||French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau publishes Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement. [BBR17]
Mírzá Kazem-Beg of St Petersburg University publishes Bab Babidy, the first Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion. [BBR26]
||French; Joseph Comte de Gobineau; Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale; Babi; Mirza Kazem-Beg; Petersburg University; Bab Babidy
|1870 1 - 2 Sep
||Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffers defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. Napoleon goes into exile in England, where he dies in 1873.
- Bahá'u'lláh refers to this in KA86.
|1900 26 Nov
||Agnes Alexander accepts the Faith in Rome after hearing the message from Mrs Dixon. She stays in Rome for three months studying prophecies then travels to Paris for further study with May Bolles for another three and one half months. She leaves Paris in the Spring of 1901 for London, New England, Oakland, Ca and finally Honolulu. [BFA1p159]
||Rome; Italy; Paris; France; Oakland; California; London; England; Honolulu
||Agnes Alexander; Mrs Dixon
|1902 13 Jun
||Thomas Breakwell dies from tuberculosis in Paris. (b. 31 May, 1872 in Woking) [AB77; BBD46; SEBW70]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá appears to know this without being told. [AB78-9; SEBW70]
- Shoghi Effendi designates him one of three `luminaries shedding brilliant lustre on annals of Irish, English and Scottish Bahá'í communities'. [MBW174]
- See AB79, SEBW71–2 and SWAB187–9 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's eulogy.
- See wikipedia for an account of his life.
- See Cimetière de Pantin for the location of his resting place c/w photos.
|Woking; England; Paris; France
||Thomas Breakwell; In Memoriam
||The publication of The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys. [7V74V]
Two works written in Baghdad after Bahá’u’lláh returned from Kurdistan in 1856. The Seven Valleys was revealed in reply to a letter from Shaykh Muhiyi’d-Din, the religious judge of Khaniqin, who was a Sufi. The Four Valleys was addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu’r-Rahman, leader of the Qadiriyyih Sufi order, with whom Bahá’u’lláh had been in contact in Sulaymaniyyih.
“To these two outstanding contributions to the world’s religious literature, (Shoghi Effendi had written of the Kitáb-i-Íqán and the Hidden Words) … was added, during that same period, a treatise that may well be regarded as His greatest mystical composition, designated as the “Seven Valleys,”.., in which He describes the seven stages which the soul of the seeker must needs traverse ere it can attain the object of its existence.” [GPB140]
In the West this was one of the earliest available books of Bahá'u'lláh, first translated directly to French in 1905, and English in 1906. [GPB140]
The Seven Valleys was translated into English by Marzieh Gail in consultation with her father, Alí-Kuli Khan Nabil-al Douleh. The publication date of the first English translation was 1945 with an introduction added in 1952. The second edition of The Seven Valleys published in 1968 and 1975 by the US Bahá'í Publishing Trust.
||The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys; Kitab-i-Íqan and the Hidden Words; Marzieh Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan
|1940 2 Jun
||Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum leave St Malo, France, for England one day before the city is occupied by the Nazis. Shoghi Effendi seems acutely aware of the danger to himself and to the Faith should he fall into the hands of the Nazis because the Cause had already been banned in Germany and his inveterate enemy, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, was allied with them. [PP 179–80]
||St Malo; France
||Shoghi Effendi; Ruhiyyih Khanum
|1953 20 Oct
||Frances Heller arrives in Macau and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the island. [BW13:453; PH73]
- She is the first Knight of Bahá’u’lláh to settle in Chinese territory.
||Frances Heller; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
|1958 26 Apr
||The National Spiritual Assembly of France is formed.
- For the message of the Custodians to the French National Convention see MC86–9.
|1960 5 May
||Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí is sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
- After consultation, five members of the assembly continue to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resign from the assembly. The national assembly is dissolved. [MC203]
||Hand of the Cause; Abu’l-Qasim Faizi; NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-Breaker
||In Angola, Antonio Francesco Ebo and seven other Bahá’ís are arrested and imprisoned in a penal colony off the coast of southern Angola.
- They remain in confinement for eight years.
||Antonio Francesco Ebo; religious persecution
|1966 29 Sep
||Frances A. Foss, the first pioneer on St Maarten, arrives in Philipsburg.
||Philipsburg; St Maarten
||Frances A. Foss; pioneer
||The first Gypsies, six adults and six youth, to become Bahá’ís in France enrol at a campsite near Le Bourget airport.
|1976 3 – 6 Aug
||An International Teaching Conference is held in Paris, attended by some 5,700 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; DM416; VV33]
- For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:131–2.
- For the message of Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General of the United Nations, see BW17:140.
- For pictures see BW17:109, 117–19.
||Kurt Waldheim; United Nations; International Teaching Conference; Conference
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Martinique is formed with its seat in Fort-de-France. [BW19:62, 155]
- See BW19:523 for picture.
||The inaugural publication of One Country, the newsletter of the Bahá'í International Community. It is a publication of the Office of Public Information of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. The periodical reports mainly on activities of the worldwide Bahá'í community in relation to issues of sustainable development, peace and world order, human rights, and the advancement of women. [BW'86-‘92 p.539]
||New York; U.S.; Paris; France
||One Country; newsletter; Baha'i International Community
||The formation of the European Bahá'í Business Forum in France with members from 26 countries in Europe and elsewhere. [VV115]
- Formed by a group of Bahá'ís active in business and management meeting in Chamonix, France, due to concern about the decline of ethics and values in business.
- Forum created to promote the moral and spiritual wisdom and principles of the great religious traditions of the world (sources included Judaism, Hinduism, and Christianity as well as the 19th century revelation of Baha'u'llah) such as adherence to the principles of justice, respect, trustworthiness, integrity and unity.
- Beginning as an informal network, its membership grew requiring the election of a Governing Board.
- Members have attached importance to sharing their broad experience and to contributing to the improvement of management in emerging free-market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. [ebbf]
||European Baha'i Business Forum
|1990 1 - 2 Sep
||The European Bahá'í Business Forum is formed at a meeting in Chamonix, France, attended by people from eight countries. [BINS244:8; VV115]
||European Business Forum
|1993 In the year
||EBBF was registered in Paris as an official non-profit association. Its statutes provide that membership is open to Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís alike. [ebbf]
||European Baha'i Business Forum
|1994 May 22
||The first Bahá'í Children and Youth Conference of Martinique is held in Fort-de-France, attended by 22 people. [BINS318:4–5]
||Baha'i Children and Youth Conference of Martinique