|1892. 29 May
||The Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh passes away at Bahjí in His seventy–fifth year. [AB47; BBRXXIX, 233; BKG420; CB148; GPB221; RB4:411]
- For an account by Túbá Khánum see CH105–9.
- Bahá'u'lláh has spent 23 years, 8 months and 29 (or 30) days in the Holy Land. [DH12]
- He passes away eight hours after sunset. [GPB221; UD170]
- The news of His passing is immediately communicated to Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd by `Abdu'l-Bahá: `the Sun of Bahá has set'. [AB47; BKG420 GPB222]
- Shortly after sunset, on the very day of His passing, Bahá'u'lláh is buried beneath the floor of a room in the house adjacent to the mansion of Bahjí, the Qiblih of the Bahá'í Faith. [AB47; BBD211; BKG427; GPB222]
- See CB149 and RB4:149 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's ascension on `Abdu'l-Bahá.
- See ARG71-72 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His attempt to convince Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí to be faithful to the Covenant.
- See AB52–3, CB148–9 and RB4:148–9 for the theft of Bahá'u'lláh's cases containing His seals, papers and other items.
- See AB52–61, CB148–51 and RB4:148–54 for the Covenant-breaking activities of Bahá'u'lláh's family immediately following His death.
- See GPB222–3 for the mourning following the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh.
- At this time the Faith has spread to 15 countries. [MBW61]
- See BBR234–6 for a list of Europeans who met Bahá'u'lláh.
||Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bahaullah, Life of; Holy days; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Covenant-breakers; Covenant (general); Qiblih; - Basic timeline
|1896. c. 1896
||Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí sends letters with misleading statements and calumnies against `Abdu'l-Bahá, thus making widely known his Covenant-breaking activities. [CB151, 178 SDH128-129]
||Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
|1896 In the year
||`Abdu'l-Bahá is forced to withdraw from `Akká to Tiberias owing to the accusations levelled against Him by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [SBBH1:77]
||Tiberias; Hisar; Khurasan; Tabriz; Khuzistan
||Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
|1897. c. 1897
||Mírzá Áqá Ján, Bahá'u'lláh's amanuensis for 40 years, throws in his lot with Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and becomes a Covenant-breaker. [CB181]
- For the story of his downfall see CB181–92.
||Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
|1901 20 Aug
||Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd re-imposes the restrictions confining `Abdu'l-Bahá and His brothers within the walls of `Akká. [AB94; CB226–7; DH67–8; GBP264]
- This is the result of mischief stirred up by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [AB92–5; CB227; GBP264]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá is subjected to long interviews and detailed questioning. [AB95; GPB2645]
- For the continued mischief and false allegations of the Covenant-breakers see CB227–30 and GBP265–7.
- `Abdu'l-Bahá suspends the visits of the pilgrims for a time. [GBP267]
- He directs that all the Bahá'í writings in the possession of His family and secretaries be transferred to Egypt and has His mail redirected through an agent in Egypt. [GBP267]
- For the work of `Abdu'l-Bahá whilst in confinement 1901–8 see CB231–44 and GBP267–9.
||Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Life of
||Mírzá Badí`u'lláh, the fourth surviving son of Bahá'u'lláh, writes to the Bahá'ís announcing his break with Muhammad-`Alí and giving his loyalty to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB102; GPB264]
- His letter gives details of the plots of Muhammad-`Alí against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [GPB264]
- This reconciliation is short-lived. [AB102]
||Mirza Badiullah; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
||Through the year the Covenant-breakers plot until the friendly governor of `Akká is replaced by one hostile to `Abdu'l-Bahá, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí stirring up opposition in certain elements of the population. [AB111; CB232]
These actions result in the arrival of a Commission of Inquiry, sent by Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd. [AB112; CB233]
- Newspapers in Egypt and in Syria write false reports about `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB111; CB232]
- Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí draws up an official indictment against `Abdu'l-Bahá full of false accusations. [AB112; CB232]
- The Commission summons `Abdu'l-Bahá to answer the accusations levelled against Him and upon His replies the inquiry collapses. [AB113–14; CB233]
||Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Commission of Inquiry; Sultan Abdul-Hamid
||Mahd-i-`Ulyá (Fátimih Khánum), the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, dies. She and all her four surviving children are Covenant-breakers. [CB117]
||Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Covenant-breakers
|1912 29 Apr
||Mírzá Yahyá dies in Famagusta. [BBD243; BBR312]
- He had been deserted by most of his followers and is given a Muslim funeral. [BKG426; GPB233]
- Years later his sons and their relatives reconcile themselves to the authority of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [Ch237-238]
||Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Covenant-breakers; Cyprus exiles; Births and deaths
|1912 5 Jul
||Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York, the home of Howard MacNutt. [PUP218]
Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP220]
On this occasion 'Abdu'l-Bahá assigned Howard the task of deepening a group of Chicago Bahá’ís on the importance of the Covenant and instructing them not to associate with Covenant-breakers. Howard failed to complete this task and continued correspondence with associates of Kheiralla. For more information see this date.
