB231-234.
||Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1900 8 Mar
||At a meeting in Kenosha, Kheiralla publicly announces his doubts about `Abdu'l-Bahá's leadership of the Bahá'í community [BFA1:XXIX; SBBH1:96; SBBH2:117]
- He allies himself with Muhammad-`Alí. [SSBH1:96]
- The Bahá'ís effectively divide into two camps. [SSBH1:96]
- For the changes to the Bahá'í community as a result of this see SSBH1:96–9 and SSBH2:117–20.
|Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States
||Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
|1900 4 or 29 Nov
||The arrival Persian teachers in America, Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání (1826-1930) and Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání. Their task was to consolidate the American community and to address the effects of Kheiralla's disaffection. [BFA2:VI; 35–43ff]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá provided them with two translators, Mírzá Husayn Rúhí, a young Persian Bahá'í who has learned English in Egypt and Mírzá Burzurg.
- Mírzá Asadu'lláh spent three weeks in New York then relocated to Chicago where he stayed for eighteen months. He did not accompany 'Abdu'l-Bahá to America, however, shortly after His return, Mírzá Asadu'lláh and his son insisted on going to the West and did so against 'Abdu'l-Bahá's wishes. Both he and his son were expelled from the Faith. [APD143; AY119]
|New York; Chicago; United States
||Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Husayn Ruhi; Mirza Burzurg; Covenant-breakers
||Mírzá Abu'l-Faḍl-i-Gulpáygání arrived in North America. [BFA2:XV]
- Laura Barney financed the visit of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl to the United States in 1901-04 in order to propagate the Faith and to help publish the translation of his Ḥojaj al-bahīya (Cairo, 1342/1925; tr. Ali-Kuli Khan as The Bahá'í Proofs, New York, 1902; 2nd ed., ed. J. R. I. Cole, Wilmette, Ill., 1983) [Wikipedia, Laura Clifford Barney.]
- See BFA2:80–7 and BW9:855–860 for accounts of his visit.
- See Wikipedia and Wikipedia for accounts of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl at Green Acre.
- Mirza Ahmad Sohrab was sent to assist him. Sohrab remained and worked at the Iranian Consulate until 1912 and during this time he translated much of the correspondence between 'Abdu'l-Bahâ and the Western believers. At the conclusion of the American tour he returned to the Holy Land. After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he rejected the authority of Shoghi Effendi and was expelled. [APD155]
||Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; The Baha'i Proofs; Laura Clifford Barney; ; Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breakers; Green Acre; Z****
|1901 20 Aug
||Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd re-imposes the restrictions confining `Abdu'l-Bahá and His brothers within the walls of `Akká. [AB94; CB226–7; DH67–8; GBP264]
- This is the result of mischief stirred up by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [AB92–5; CB227; GBP264]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá is subjected to long interviews and detailed questioning. [AB95; GPB2645]
- For the continued mischief and false allegations of the Covenant-breakers see CB227–30 and GBP265–7.
- `Abdu'l-Bahá suspends the visits of the pilgrims for a time. [GBP267]
- He directs that all the Bahá'í writings in the possession of His family and secretaries be transferred to Egypt and has His mail redirected through an agent in Egypt. [GBP267]
- For the work of `Abdu'l-Bahá whilst in confinement 1901–8 see CB231–44 and GBP267–9.
||Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1901 26 Nov
||The Day of the Covenant The Day of the Covenant is a Bahá'í holy day honouring the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, in particular, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as the “Centre of the Covenant" and as such, the successor, the interpreter and the exemplar of the Bahá'í Faith. Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant also provided for the extension of this covenant to the Guardian and to the Universal House of Justice.
The first celebration of the Day of the Covenant in North America was marked on this day.
- Prior to this time some of the believers celebrated the birth of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 22nd of May. Others marked the 29th of May, the anniversary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and thusly, the day on which He acceded to the leadership of the Bahá'í community.
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá chose the day November 26th, as reckoned by the Gregorian calendar, as approximately half a year away from this date, to commemorate His appointment of the Centre of the Covenant.
- The day was know as Jashn-i-A'zam (The Greatest Festival) in the East because He was Ghusn-i-A'zam, the Greatest Branch or the "Most Might Branch" [GPB238, BFA2:XV, 56; SA247, Day of the Covenant by Christopher Buck, AB523]
|New York; United States
||Day of the Covenant; Firsts, Other; Covenant (general); Holy Days; Abdul-Baha, Birth of; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bab, Declaration of
||Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, the fourth surviving son of Bahá'u'lláh, writes to the Bahá'ís announcing his break with Muhammad-`Alí and giving his loyalty to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB102; GPB264]
- His letter gives details of the plots of Muhammad-`Alí against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [GPB264]
- This reconciliation is short-lived. [AB102]
||Mirza Badiullah; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
||Through the year the Covenant-breakers plot until the friendly governor of `Akká is replaced by one hostile to `Abdu'l-Bahá. Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí stirred up opposition in certain elements of the population. [AB111; CB232]
These actions result in the arrival of the first Commission of Inquiry, sent by Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd. [AB112; CB233]
- Newspapers in Egypt and in Syria write false reports about `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB111; CB232]
- Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí draws up an official indictment against `Abdu'l-Bahá full of false accusations. [AB112; CB232]
- The Commission summons `Abdu'l-Bahá to answer the accusations levelled against Him and upon His replies the inquiry collapses. [AB113–14; CB233]
|Haifa; Akka; Istanbul; Turkey
||Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Commission of Inquiry; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Mahd-i-`Ulyá (Fátimih Khánum), the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, dies. She and all her four surviving children are Covenant-breakers. [CB117]
||Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Covenant-breakers
|1912 29 Apr
||Mírzá Yahyá dies in Famagusta. [BBD243; BBR312]
- He had been deserted by most of his followers and is given a Muslim funeral. [BKG426; GPB233]
- Years later his sons and their relatives reconcile themselves to the authority of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [CH237-238]
||Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Covenant-breakers; Cyprus exiles; Births and deaths
|1912 23 May
||The Bahá'ís of Cambridge, Massachusetts, celebrated `Abdu'l-Bahá's birthday with a cake bearing 68 candles. (Significantly, He did not stay for the festivities. He forgave this
time, but had forbidden the celebration of His birthday. Six years
before He had told Khan and other pilgrims that besides Naw-Rúz, the Holy Days were only for the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh,
that His birth on the twenty-second/twenty-third of May was ‘only a coincidence’.) `Abdu'l-Bahá addressed the group on the importance of the Báb at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Francis W. Breed, 367 Harvard Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [239D:72; AB199, PUP138]
in the early evening, He had proceeded to Worcester and addressed
Clark University there. [AY95]
|Worcester; Cambridge MA; Massachusetts; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Birth of; Day of the Covenant; Holy Days; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Bab, Life of; Clark University; Universities
|1912 19 Jun
||`Abdu'l-Bahá names New York the `City of the Covenant'. [239D:93; AB220; BBD55, ABNY51; DJT315-316]
- See 239D:92–93 for a description of this event.
