||Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí dies in Istanbul naval dockyards. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation.
||Mulla Ali Bastami; Martyrs; Firsts, Other
|1848. 12 Sep
||The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
- He is 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
- He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
- The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
- For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
- See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
- See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
- See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
- He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
- It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
|Tabriz; Iran; Iraq
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Firsts, Other
|1853 or 1854
||Birth of Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, first son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [CB 125]
||Mirza Muhammad-Ali; Bahaullah, Wives of; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Lawh Kullut-Taam (Tablet of All Food); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Firsts, Other
|1863 22 Apr
||Thirty–one days after Naw-Rúz, which in this year falls on 22 March, Bahá'u'lláh leaves His house for the last time and walks to the Najíbíyyih Garden, afterwards known as the Garden of Ridván (Paradise).
On this day Bahá'u'lláh declares His mission to a few of His disciples. [RB1:260, 262]
- ‘Of the exact circumstances … we, alas, are but scantily informed.' [BKG173; GPB153]
- For such details as are known, see BKG173–5 and GPB153.
- For the import of the event, see BKG169–73; G27–35; GBP153–5.
- This initiates the holy day of the First Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 21 April. [BBD196]
- This marks the end of the dispensation of the Báb and of the first epoch of the Heroic or Apostolic Age of the Bahá'í dispensation. [BBD72, 79]
On the same day Bahá'u'lláh makes three important statements to His followers:
- He forbids the use of the sword.
- He states that no other Manifestations will appear before one thousand years. This is later reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Badí‘ and in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
- He states that, as from this moment, all the names and attributes of God are manifested within all created things, implying the advent of a new Day. [RB1:278–80]
On the afternoon of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival at the Garden He reveals the Lawh-i-Ayyúb for Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí. [SA239]
During the 12 days in the Ridván Garden Bahá'u'lláh confides to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá that He is ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. [CH82]
- See CH82–3 for the effect of this announcement on ‘Abdu'l-Bahá.
||Naw-Ruz; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Ages (time); Lawh-i-Ayyub; Haji Muhammad-i-Taqiy-i-Nayrizi; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline; Firsts, Other
||French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau publishes Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement. [BBR17]
Mírzá Kazem-Beg of St Petersburg University publishes Bab Babidy, the first Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion. [BBR26]
||Comte de Gobineau; Babi studies; Mirza Kazem-Beg; Petersburg University; Firsts, Other
|1866. c. Mar 1866
||The Most Great Separation. Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) for Mírzá Yahyá. [CH60, 83, CB84; GBP166]
- This is the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
- Bahá'u'lláh directs his amanuensis to take the Tablet to Mírzá Yáhyá. He becomes very angry and a "jealous fire consumed him". He responds by claiming that he is the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [CH60, BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]
- The announcement that Bahá'u'lláh was the Promised One spread quickly to Iraq and to Persia. The followers were happy for the clarification and glad to be rid of Yáhyá. Only the express command of Bahá'u'lláh prevented them from ridding the world of such nefarious traitor. [CH61]
- It is believed that Yáhyá's conduct and accusations precipitated the next exile. [CH61]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); People Most Great Separation; Firsts, other
|1867 Sep - Aug 1868
||Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]
- See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí‘.
Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station is foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177]
- See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Kitab-i-Badi (Wondrous Book); Munajathay-i-Siyam (Prayers for Fasting); Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III) ; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Suriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Firsts, Other
|1868. c. Jul
||Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád are arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.[BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
- About 70 people are exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
- See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
- See BKG183 for a description of the city.
- See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
- They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
|Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution; Charity and relief work; Funds; Firsts, Other
|1868. 31 Aug
||The ship arrives in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party is put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
- Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembark and are taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
- One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, throws himself into the sea when he learns he is to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
The exiles land in `Akká to begin a confinement in the citadel that is to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
- See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
- See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
- See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
- See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
- DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
- See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
- See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
- See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
- See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
- The first night the exiles are refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
- Afterwards each prisoner is allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
- Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
- Three of the exiles die soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
- See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
- See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
- At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'bdu'l-Ahad ahead some time before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
- The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
- After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letter to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
|Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Petro. Dr; Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile; Firsts, Other
|1878 to 1881
||The first Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
- His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
- He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
- He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb and transferring it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it stayed until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment.
- Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
- He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
|Iran; Yazd; Baghdad; Tihran
||Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Bab, Remains of; Mosques; Firsts, Other
|1887. 13 Apr
||The first mention of the concept of `Hand of the Cause' in Bahá'u'lláh's writings is within a Tablet revealed in honour of Ibn-i-Asdaq. [BBD115; EB173]
||Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Writings of
|1889. 8 Sep
||Hájí Muhammad Ridáy-i-Isfahání is martyred in `Ishqábád. [BBRXXIX, 296–7; GPB202]
- Czar Alexander III sends a military commission from St Petersburg to conduct the trial of those accused of the murder. [AB109; GPB202]
- Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl serves as chief Bahá'í spokesman at the trial. [AB109]
- Two are found guilty and sentenced to death, six others are ordered to be transported to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
- Bahá'u'lláh attaches importance to the action as being the first time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for an attack on Bahá'ís. [BBRSM91]
- The Bahá'í community intercedes on behalf of the culprits and has the death sentences commuted to transportation to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
- For Western accounts of the episode see BBR296–300.
||Haji Muhammad Riday-i-Isfahani; Czar Alexander III; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Martyrs; Firsts, Other
||On the instructions of Bahá'u'lláh, The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is published for the first time in Bombay. [SA250]
- It is published in Arabic. [SA250]
||Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Firsts, Other; Publishing
|1898. 13 Nov
||`Abdu'l-Bahá commemorates Kheiralla's arrival by ending the period of mourning for Bahá'u'lláh and by opening His Tomb to pilgrims for the first time. [BFA1:142–3; SBBH2:112]
||Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Firsts, Other
|1898. 10 Dec
||The first Western pilgrims arrive in `Akká. [AB68; BBD13; BBRXXX; DH214; GPB257; SCU13; Bahá'í Teachings]
- They divide themselves into three parties, using Cairo as a staging post. [AB68; BFA1:143; SBBH1:93]
- See AB68–72; BFA2:9; DH61; GPB257, 259 for those included in the pilgrimage group.
- Included were Mrs Hearst's nieces, a few American friends and, joining in London, Mrs Mary Thornburgh-Cropper and her mother. [SCU13. CH234-236]
- See BFA1:143–4 for those included in the first group.
- Among the group is Robert Turner, the first member of the black race to become a Bahá'í. For 35 years, Turner faithfully served as butler to Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Senator George Hearst, parents of newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. [AB72; BBD227; BFA1:139; GPB259]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá receives the pilgrims in the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD13, 108; DH61]
- See AB68–71; BW16:104–5; CH235–6 and GPB257–9 for the pilgrims' responses to the pilgrimage.
- Edward Getsinger makes a recording of `Abdu'l-Bahá chanting a prayer. [BFA1:160]
- The Getsingers returned from the pilgrimage with an Arabic copy of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas which was later translated by Anton Haddad. [BFA2:11]
|Akka; Cairo; Egypt
||Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; Firsts, Other; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Robert Turner; Edward Getsinger; Lua Getsinger; Anton Haddad; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Voice recording of
||The first Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrive in America. [BFA1:143]
- See BFA1:143 for the recipients.
||Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Firsts, Other
|1901 26 Nov
||The first celebration of the Day of the Covenant, the `Master's Day', in North America. [BFA2:XV, 56; SA245]
||Day of the Covenant; Firsts, Other; Covenant (general)
|1904 28 Oct
||Ali Kuli Khan marries Florence Breed, the first marriage between a Persian and a Western Bahá'í. [BFA2:147]
- For details of this marriage see SUR223–20.