|New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Covenant (general); Covenant-breakers
|1912 18 Nov
|| `Abdu'l-Bahá had instructed MacNutt to meet with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warn them of the danger. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. He had failed to do as directed. They met in the Kenny's home for the first time since his trip where`Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís gathered there, which he did, reluctantly. [DJT371]
||New York, NY
||Howard MacNutt; Covenant-Breaker
|1913 1 Aug
||Shoghi Effendi, the Greatest Holy Leaf and the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrive in Egypt. [AB401]
- During this period Tamaddun'ul-Mulk (who had been in London during His first visit) attempts to divide the Bahá'ís of Tehran and Dr Amínu'llah Farid's increasingly erratic behaviour brought Him much suffering and sorrow. [AB402]
||Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Covenant-breakers
|1914 Middle of the year
||The defection of Dr Amín Faríd, `Abdu'l-Bahá's translator while in America, becomes publicly known. [AB407]
- For his activities against `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB230, 402, 407–9.
||Amin Farid; Covenant-breakers
||Ibrahim Kheiralla dies, having been abandoned by all of his followers. [CB252]
||Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Covenant-breakers
|1921 Following `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing
||Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí publishes far and wide that he is the successor to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB277]
- The Egyptian Bahá'ís respond to this by publishing a refutation of his claims. [CB276; SW12, 19:294-5]
||Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Successorship; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of
||The Guardian sends `Abdu'l-Husayn, Ávárih, to Europe to deepen the believers. [CB335, SBR68]
- For his life and eventual Covenant-breaking see CB334-42 and PP120.
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Covenant-breakers
||Shoghi Effendi announces the defection of 'Abdu'l-Husayn Ávarih. He had been a very successful teacher and the author of a book on the history of the Faith but opposed Shoghi Effendi's efforts to build the Administrative Order. He was insistent that the Universal House of Justice be formed at that time. He was denounced by the believers in Egypt and Iran. [SETPE1p149, BA137-139, Ruhi8.2-20, CoC294-296]
- After his defection he became a Muslim and an opponent of the Baha'i Faith. He returned to Tehran and spent the rest of his life as a secondary school teacher. During this period he wrote many works of poetry and prose, including Kashf al-Hial, a three volume work refuting the Bahá'í Faith. [Wikipedia]
||Covenant-breakers; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Abd al-Hosayn Ayati
||A Covenant-breaker, Jamil Irani, tries to still up trouble by implicating the Bahá'ís with Saláru'd-Dawlih, an ambitious brother of Muhammad-'Ali Sháh who had been deposed by the 1909 Revolution in Iran. The allegation was investigated by Lord Plummer, the British High Commissioner in Palestine who learned the truth of the matter. [SETPE1p151-152]
||Covenant-breaker; Jamil Irani; Lord Plummer
|1928 31 Dec
||Ruth White, who had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York in 1912 and who had been on pilgrimage in 1922, writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine with a charge that the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá is a forgery. [SETPE1p157]
||Covenant-breaker; Ruth White
|1929 27 Feb
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada forwarded a pamphlet published by Ruth White to Shoghi Effendi. His advice is to abstain from any provocation and to avoid hurting her feelings. [SETPET1p157, Baha'i News p230, 298]
||Covenant-breakers; Ruth White
|1929 27 Nov
||The Mansion at Bahjí is evacuated by the Covenant-breakers after the occupation by Muhammad-Alí and his relatives for about 40 years. [DH116; GPB355–6; PP231-232, SETPE1p174]
- During this time they showed no respect for the Holy Site; a blacksmith shop was set up near the entrance to the Shrine. [SE125]
- For details of how the building is left see GBP356.
