Bahá'í Library Online
. . . .
.

Search for tag "Covenant-breakers"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1892. 29 May The Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh

Bahá'u'lláh passes away at Bahjí in His seventy–fifth year. [AB47; BBRXXIX, 233; BKG420; CB148; GPB221; RB4:411]

  • For an account by Túbá Khánum see CH105–9.
  • Bahá'u'lláh has spent 23 years, 8 months and 29 (or 30) days in the Holy Land. [DH12]
  • He passes away eight hours after sunset. [GPB221; UD170]
  • The news of His passing is immediately communicated to Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd by `Abdu'l-Bahá: `the Sun of Bahá has set'. [AB47; BKG420 GPB222]
  • Shortly after sunset, on the very day of His passing, Bahá'u'lláh is buried beneath the floor of a room in the house adjacent to the mansion of Bahjí, the Qiblih of the Bahá'í Faith. [AB47; BBD211; BKG427; GPB222]
  • See CB149 and RB4:149 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's ascension on `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See ARG71-72 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His attempt to convince Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí to be faithful to the Covenant.
  • See AB52–3, CB148–9 and RB4:148–9 for the theft of Bahá'u'lláh's cases containing His seals, papers and other items.
  • See AB52–61, CB148–51 and RB4:148–54 for the Covenant-breaking activities of Bahá'u'lláh's family immediately following His death.
  • See GPB222–3 for the mourning following the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • At this time the Faith has spread to 15 countries. [MBW61]
  • See BBR234–6 for a list of Europeans who met Bahá'u'lláh.
Bahji Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bahaullah, Life of; Holy days; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Covenant-breakers; Covenant (general); Qiblih; - Basic timeline
1896. c. 1896 Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí sends letters with misleading statements and calumnies against `Abdu'l-Bahá, thus making widely known his Covenant-breaking activities. [CB151, 178 SDH128-129] Akka Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
1896 In the year `Abdu'l-Bahá is forced to withdraw from `Akká to Tiberias owing to the accusations levelled against Him by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [SBBH1:77] Tiberias; Hisar; Khurasan; Tabriz; Khuzistan Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
1897. c. 1897 Mírzá Áqá Ján, Bahá'u'lláh's amanuensis for 40 years, throws in his lot with Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and becomes a Covenant-breaker. [CB181]
  • For the story of his downfall see CB181–92.
Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
1901 20 Aug Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd re-imposes the restrictions confining `Abdu'l-Bahá and His brothers within the walls of `Akká. [AB94; CB226–7; DH67–8; GBP264]
  • This is the result of mischief stirred up by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [AB92–5; CB227; GBP264]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá is subjected to long interviews and detailed questioning. [AB95; GPB2645]
  • For the continued mischief and false allegations of the Covenant-breakers see CB227–30 and GBP265–7.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá suspends the visits of the pilgrims for a time. [GBP267]
  • He directs that all the Bahá'í writings in the possession of His family and secretaries be transferred to Egypt and has His mail redirected through an agent in Egypt. [GBP267]
  • For the work of `Abdu'l-Bahá whilst in confinement 1901–8 see CB231–44 and GBP267–9.
`Akka; Egypt Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
1903 Feb Mírzá Badí`u'lláh, the fourth surviving son of Bahá'u'lláh, writes to the Bahá'ís announcing his break with Muhammad-`Alí and giving his loyalty to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB102; GPB264]
  • His letter gives details of the plots of Muhammad-`Alí against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [GPB264]
  • This reconciliation is short-lived. [AB102]
`Akka Mirza Badiullah; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
1904 Through the year the Covenant-breakers plot until the friendly governor of `Akká is replaced by one hostile to `Abdu'l-Bahá, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí stirring up opposition in certain elements of the population. [AB111; CB232]
  • Newspapers in Egypt and in Syria write false reports about `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB111; CB232]
  • Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí draws up an official indictment against `Abdu'l-Bahá full of false accusations. [AB112; CB232]