||Ali-Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; Firsts, Other; Interracial marriage
|1904 1 Dec
||Sidney Sprague arrives in India. [BFA2:XVI]
- He is the first American Bahá'í travelling teacher in Asia. [BFA2:XVI]
||Sidney Sprague; Travel teaching; Firsts, Other
||Hippolyte Dreyfus and Laura Barney visit Iran. [BFA2:XVI]
- They are the first Western Bahá'ís to do so. [BFA2:XVI]
||Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Laura Clifford Barney; Firsts, Other
||Hájí Muhammad-Taqí Afnán, Vakílu'd-Dawlih, the cousin of the Báb largely responsible for the building of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád, is buried in the newly acquired Bahá'í cemetery in Haifa, the earliest recorded burial in the cemetery. [BBD51; DH182]
||Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Firsts, Other
|1922 6 Jun
||The All-England Bahá'í Council meets for the first time. [SBR28; UD9, 468]
- ER2 13 says it first met 17 June.
- The meeting is held in the home of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper. [SBR28, 67]
||All-England Bahai Council; Firsts, Other; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper
||The International Bahá’í Bureau is established in Geneva by Jean Stannard under the direction of Shoghi Effendi. [BW4:257]
- For the history and work of the Bureau see BW4:257–61, BW6:130–5, BW7:108–13, BW11:507–8.
- Its function is to act as intermediary between Haifa and other Bahá’í centres. [BBD118; BW4:261]
|Geneva; Switzerland; Europe
||International Bahai Bureau; Jean Stannard; Firsts, Other
||The publication of A Commentary on the Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá written by David Hofman by a new publisher, George Ronald. They went on to publish books on business ethics, comparative religion, studies of sacred texts, Islam, poetry, music, novels, biography and philosophy as well as a number of other subjects. George Ronald is primarily a publisher of books related to the
history, teachings, doctrines and personalities of the Bahá’í Faith. See the reference for a list of Bahá'í books published up to 2013. [George Ronald
A Bibliographic History
- A current catalogue can be found at their website.
||Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; George Ronald; Firsts, Other
|1947 1 Feb
||Reflecting the unity in diversity highly valued by the Baha'i community, Amin Banani, Mildred Mottahedeh, Hilda Yen, and Matthew Bullock presented the statement "A Baha'i Declaration of Human Obligations and Rights" to the UN, which ended by quoting a well-known passage by Baha'u'llah: "The earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens."
Amin Banani was an influential scholar; Mildred Mottahedeh was a member of the International Baha'i Council from 1961-63 and later a representative of the BIC for many years; Hilda Yen was a leading figure in Chinese-American society who worked as a diplomat for many years; and Matthew Bullock was a Knight of Baha'u'llah for the Dutch West Indies, on this day was also a Knight for the Netherlands Antilles, and later a representative of the BIC. [BWNS1172]
|New York; United States
||UN; Matthew Bullock; Bahai International Community; Firsts, Other
||The name ‘Bahá’í International Community’ is first used to refer to the eight existing National Spiritual Assemblies recognized collectively as a non-governmental organization. [BBRSM149; BW11:43; BW12:597]
- The Bahá’í International Community evolved to become an international non-governmental organization with affiliates in over 180 countries and territories, which together represent over 5-6 million members of the Bahá’í Faith. As an international NGO, the Office interacts and cooperates with the United Nations, its specialized agencies, with governments, as well as with inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations. The BIC seeks to promote and apply principles — derived from the teachings of the Bahá’í Faith — which contribute to the resolution of current day challenges facing humanity and the development of a united, peaceful, just, and sustainable civilization. The work of the BIC focuses on the promotion of a universal standard for human rights, the advancement of women, and the promotion of just and equitable means of global prosperity.
