|1870 19 Jul – 1871 10 May
||Franco-Prussian War was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded.
- See KA90 for Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this and KAN121 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation.
||Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III
|1870 1 - 2 Sep
||Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffers defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. Napoleon goes into exile in England, where he dies in 1873.
- Bahá'u'lláh refers to this in KA86.
|Sedan; France; Germany
||Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III; Kaiser Wilhelm I; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book)
|1877. 26 Sep
||Birth of Siegfried Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, in Germany.
||Furth; Bavaria; Germany
||Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
|1883. 15 Apr
||Birth in Goslar, Germany, of Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns, a prominent German Bahá'í, named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
||Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
||Agnes Alexander arrives in Alaska, the first Bahá'í travelling teacher to visit the territory.
A Bahá'í group is established in Germany. [BBRSM:107, 219]
|Alaska; United States; Germany
|1909 (In the year)
||Karl Kruttner, a professor in Bohemia, becomes a Bahá'í, the first person to do so in the Austro-Hungarian empire.
||Karl Kruttner; find reference
|1913 30 Mar
||`Abdu'l-Bahá travels from Paris to Stuttgart. [AB379]
- He tells His attendants to wear European dress and to discard their oriental headgear. [AB379]
- He does not tell the Bahá'ís of Stuttgart of His arrival in advance. [AB379]
|Paris; France; Stuttgart; Germany
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
|1913 7 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Bad Mergentheim by automobile to visit the hotel and mineral bath owned by Consul Schwarz, (Later named Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi). [AB383]
- Later, in 1916 the local Bahá'í community commemorated the visit with the dedication of a monument, a life-sized likeness of the head of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on a granite stone about two metres in height. The Nazis removed it in 1937 but it was replaced in 2007. [BWNS524]
|Bad Mergentheim; Germany
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Cars; Consul Schwarz; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Monuments; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; World War II; BWNS
|1913 8 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Bahá returns to Stuttgart, then leaves in the evening for Budapest, changing trains in Vienna the next morning. To this date no travel teacher had visited Budapest and there are no resident believers. [ABM316]
- The trip was made at the invitation of, among others, Mr and Mrs Lipót Stark. the Secretary General of the Theosophical Society, who had given a lecture entitled "The Bahá'i Movement" on the 25th of February, 1912 and the text of the lecture had been published in the Esperanto periodical Teozofia (Theosophical). [SBBR14p110]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá is accompanied by Wilhelm Herrigel to serve to translate into German. [AB384]
|Stuttgart; Germany; Budapest; Hungary
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains; Wilhelm Herrigel
|1913 24 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Vienna and returns to Stuttgart, where He arrives in the early hours of the next morning. [AB389]
||Vienna; Austria; Stuttgart; Germany
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
|1913 1 May
||`Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Stuttgart and returns to Paris. [AB391]
||Stuttgart; Germany; Paris; France
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
|1914 4 Aug
||England declares war on Germany.
||United Kingdom; Germany; Europe
||World War I; War (general); History (general)
|1918 23 Sep
||"During the early years of World War I, though no longer imprisoned, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá faced repeated threats against His life by authorities who were antagonistic towards Him and the Baha’is. The Commander of the Ottoman fourth army corps had even threatened to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Bahá if the Turkish army were ever to be displaced out of Haifa." Lady Blomfield in London had learned of these threats and through her contacts in Cabinet, the British Army was instructed to protect Him and His family. [BWNS69, BWNS1202]
The British army took the city in the 1st Battle of Haifa: The battle was won due to a courageous uphill assault by the Jodhpur Lancers of the Indian Army who took the German and Turkish artillery and machine gun emplacements on top of Mount Carmel by surprise. This attack is believed to have been one of the last cavalry charge in modern military history. Each year, on this date, the Indian Army commemorates this victory as Haifa Day. [AY104; BBR335; DH148, Scroll In 68095]
- For details of the battle see BBR335-6.
- For letters from the British authorities stating that `Abdu'l-Bahá is safe see BBR336-7.
|Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel
||World War I; War (general); History (general); Jodhpur Lancers; Indian Army; Germany; Turkey; Haifa Day; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; BWNS; Lady Blomfield
|1920 After Jul
||The first Argentineans to become Bahá'ís, Hermann Grossman and his sister Elsa Grossman, accept the Faith in Leipzig in 1920.