- For pictures of its neglected state see DH116.
- Covenant-breakers continue to occupy the adjacent house until June 1957. [PP233]
- See SE126 for Shoghi Effendi's plan for a Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh.
||Mansion at Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Bahji; Bahaullah, Shrine of
|1930 39 May
||With respect to the New History Society and Ahmad Sohrab, Shoghi Effendi writes to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada to make a definitive statement regarding that organization and the Cause.
- "To accept the Cause without the administration
is like accepting the
teachings without acknowledging the
divine station ot Baha'u'lkih, To be
a Baha'I is to accept the Cause in its
entirety. To take exception to one
basic principle is to dcny the authority
and sovereignty of Baha'u'lIah, and
therefore is to deny the Cause. The
administration is the social order of
Bahi'u'llah. Without it all the principles
of the Cause will remain abortive.
To take exception to this, therefore,
is to take exception to the fabric
t,hat Baha'u'lhih has prescribed, it is to
disobey His law."
- The message goes on to say that "unfailing kindness and goodwill" should be paid to the individuals and that the doors to Bahá'í fellowship should always remain open. [Bahá'í News p333]
||New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breaker
||The National Spiritual Assembly published a statement in the Bahá'í News entitled The Case of Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society. Summarized, the article stated that the “New History Society was begun in New York early in 1929 by Sohrab and "one of its avowed purposes being to spread the Bahá'í teachings. Neither the local nor the National Assembly was consulted in the matter, and the meetings and activities of the New History Society have been maintained apart from the principles of consultation which today, under the Will and Testament of 'Abdu’l-Bahá, form the basis of Bahá'í unity and the protection of the Cause."
"Both the local and National Assembly on several occasions attempted, through oral and written communications, to bring about full and frank consultation with the leaders of the New History Society, but without success.
"Under these conditions it becomes the obvious responsibility of the National Spiritual Assembly to inform the friends that activities conducted by Ahmad Sohrab through the New History Society are to be considered as entirely independent of the Cause, as outside the jurisdiction of the local and National Assembly, and hence in no wise entitled to the cooperation of Bahá'ís."
This statement also quoted from a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by his Secretary to the National Spiritual Assembly on May 30, 1930: "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá’u’lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety...." "The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed, it is to disobey His law." [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society]
|New York; United States
||Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
|1930 7 Oct
||Ruth White writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she has sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requests she sends that same evidence to him and he forwards it to the Governor of Haifa who requests to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declares the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157]
||Haifa; Israel; United Kingdom
||Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of; Authenticity; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; High Commisioners
||The National Assembly published a detailed supplementary statement in the Bahá’í News, quoting passages from the Aqdas, from the Master's Will and Testament, and from the Guardian's letters published in Bahá’í Administration, followed by a reprint of the exchange of correspondence and cables with Mrs. Chanler, and with the Guardian, including the Guardian's cable to New York believers: "True unity can only be preserved by maintenance paramount position National Spiritual Assembly," and his cable approving the statement published in August, 1930, Bahá'í News. Further, in a letter from Haifa to the Yonkers Assembly, “The Guardian pointed out the difference between the freedom defined by Bahá'u'lláh ("To have liberty is to observe My commandments") and that advocated by Sohrab ("The other kind of freedom which is in defiance of law He (Bahá'u'lláh) considers to be animal, and far from being of any good to man"). [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society]
||New York; United States
||Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
|1931 10 Jul
||The administration in Palestine writes to Ruth White advising her that they will take no further action with respect to her claim that the will of 'Abdu'l-Bahá is a forgery.
- "All Mrs White ever achieved was to stir up a temporary and insignificant cloud of dust". [PP119]
- Mrs White wrote letters to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada as well as to some believers objecting to the directives of Shoghi Effendi and to the administration of the Cause through local and national assemblies. One of her converts was Dr Wilhelm Herrigel, one of the founding members of the German community. Later, Dr Herrigel became conscious of the mistake he had made. [SETPE1p158]
- Likewise, Ruth White's husband was repentant, was offered a path back into the Faith but failed to take it. [SETPE1p158]
||Ruth White; Covenant-breakers
||The writing of Episodes in the History of the Covenant by Shoghi Effendi originally written as "Waqáy-i-Tárikhiyyih dar 'Ahd wa Mitháq-i-Iláhi" for the friends in Iran. In 1997 it was translated by Khazeh Fananapazir and edited by Mehdi Wolf. [Episodes in the History of the Covenant
||Covenant (general); Covenant-breakers; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of
|1937 20 Dec
||Muhammad-‘Alí, half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Arch-breaker of the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, dies. [CB355; GPB320; MA11]
- For details of his death and funeral see DH117 and GPB320.
||Gerrard Sluter, a German with Canadian citizenship and previously a pioneer in Guatemala, arrives in Colombia, the first Bahá’í to settle in the country.