These actions result in the arrival of a Commission of Inquiry, sent by Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd. [AB112; CB233]
  • The Commission summons `Abdu'l-Bahá to answer the accusations levelled against Him and upon His replies the inquiry collapses. [AB113–14; CB233]
Haifa; Akka Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Commission of Inquiry; Sultan Abdul-Hamid
1904 Mahd-i-`Ulyá (Fátimih Khánum), the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, dies. She and all her four surviving children are Covenant-breakers. [CB117] Haifa; Akka Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Covenant-breakers
1912 29 Apr Mírzá Yahyá dies in Famagusta. [BBD243; BBR312]
  • He had been deserted by most of his followers and is given a Muslim funeral. [BKG426; GPB233]
  • Years later his sons and their relatives reconcile themselves to the authority of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [Ch237-238]
Famagusta; Cyprus Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Covenant-breakers; Cyprus exiles; Births and deaths
1913 1 Aug Shoghi Effendi, the Greatest Holy Leaf and the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrive in Egypt. [AB401]
  • During this period Tamaddun'ul-Mulk (who had been in London during His first visit) attempts to divide the Bahá'ís of Tehran and Dr Amínu'llah Farid's increasingly erratic behaviour brought Him much suffering and sorrow. [AB402]
Ramlih; Egypt Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Covenant-breakers
1914 Middle of the year The defection of Dr Amín Faríd, `Abdu'l-Bahá's translator while in America, becomes publicly known. [AB407]
  • For his activities against `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB230, 402, 407–9.
Amin Farid; Covenant-breakers
1919 Ibrahim Kheiralla dies, having been abandoned by all of his followers. [CB252] Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Covenant-breakers
1921 Following `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí publishes far and wide that he is the successor to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB277]
  • The Egyptian Bahá'ís respond to this by publishing a refutation of his claims. [CB276; SW12, 19:294-5]
Egypt Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Successorship; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of
1923 Jan The Guardian sends `Abdu'l-Husayn, Ávárih, to Europe to deepen the believers. [CB335, SBR68]
  • For his life and eventual Covenant-breaking see CB334-42 and PP120.
Europe Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Covenant-breakers
1927 mid-Oct Shoghi Effendi announces the defection of 'Abdu'l-Husayn Ávarih. He had been a very successful teacher and the author of a book on the history of the Faith but opposed Shoghi Effendi's efforts to build the Administrative Order. He was insistent that the Universal House of Justice be formed at that time. He was denounced by the believers in Egypt and Iran. [SETPE1p149, BA137-139, Ruhi8.2-20, CoC294-296] Haifa Covenant-breakers; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn)
1929 27 Feb The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada forwarded a pamphlet published by Ruth White to Shoghi Effendi. His advice is to abstain from any provocation and to avoid hurting her feelings. [SETPET1p157, Baha'i News p230, 298] Covenant-breakers; Ruth White
1929 27 Nov The Mansion at Bahjí is evacuated by the Covenant-breakers after the occupation by Muhammad-Alí and his relatives for about 40 years. [DH116; GPB355–6; PP231-232, SETPE1p174]
  • During this time they showed no respect for the Holy Site; a blacksmith shop was set up near the entrance to the Shrine. [SE125]
  • For details of how the building is left see GBP356.
  • For pictures of its neglected state see DH116.
  • Covenant-breakers continue to occupy the adjacent house until June 1957. [PP233]
  • See SE126 for Shoghi Effendi's plan for a Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh.
Bahjí; Mansion at Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Bahji; Shrine of Baha'u'llah
1930 Aug The National Spiritual Assembly published a statement in the Bahá'í News entitled The Case of Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society. Summarized, the article stated that the “New History Society was begun in New York early in 1929 by Sohrab and "one of its avowed purposes being to spread the Bahá'í teachings. Neither the local nor the National Assembly was consulted in the matter, and the meetings and activities of the New History Society have been maintained apart from the principles of consultation which today, under the Will and Testament of 'Abdu’l-Bahá, form the basis of Bahá'í unity and the protection of the Cause."