- They were born in Argentina and emigrated to Germany in 1909.
- Dr Grossman hears of the Faith at a public meeting given by Harlan and Grace Ober at the Theosophical Society. [BW13:869]
||Herman Grossmann; Elsa Grossman; Harlan and Grace Ober; Theosophical Society; First Bahais by country or area
||Shoghi Effendi sends verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56]
To the United States and Canada he sends a message to transform the 'Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]
|Germany; United Kingdom; United States; Canada
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board
||National Spiritual Assemblies are elected in the British Isles, India and Germany. [GPB333]
- The election of the British National Spiritual Assembly is by postal ballot. [ER228]
- For membership of the British National Spiritual Assembly see ER228 and SBR71.
- See also ER223-31 for the election and functioning of the British National Spiritual Assembly.
|British Isles; India; Germany
||Of the 38 localities where Bahá'ís reside in Europe, 26 are in Germany. [BBRSM182]
||The first German Bahá’í summer school is held, at Esslingen. [BBRSM182; BW5:44]
- UD98 and BW5p30 put this date as 1932.
||Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
||All Bahá’í activities and institutions are banned in Germany by order of the Gestapo owing to the Faith’s ‘international and pacifist teachings’. [BBRSM185]
- PP305 says this was June.
- Bahá’í books, archives and records are confiscated and a number of Bahá’ís are later tried and imprisoned. [BBRSM185]
||Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; World War II
|1938 to 1955
||The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]
|Tubingen; Germany; Tabriz; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon; Akka
||Varqa, Valiyullah; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; American University at Beirut; Varqa
|1939 3 Sep
||World War II begins with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invades Poland.
||Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland
||World War II; History (general); War (general)
|1945 14 Aug
||The German Bahá’ís, 80 per cent of whom live in the American sector of occupied Germany, obtain permission to re-organize. [BBRSM185]
||Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Other; Persecution; World War II
|1946 21 Apr
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Germany and Austria is re-established. [BBRSM185]
- It is elected for the first time since 1937.
- Three American soldiers are members. [BBRSM185]
||NSA Germany and Austria
||The Germano-Austrian teaching plan (1948–53), comprising internal goals only, is launched. [BBRSM158]
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Germany and Austria launch a Five Year Plan (1948-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46]
||Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
|1953 19 Apr
||Shoghi Effendi announces plans to build a House of Worship in Frankfurt. [BW13:733; LDG191–2]
- For the difficulties in pursuing the project see BW13:733–7.
|Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1955 12 Nov
||Hand of the Cause of God Valíyu’lláh Varqá passes away in Stuttgart.
- For his obituary see BW13:831–834.
- Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
||Varqa, Valiyullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa
||Shoghi Effendi calls for the convocation of a series of Intercontinental Conferences to be held successively in Kampala, Uganda; Sydney, Australia; Chicago, United States; Frankfurt, Germany; and Djakarta, Indonesia. [BW13:311–12; MBW125]
||BWC; Kampala; Uganda; Sydney; Australia; Chicago; United States; Frankfurt; Germany; Djakarta; Indonesia
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
|1958 25–29 Jul
||The fourth Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Frankfurt, Germany. [BW13:327]
- Amelia Collins, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by ten other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:327]
- For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC102–6.
- For a report of the conference see BW13:327–9.
|Frankfurt; Germany; Europe
||Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
|1960 20 Nov
||The cornerstone of the fifth House of Worship is laid in Langenhain, Germany, by Hand of the Cause of God Amelia Collins. [BW13:739; MC238, 245, 249–50]
||Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Amelia Collins
|1962 16 Nov
||The superstructure of the European House of Worship near Frankfurt is completed and the Temple is turned over to the Bahá’ís by the contractor. [BW13:737; MC15]
||Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany
|1964 4 Jul
||The House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, is dedicated. [BW14:483–4]
- For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW14:485–6.
- For pictures see BW14:482, 483, 485, 491.
- For a description of the teaching conference accompanying the dedication see BW14:586–8.
- See also MC14–15; PP432–4.
Location: Frankfurt, Germany (near the village of Langenhain in the Taunus Hills)
Foundation Stone: 20 November 1960 by Hand of the Cause Amelia Collins representing the World Centre. She placed Sacred Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in the foundations.