- He later becomes a Covenant-breaker and causes much difficulty to the Bahá’ís in many South American countries.
||Gerrard Sluter; Covenant-breakers
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada distributed a mimeographed statement concerning the New History Society entitled The Basis of the Bahá’í Community, which explained the purpose and outcome of the lawsuit entered against the founders of the New History Society to prevent their misuse of the name "Bahá’í” on which the National Spiritual Assembly had obtained a trade mark patent. The court took the position that it was not authorized to decide religious questions. [The Basis of the Bahá'í Community: A Statement Concerning the New History Society]
||Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
||The excommunication of Shoghi Effendi's sister, Mehrangíz Rabbáni with this message.
"Sister Mehrangis [Mehrangiz] followed example Ruhi's sister. Justice demands announce believers her expulsion."(UD149)
The reason for her being declared a Covenant-breaker was that she followed the example of Ruhi's sister by marrying to one of his cousins without the Guardian's consent. Mehrangiz married to Hassan Afnan, the son of Furughiyyih Khanum, a daughter of Bahá'u'lláh by his third wife Gawhar.
||Shoghi Effendi sent the cable below to the Bahá'í world: "Monib Shahid, grandson of both `Abdu'l-Bahá and the King of Martyrs, married according to the Moslem rites the daughter of a political exile who is nephew of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. This treacherous act of alliance with enemies of the Faith merits condemnation of entire Bahá'í world." [Bahá'í News, December, 1944 No. 172]
||Covenant-breakers; Munib Shahid
||Shoghi Effendi sent the following cable to the Bahá'í world: "My faithless brother Husayn, after long period of dishonourable conduct, has abandoned the Master's home to consort with his sister and other Covenant-breakers". [Bahá'í News, No. 174, p.2]
||Covenant-breakers; Husayn Ali Rabbani
||In March 1950, Shoghi Effendi would send a further cable: "Faithless brother Hussein, already abased through dishonorable conduct over period (of) years followed by association with Covenant-breakers (in) Holy Land and efforts (to) undermine Guardian's position, recently further demeaned himself through marriage under obscure circumstances with lowborn Christian girl (in) Europe". [Bahá'í News, No. 229, p.1]
Shoghi Effendi would later defend the use of the term "lowborn Christian girl" as follows: "Regarding his cable concerning Hussein: he has been very surprised to note that the terms 'low-born Christian girl ' and 'disgraceful alliance' should arouse any question; it seems to him that the friends should realize it is not befitting for the Guardian's own brother, the grandchild of the Master, an Afnán and Aghsán mentioned in the Will and Testament of the Master, and of whom so much was expected because of his relation to the family of the Prophet, to marry an unknown girl, according to goodness knows what rite, who is not a believer at all". [Bahá'í News, No. 236, p.4]
||Covenant-breakers; Hussein Rabbani
|1950 12 Nov
||Mírzá Badí‘u’lláh, the youngest son of Bahá’u’lláh, (b.1867 in Adrianople) described by Shoghi Effendi as the ‘chief lieutenant’ of the ‘archbreaker’ of the ‘divine Covenant’ dies. [CB340, 355–6; CF89, BIC162, MSBR63, BBR460, RoB3pg230, CH209, SoB92, CoB340, 355-6, CoF89]
||Mirza Badiullah; Covenant-breakers
||Shoghi Effendi's brother Riáz Rabbáni was the last of his siblings to become a Covenant-Breaker.