"Both the local and National Assembly on several occasions attempted, through oral and written communications, to bring about full and frank consultation with the leaders of the New History Society, but without success.

"Under these conditions it becomes the obvious responsibility of the National Spiritual Assembly to inform the friends that activities conducted by Ahmad Sohrab through the New History Society are to be considered as entirely independent of the Cause, as outside the jurisdiction of the local and National Assembly, and hence in no wise entitled to the cooperation of Bahá'ís."

This statement also quoted from a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by his Secretary to the National Spiritual Assembly on May 30, 1930: "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá’u’lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety...." "The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed, it is to disobey His law." [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society]

New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
1930 7 Oct Ruth White writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she has sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requests she sends that same evidence to him and he forwards it to the Governor of Haifa who requests to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declares the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157] Haifa; Israel; United Kingdom Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of; Authenticity; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; High Commisioners
1930 Nov The National Assembly published a detailed supplementary statement in the Bahá’í News, quoting passages from the Aqdas, from the Master's Will and Testament, and from the Guardian's letters published in Bahá’í Administration, followed by a reprint of the exchange of correspondence and cables with Mrs. Chanler, and with the Guardian, including the Guardian's cable to New York believers: "True unity can only be preserved by maintenance paramount position National Spiritual Assembly," and his cable approving the statement published in August, 1930, Bahá'í News. Further, in a letter from Haifa to the Yonkers Assembly, “The Guardian pointed out the difference between the freedom defined by Bahá'u'lláh ("To have liberty is to observe My commandments") and that advocated by Sohrab ("The other kind of freedom which is in defiance of law He (Bahá'u'lláh) considers to be animal, and far from being of any good to man"). [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society] New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
1931 10 Jul The administration in Palestine writes to Ruth White advising her that they will take no further action with respect to her claim that the will of 'Abdu'l-Bahá is a forgery.
  • "All Mrs White ever achieved was to stir up a temporary and insignificant cloud of dust". [PP119]
  • Mrs White wrote letters to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada as well as to some believers objecting to the directives of Shoghi Effendi and to the administration of the Cause through local and national assemblies. One of her converts was Dr Wilhelm Herrigel, one of the founding members of the German community. Later, Dr Herrigel became conscious of the mistake he had made. [SETPE1p158]
  • Likewise, Ruth White's husband was repentant, was offered a path back into the Faith but failed to take it. [SETPE1p158]
Ruth White; Covenant-breakers
1937 Dec The writing of Episodes in the History of the Covenant by Shoghi Effendi originally written as "Waqáy-i-Tárikhiyyih dar 'Ahd wa Mitháq-i-Iláhi" for the friends in Iran. In 1997 it was translated by Khazeh Fananapazir and edited by Mehdi Wolf. [Episodes in the History of the Covenant BWC; Iran Covenant (general); Covenant-breakers; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of
1937 20 Dec Muhammad-‘Alí, half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Arch-breaker of the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, dies. [CB355; GPB320; MA11]
  • For details of his death and funeral see DH117 and GPB320.
‘Akka Muhammad-‘Ali; Covenant-breakers
1940 Jul Gerrard Sluter, a German with Canadian citizenship and previously a pioneer in Guatemala, arrives in Colombia, the first Bahá’í to settle in the country.
  • He later becomes a Covenant-breaker and causes much difficulty to the Bahá’ís in many South American countries.
Colombia Gerrard Sluter; Covenant-breakers
1941 Nov The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada distributed a mimeographed statement concerning the New History Society entitled The Basis of the Bahá’í Community, which explained the purpose and outcome of the lawsuit entered against the founders of the New History Society to prevent their misuse of the name "Bahá’í” on which the National Spiritual Assembly had obtained a trade mark patent. The court took the position that it was not authorized to decide religious questions. [The Basis of the Bahá'í Community: A Statement Concerning the New History Society] Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab title; title
1941 Dec The excommunication of Shoghi Effendi's sister, Mehrangíz Rabbáni with this message.

"Sister Mehrangis [Mehrangiz] followed example Ruhi's sister. Justice demands announce believers her expulsion."(UD149)

The reason for her being declared a Covenant-breaker was that she followed the example of Ruhi's sister by marrying to one of his cousins without the Guardian's consent. Mehrangiz married to Hassan Afnan, the son of Furughiyyih Khanum, a daughter of Bahá'u'lláh by his third wife Gawhar.[15]