Construction Period: 1960-1964
Site Dedication:4 July 1964 Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum represented the Universal House of Justice.
Architect Teuto Rocholl (plans approved by Shoghi Effendi)
Seating: 450 – 600
Dimensions: Diameter at the base: 158ft, Inner diameter: 23m (69ft), Inner height of the dome: 24m (72ft). Height 20.5m (93ft)
Dependencies: A home for the aged.
Note: The construction of this temple was delayed by legal roadblocks instigated by church opposition, both Protestant and Catholic.
References: BW14p483, BW14p483-484, BW18p104, CEBF241
|Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Amelia Collins; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Teuto Rocholl; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1967 5 – 10 Oct
||Six Intercontinental Conferences are held simultaneously in Panama City, Wilmette, Sydney, Kampala, Frankfurt and New Delhi to celebrate the centenary of the proclamation of Bahá’u’lláh to the kings and rulers of the world in September/October of 1867. [BW 14:221]
- For the message of the Universal House of Justice to the conferences see BW14:221–2.
- For descriptions of each conference see BW14:223–58.
- The six Hands of the Cause representing the Universal House of Justice at the conferences travelled to Adrianople to visit the House of Bahá’u’lláh before dispersing to the conferences. [BW14:236, 458; VV2]
|Panama; Wilmette; US; Sydney; Australia; Kampala; Uganda; Frankfurt; Germany; New Delhi; India
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Intercontinental; Tablets to Kings and rulers; Centenaries
|1968 7 Jul
||The passing of Hand of the Cause Hermann Grossmann in Neckargemünd, near Heidelberg, (b.16 February, 1899) [BW15p416-421]
- Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent of Hands of the Cause on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
- For his biography see Herman Grossmann: Hand of the Cause of God, A Life for the Faith by Susanne Pfaff-Grossmann.
- For his obituary see BW15:416–21.
- For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:416 and WG157–8.
||In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Herman Grossmann
||At the behest of the Universal House of Justice, two conferences are held for Persian-speaking Bahá’ís resident in Europe, one in Germany and one in London. [BW17:194]
||Germany; London; United Kingdom; Europe
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Persian-speaking Bahais; Persian diaspora
||The publication of Der Bahā'ismus, Weltreligion der Zukunft?: Geschichte, Lehre und Organisation in Kritischer Anfrage (Bahá'ism-Religion of the Future? History, Doctrine and Organization: A Critical Inquiry) by Francesco Ficicchia under the auspices of the Central Office of the Protestant Church for Questions of Ideology in Germany. This book was distributed by the Protestant Church and became the most widespread book on the Bahá'í Faith in German, and as such was widely accepted as a critical academic publication. At the time of its distribution a decision was taken to not dignify the publication with a rebuttal. Making the Crooked Straight was published in 1995 in German and translated/published by George Ronald Publishers in 2000. The purpose of the book, as the name suggests address the distorted views presented in Ficicchia's publication. MCSintroduction.
||Opposition; Criticism and apologetics; Making the Crooked Straight (book)
|1984 28 Feb
||The passing of Renée Szanto-Felbermann (b 21 June, 1900, d. 28 February, 1984) in Freiburg, Germany. She is considered the first to declare her faith in Hungary. [BW19p633]
||Freiburg; Germany; Hungary
||First Bahais by country or area; In memoriam; Births and deaths
||Representatives of 17 national spiritual assemblies in Europe and North America, together with senior representatives of the Offices of the Bahá’í International Community, meet in Germany to discuss their external affairs. [AWH56; VV105]
|1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan
||During the Youth Winter School in Traben-Trarback participants from 12 countries including East Germany, Romania, Hungary and the Soviet Union gather for the first time since the Second World War. [BINS215:2]
||Traben-Trarback; Germany; Eastern Europe; Soviet Union; Russia
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Conferences, International; Winter schools; First conferences
|1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan
||West Berlin Bahá’í communities are joined by 26 Bahá’ís from six European countries and the United States in proclamation and teaching activities among East Germans. [BINS215:2]
- More than 50,000 copies of a shortened version of the Peace Statement and other Bahá’í materials are distributed at four major border check-points in West Berlin and at the Brandenburg Gate. [BINS215:2]
||Promise of World Peace (statement); Teaching
||The highest legal authority in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, overturned the decisions of a number of lower courts that had refused to register the by-laws of a Local Spiritual Assembly on the grounds that the authority granted to the National Spiritual Assembly in the document violated the legal principle requiring the autonomy of all legally incorporated associations.