- Mildred Mottahedeh is appointed to serve as the accredited Bahá’í International Observer, a post she holds as a volunteer for almost 20 years. [BW12:601]
- The following is a list of UN agencies with whom the BIC has representation:
United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF),
United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM),
United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC),
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and
World Health Organization (WHO).
||Bahai International Community (general); Mildred Mottahedeh; UNICEF; UNIFEM; ECOSOC; UNEP; World Health Organization (WHO); Firsts, Other
|1950 20 Jan
||World Religion Day is first observed in the United States. [BBD242]
- Its purpose is to associate the term ‘world religion’ with the Bahá’í Faith. [BBD242]
||World Religion Day; Firsts, Other
|1953 20 Jun
||Shoghi Effendi designates the Maxwell home in Montreal as a Shrine. [MtC179]
||Shoghi Effendi; Baha'i Shrine; Montreal Shrine; Maxwell Home; Firsts, Other
|1954 26 Apr
||President of Israel Ben Zvi and his wife visit the Shrines on Mount Carmel, the first official visit paid by a head of a sovereign state to the Shrines of the Báb and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. [GBF139–140; MBW68; PP2923]
||Haifa; Mount Carmel
||Ben Zvi; Presidents; Prominent visitors; Bab, Shrine of; Firsts, Other
||The first contacts with the Aboriginal people were made in Kampong Jus in Malacca by Saurajen, as reported at a special meeting held with Hand of the Cause of God, Dr. Muhajir in Malacca on 29 December 1957. [Jewel Among Nations, Splendour Publications, Author A. Manisegaran. Pages 221-222]
||Kampung Jus; Malacca; Malaysia
||Rahmatullah Muhajir; Saurajen; Aboriginal people; Firsts, Other
|1962 28 Jun
||President Tubman of Liberia visits the Shrine of the Báb.
- This is the second official visit of a head of state and is notable in that Liberia is the first black republic on the continent of Africa. [BW13:400]
- See BW13:400 for picture.
|Haifa; Mount Carmel
||Bab, Shrine of; President Tubman; Presidents; Prominent visitors; Liberia; Firsts, Other
|1963 21 Apr
||The Universal House of Justice is elected for the first time. [BW14:427; MC424]
- The election is held at 9:30 in the morning at the home of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 7 Haparsim Street, Haifa. [BW14:427; MC425]
- Ballots are received from all 56 national spiritual assemblies. [BW14:427]
- 288 members of 51 national spiritual assemblies are present at the election. [BW14:427]
- For a list of the electors see MC406–13.
- For details of the election see BW14:425–9 and MC20–1.
||Election; UHJ; - Basic timeline; Firsts, Other
|1963 22 Apr
||The results of the election of the Universal House of Justice are announced at the close of the morning session of the International Convention: Charles Wolcott, ‘Alí Nakhjavání, H. Borrah Kavelin, Ian Semple, Lutfu’lláh Hakím, David Hofman, Hugh Chance, Amoz Gibson and Hushmand Fatheazam. [BBD231–3; BBRSM131; BW14:425 MC425; SS50; VVXI-XII]
- For a picture of the Hands of the Cause of God with the Universal House of Justice see ZK123.
||Charles Wolcott; Ali Nakhjavani; Borrah Kavelin; Ian Semple; Lutfullah Hakim; David Hofman; Hugh Chance; Amoz Gibson; Hushmand Fatheazam; Universal House of Justice, Election of; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Firsts, Other
|1968 19 Feb
||His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa, the first reigning monarch to become a Bahá’í, writes to the Universal House of Justice confirming his acceptance of the Faith. [BW15:180–3]
||Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Bahai royalty; Firsts, Other
|1969 29 Oct
||A mechanism of world inter-communication will be devised, embracing the whole planet, freed from national hindrances and restrictions, and functioning with marvellous swiftness and perfect regularity. WOB203
1844 May 24 Samuel F.B. Morse sent the first telegraphic message over an experimental line from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore, the message said: "What hath God wrought?"
1894 May 10 Marconi sends a radio wave 3/4 mile, the first "wireless" transmission.
1897 Marconi Co sends the first ship-to-shore message 12 miles. 1899 Mar 3 the ship "East Goodwin" is save after sending the distress signal "HELP".