"With feeling profound concern, grief, indignation, am compelled disclose Bahá'í world recent developments Holy Land furnishing further incontestable proof relationship established old and new Covenant-breakers demonstrating increasing boldness, marked, tragic decline in character and spiritual condition grandchildren `Abdu'l-Bahá. Their shameful attitude and conduct receiving approbation their elders. Evidences multiplying attesting Ruhi's increasing rebelliousness, efforts exerted my eldest sister pave way fourth alliance members family Siyyid Ali involving marriage his granddaughter with Ruha's son and personal contact recently established my own treacherous, despicable brother Riaz with Majdi'd-Din, redoubtable enemy Faith, former henchman Muhammad-'Ali, Archbreaker Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant. Convey information all National Assemblies." [MBW16, CoB358, 362, 364]
||Covenant-breakers; Riaz Rabbani
|1952 18 May
||The case brought against Shoghi Effendi by the Covenant-breakers in connection with the demolition of a house adjoining the Shrine and Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí is removed from the civil courts by the government of Israel. [CB330; GBF138–9; PP233–4, 290]
- For the history of this case and the outcome see BW12:384–7.
||Shrine and Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí; Covenant-breakers
|1952 1 Jun
||In a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by the Assistant Secretary, the National Spiritual Assembly was informed that Ahmad Sohrab had cabled the Israeli Minister of Religion to influence the court case brought by the Covenant-breakers, against the Guardian, and which resulted in complete vindication of the Guardian's control of the Bahá'í Shrines and properties. Sohrab's cable identified the Caravan with the Covenant-breakers and stated that the organization was not under the authority of Shoghi Effendi. In a letter dated May 25, 1941, the Guardian wrote through his Secretary that Sohrab "is no doubt the most subtle, resourceful and indefatigable enemy the Faith has had in America."
||Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
|1953 29 Oct
||Opal Jensen arrives on Réunion Island from the United States and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
- She is later declared a Covenant-breaker.
||Opal Jensen; Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
|1954 25 Mar
||Leland Jensen arrives on Réunion Island from the United States and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
- He is later declared a Covenant-breaker.
|Reunion Island; France
||Leland Jensen; Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
||A plot of land of slightly less than half an acre owned by Farah Sprague, a Covenant-breaker, is purchased, overcoming the final obstacle to beginning the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives. [DH169; MBW73–4]
||Farah Sprague; Covenant-breakers; International Bahai Archives
||Was she the Iranian-born wife of Sidney Sprague? See BFA2p155
|1956 20 Dec
||The publication in the Official Gazette of the government of Israel of the issue of an expropriation order against the Covenant-Breakers in possession of the holy Shrines at Bahji. This order was immediately appealed by the Covenant-Breakers to the Supreme Court.
||Shoghi Effendi announces that the Treasury Department of Israel has issued an expropriation order for the remaining property held by Covenant-breakers at Bahjí, mainly the dilapidated building north of the mansion. [MBW109]
|1957 31 May
||The Supreme Court of Israel finds in their judgement against the Covenant-Breakers resulting in their removal from the properties in Bahjí.
||The Covenant-breakers completely abandon Bahjí. [CB367–9; DH215; MBW120–2; PP233–4]
|1957 6 Sep
||Shoghi Effendi announces ‘the complete evacuation of the remnant of Covenant-breakers and the transfer of all their belongings from the precincts of the Most Holy Shrine’. [MBW124]
- See VSE166 for Audrey Robarts' observation of the Covenant-breakers at Bahjí during her pilgrimage in 1955.
||Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Bahaullah, Shrine of
|1957 2 Dec
||The title to the Shrine of the Báb, the Mansion of Bahjí, and all other buildings and lands which the Covenant-Breakers had owned were transferred to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States.
|1957 25 Dec
||The Hands of the Cause announce the destruction of the long, two-storey house previously occupied by Covenant-breakers which was located near the garden wall of the Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh and of which Shoghi Effendi had acquired legal possession shortly before his passing. [MC11, 51]
- The rubble is used to complete the terraces begun by Shoghi Effendi north of the mansion and completing the northern gardens planned by him.
|1958 20 Apr
||Mírzá Ahmad (Esphahani) Sohrab, the Covenant-breaker who rebelled against Shoghi Effendi, dies. [MC90]
- For the story of his defection from the Faith see CB343–7.
- He is burried in the Saint Paul Episcopal Church Cemetery, Glen Cove, Nassau County, New York.
|Glen Cove; Nassau County; New York
||Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breakers; New History Society
|1959 23 Oct - 1 Nov
||The third Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. [BW13:351; MC161–2]
- For the agenda of the meeting see MC163–4.