|New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Covenant, City of; Covenant (general)
|1912 5 Jul
||Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York, the home of Howard MacNutt. [PUP218]
Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP220]
On this occasion 'Abdu'l-Bahá assigned Howard the task of deepening a group of Chicago Bahá’ís on the importance of the Covenant and instructing them not to associate with Covenant-breakers. Howard failed to complete this task and continued correspondence with associates of Kheiralla. For more information see this date.
|New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Covenant (general); Covenant-breakers
|1912 18 Nov
||`Abdu'l-Bahá had instructed MacNutt to meet with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warn them of the danger. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. He had failed to do as directed. They met in the Kenny's home for the first time since his trip, where `Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís gathered there, which he did, reluctantly. [DJT371; AY121]
||New York; United States
||Covenant-breakers; Howard MacNutt; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
|1913 1 Aug
||Shoghi Effendi, the Greatest Holy Leaf and the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrive in Egypt. [AB401]
- During this period Tammaddun'ul-Mulk (who had been in London during `Abdu'l-Bahá first visit) attempts to divide the Bahá'ís of Tehran and Dr Amínu'llah Farid's increasingly erratic behaviour brought Him much suffering and sorrow. [AB402]
|Ramleh; Egypt; Tihran; Iran
||Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Covenant-breakers; Tammaddunul-Mulk; Amin Farid
|1914 21 Jan
||Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in Cairo. [AB404; BBD67]
- For a brief biography see EM263–5, SDH113.
- His resting place is now next to that of Lua Getsinger in the Bahá'í cemetery in Cairo.
- His numerous works include Fará'id (The Peerless Gems) 1898; The Brilliant Proof; 1912; Bahá'í Proofs, 1902; and Al-Duraru'l-Bahíyih (The Shining Pearls, published in English as Miracles and Metaphors), 1900. [BBD7]
- See AY103, Star of the West, vol. IV, no. 19, pp.
316–7 and Bahá'í Proofs p17-18 for the story of how Ameen Fareed entered and secretly remained in Mírzá’s house, between the time of Mírzá’s death and his burial, and removed precious manuscripts which, slightly changed, he would spread among the believers in an attempt to undermine their unity at a later time.
||Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Lua Getsinger; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Ameen Fareed; Covenant-breakers
|1914 Middle of the year
||The defection of Dr Amín Faríd, `Abdu'l-Bahá's translator while in America, becomes publicly known. [AB407]
- For his activities against `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB230, 402, 407–9.
||Amin Farid; Covenant-breakers
||Ibrahim Kheiralla dies, having been abandoned by all of his followers. [CB252]
||Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Covenant-breakers
|1921 Following `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing
||Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí publishes far and wide that he is the successor to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB277]
- The Egyptian Bahá'ís respond to this by publishing a refutation of his claims. [CB276; SW12, 19:294-5]
||Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Succession; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of
|1921 After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá
||'Aqá Jamál Burújirdí had been a member of the Islamic clergy in Burujerd and was widely known and revered across Iran as a gifted teacher of the Faith.
During the lifetime of Bahá'u'lláh he received much praise and various honorary titles such as Ismu'lláh'u'l-Jamál (The Name of God Jamál) due to his many services. He broke the Covenant after the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh and rose in opposition to the Centre of the Covenant.
During his visit to 'Akká following the passing of Bahá'u'lláh he made contact with Mírzá Muhammad-Alí with the goal of securing a prominent place in the administration of the faith under his leadership, all the while feigning loyalty to 'Abdu'l-Bahá for decades.
In God Passes By p247-248 Shoghi Effendi says of Mírzá Muhammad-Alí and those who tried to assist him in his nefarious efforts, "Closely-knit by one common wish and purpose; indefatigable in their efforts; assured of the backing of the powerful and perfidious Jamál-i-Burújirdí and his henchmen, Ḥájí Ḥusayn-i-Káshí, Khalíl-i-Khú’í and Jalíl-i-Tabrízí who had espoused their cause; linked by a vast system of correspondence with every center and individual they could reach; seconded in their labours by emissaries whom they dispatched to Persia, ‘Iráq, India and Egypt; emboldened in their designs by the attitude of officials whom they bribed or seduced, these repudiators of a divinely-established Covenant arose, as one man, to launch a campaign of abuse and vilification which compared in virulence with the infamous accusations which Mírzá Yaḥyá and Siyyid Muḥammad had jointly levelled at Bahá’u’lláh."
He was publically unmasked after the Covenant-breakers printed letters with falsehoods and misleading statements and became known in the Bahá'í community as "Hyena" or "Old Hyena" (pír-i-kaftár). He died in poverty and disgrace in Iran. The date of his death is not known. [M9YA6-7, 432, RoB2p118-9, 264-267, MMoB104-105, CB165-166, 209-15, Biographies of Jamal-i-Burujirdi]
- He was the recipient of many tablets from both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one of which can be found in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh p5-9 and a more complete provisional translation of the original tablet can be found here.
||Jamal-i-Burujirdi; Covenant-breakers; Haji Husayn-i-Kashi; Khalil-i-Khui; Jalil-i-Tabrizi; Names and titles
||The Guardian sends `Abdu'l-Husayn, Ávárih, to Europe to deepen the believers. [CB335, SBR68]
- For his life and eventual Covenant-breaking see CB334-42 and PP120.