1858 Aug 16 the first transatlantic telegraph cable is an undersea cable running under the Atlantic Ocean used for telegraph communications was laid across the floor of the Atlantic from Telegraph Field, Foilhommerum Bay, Valentia Island in western Ireland to Heart's Content in eastern Newfoundland. The first communications occurred August 16, 1858, reducing the communication time between North America and Europe from ten days.
1969 October 29 The birth of the Internet. First message from computer to computer in different locations. UCLA student Charley Kline attempts to transmit the text “login” to a computer at the Stanford Research Institute over the first link on the ARPANET, which was the precursor to the modern Internet. After the letters “l” and “o” are sent the system crashed, making the first message ever sent on the Internet “lo” and the first crash of the system.
||Internet; Communication; Firsts, Other; History (general)
||The first Native Council takes place in Haines, Alaska, attended by 50 native Bahá’ís.
||Haines; Alaska; United States
|1977 16 – 17 Apr
||The first annual Bahá’í Studies Seminar supported by the Departments of Religious Studies and of Sociology at the University of Lancaster, England, takes place. [BW18:204]
||Lancaster; United Kingdom
||Bahai Studies, Associations for; Firsts, Other
|1981 23 May
||Helmut Winkeibach, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Belarus, marries Olga Grigorevna Dolganova, a Russian, their wedding ceremony being the first Bahá’í wedding in the Soviet Union.
||Helmut Winkelbach; Olga Grigorevna Dolganova; Knights of Bahaullah; Firsts, Other
||The renovation of the House of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá in ‘Akká is completed. [BW18:77]
- Delegates attending the fifth International Convention are the first pilgrims to visit it. [BW18:77]
- For pictures see BW18:78–80.
||House of Abdullah Pasha; Restoration; Universal House of Justice, Election of; International conventions; Conventions; ; Firsts, Other
||One Country, the newsletter of the Bahá'í International Community, now published in five other languages - French, Spanish, Chinese, Russian, and German. The first French language edition of the publication was launched in Paris in October, 1989. Each issue contains two or three in-depth feature stories on the United Nations, noteworthy social and economic development projects, environmental efforts or educational programs, along with an editorial that addresses world problems from a Bahá'í point of view.
||Bahai International Community; One Country; Firsts, Other; Newsletters
||The University of Maryland announced its decision to establish "The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace" in its Centre for International Development and Conflict Management. In 1992 Professor Suheil Bushrú’í was named as the first scholar to hold the Chair. [AWH76; VV108]
||Maryland; United States
||University of Maryland; Bahai Chair for World Peace; Suheil Bushrui; Firsts, Other
|1991 14 Nov
||In a message from Hand of the Cause A.M. Varqá, the Office of the Trustee, the Institution of the Huqúqu'lláh, to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, the formation of the Board of Trustees of the Huqúqu'lláh was announced. Members were Mr. Husayn Banání, Dr. Mohsen Enayat, Dr. Gerald Hanks, Dr. Bill Hatcher, and Dr. Michael Rochester. [CBNJan92 p2]
||Huququllah; Firsts, Other; Huququllah, Trustees of
|1991 26 Nov
||"The Office of Ḥuqúqu’lláh has been established in the Holy Land under the direction of the Chief Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh, the Hand of the Cause of God ‘Alí-Muḥammad Varqá, in anticipation of the worldwide application of the Law of Ḥuqúqu’lláh next Riḍván. Concurrent with this development are the steps being taken by Dr. Varqá to organize regional and national Boards of Trustees of Ḥuqúqu’lláh, following the example of the Board already functioning in the United States. " [From the Message of the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 1991.]