BWC Covenant-breakers
1944 Nov Shoghi Effendi sent the cable below to the Bahá'í world: "Monib Shahid, grandson of both `Abdu'l-Bahá and the King of Martyrs, married according to the Moslem rites the daughter of a political exile who is nephew of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. This treacherous act of alliance with enemies of the Faith merits condemnation of entire Bahá'í world." [Bahá'í News, December, 1944 No. 172] BWC Covenant-breakers; Munib Shahid
1945 Apr Shoghi Effendi sent the following cable to the Bahá'í world: "My faithless brother Husayn, after long period of dishonourable conduct, has abandoned the Master's home to consort with his sister and other Covenant-breakers". [Bahá'í News, No. 174, p.2] BWC Covenant-breakers; Husayn Ali Rabbani
1950 Mar In March 1950, Shoghi Effendi would send a further cable: "Faithless brother Hussein, already abased through dishonorable conduct over period (of) years followed by association with Covenant-breakers (in) Holy Land and efforts (to) undermine Guardian's position, recently further demeaned himself through marriage under obscure circumstances with lowborn Christian girl (in) Europe". [Bahá'í News, No. 229, p.1]

Shoghi Effendi would later defend the use of the term "lowborn Christian girl" as follows: "Regarding his cable concerning Hussein: he has been very surprised to note that the terms 'low-born Christian girl ' and 'disgraceful alliance' should arouse any question; it seems to him that the friends should realize it is not befitting for the Guardian's own brother, the grandchild of the Master, an Afnán and Aghsán mentioned in the Will and Testament of the Master, and of whom so much was expected because of his relation to the family of the Prophet, to marry an unknown girl, according to goodness knows what rite, who is not a believer at all". [Bahá'í News, No. 236, p.4]