- Charles Mason Remey unsuccessfully attempts to convince his fellow Hands that the Guardianship should continue. [BBRSM130; MC217]
||Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
|1959 4 Nov
||The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their third Conclave. [MC166–70]
- The date for the election of the Universal House of Justice is fixed at Ridván 1963. [MC166]
- They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of 21 national spiritual assemblies in Latin America. [MC167–8]
- They call for the election at Ridván 1962 of 11 national spiritual assemblies in Europe. [MC168]
- They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of the International Bahá’í Council by postal ballot of the members of the national and regional spiritual assemblies constituted at Ridván 1960. [MC168]
- The name of Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey is missing from the list of signatories to this letter. [MC170]
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Universal House of Justice, Election of; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
|1960 Ridván c.
||Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey claims he is the second, ‘hereditary’ Guardian of the Bahá’í Faith. [BW13:397; BW16:90; SS49]
- See MC205–6, 231–6 for details of Remey’s claims.
- See also BBRSM130-1, 138–9; CB386–91; MC196–217, 223–8; SBBH1:220, NOTE 207.
||Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
|1960 27 Apr
||The International Bahá’í Council by unanimous vote rejects the claim of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC206–7]
||International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 28 Apr
||The Custodians call upon all believers to join the Hands in repudiation of the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC196–7]
||Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 30 Apr – 10 May
||Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions send messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
- The National Spiritual Assembly of France votes to recognize the claim. [MC203]
||National Spritual Assemblies; Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship; France
|1960 5 May
||Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí is sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
- After consultation, five members of the assembly continue to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resign from the assembly. The national assembly is dissolved. [MC203]
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abul-Qasim Faizi; National Spritual Assemblies; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship; France
|1960 12 – 31 May
||Six national spiritual assemblies send messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC207–8]
||National Spiritual Assemblies; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 13 May
||The International Bahá’í Council writes to the Custodians recording its decision taken on 27 April to reject the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [Mc206–7]
||International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Custodians; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 26 Jul
||The Hands of the Cause of God declare Charles Mason Remey a Covenant-breaker. [BBRSM221; MC224–5]
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
|1960. 3 Aug
||Cable from the Hands of the Cause of God announcing the expulsion as Covenant Breakers of
John Carre, Barnard Fillon, Moneer Darakhshan, Joel Marangela, Jaques Soghomonian, Donald Harvey, John
Byers and Mary Wilkin. [Ministry of the Custodians p223]
||Covenant-breakers; Joel Bray Marangella; Custodians
|1964 5 Nov
||Followers of Charles Mason Remey file suit in the United States District Court for Northern Illinois against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, claiming they are the rightful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States. [BW14:95]
- The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States files a counter claim asking the court to restrain the Covenant-breakers from using Bahá’í names and symbols protected by trademark. [BW14:95]
||Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; NSA; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks; Criticism and apologetics
|1965 23 Mar
||The case filed by the followers of Charles Mason Remey against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States is dismissed on technical grounds. [BW14:95]
- The Covenant-breakers file a further suit. [BW14:95]
||Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
|1965 11 Nov
||The Universal House of Justice announces that the ‘final step’ in the ‘process’ of the ‘purification’ of the Bahá’í properties in Bahjí has been taken with the removal of the remains of the Covenant-breaker Mírzá Díyá’u’lláh from the immediate precincts of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW14:82–3]
||Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Mirza Diyaullah; Bahaullah, Shrine of
|1966 8 Mar
||The second suit brought against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States by the followers of Charles Mason Remey, who claim to he the lawful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States, is dismissed. [BW14:95]
||Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
|1966 1 Jun
||The counter-claim of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States against the followers of Charles Mason Remey restraining them from using Bahá’í names and symbols, is upheld when the Covenant-breakers fail to appear at the trial. [BW14:95]
||Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Copyright and trademarks; Court cases; Criticism and apologetics
|1974 4 Feb
||The death of Charles Mason Remey, Hand of the Cause of God (1951-60) and subsequently a Covenant-breaker. in Florence, Italy. (b.15 May 1874) [Wikipedia]
- Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
- He was declared a Covenant-breaker by the Hands of the Cause on the 26th of July, 1960.
||Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Births and deaths