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Covenant-breakers
||Shoghi Effendi announces the defection of 'Abdu'l-Husayn Ávarih. He had been a very successful teacher and the author of a book on the history of the Faith but opposed Shoghi Effendi's efforts to build the Administrative Order. He was insistent that the Universal House of Justice be formed at that time. He was denounced by the believers in Egypt and Iran. [SETPE1p149, BA137-139, Ruhi8.2-20, CoC294-296]
- After his defection he became a Muslim and an opponent of the Baha'i Faith. He returned to Tehran and spent the rest of his life as a secondary school teacher. During this period he wrote many works of poetry and prose, including Kashf al-Hial, a three volume work refuting the Bahá'í Faith. [Wikipedia]
||Covenant-breakers; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Abd al-Hosayn Ayati
||A Covenant-breaker, Jamil Irani, tries to still up trouble by implicating the Bahá'ís with Saláru'd-Dawlih, an ambitious brother of Muhammad-'Ali Sháh who had been deposed by the 1909 Revolution in Iran. The allegation was investigated by Lord Plummer, the British High Commissioner in Palestine who learned the truth of the matter. [SETPE1p151-152]
||Covenant-breaker; Jamil Irani; Plummer, Lord
|1928 31 Dec
||Ruth White, who had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York in 1912 and who had been on pilgrimage in 1922, writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine with a charge that the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá is a forgery. [SETPE1p157]
- See AY103 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's reaction to Ruth White in New York in 1912.
|Palestine; New York; United States
||Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1929 27 Feb
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada forwarded a pamphlet published by Ruth White to Shoghi Effendi. His advice is to abstain from any provocation and to avoid hurting her feelings. [SETPET1p157, Baha'i News p230, 298]
||Covenant-breakers; Ruth White
|1929 27 Nov
||The Mansion at Bahjí is evacuated by the Covenant-breakers after the occupation by Muhammad-Alí and his relatives for about 40 years. [DH116; GPB355–6; PP231-232, SETPE1p174]
- During this time they showed no respect for the Holy Site; a blacksmith shop was set up near the entrance to the Shrine. [SE125]
- For details of how the building is left see GBP356.
- For pictures of its neglected state see DH116.
- Covenant-breakers continue to occupy the adjacent house until June 1957. [PP233]
- See SE126 for Shoghi Effendi's plan for a Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh.
||House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Covenant-breakers; Bahji; Bahaullah, Shrine of
|1930 39 May
||With respect to the New History Society and Ahmad Sohrab, Shoghi Effendi writes to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada to make a definitive statement regarding that organization and the Cause.
- "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá’u’lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety. To take exception to one basic principle is to deny the authority and sovereignty of Bahá’u’lláh, and therefore is to deny the Cause. The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed, it is to disobey His law."
- The message goes on to say that "unfailing kindness and goodwill" should be paid to the individuals and that the doors to Bahá'í fellowship should always remain open. [Bahá'í News p333]
|BWC; United States
||New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breaker
||The National Spiritual Assembly published a statement in the Bahá'í News entitled The Case of Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society. Summarized, the article stated that the “New History Society was begun in New York early in 1929 by Sohrab and "one of its avowed purposes being to spread the Bahá'í teachings. Neither the local nor the National Assembly was consulted in the matter, and the meetings and activities of the New History Society have been maintained apart from the principles of consultation which today, under the Will and Testament of 'Abdu’l-Bahá, form the basis of Bahá'í unity and the protection of the Cause."
"Both the local and National Assembly on several occasions attempted, through oral and written communications, to bring about full and frank consultation with the leaders of the New History Society, but without success.
"Under these conditions it becomes the obvious responsibility of the National Spiritual Assembly to inform the friends that activities conducted by Ahmad Sohrab through the New History Society are to be considered as entirely independent of the Cause, as outside the jurisdiction of the local and National Assembly, and hence in no wise entitled to the cooperation of Bahá'ís."
This statement also quoted from a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by his Secretary to the National Spiritual Assembly on May 30, 1930: "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá’u’lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety...." "The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed, it is to disobey His law." [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society]
|New York; United States
||Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
|1930 7 Oct
||Ruth White writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she has sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requests she sends that same evidence to him and he forwards it to the Governor of Haifa who requests to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declares the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157]
||Haifa; Israel; United Kingdom
||Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of; Authenticity; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; High Commisioners
||The National Assembly published a detailed supplementary statement in the Bahá’í News, quoting passages from the Aqdas, from the Master's Will and Testament, and from the Guardian's letters published in Bahá’í Administration, followed by a reprint of the exchange of correspondence and cables with Mrs. Chanler, and with the Guardian, including the Guardian's cable to New York believers: "True unity can only be preserved by maintenance paramount position National Spiritual Assembly," and his cable approving the statement published in August, 1930, Bahá'í News. Further, in a letter from Haifa to the Yonkers Assembly, “The Guardian pointed out the difference between the freedom defined by Bahá'u'lláh ("To have liberty is to observe My commandments") and that advocated by Sohrab ("The other kind of freedom which is in defiance of law He (Bahá'u'lláh) considers to be animal, and far from being of any good to man"). [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society]
||New York; United States
||Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
|1931 10 Jul
||The administration in Palestine writes to Ruth White advising her that they will take no further action with respect to her claim that the will of 'Abdu'l-Bahá is a forgery.
- "All Mrs White ever achieved was to stir up a temporary and insignificant cloud of dust". [PP119]
- Mrs White wrote letters to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada as well as to some believers objecting to the directives of Shoghi Effendi and to the administration of the Cause through local and national assemblies. One of her converts was Dr Wilhelm Herrigel, one of the founding members of the German community. Later, Dr Herrigel became conscious of the mistake he had made. [SETPE1p158]
- Likewise, Ruth White's husband was repentant, was offered a path back into the Faith but failed to take it. [SETPE1p158]
||Ruth White; Covenant-breakers
||The writing of Episodes in the History of the Covenant by Shoghi Effendi originally written as "Waqáy-i-Tárikhiyyih dar 'Ahd wa Mitháq-i-Iláhi" for the friends in Iran. In 1997 it was translated by Khazeh Fananapazir and edited by Mehdi Wolf. [Episodes in the History of the Covenant
||Covenant (general); Covenant-breakers; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of
|1937 20 Dec
||Muhammad-‘Alí, half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Arch-breaker of the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, dies. [CB355; GPB320; MA11]
- For details of his death and funeral see DH117 and GPB320.
||Gerrard Sluter, a German with Canadian citizenship and previously a pioneer in Guatemala, arrives in Colombia, the first Bahá’í to settle in the country.
- He later becomes a Covenant-breaker and causes much difficulty to the Bahá’ís in many South American countries.
||Gerrard Sluter; Covenant-breakers
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada distributed a mimeographed statement concerning the New History Society entitled The Basis of the Bahá’í Community, which explained the purpose and outcome of the lawsuit entered against the founders of the New History Society to prevent their misuse of the name "Bahá’í” on which the National Spiritual Assembly had obtained a trademark patent. The court took the position that it was not authorized to decide religious questions. [The Basis of the Bahá'í Community: A Statement Concerning the New History Society]
||Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
||The excommunication of Shoghi Effendi's sister, Mehrangíz Rabbáni with this message.