BWC Covenant-breakers; Husayn Rabbani; Hussein Rabbani
1950 12 Nov Mírzá Badí‘u’lláh, the youngest son of Bahá’u’lláh, (b.1867 in Adrianople) described by Shoghi Effendi as the ‘chief lieutenant’ of the ‘archbreaker’ of the ‘divine Covenant’ dies. [CB340, 355–6; CF89, BIC162, MSBR63, BBR460, RoB3pg230, CH209, SoB92, CoB340, 355-6, CoF89] Mirza Badiullah; Covenant-breakers
1951 Dec Shoghi Effendi's brother Riáz Rabbáni was the last of his siblings to become a Covenant-Breaker. "With feeling profound concern, grief, indignation, am compelled disclose Bahá'í world recent developments Holy Land furnishing further incontestable proof relationship established old and new Covenant-breakers demonstrating increasing boldness, marked, tragic decline in character and spiritual condition grandchildren `Abdu'l-Bahá. Their shameful attitude and conduct receiving approbation their elders. Evidences multiplying attesting Ruhi's increasing rebelliousness, efforts exerted my eldest sister pave way fourth alliance members family Siyyid Ali involving marriage his granddaughter with Ruha's son and personal contact recently established my own treacherous, despicable brother Riaz with Majdi'd-Din, redoubtable enemy Faith, former henchman Muhammad-'Ali, Archbreaker Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant. Convey information all National Assemblies." [MBW16, CoB358, 362, 364] BWC Covenant-breakers; Riaz Rabbani
1952 18 May The case brought against Shoghi Effendi by the Covenant-breakers in connection with the demolition of a house adjoining the Shrine and Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí is removed from the civil courts by the government of Israel. [CB330; GBF138–9; PP233–4, 290]
  • For the history of this case and the outcome see BW12:384–7.
Israel Shrine and Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí; Covenant-breakers
1952 1 Jun In a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by the Assistant Secretary, the National Spiritual Assembly was informed that Ahmad Sohrab had cabled the Israeli Minister of Religion to influence the court case brought by the Covenant-breakers, against the Guardian, and which resulted in complete vindication of the Guardian's control of the Bahá'í Shrines and properties. Sohrab's cable identified the Caravan with the Covenant-breakers and stated that the organization was not under the authority of Shoghi Effendi. In a letter dated May 25, 1941, the Guardian wrote through his Secretary that Sohrab "is no doubt the most subtle, resourceful and indefatigable enemy the Faith has had in America." United States Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
1953 29 Oct Opal Jensen arrives on Réunion Island from the United States and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
  • She is later declared a Covenant-breaker.
Réunion Island Opal Jensen; Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
1954 25 Mar Leland Jensen arrives on Réunion Island from the United States and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
  • He is later declared a Covenant-breaker.
Reunion Island; France Leland Jensen; Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
1954 Nov A plot of land of slightly less than half an acre owned by Farah Sprague, a Covenant-breaker, is purchased, overcoming the final obstacle to beginning the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives. [DH169; MBW73–4] Haifa Farah Sprague; Covenant-breakers; International Bahai Archives Was she the Iranian-born wife of Sidney Sprague? See BFA2p155
1956 20 Dec The publication in the Official Gazette of the government of Israel of the issue of an expropriation order against the Covenant-Breakers in possession of the holy Shrines at Bahji. This order was immediately appealed by the Covenant-Breakers to the Supreme Court. BWC Bahji; Covenant-breakers find reference
1957 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces that the Treasury Department of Israel has issued an expropriation order for the remaining property held by Covenant-breakers at Bahjí, mainly the dilapidated building north of the mansion. [MBW109] ‘Akká Bahji; Covenant-breakers
1957 31 May The Supreme Court of Israel finds in their judgement against the Covenant-Breakers resulting in their removal from the properties in Bahjí. Bahji Bahji; Covenant-breakers find reference
1957 Jun The Covenant-breakers completely abandon Bahjí. [CB367–9; DH215; MBW120–2; PP233–4] ‘Akká Bahji; Covenant-breakers
1957 6 Sep Shoghi Effendi announces ‘the complete evacuation of the remnant of Covenant-breakers and the transfer of all their belongings from the precincts of the Most Holy Shrine’. [MBW124]
  • See VSE166 for Audrey Robarts' observation of the Covenant-breakers at Bahjí during her pilgrimage in 1955.
‘Akka Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Bahaullah, Shrine of
1957. 2 Dec The title to the Shrine of the Báb, the Mansion of Bahjí, and all other buildings and lands which the Covenant-Breakers had owned were transferred to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. BWC Covenant-breakers; Ownership find reference
1957 25 Dec The Hands of the Cause announce the destruction of the long, two-storey house previously occupied by Covenant-breakers which was located near the garden wall of the Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh and of which Shoghi Effendi had acquired legal possession shortly before his passing. [MC11, 51]
  • The rubble is used to complete the terraces begun by Shoghi Effendi north of the mansion and completing the northern gardens planned by him.
‘Akka Bahji; Covenant-breakers
1958 20 Apr Mírzá Ahmad (Esphahani) Sohrab, the Covenant-breaker who rebelled against Shoghi Effendi, dies. [MC90]
  • For the story of his defection from the Faith see CB343–7.
  • He is burried in the Saint Paul Episcopal Church Cemetery, Glen Cove, Nassau County, New York.
Glen Cove; Nassau County; New York Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breakers; New History Society
1959 23 Oct - 1 Nov The third Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. [BW13:351; MC161–2]