- ruling affirmed Bahá'í community, by it’s right as a recognized religion, recognized by public knowledge and by the testimony of scholars of comparative religion, had the right to a legal identity. [AWH87]
||LSA; NSA; By-laws
||With the approval of the Universal House of Justice, the Bahá'í administrative institutions of the eastern and western parts of Germany are re-united. [BINS230:2]
||East; West; united
||The Constitution Court of the Federal Republic of Germany decides "that the nature of the Bahá’í Faith as a religion and the religious nature of the Bahá’í community is unequivocal from the point of view of cultural traditions and general and religious studies interpretation alike”. [[www.bahai.hu]]
||The Bahá'ís of East and West Germany were united at their 61st convention for the first time after the war. [VV113]
|1992 7 Mar
||The first local spiritual assembly in Eastern Germany is formed in Erfurt. [BINS267:3]
||The Local Spiritual Assembly of Leipzig, Germany, is re-formed 56 years after its dissolution during the time the Faith was banned. [BW93–4:82]
|1994 Jul 20 – 25
||The European Bahá'í Youth Council sponsors five regional ‘Shaping Europe' conferences, in Berlin, Bucharest, St Petersburg, Barcelona and Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. [BINS323:3–5; BW94–5:177–8, 189]
||Berlin; Germany; Bucharest; Romania; St Petersburg; Russia; Barcelona; Portugal; Wolverhampton; United Kingdom; Europe
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
|2007 7 Apr
||A memorial removed by the Nazis when the Bahá'í Faith was outlawed in 1937 has been restored by municipal authorities in the resort town of Bad Mergentheim in Germany. The stone commemorates the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on April 7-8, 1913. The new memorial was unveiled on 7 April, by Mayor Lothar Barth accompanied by Bahman Solouki, a representative of the Baha'i community of Germany. Please see the news story for pictures of both the original and the replacement monuments. [BWNS524]
||Bad Mergentheim; Germany
||Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Monuments; Opposition; BWNS
|2009 7 – 8 Feb
||Regional Conferences held in Frankfurt, Germany and Padua, Italy. [Padua, Frankfurt]
||Frankfurt; Germany; Padua; Italy
|2010 27 Apr
||The passing of Dr Nossrat Peseschkian (b. 18 June, 1933 in Iran d. 27 April, 2010 in Wiesbaden, Germany). He came to Germany in 1954 for his studies in medicine at the universities of Freiburg, Frankfurt am Main and Mainz. After his medical specialization and his dissertation, he had his postgraduate training in psychotherapy in Germany, Switzerland, Austria and the United States. Prof. Peseschkian was the founder and leading figure in the growth and development of Positive Psychotherapy for almost 40 years. As an international lecturer, he had traveled to 67 countries worldwide. A global network of over 100 local, regional and national centers of Positive Psychotherapy has been established in 33 countries to date. Among his works is the book "Oriental Stories as Tools in Psychotherapy: The Merchant and the Parrot", which includes short stories from Persia and other countries that can be used in psychotherapy. [Wikipedia]
||Nossrat Peseschkian; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Psychology; Stories; Persian literature
|2012 20 Feb
||The passing of Anneliese Bopp, former Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre at Bad Bruckenau, Northern Bavaria, Germany. [BWNS892]
||Bad Bruckenau; Germany
||Anneliese Bopp; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; International Teaching Centre; BWNS
|2017. 17 Dec
||The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the passing of former House member Mr. Hartmut Grossmann.
"...he poured out his life in uninterrupted service to the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, as a teacher, pioneer, and member of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Germany (1963-1969) and Finland (1977-1980), the Continental Board of Counsellors in Europe, (1980-1988) the International Teaching Centre (1988-2003) and, ultimately, of the Universal House of Justice (2003-2008)." [BWNS1228]
He was the son of Hand of the Cause of God Hermann Grossmann (1899-1968). He was predeceased by his wife Ursula. [BWNS622; Bahá'í Chronicles]
||Hartmut Grossmann; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS