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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1817. c. 1817 Birth of Hand of the Cause Mullá Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání (Hájí Amín), in Ardikán, near Yazd. Ardikán; Yazd; Iran; Persia Mulla Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani; Haji Amin; Hand of the Cause of God
1844. 23 May The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá in a rented house near the Shimrán Gate in Tihrán. He was born at midnight. [AB9, SoG3-4]
  • He is known as `Abbás Effendi outside the Bahá'í community.
  • Bahá'u'lláh gives Him the titles Ghusn-i-A`zam (the Most Great Branch), Sirru'lláh (Mystery of God) and Áqá (the Master). [BBD2, 19, 87, 89]
  • Sarkár-i-Áqá (the Honourable Master) is a title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD201]
  • He Himself chose the title `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá) after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD2]
Tihrán; Tehran; Iran `Abdu'l-Baha; `Abbas Effendi; Baha'i; Baha'u'llah; Ghusn-i-A`zam; Most Great Branch; Sirru'llah; Mystery God; Áqa; Master; Sarkar-i-Áqa
1845. c. 1845 Birth of Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad-i-Khurásání, later known as Ibn-i-Asdaq, Hand of the Cause. Persia; Iran Mirza `Ali-Muhammad-i-Khurasani; Ibn-i-Asdaq; Hand of the Cause of God
1855 5 Mar Birth of John Henry Hyde Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London; England John Henry Hyde Dunn; birth; Hand of the Cause of God
1868 Hájí Mullá `Alí-i-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí (later Hand of the Cause Hájí Ákhúnd) is imprisoned in Tihrán as a Bahá'í on the order of Mullá `Alí Kání. This is the first of many imprisonments. [EB266]
  • He was imprisoned so often that `Abdu'l-Bahá later said of him that at the first sign of disturbances, he would `put on his turban, wrap himself in his `abá and sit waiting' to be arrested. [MF11]
Tihrán; Haji Mulla `Ali-i-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Mulla `Ali Kani; Hand of the Cause of God
1869. 12 May Birth of Clara Davis Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London Clara Davis Dunn; Hand of the Cause of God
1872. 10 Aug Birth of Martha Root, Hand of the Cause and itinerant Bahá'í teacher, in Richmond, Ohio. Richmond; Ohio Martha Root; Hand of the Cause of God
1873. 7 Jun Birth of Amelia Engelder Collins, Hand of the Cause, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh; Pennsylvania Amelia Engelder Collins; Hand of the Cause of God
1874. 19 May Birth of John Ebenezer Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, in Aberdeen, Scotland. Aberdeen; Scotland John Ebenezer Esslemont; Hand of the Cause of God
1874. 6 Jun Birth of Louis George Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God at Charleston, South Carolina. Charleston; South Carolina Louis George Gregory; Hand of the Cause of God
1874 14 Nov Birth of William Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, in Montreal. Montreal William Sutherland Maxwell; Hand of the Cause of God
1875. 16 Oct Birth of Tarázu'lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God, in Qazvín. Qazvin Tarazu'llah Samandari; Hand of the Cause of God
1876. 14 Feb Birth of Keith Ransom-Kehler, Hand of the Cause and the first American Bahá'í martyr, in Kentucky. Kentucky Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hand of the Cause of God
1876. 14 Jun Birth of George Townshend, Hand of the Cause of God, in Dublin. George Townshend; Hand of the Cause of God
1877. 26 Sep Birth of Siegfried Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, in Germany. Fürth; Bavaria; Germany Siegfried Schopflocher; Hand of the Cause of God
1878 Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí arrives in Burma with Jamál Effendi.
  • He marries into a well-to-do Indo-Burman family of traders and settles in Rangoon, remaining in Burma to build up the Burmese community. [BW10:517; PH23]
  • See BW10:517–18 and MC155 for his conversion of Daidanaw, the first all-Bahá'í village in the world outside Iran.
  • See BW10:517–20 for an account of his life.
  • His is named a Hand of the Cause of God by the Guardian after his passing. In the village of Daidanaw, Burma (Rangoon) there is a building they call "the Shrine of Siyyid Mustafa Rumí" in his honour. [CBN253Aug-Sep1971p5]
Daidanaw; Burma; 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Village; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Jamal Effendi; Hand of the Cause of God
1884 Birth of Valíyu'lláh Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tabríz. [BW18:381-834] Tabríz; Valiyu'llah Varqa; Hand of the Cause of God
1886 In the year Birth of Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, in Baghdád. Baghdad Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause of God
1887. 7 Apr Birth of Horace Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, in Torrington, Connecticut. Torrington; Connecticut Horace Holley; Hand of the Cause of God bahai-library.com/chrono-edit/971
1887. 13 Apr The first mention of the concept of `Hand of the Cause' in Bahá'u'lláh's writings is within a Tablet revealed in honour of Ibn-i-Asdaq. [BBD115; EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq; Hand of the Cause of God
1889 In the year The passing of Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání entitled by Bahá'u'lláh Ism'lláh'l-Asdaq (In the Name of God the Most Truthful) in Hamadán. He was born in Mashhad in 1800, the son of a cleric, around the beginning of the 19th century He furthered his own clerical studies in Karbila under the Shaykhi leader Sayyid Qasim Rashti, eventually gaining the rank of mujtahid, and becoming known by the honorific title Muqaddas (‘the holy one’).
  • As a young man he had been a disciple of Siyyid Kázim and had met Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad in Karbilá. He was among the first believers who identified with the Message of the Báb. See DB100 and EB7 for the story of how he independently determined His identity when he met Mullá Husayn in Isfahán on his way to deliver a tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tehran. The very next day he left Isfahán for Shíráz on foot arriving 12 days later to find that the Báb had already departed for pilgrimage.
  • He took up residence in Shíráz and received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to change the Call to Prayer. See DB146-148, EB13-14 for the story of how he endured over 900 strokes of the lash on the command of Husayn Khán-i-Írva´ní, the Governor of the province of Fars, and remained indifferent to the pain. (6 August, 1845) He was expelled from the city and proceeded to Yazd. He had similar fate in that city and was banished.
  • On the way to Khurásán he joined Mullá Husayn and those who would participate in the Tabarsí siege where he was on hand for the death of Mullá Husayn. (DB381) After the deception and massacre he was one of the few survivors and, as a prisoner, was taken to Mázindarán to be executed by the family Prince Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá who had commanded the royal troops and had been killed in battle. On route the party called on the clerics to interrogate him and his fellow Bábi and they became convinced that they were not heretics deserving of execution. The prisoners were to be sent to Tehran but escaped and made their way to Míhámí and eventually to Mashad.
  • In 1861, after life in that city became impossible, he went to Baghdád where he attained the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. After 14 months he returned to his native province of Khurásán.
  • He continued in his audacious teaching and as a result was taken to Tehran where he was kept in the Síhåh-Chál. He taught a number of fellow prisoners about the Promised One and converted Hakím Masíh, the Jewish physician assigned to attend to the prisoners. He was the first Bahá'í of Jewish background in Tehran (and was the grandfather of Lutfu'lláh Hakím, a former member of the Universal House of Justice.) After 28 months imprisonment he was pardoned but refuse to leave without his fellow prisoners. The Sháh released 40 of the 43 prisoners. (The remaining three were guilty of actual crimes.)
  • After Tehran he went to Khurásán and returned to the capital some three years later to help in changing the hiding place of the remains of the Báb. Then he travelled to Káshán, Isfahán and Yazd where he convinced some of the Afnáns to accept the truth of their Nephew's claims. After returning to Khurásán he was given permission to make a pilgrimage to 'Akká where he remained for some four months, returning by way of Mosul and Baghdád. When he reached Hamadán he was exhausted. Twelve days after his arrival he passed.
  • He had been the recipient of many tablets from Bahá'u'lláh including a Tablet of Visitation after his passing. One of the most well-know tablets was the Lawh-i-Ahbáb (Tablet of the Friends). It is thought He revealed this Tablet some time after leaving the barracks in 'Akká, about 1870-1871. [RoB3p258-260, List of the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh]
  • He was the father of Ibn-i-Asdaq who Bahá'u'lláh appointed a Hand of the Cause of God. [EB19]
  • ‘Abdu’l-Baha posthumously referred to him as a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • References [LoF32-41, MF5-8, DB381. EB7-23, BBR 69-70]
Hamadán; Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God; Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurasani; Ism'llah'l-Asdaq
1889. 19 Nov Birth of General Shu`á`u'lláh `Alá'í, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran Shu`a`u'llah `Ala'i; Hand of the Cause of God
1891 Apr c. Two believers were arrested during the same period. Hájí Amín was sent to the prison of Qazvín, and Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Abhar was consigned for four years in Tíhran, in which he bore the same chains as Bahá'u'lláh did, during the Latter's imprisonment in 1852.[Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Qazvín; Tíhran; Haji Amin; Ibn-i-Abhar; Hand of the Cause of God
1892 6 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Nabil-i-Akbar Áqá Muhammed-i-Qá'Ini. He was born in Naw- Firist, Persia (Iran) on 29 March 1829.
  • “It has been claimed that no one within the enclave of the Baha’i Faith has ever surpassed the profundity of his erudition.” Bahá’u’lláh addressed the Lawh-i- Hikmat* (Tablet of Wisdom), in his honour. [EB115]
  • He was imprisoned a number of times in Iran for his Bahá’í activities and eventually moved to Ashkhabad (‘Ishqábád, Turkmenistan). He died in Bukhárá, Uzbekistan. ‘Abdu’lBahá designated him a Hand of the Cause of God. [LoF28-31]
  • For details of his life see EB112–15.
  • See OPOP86 for "Pilgrim's Note" concerning what Jináb-i-Fádil said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá said about Nabil's suicide.
  • Bukhárá; Uzbekistan; Naw- Firist; Iran; Nabil-i-Akbar Áqa Muhammed-i-Qa'Ini; Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God
    1896. 15 Feb Birth of Leroy C. Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, in Wilmington, Illinois. Wilmington; Illinois Leroy C. Ioas; Hand of the Cause of God
    1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by one of the Qajar courtiers in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
    • See World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p.43 for contribution by Kazem Kazemzadeh on the martyrdom of Varqá and Ruhu'lláh.
    • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22 and World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p29-44.
    • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
    • He was posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
    • See World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p.43 for contribution by Kazem Kazemzadeh on the martyrdom of Varqá and Ruhu'lláh.
    • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
    • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
    Yazd; Tihran; Iran Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God; Varqa
    1896. 13 May Birth of Dr Ugo Giachery, Hand of the Cause of God, in Palermo, Sicily. Palermo; Sicily Dr Ugo Giachery; Hand of the Cause of God
    1897 In the year The passing of Hand of the Cause Mullá Muhammad-Ridá in a Tehran prison.
    • born in Muhammad-Ábád in the province of Yazd into a well-known family in about 1814. He is provided a good education and he becomes a divine known for his piety, eloquence and courage.
    • Becomes a follower of the Báb in the early days of the Revelation. He recognizes Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One of the Bayan some time after 1855 upon reading Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih, "Ode of the Dove". (Bahá'u'lláh had composed this ode while still in Sulaymáníyyih.)
    • He became well-known for his courage in teaching and his endurance in withstanding abuse. He was found to be picking his teeth while being bastinadoed and, while a elderly man, withstood a brutal flogging on his bare back in the prison yard. (A witness to this flogging, Ghulám-Ridá Khán, a notable of Tehran who happened to be imprisoned at the same time, became a believer upon seeing his steadfastness under the lashing.) [RoB1p84-91, EB89-111, LoF21-27]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá referred to a few of the believers posthumously as being Hands of the Cause (see MF5 and BW14p446) Adib Taherzadeh points out that "since there are one or two others by the same name (Shaykh-Ridáy-i-Yazdí) it is not possible to identify him. However, some believe strongly that he is Mullá Muhammad-i-Ridáy-i-Muhammmad-Ábádí. [RoB4p186n]
    Muhammad-Ábád; Yazd; Tehran; Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God
    1897. 24 Feb Birth of Jalal Khazeh (Jalál Khádih), Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran Jalal Khazeh (Jalal Khadih); Hand of the Cause of God
    1898. 21 Dec Birth of Dorothy Beecher Baker, Hand of the Cause of God. Dorothy Beecher Baker; Hand of the Cause of God
    1899. 16 Feb The third group of Western pilgrims arrives in the Holy Land. [BFA1:145]
    • See BFA1:145 for those in the group.
    Birth of Hermann Grossmann, Hand of the Cause of God, in Rosario de Santa Fé, Argentina, into a family of German background.
    House of `Abdu'llah Pasha; Rosario de Santa Fé; ; Argentina Hermann Grossmann; Hand of the Cause of God
    1901 2 Nov Birth of John Robarts, Hand of the Cause of God, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Waterloo; Ontario; Canada John Robarts; Hand of the Cause of God
    1904 c. The birth of Zikrullah Khadem, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. [ZK3] Tihrán; Tehran; Zikrullah Khadem; Hand of the Cause of God
    1905 29 Apr Birth of `Alí-Akbar Furútan, Hand of the Cause of God, in Sabzivár, Khurásán. Sabzivar; Khurasan Ali Akbar Furutan; Hand of the Cause of God
    1908 7 Sep The birth of Hasan Muvaqqar Balyuzi, Hand of the Cause of God. [SBBR5:XI] Hasan Muvaqqar Balyuzi; Hand of the Cause of God
    1909 Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, becomes a Bahá'í. [BFA2:156] Montreal; QC; Canada Sutherland Maxwell; Hand of the Cause of God
    1909 20 Aug Birth of Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, in Chicago.
    • His given name is `Abdu'l-Bahá, bestowed upon him by `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself at his birth.
    Chicago Paul Haney; Hand of the Cause of God
    1910 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, (Hájí Akhund). He was born in Shahmírzád around 1842/3.
    • Bahá’u’lláh had entrusted him with the sacred task of moving and hiding the remains of the Báb. In Tehran he transferred the remains to Hand of the Cause Amínu’l-Bayán who moved them through innumerable dangers to a safe hiding place in the Mosque of the Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran, where they lay concealed until the time when, at the behest of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, they were transferred to the Holy Land to be laid in their permanent resting place on the slopes of Mount Carmel. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
    • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause by Bahá’u’lláh. [LoF3-8]
    Tihrán; Tehran; Shahmírzád; Hand appointed by Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam; Haji Mulla ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Haji Akhund; Hand of the Cause of God
    1910 4 Mar Hand of the Cause of God `Alí-Akhar-i-Shahmírzádí (Hájí Ákhúnd) passes away in Tihrán. [BBD14; EB266] Tihrán `Ali-Akhar-i-Shahmirzadi (Haji Ákhund); Hand of the Cause of God; In Memoriam
    1910 8 Aug Birth of Mary Sutherland Maxwell, Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause of God, in New York City. New York City Mary Sutherland Maxwell; Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Hand of the Cause of God
    1912 By this year at least 70 Bahá'í books and pamphlets have been produced in English. [BBRSM:103–4]

    There are about two dozen Bahá'ís in Canada by this year. [BFA2:158]

    Canada; Tihrán; Bárfurúsh; Mázandarán `Ali Muhammad Varqa; Hand of the Cause of God; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Mu`inu't-Tujjar; Iranian persecution
    1912 Birth of `Alí Muhammad Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tehran; Iran `Ali Muhammad Varqa; Hand of the Cause of God
    1912. 20 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá interviewed E. S. (Ethel Stefana) Stevens who had come from Southhampton to meet Him. Three years prior she had spent 3 or 4 months in 'Akka and Haifa gathering material for her book, published in 1911, about the second coming of Christ. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6] Mountain of God]

    He discussed the question of "spiritual communication" and gave the prerequisites. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6]

    In the evening He was driven to Westminster for a meeting at the Palace Hotel, His first public talk since returning to London. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6, [SoW Vol III no 17 19Jan1913 p510]

    London; Westminster `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Ethel Stevens; Mountain of God; Palace Hotel
    1913 13 May Birth of H. Collis Featherstone, Hand of the Cause of God, at Quorn, South Australia. Quorn; South Australia H. Collis Featherstone; Hand of the Cause of God
    1914 9 Jan John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, is born in Southsea, England. Southsea; England John Ferraby; Hand of the Cause of God
    1917 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqíy-i- Abharí (Ibn-i-Abhar). He was born in 1853/4 in Abhar.
    • For four years he suffered in Síyáh-Chál wearing the very same chains as Bahá’u’lláh had worn in 1852.