||Ali-Muhammad Varqa; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Firsts, Other
|1994 Mar 24
||The Dalai Lama visits the Bahá'í World Centre, the first time a head of a religion has visited the Shrine of the Báb. [BW93–4:78, CBN Vol 7 no 1 May/June 1994]
||World Centre; BWC
||Dalai Lama; Bab, Shrine of; Prominent visitors; Firsts, Other; Buddhism; Tibet
|1996 15 Jan
||A Chair for Bahá'í Studies is inaugurated at the University of Lucknow. [BINS354:3]
||Chair in Bahai Studies; Universities; Firsts, Other
||The dedication of the first academic chair in Bahá'í studies in Israel at Hebrew University of Jerusalem with the appointment of Prof. Moshe Sharon. The position was made possible because of an anonymous donation. [Jerusalem Post, June 7, 1999, BWNS84]
||Chair in Bahai Studies; Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Universities; Moshe Sharon; Firsts, Other; Donations
|2000 17 - 21 Dec
||The first International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Bábí-Bahá’í Faiths was held in Jerusalem with about 90 persons in attendance. [BWNS84]
||Conferences, Interfaith; Interfaith dialogue; Judaism; Christianity; Islam; Firsts, Other
|2003 18 Mar
||The President of India, Abdul Kalam, visited the Bahá'í House of Worship in New Delhi, the first official visit there by an Indian Head of State since the Temple was opened in December 1986. [BWNS204]
||New Delhi; India
||Abdul Kalam; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Prominent visitors; Presidents; Firsts, Other
|2003 4 Apr
||Given current conditions in the world the Ninth International Convention was cancelled. It had been scheduled for 29 April to 2 May. Ballots from the National Spiritual Assembly members were mailed to the World Centre. The 19 delegates that had been chosen as tellers travelled to the World Centre to count the votes. [BW'02-‘03pg37-38, BWNS202]
||International Conventions; Firsts, Other
|2003 16 Dec
||Shirin Ebadi, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, the first Muslim woman to win the coveted distinction.
- For a long time she has fought for the rights of women and children in Iran and it is most fitting that she, a woman lawyer who dared to speak out against the sexist Iranian regime, be praised and recognised by the world.
- She is an author and also the founder of the Association for Support of Children's Rights in Iran. [Nobel Peace Prize 2003]
- In 2002 she founded the Defender of Human Rights Center and in 2009 she was forced to flee into exile.
||Shirin Ebadi; Nobel Peace Prize; Human rights Center; Women; Firsts, Other
||The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace was assumed by Professor Hoda Mahmoudi who previously headed a research department at the Bahá'í World Center in Israel. [Bio Professor Hoda Mahmoudi]
||Maryland; United States
||Hoda Mahmoudi; Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland; Firsts, Other
|2017 1 - 2 Sep
||The opening of Cambodia’s first “Local House of Worship” in Battambang, just over two years after the design of the building was unveiled in July 2015.
The Mashriqu’l-Adhkar was designed by Phnom Penh-based architect Tang Sochet Vitou. It is situated on a 9 hectare property of which 1.5 hectares is used for the temple, an administrative building as well as gardens and ponds. The temple is a frequent topic of conversation among the local population. Even before its completion, it has galvanized action towards the betterment of the community and brought neighbours together. it will help provide for the spiritual needs of Cambodia’s growing Baha’i community which, according to the Ministry of Cult and Religion’s most recent annual report, numbers about 12,000 although some adherents say the figure may now be closer to 20,000. Baha’i communities were first recorded in the kingdom in the 1920s and since 1992 they have grown steadily with the help of aid workers and Asian immigrants.
In a letter dated 18 December 2014, the Universal House of Justice explained that a Baha’i House of Worship is a “collective centre of society to promote cordial affection” and “stands as a universal place of worship open to all the inhabitants of a locality irrespective of their religious affiliation, background, ethnicity, or gender and a haven for the deepest contemplation on spiritual reality and foundational questions of life, including individual and collective responsibility for the betterment of society.”
The dedication was marked by a two-day conference bringing together over 2,500 people from Battambang and every other region of Cambodia. A number of Cambodian dignitaries attended along with representatives of Baha’i communities in Southeast Asia. The Universal House of Justice was represented by Ms. Sokuntheary Reth who serves on the Continental Board of Counsellors in Asia.
[BWNS1185, BWNS1187, BWNS1189, BWNS1190 (slide show), BWNS1191 (video), BWNS1192]
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Cambodia; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Firsts, Other