"Sister Mehrangis [Mehrangiz] followed example Ruhi's sister. Justice demands announce believers her expulsion."(UD149)
The reason for her being declared a Covenant-breaker was that she followed the example of Ruhi's sister by marrying to one of his cousins without the Guardian's consent. Mehrangiz married to Hassan Afnan, the son of Furughiyyih Khanum, a daughter of Bahá'u'lláh by his third wife Gawhar.
||Shoghi Effendi sent the cable below to the Bahá'í world: "Monib Shahid, grandson of both `Abdu'l-Bahá and the King of Martyrs, married according to the Moslem rites the daughter of a political exile who is nephew of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. This treacherous act of alliance with enemies of the Faith merits condemnation of entire Bahá'í world." [Bahá'í News, December, 1944 No. 172]
||Covenant-breakers; Munib Shahid
||Shoghi Effendi sent the following cable to the Bahá'í world: "My faithless brother Husayn, after long period of dishonourable conduct, has abandoned the Master's home to consort with his sister and other Covenant-breakers". [Bahá'í News, No. 174, p.2]
||Covenant-breakers; Husayn Ali Rabbani
||In March 1950, Shoghi Effendi would send a further cable: "Faithless brother Hussein, already abased through dishonorable conduct over period (of) years followed by association with Covenant-breakers (in) Holy Land and efforts (to) undermine Guardian's position, recently further demeaned himself through marriage under obscure circumstances with lowborn Christian girl (in) Europe". [Bahá'í News, No. 229, p.1]
Shoghi Effendi would later defend the use of the term "lowborn Christian girl" as follows: "Regarding his cable concerning Hussein: he has been very surprised to note that the terms 'low-born Christian girl ' and 'disgraceful alliance' should arouse any question; it seems to him that the friends should realize it is not befitting for the Guardian's own brother, the grandchild of the Master, an Afnán and Aghsán mentioned in the Will and Testament of the Master, and of whom so much was expected because of his relation to the family of the Prophet, to marry an unknown girl, according to goodness knows what rite, who is not a believer at all". [Bahá'í News, No. 236, p.4]
||Covenant-breakers; Hussein Rabbani
|1950 12 Nov
||Mírzá Badí‘u’lláh, the youngest son of Bahá’u’lláh, (b.1867 in Adrianople) described by Shoghi Effendi as the ‘chief lieutenant’ of the ‘archbreaker’ of the ‘divine Covenant’ dies. [CB340, 355–6; CF89, BIC162, MSBR63, BBR460, RoB3pg230, CH209, SoB92, CoB340, 355-6, CoF89]
||Mirza Badiullah; Covenant-breakers
||Shoghi Effendi's brother Riáz Rabbáni was the last of his siblings to become a Covenant-Breaker.
"With feeling profound concern, grief, indignation, am compelled disclose Bahá'í world recent developments Holy Land furnishing further incontestable proof relationship established old and new Covenant-breakers demonstrating increasing boldness, marked, tragic decline in character and spiritual condition grandchildren `Abdu'l-Bahá. Their shameful attitude and conduct receiving approbation their elders. Evidences multiplying attesting Ruhi's increasing rebelliousness, efforts exerted my eldest sister pave way fourth alliance members family Siyyid Ali involving marriage his granddaughter with Ruha's son and personal contact recently established my own treacherous, despicable brother Riaz with Majdi'd-Din, redoubtable enemy Faith, former henchman Muhammad-'Ali, Archbreaker Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant. Convey information all National Assemblies." [MBW16, CoB358, 362, 364]
||Covenant-breakers; Riaz Rabbani
|1952 18 May
||The case brought against Shoghi Effendi by the Covenant-breakers in connection with the demolition of a house adjoining the Shrine and Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí is removed from the civil courts by the government of Israel. [CB330; GBF138–9; PP233–4, 290]
- For the history of this case and the outcome see BW12:384–7.
||Bahaullah, Shrine of; House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Court cases; Covenant-breakers
|1952 1 Jun
||In a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by the Assistant Secretary, the National Spiritual Assembly was informed that Ahmad Sohrab had cabled the Israeli Minister of Religion to influence the court case brought by the Covenant-breakers, against the Guardian, and which resulted in complete vindication of the Guardian's control of the Bahá'í Shrines and properties. Sohrab's cable identified the Caravan with the Covenant-breakers and stated that the organization was not under the authority of Shoghi Effendi. In a letter dated May 25, 1941, the Guardian wrote through his Secretary that Sohrab "is no doubt the most subtle, resourceful and indefatigable enemy the Faith has had in America."
||Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
|1953 29 Oct
||Opal Jensen arrives on Réunion Island from the United States and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
- She is later declared a Covenant-breaker.
||Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
|1954 25 Mar
||Leland Jensen arrives on Réunion Island from the United States and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
- He is later declared a Covenant-breaker.
||Leland Jensen; Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
||A plot of land of slightly less than half an acre owned by Farah Sprague, a Covenant-breaker, is purchased, overcoming the final obstacle to beginning the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives. [DH169; MBW73–4]
||Farah Sprague; Covenant-breakers; International Bahai Archives
||Was she the Iranian-born wife of Sidney Sprague? See BFA2p155
|1956 20 Dec
||The publication in the Official Gazette of the government of Israel of the issue of an expropriation order against the Covenant-Breakers in possession of the holy Shrines at Bahji. This order was immediately appealed by the Covenant-Breakers to the Supreme Court.
||Shoghi Effendi announces that the Treasury Department of Israel has issued an expropriation order for the remaining property held by Covenant-breakers at Bahjí, mainly the dilapidated building north of the mansion. [MBW109]
|1957 31 May
||The Supreme Court of Israel finds in their judgement against the Covenant-Breakers resulting in their removal from the properties in Bahjí.
||The Covenant-breakers completely abandon Bahjí. [CB367–9; DH215; MBW120–2; PP233–4]
|1957 6 Sep
||Shoghi Effendi announces ‘the complete evacuation of the remnant of Covenant-breakers and the transfer of all their belongings from the precincts of the Most Holy Shrine’. [MBW124]
- See VSE166 for Audrey Robarts' observation of the Covenant-breakers at Bahjí during her pilgrimage in 1955.
||Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Bahaullah, Shrine of
|1957 25 Nov
||A proclamation is issued stating that Shoghi Effendi left no heir and made no appointment of another Guardian. [BW13:341–5; MC25–30]
- See LOG310 for an explanation of the various meanings of the word ‘Guardianship’.