  • For the agenda of the meeting see MC163–4.
  • Charles Mason Remey unsuccessfully attempts to convince his fellow Hands that the Guardianship should continue. [BBRSM130; MC217]
‘Akka Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
1959 4 Nov The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their third Conclave. [MC166–70]
  • The date for the election of the Universal House of Justice is fixed at Ridván 1963. [MC166]
  • They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of 21 national spiritual assemblies in Latin America. [MC167–8]
  • They call for the election at Ridván 1962 of 11 national spiritual assemblies in Europe. [MC168]
  • They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of the International Bahá’í Council by postal ballot of the members of the national and regional spiritual assemblies constituted at Ridván 1960. [MC168]
  • The name of Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey is missing from the list of signatories to this letter. [MC170]
‘Akka Hands of the Cause; Universal House of Justice, Election of; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
1960 Ridván c. Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey claims he is the second, ‘hereditary’ Guardian of the Bahá’í Faith. [BW13:397; BW16:90; SS49]
  • See MC205–6, 231–6 for details of Remey’s claims.
  • See also BBRSM130-1, 138–9; CB386–91; MC196–217, 223–8; SBBH1:220, NOTE 207.
Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
1960 27 Apr The International Bahá’í Council by unanimous vote rejects the claim of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC206–7] Haifa International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
1960 28 Apr The Custodians call upon all believers to join the Hands in repudiation of the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC196–7] Haifa Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
1960 30 Apr – 10 May Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions send messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of France votes to recognize the claim. [MC203]
National Spritiual Assemblies; Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship; France
1960 5 May Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí is sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
  • After consultation, five members of the assembly continue to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resign from the assembly. The national assembly is dissolved. [MC203]
France Hands of the Cause; Abul-Qasim Faizi; National Spritual Assemblies; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship; France
1960 12 – 31 May Six national spiritual assemblies send messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC207–8] National Spiritual Assemblies; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
1960 13 May The International Bahá’í Council writes to the Custodians recording its decision taken on 27 April to reject the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [Mc206–7] Haifa International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Custodians; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
1960 26 Jul The Hands of the Cause of God declare Charles Mason Remey a Covenant-breaker. [BBRSM221; MC224–5] Haifa Hands of the Cause; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
1960. 3 Aug Cable from the Hands of the Cause of God announcing the expulsion as Covenant Breakers of John Carre, Barnard Fillon, Moneer Darakhshan, Joel Marangela, Jaques Soghomonian, Donald Harvey, John Byers and Mary Wilkin. [Ministry of the Custodians p223] BWC Covenant-breakers; John Carre; Barnard Fillon; Moneer Darakhshan; Joel Bray Marangella; Jaques Soghomonian; Donald Harvey; John Byers; Mary Wilkin; Custodians
1964 5 Nov Followers of Charles Mason Remey file suit in the United States District Court for Northern Illinois against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, claiming they are the rightful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States. [BW14:95]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States files a counter claim asking the court to restrain the Covenant-breakers from using Bahá’í names and symbols protected by trademark. [BW14:95]
United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
1965 23 Mar The case filed by the followers of Charles Mason Remey against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States is dismissed on technical grounds. [BW14:95]
  • The Covenant-breakers file a further suit. [BW14:95]
United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
1965 11 Nov The Universal House of Justice announces that the ‘final step’ in the ‘process’ of the ‘purification’ of the Bahá’í properties in Bahjí has been taken with the removal of the remains of the Covenant-breaker Mírzá Díyá’u’lláh from the immediate precincts of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW14:82–3] ‘Akka Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Mirza Diyaullah; Bahaullah, Shrine of
1966 8 Mar The second suit brought against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States by the followers of Charles Mason Remey, who claim to he the lawful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States, is dismissed. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
1966 1 Jun The counter-claim of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States against the followers of Charles Mason Remey restraining them from using Bahá’í names and symbols, is upheld when the Covenant-breakers fail to appear at the trial. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Copyright and trademarks; Court cases
1974 4 Feb The death of Charles Mason Remey, Hand of the Cause of God (1951-60) and subsequently a Covenant-breaker. in Florence, Italy. (b.15 May 1874) [Wikipedia]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • He was declared a Covenant-breaker by the Hands of the Cause on the 26th of July, 1960.
Florence; Italy Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Birts and deaths

from the main catalogue

  1. A Lost History of the Baha'i Faith, by Eric Stetson: Review, by Grover Gonzales (2016). Critical review of a book about the history of some covenant-breaker groups. [about]
  2. Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society, by Paul E. Haney and Horace Holley (1958). Overview of the defection of Ahmad Sohrab and the formation of the "New History Society" and the "Caravan of East and West." [about]
  3. Authority of the Hands of the Cause to direct the Faith and expel Covenant-breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Authority of the Hands of the Cause assume control of the Faith and eject Covenant-breakers following Shoghi Effendi's passing. [about]
  4. Authority of the International Teaching Centre in Expelling Covenant-Breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1998). On the role of the Counsellors and the ITC in protecting the Faith, and the process of expelling a person whose behavior is in conflict with the Covenant. [about]
  5. Basis of the Bahá'í Community, The: A Statement Concerning the New History Society, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1941). A statement on Ahmad Sohrab's activities and its trademark infringement case. [about]
  6. Biographies of Jamal-i-Burujirdi, by Adib Taherzadeh and Dariush Lamie (1998). Three short biographies of about the man who asked to be exempt from the laws of the Aqdas. [about]
  7. Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit: Chapter 31 of Some Answered Questions, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). [about]
  8. Center of the Covenant: Tablet to Mason Remey, interview with Badi'u'llah, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Badi'u'llah, in Star of the West, 3:7 (1912). Brief interview conducted by Howard MacNutt. Includes a tablet from Abdu'l-Baha to Mason Remey. [about]
  9. Chosen Highway, The, by Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield (Sitarih Khanum) (1940). [about]
  10. Covenant, The, and Covenant-breaker, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
  11. Covenant-breakers and other Enemies of the Faith, Writings of; Photographs of Baha'u'llah, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (2000). Baha'i scholars may, when needed, use books by Covenant Breakers, including William Miller's The Baha'i Faith. [about]
  12. Covenant-Breakers in Bahá'í Historiography, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 5:3-6:1 (1991). Baha'i scholars may, when needed, use books by Covenant Breakers. [about]
  13. Covenant-Breakers, Encountering Online, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Actions Baha'is need or need not take upon meeting Covenant Breakers in online "chat rooms" or by email. [about]
  14. Covenant-breakers, Non-association with, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1999). Includes extracts regarding electronic communication with Covenant-Breakers. [about]
  15. Episodes in the History of the Covenant, by Shoghi Effendi (1997). Message revealed by the Guardian to the Bahá'ís of ‘Irán concerning the incorruptibility of the Covenant. [about]
  16. Epistle to the Bahá'í World, An, by Mirza Badi'u'llah (1907). Letter from the half-brother of `Abdu'l-Baha about Badi'u'llah's exit from, return to, and then exit again from the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  17. Fifteen Years of Failed Prophecy: Coping with cognitive dissonance in a Bahá'í sect, by Robert W. Balch and John Domitrovich, in Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem: Contemporary Apocalyptic Movements, ed. Thomas Robbins and Susan J. Palmer (1997). An academic article about the prophetic expectations of a covenant-breaker group, Baha’is Under the Provisions of the Covenant. Followed by "The End is Nearish," Chase's predictions satirized by Harper's. [about]
  18. Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
  19. Kitab-i-Aqdas and the Expulsion of Covenant Breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Discussion of a reference in the Kitab-i-Aqdas to the possible end of the Guardianship, and the authority of the Hands of the Cause to expel Covenant-breakers. [about]
  20. Mason Remey and Those Who Followed Him, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Letter from the US NSA on the importance of commitment to the covenant, a letter from the UHJ on covenant-breaking, and the history "Mason Remey and Those Who Followed Him." [about]
  21. Memories of Nine Years in Akka, by Youness Afroukhteh (1952). Translation of Khatirát-i-Nuh-Saliy-i-‘Akká, the memoirs of Dr. Yúnis Afrukhtih, who served ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as secretary and interpreter from 1900-1909. Includes discussion of the history of Covenant-breaking. [about]
  22. Ministry of the Custodians: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause 1957-1963, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Account of the stewardship of the Hands of the Cause of God from 1957-63, from the passing of Shoghi Effendi to the election of the House, riding the waves of crisis to the moment of victory — the fulfillment of prophecy. [about]
  23. National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States vs. New Mexico Covenant-Breakers, in United States Patent Quarterly, 150 (1966). Documents from the lawsuit by the NSA vs. the New Mexico covenant-breaker group "The National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States of America Under the Hereditary Guardianship, Inc." for their use of Baha'i names and titles. [about]
  24. Statement on Mason Remey from the Western Hands of the Faith, by Corinne True and Hermann Grossmann (1960). Background information on the claims of Remey, compiled by the Hands of the Cause of God in the Western hemisphere. [about]
  25. United States National Spiritual Assembly vs. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (1941). In 1941 the National Spiritual Assembly unsuccessfully sued Covenant Breaker Mirza Ahmad Sohrab for his use of the word "Baha'i." This is the court's conclusions. [about]
  26. When the Bombs Drop: Reactions to Disconfirmed Prophecy in a Millennial Sect, by Robert W. Balch and Gwen Farnsworth, in Sociological Perspectives, 26:2 (1983). An academic article about the prophetic expectations of a covenant-breaker group, Baha’is Under the Provisions of the Covenant, who claimed the world would end on April 29, 1980. [about]
  27. Will and Testament of Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1992). 'Abdu'l-Baha's Will and Testament consists of three parts - all three written in His own hand. The first one was revealed around 1905 and the second and third sometime around 1907. [about]
  28. WIPO Domain Name Dispute: Case D2005-0214, "uhj.net" (2005). A legal ruling finding, against the Baha'is, that covenant breakers are allowed to use the domain uhj.net. [about]
  29. Yahyá, Mírzá, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the younger half-brother of Bahá’u’lláh, later his opponent, known as Subh-i-Azal, described by Shoghi Effendi as "the arch-breaker of the Covenant of the Báb." [about]
 
Tips:
Home Site Map Forum Links Copyright About Contact
.
. .