- See CB388–9 for a discussion of the continuation of the institution of the Guardianship.
||Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Covenant (general); Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Custodians; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1957 2 Dec
||The title to the Shrine of the Báb, the Mansion of Bahjí, and all other buildings and lands which the Covenant-Breakers had owned were transferred to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States.
|1957 25 Dec
||The Hands of the Cause announce the destruction of the long, two-storey house previously occupied by Covenant-breakers which was located near the garden wall of the Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh and of which Shoghi Effendi had acquired legal possession shortly before his passing. [MC11, 51]
- The rubble is used to complete the terraces begun by Shoghi Effendi north of the mansion and completing the northern gardens planned by him.
|1958 20 Apr
||Mírzá Ahmad (Esphahani) Sohrab, the Covenant-breaker who rebelled against Shoghi Effendi, dies. [MC90]
- For the story of his defection from the Faith see CB343–7.
- He is buried in the Saint Paul Episcopal Church Cemetery, Glen Cove, Nassau County, New York.
|Glen Cove; Nassau County; New York; United States
||Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breakers; New History Society
|1959 23 Oct - 1 Nov
||The third Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. [BW13:351; MC161–2]
- For the agenda of the meeting see MC163–4.
- Charles Mason Remey unsuccessfully attempts to convince his fellow Hands that the Guardianship should continue. [BBRSM130; MC217]
||Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
|1959 4 Nov
||The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their third Conclave. [MC166–70]
- The date for the election of the Universal House of Justice is fixed at Ridván 1963. [MC166]
- They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of 21 national spiritual assemblies in Latin America. [MC167–8]
- They call for the election at Ridván 1962 of 11 national spiritual assemblies in Europe. [MC168]
- They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of the International Bahá’í Council by postal ballot of the members of the national and regional spiritual assemblies constituted at Ridván 1960. [MC168]
- The name of Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey is missing from the list of signatories to this letter. [MC170]
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Universal House of Justice, Election of; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
|1960 Ridván c.
||Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey claims he is the second, ‘hereditary’ Guardian of the Bahá’í Faith. [BW13:397; BW16:90; SS49]
- See MC205–6, 231–6 for details of Remey’s claims.
- See also BBRSM130-1, 138–9; CB386–91; MC196–217, 223–8; SBBH1:220, NOTE 207.
||Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
|1960 27 Apr
||The International Bahá’í Council by unanimous vote rejects the claim of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC206–7]
||International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 28 Apr
||The Custodians call upon all believers to join the Hands in repudiation of the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC196–7]
||Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 30 Apr – 10 May
||Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions send messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
- The National Spiritual Assembly of France votes to recognize the claim. [MC203]
||NSA; Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 5 May
||Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí is sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
- After consultation, five members of the assembly continue to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resign from the assembly. The national assembly is dissolved. [MC203]
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abul-Qasim Faizi; NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 12 – 31 May
||Six national spiritual assemblies send messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC207–8]
||NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 13 May
||The International Bahá’í Council writes to the Custodians recording its decision taken on 27 April to reject the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [Mc206–7]
||International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Custodians; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 26 Jul
||The Hands of the Cause of God declare Charles Mason Remey a Covenant-breaker. [BBRSM221; MC224–5]
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
|1960. 3 Aug
||Cable from the Hands of the Cause of God announcing the expulsion as Covenant Breakers of
John Carre, Barnard Fillon, Moneer Darakhshan, Joel Marangela, Jaques Soghomonian, Donald Harvey, John
Byers and Mary Wilkin. [Ministry of the Custodians p223]
||Covenant-breakers; Joel Bray Marangella; Custodians
|1964 5 Nov
||Followers of Charles Mason Remey file suit in the United States District Court for Northern Illinois against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, claiming they are the rightful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States. [BW14:95]
- The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States files a counter claim asking the court to restrain the Covenant-breakers from using Bahá’í names and symbols protected by trademark. [BW14:95]
||Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; NSA; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks; Criticism and apologetics
|1965 23 Mar
||The case filed by the followers of Charles Mason Remey against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States is dismissed on technical grounds. [BW14:95]
- The Covenant-breakers file a further suit. [BW14:95]
||Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
|1965 11 Nov
||The Universal House of Justice announces that the ‘final step’ in the ‘process’ of the ‘purification’ of the Bahá’í properties in Bahjí has been taken with the removal of the remains of the Covenant-breaker Mírzá Díyá’u’lláh from the immediate precincts of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW14:82–3]
||Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Mirza Diyaullah; Bahaullah, Shrine of
|1966 8 Mar
||The second suit brought against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States by the followers of Charles Mason Remey, who claim to he the lawful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States, is dismissed. [BW14:95]
||Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
|1966 1 Jun
||The counter-claim of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States against the followers of Charles Mason Remey restraining them from using Bahá’í names and symbols, is upheld when the Covenant-breakers fail to appear at the trial. [BW14:95]
||Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Copyright and trademarks; Court cases; Criticism and apologetics
|1974 4 Feb
||The death of Charles Mason Remey, Hand of the Cause of God (1951-60) and subsequently a Covenant-breaker. in Florence, Italy. (b.15 May 1874) [Wikipedia]
- Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
- He was declared a Covenant-breaker by the Hands of the Cause on the 26th of July, 1960.
||Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Births and deaths
from the main catalogue
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- A Lost History of the Baha'i Faith, by Eric Stetson: Review, by Grover Gonzales (2016). Critical review of a book about the history of some covenant-breaker groups. [about]
- Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society, by Paul E. Haney and Horace Holley (1958). Overview of the defection of Ahmad Sohrab and the formation of the "New History Society" and the "Caravan of East and West." [about]
- Apostasía en al Marco Jurídico Bahá'í, La, by Badi Villar Cardenas, in La Pluma del Conocimiento, 1 (2001). Este ensayo constituye uno de los primeros esfuerzos por construir una marco jurídico para los procesos de apostasía y expulsión en la comunidad bahá'í. [about]
- Apostle Paul, a "False Teacher"?, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Whether Baha'i Writings state that Paul was a "false teacher," the relationship between apostles Paul and Peter, and some Baha'i teachings on Christianity. [about]
- Aspects of the Bahá'í Teachings, Conditions for Membership, and Voting Rights: Seven various questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On Baha'i status and community membership, spiritual primacy, Most Great Spirit, studying the Covenant, revelation of the Bab, civil elections, and definition of a pioneer. Includes short compilation "Conditions for Membership in the Baha'i Community." [about]
- Authority of the Hands of the Cause to direct the Faith and expel Covenant-breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Authority of the Hands of the Cause assume control of the Faith and eject Covenant-breakers following Shoghi Effendi's passing. [about]
- Authority of the Institutions According to the Will and Testament of Abdu'l-Bahá, The: A Text Analysis, by Gerald Keil (2017). Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament is the indispensable starting point for understanding the Baha'i Administrative Order, and the competencies and areas of
responsibility of the various institutions. The text must be examined as a cohesive whole. [about]
- Authority of the International Teaching Centre in Expelling Covenant-Breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1998). On the role of the Counsellors and the ITC in protecting the Faith, and the process of expelling a person whose behavior is in conflict with the Covenant. [about]
- Bahá'í Covenant, The, by Ali Nakhjavani, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Basis of the Bahá'í Community, The: A Statement Concerning the New History Society, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1941). A statement on Ahmad Sohrab's activities and its trademark infringement case. [about]
- Biographies of Jamal-i-Burujirdi, by Adib Taherzadeh and Dariush Lamie (1998). Three short biographies of about the man who asked to be exempt from the laws of the Aqdas. [about]
- Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit: Chapter 31 of Some Answered Questions, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). [about]
- Center of the Covenant: Tablet to Mason Remey, interview with Badi'u'llah, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Badi'u'llah, in Star of the West, 3:7 (1912). Brief interview conducted by Howard MacNutt. Includes a tablet from Abdu'l-Baha to Mason Remey. [about]
- Child of the Covenant, by Adib Taherzadeh: Review, by Tricia Fallon-Barry, in Solas, 1 (2001). Brief review of this sequel to Covenant of Baha'u'llah. [about]
- Chosen Highway, The, by Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield (Sitarih Khanum) (1940). [about]
- Commentary on a Passage in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Short biography of the Son of the Wolf, Aqa Najafi; summary of persecutions from 1874-1903; and the Epistle's references to Qayyumu’l-Asma and the Muslim dawn prayer for Ramadan. [about]
- Covenant, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). [about]
- Covenant and Administration, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1971). [about]
- Covenant of Baha'u'llah, The: A Compilation (1963). Lengthy compilation published as a book, first put together in 1950, of quotations from Scripture Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Bábí, and Bahá’í about the Covenant of God, the Eternal Covenant, and the Greater and Lesser Covenants. [about]
- Covenant, Day of the (November 26), by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
- Covenant, The, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1995). Overview of two covenants: one with all Prophets regarding the next Manifestation, specifically the Covenant of the Bab; and Baha'u'llah's Covenant protecting the divine word from human interference and safeguarding the unity of Baha'is and all humankind. [about]
- Covenant, The: Brit Olam, by Peter Terry (1997). The concept of covenant is found in the Bible, the Qur'an, and Baha'i writings. Using the form of an inter-religious dialogue, this paper correlates references to covenant in four religions, demonstrating the distinctive characteristics of each. [about]
- Covenant, The, by Ali Nakhjavani (2005). From a conference at Centro Studi Baha'i, Acuto, Italy, February 19-26 2005. [about]
- Covenant, The, and Covenant-breaker, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
- Covenant-breakers and other Enemies of the Faith, Writings of; Photographs of Baha'u'llah, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (2000). Baha'i scholars may, when needed, use books by Covenant Breakers, including William Miller's The Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Covenant-Breakers in Bahá'í Historiography, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 5:3-6:1 (1991). Baha'i scholars may, when needed, use books by Covenant Breakers. [about]
- Covenant-breakers, Electronic Communication with, by Universal House of Justice (1998). [about]
- Covenant-Breakers, Encountering Online, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Actions Baha'is need or need not take upon meeting Covenant Breakers in online "chat rooms" or by email. [about]
- Covenant-breakers, Non-association with, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1999). Includes extracts regarding electronic communication with Covenant-Breakers. [about]
- Day of the Covenant 26 November 2003: To the Followers of Baha'u'llah in the Cradle of the Faith, by Universal House of Justice (2003). A message to the Baha'is of Iran; in both English and Persian. [about]
- Days of Remembrance: Selections from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh for Bahá'í Holy Days, by Bahá'u'lláh (2017). Forty-five selections revealed for, or relating to, nine Bahá’í Holy Days. [about]
- Demystifying Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of the Holy Mariner: History, Translations, Interpretations and Analysis, by Hui Bau (2016). Lengthy compilation, with background information on the Tablet, and commentary from Bau, Adib Taherzadeh, Michael Sours, Jamsheed Samandari, and Aziz Mboya. [about]
- Divisions and Authority Claims in Babism (1850-1866), by Denis MacEoin, in Studia Iranica, 18:1 (1989). Factors leading to the division of Babism into the Azalís and the Bahá'ís, and the question of succession and the claims of Mírzá Yahyá, Dayyán, and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Episodes in the History of the Covenant, by Shoghi Effendi (1997). Message revealed by the Guardian to the Bahá'ís of ‘Irán concerning the incorruptibility of the Covenant. [about]
- Epistle to the Bahá'í World, An, by Mirza Badi'u'llah (1907). Letter from the half-brother of `Abdu'l-Baha about Badi'u'llah's exit from, return to, and then exit again from the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Fifteen Years of Failed Prophecy: Coping with cognitive dissonance in a Bahá'í sect, by Robert W. Balch and John Domitrovich, in Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem: Contemporary Apocalyptic Movements, ed. Thomas Robbins and Susan J. Palmer (1997). An academic article about the prophetic expectations of a covenant-breaker group, Baha’is Under the Provisions of the Covenant. Followed by "The End is Nearish," Chase's predictions satirized by Harper's. [about]
- Firmness in the Covenant and Protection of the Cause of God, by Charles Mason Remey (1914). Two versions of an essay written in response to "certain conditions of violation" of the Covenant in London and other European assemblies: a 5-page essay from 1914, and a 28-page (unpublished?) article from 1918. [about]
- Flow of Divine Authority, by Brent Poirier, in Deepen, 3.4:9 (1996). Scriptural authority for the Universal House of Justice to function infallibly without the presence of a living Guardian. [about]
- God's Promise to Humanity: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1993). [about]
- Guardianship and the House of Justice, by Sen McGlinn (1997). [about]
- Guardianship, Anticipation of, in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Did Baha'u'llah anticipate the Institution of the Guardianship in the Kitab-i-Aqdas? [about]
- "He hath known God who hath known himself": A Deepening Course on the Bahá'í Revelation (2012). A lengthy compilation by the granddaughter of Howard Colby Ives designed to be a study guide to the Writings, covering knowledge of God, the station of the Manifestations, the nature of the Covenant, and the dynamics of creation, constancy, and servitude. [about]
- Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith, by Moojan Momen (1990). An attempt to explore the relationship between Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith and to explain the Bahá'í Faith to those who are from a Hindu background. [about]
- Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
- In the Days of the Guardian, by Leroy Ioas (1958). Includes the well-known comments by Shoghi Effendi about his reactions to being appointed Guardian. [about]
- Infalibilidad: Un Ensayo, by Susan Maneck (1998). Spanish translation of Maneck's essay "Infallibility: An Essay." [about]
- Infallibility: An Essay, by Susan Maneck (1998). Short overview of the meaning of infallibility, as applied to Baha'u'llah and Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Introduction to Bahá'í Law, An: Doctrinal Foundations, Principles and Structures, by Udo Schaefer, in Journal of Law and Religion, 18:2 (2003). [about]
- Introduction to Shi'i Islam, An: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism, by Moojan Momen (1985). The most lengthy and authoritative contemporary overview of Shi'ism; a commonly-assigned college textbook. Includes biographies of prominent historical figures. Not yet formatted.
- Islam, the Baha'i Faith and the Eternal Covenant of Alast, by Susan Maneck (2009). [about]
- Joycean Modernism in a Nineteenth-Century Qur'an Commentary?: A Comparison of The Báb's Qayyūm Al-Asmā' with Joyce's Ulysses, by Todd Lawson, in Erin and Iran: Cultural Encounters between the Irish and the Iranians, ed. H. E. Chehabi and Grace Neville (2015). Comparison of the formal structure of the two works and themes such as time; oppositions and their resolution; relation between form and content; prominence of epiphany; manifestation, advent and apocalypse; and the theme of heroism, reading and identity. [about]
- Keys to the Proper Understanding of Islam in The Dispensation of Baha'u'llah, by Brian Wittman, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). [about]
- Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): Questions and Concordances, by Habib Riazati (2000). Study questions, categorized cross-references to the Aqdas and its notes and "Questions and Answers," topical concordances, and other research materials. [about]
- Kitab-i-Aqdas and the Expulsion of Covenant Breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Discussion of a reference in the Kitab-i-Aqdas to the possible end of the Guardianship, and the authority of the Hands of the Cause to expel Covenant-breakers. [about]
- Kitáb-i-Aqdas as a Lens with which to Examine some of the Dilemmas of Modernity, The, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 2 (2002). Contrast between the Aqdas - the source of laws of future society - and issues of the modern world as it had evolved up to the 19th century. Discussion of Houses of Worship, universal language, financial principles, justice, the Covenant, and unity. [about]
- Kitab-i-Aqdas questions and concordances, by Habib Riazati. The Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh and their relationship to selected passages in The Aqdas; New Laws That Abrogate the Laws of Former Dispensations; Correlation of Paragraphs, Notes, and Questions and Answers of the Aqdas; sample questions. [about]
- Letter to Jináb-i-Áqá Mírzá Bádí'u'lláh Khán of Abadih, by Shoghi Effendi (1997). Answers four questions: (1) re "Crimson Scroll"; (2) re the "Sacred Night"; (3) re the "Tablet of the Bell"; and (4) using the Kitab-i-Aqdas for bibliomancy. [about]
- List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Babi studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
- Loyalty to the Covenant and Critical Thought, by Udo Schaefer (2001). A commentary for Bahá’ís examining the balance of critical thought with loyalty to Bahá’í institutions. [about]
- Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer and Nicola Towfigh, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Two pages on a prophecy concerning the advent of Man Yuzhiruhu'llah. [about]
- Mason Remey and Those Who Followed Him, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Letter from the US NSA on the importance of commitment to the covenant, a letter from the UHJ on covenant-breaking, and the history "Mason Remey and Those Who Followed Him." [about]
- Memories of Nine Years in Akka, by Youness Afroukhteh (1952). Translation of Khatirát-i-Nuh-Saliy-i-‘Akká, the memoirs of Dr. Yúnis Afrukhtih, who served ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as secretary and interpreter from 1900-1909. Includes discussion of the history of Covenant-breaking. [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Ministry of the Custodians: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause 1957-1963, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Account of the stewardship of the Hands of the Cause of God from 1957-63, from the passing of Shoghi Effendi to the election of the House, riding the waves of crisis to the moment of victory — the fulfillment of prophecy. [about]
- Mírzá Yahyá Azal, Designation of in the Writings of the Báb, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Mysteries of Alast: The Realm of Subtle Entities and the Primordial Covenant in the Babi-Bahá'í Writings, by Farshid Kazemi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 15 (2009). One of the more esoteric concepts in Shi'i and Shaykhi thought is the "realm of subtle entities," 'ālam-i dharr, a sort of pre-existence for the archetype of humanity, which is relevant to free will and the seven stages of creation. [about]
- National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States vs. New Mexico Covenant-Breakers, in United States Patent Quarterly, 150 (1966). Documents from the lawsuit by the NSA vs. the New Mexico covenant-breaker group "The National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States of America Under the Hereditary Guardianship, Inc." for their use of Baha'i names and titles. [about]
- New Creation, A: The Power of the Covenant in the Life of Louis Gregory, by Gayle Morrison, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:4 (1999). [about]
- Obedience, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1995). The meanings of infallibility, obedience to Baha'u'llah, the covenant of God with humanity, and the paradox of law being the instrument of liberation, not limitation. [about]
- Obedience: Liberation through Love of God in Practice, by Roxanne L. Lalonde, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4 (1998). The virtue of obedience in light of the Covenant, contemporary secular notions of obedience, attitudes and behavior of Baha'is in the West, and some incidents of expulsion or resignation from the Faith. [about]
- Origins of Shi'ism: A Consensus of Western Scholarship, by Jonah Winters (1996). Shi'ism, representing about 10% of the umma, is often regarded as illegitimate by the majority Sunnis. Using Western historiographical methods, I examine three key events occuring during the life of Muhammad that are used to legitimize Shi'i origins. [about]
- Paradise and Paradigm: Key Symbols in Persian Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Christopher Buck (1999). Study of Baha'i and Christian symbology, the "first academic monograph comparing Christianity and the Baha'i Faith." [about]
- Present Structure of Bahá'í Administration, by Duane Troxel (2005). One-page illustration showing the full structure of the Baha'i Institutions and their inter-connections. [about]
- Principle of Succession in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, The: Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Brent Poirier (1999). [about]
- Promoting the Equality of Women and Men: The Role of the Covenant, by Janet A. Khan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:1-2 (2000). [about]
- Proselytizing, Development, and the Covenant, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986, The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Teaching vs. proselytization; applying Baha'i social teachings without becoming ensnared in prevailing cultural mores; and the uniqueness of the Baha'i covenant. [about]
- Religious Authority and Apocalypse:
Tafsír as Experience in an Early Work by The Báb, by Todd Lawson, in Unity in Diverity: Mysticism, Messianism and the Construction of Religious Authority in Islam, ed. Orkhan Mir-Kasimov (2013). Analysis of the Báb's commentary on the Qur'an's longest chapter, Surat al-baqara, regarded as his first significant work, which includes themes such as divine self-manifestation, the hierarchy of existence, eschatology, and religious authority. [about]
- Remembering Shoghi Effendi as Interpreter, by Glenford Mitchell (1997). Scholarly talk on the nature of interpretation and the Covenant, given at Foundation Hall of the House of Worship in Wilmette. [about]
- Remey, Charles Mason, by Robert Stockman (1995). [about]
- Role of the Scholar: Scholarship and the Covenant, by John S. Hatcher and Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian (1996). Essays "The New Role of the Scholar in Baha'i Society" and "Scholarship and the Covenant." [about]
- Russian Publication of Baha'u'llah's Last Will and Testament, The: An Academic Attestation of 'Abdu'l-Baha's Successorship, by Christopher Buck and Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 19 (2013). On the content of the Kitab-i-Ahdi, its manuscript history, and textual variants; Andalib's eyewitness account of its unveiling; Tumanski's scholarly work; contemporary attestation of 'Abdu'l-Baha's successorship by Tumanski and other Russian notables. [about]
- Seeing Double: The Covenant and the Tablet of Ahmad, by Todd Lawson, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). The Tablet of Ahmad is believed to have special potency. "Seeing double" means both looking at the words of Scripture, and looking in the direction beyond the words, as indicated by the context. This paper also discusses the meaning of Covenant in Islam. [about]
- Shoghi Effendi's The Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh: A Theology of the Word, by Jack McLean, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
- Spiritual Footprints in the Sands of Time, by Kevin Brogan, in Solas, 3 (2003). The covenantal relationship between God and humankind; the lives of the founders of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism; the societies in which these religions developed; and some of their common features. [about]
- Spiritual Nature of Reality, The: Has the Future Already Been Written?, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:3-4 (2000). Meditations on "Who is Writing the Future": why is spiritual development a social as well as personal matter; what is epistemological methodology for this development; how is it distinct from materialism; and how does it relate to the Covenants? [about]
- Statement on Mason Remey from the Western Hands of the Faith, by Corinne True and Hermann Grossmann (1960). Background information on the claims of Remey, compiled by the Hands of the Cause of God in the Western hemisphere. [about]
- Symbolic Profile of the Bahá'í Faith, A, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4 (1998). [about]
- Tablet Concerning Covenant-Breakers: Excerpt, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1998). Translation, posted to email list, of a portion of a Tablet revealed on the occasion of the expulsion of Tamaddunu'l-Mulk, who had caused dissension in Tehran around 1913. [about]
- Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Baha Concerning Arius, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Arius was an early Christian theologian whose rejection of the Trinity, Abdu'l-Baha said, destroyed the unity of the Church. [about]
- Tablet of the Báb Lawh-i-Vasaya, "Will and Testament"; Titles of Mírzá Yahyá, by Universal House of Justice (2004). Two questions: on the Tablet of the Bab "Lawh-i-Vasaya: The Will and Testament"; the nature of the appointment and titles of Mírzá Yahyá. Includes two attachments: Tablet of the Bab Lawh-i-Vasaya and excerpt from Making the Crooked Straight. [about]
- Tablet to Jamál-i-Burujirdí, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2003). Tablet to a one-time Covenant-breaker on the importance of obedience to the Covenant. [about]
- Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Bahá'u'lláh (1988). [about]
- Unassailable Foundation of the Cause of God: Questions about the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1965). Why were steps taken to elect a Universal House of Justice with the foreknowledge that there would be no Guardian? Was the time ripe for such an action? Could not the International Baha'i Council have carried on the work? [about]
- United States National Spiritual Assembly vs. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (1941). In 1941 the National Spiritual Assembly unsuccessfully sued Covenant Breaker Mirza Ahmad Sohrab for his use of the word "Baha'i." This is the court's conclusions. [about]
- Unity Principle, The: Ideas of Social Concord and Discord in the Bahá'í Faith, by Robert Stockman, in Research in Human Social Conflict, Volume 2, ed. Joseph Gittler, (2001). [about]
- What is there to grieve about?, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2011). [about]
- When the Bombs Drop: Reactions to Disconfirmed Prophecy in a Millennial Sect, by Robert W. Balch and Gwen Farnsworth, in Sociological Perspectives, 26:2 (1983). An academic article about the prophetic expectations of a covenant-breaker group, Baha’is Under the Provisions of the Covenant, who claimed the world would end on April 29, 1980. [about]
- Will and Testament: Translation and Commentary, by Báb, The (2004). Examination of four available manuscripts, dates of issue, variations, exclusions, verse numbering followed by a running commentary on its tone, message and implications for the future of the Babi movement. [about]
- Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Baha: A Commentary, by David Hofman, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 9 (1940-1944) (1945). [about]
- Will and Testament of Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1992). 'Abdu'l-Baha's Will and Testament consists of three parts - all three written in His own hand. The first one was revealed around 1905 and the second and third sometime around 1907. [about]
- Will and Testament of The Báb, by Báb, The, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). One-page scan of a document commonly, though inaccurately, referred to as the "Will and Testament." [about]
- Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
- WIPO Domain Name Dispute: Case D2005-0214, "uhj.net" (2005). A legal ruling finding, against the Baha'is, that covenant breakers are allowed to use the domain uhj.net. [about]
- World Order of Baha'u'llah: Six Talks on the Various Aspects of, by Ali Nakhjavani (2004). Transcripts of six talks given at a week-long course on the World Order of Baha'u'llah, sponsored by the NSA of Italy. Document includes compilation and outline. (This online version compiled from three different editions of this book.) [about]
- World Order, Evolution Towards: Notes on recent secondary literature, compilation, and two memoranda from the Bahá'í World Centre, by Universal House of Justice, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Two letters, "Request for Materials about the World Order of Baha'u'llah" and "World Government and the Universal House of Justice," and compilation "Extracts from Letters Written by and on Behalf of the House of Justice on Evolution Towards World Order." [about]
- Yahyá, Mírzá, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the younger half-brother of Bahá’u’lláh, later his opponent, known as Subh-i-Azal, described by Shoghi Effendi as "the arch-breaker of the Covenant of the Báb." [about]