    • His services during the time of the Master included teaching journeys through Persia, the Caucasus and India. He also made some eleven journeys to the Holy Land with the permission of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
    • A special service rendered by Ibn-i-Abhar was the promotion of the education of women. He and his wife played an important part in the advancement of women in Persian society.
    • In 1886 Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause. He died in 1917. [LoF13-16, BBD114, EB268]
    Abhar Hand appointed by Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God; Haji Mirza Muhammad-Taqiy-i- Abhari; Ibn-i-Abhar
    1919 13 Aug Adíb, Mírzá Hasan Táliqání, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD98]

    EB273 says he died on 2 September.

    • For a brief history of his life see EB272-3.
    Tihrán; Tehran; Adib; Mirza Hasan Taliqani; Hand of the Cause of God; In Memoriam
    1919 2 Sep The passing of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, entitled Adíbu'l-'Ulamá, know as Adíb in Tihrán. He was born in Talaqán in 1848 and became a Bahá’í around 1889.
  • Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God. [SDH138-140]
  • He was one of the founders of the Tarbíyat Schools in Tihrán. He died in Tihrán. [LoF17-18]
  • Tihrán; Tehran; Talaqán Hand appointed by Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan; Adibu'l-'Ulama; Adib; Hand of the Cause of God
    1921 summer Siegfried Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, becomes a Bahá'í. Siegfried Schopflocher; Hand of the Cause of God
    1928 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1.
  • His father was Mullá Sádiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursúní, referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [EM19] While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran.
  • He begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a martyr. Baha’u’llah said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Baha’u’llah conferred the station of martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”) .”
  • He is the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá’u’lláh.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class” the Faith.
  • He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
  • Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
  • For details of his life see EB171–6.
  • Tihrán; Tehran; Mashhad; Hand appointed by Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God; Mirza 'Ali-Muhammad; Ibn-i-Asdaq; Mulla Sadiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursuni
    1944 22 Jan Prior to mailing the manuscript to Horace Holley, Shoghi Effendi made the last corrections of the last installment of God Passes By. At that time the book had the working title of "Prospect and Retrospect". This marks the culmination of approximately two years of almost continuous work. [PP222] Haifa God Passes By; Prospect and Perspect
    1944 Nov (mid) The publication of God Passes By, a history of the first century of the Bábí and Bahá’í Faiths by Shoghi Effendi. BBRSM137; CB308–9; GPBXI]
    • Shoghi Effendi intended the book to be a gift to the Bahá’ís of the West on the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of the Declaration of the Báb but conditions in the United States delayed its publication. [GT79–80; PP224]
    • For information on how Shoghi Effendi wrote the book, "the only true book we have from his pen", see GBF95–6 and PP222–4.
    Shoghi Effendi; God Passes By
    1960 12 Jul Horace Hotchkiss Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 April, 1887 in Torrington, CT) [MC226-227, BW13:849]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW13:849–858.
    • For cable from the Hands of the Cause see MC217–18.
    • See also SBR214-247, LoF253-264 and Holley, Horace Hotchkiss by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram.
    • His publications Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion, Religion for Mankind, World Unity, Bahai, The Spirit of the Age, Baha'i Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha, Read-aloud Plays, Divinations and Creation, The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh, The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse .
    Haifa; Torrington; CT Horace Holley; Hands of the Cause of God; In Memoriam; Appointment Hands - First Contingent; Bahai Scriptures (book); Read-aloud Plays; Play
    1960 26 Jul The Hands of the Cause of God declare Charles Mason Remey a Covenant-breaker. [BBRSM221; MC224–5] Haifa Hand of the Cause of God; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breaker
    1960 18 – 27 Oct The fourth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. [MC229] ‘Akká Bahji; Hand of the Cause; Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God
    1970 The passing of Florence Evaline (Lorol) Schopflocher in Montreal (b.1886)
    • Wife of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. For his "In Memoriam" see BW7p664.
    • She circled the globe nine times on travel teaching tours and visited some 86 countries, many of them multiple times. She travelled to Iran twice visiting parts not previously visited by Western Bahá'ís.
    • She visited the Guardian 11 times.
    • She had several audiences with King Feisal in Iraq and discussed the question of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád with him.
    • Favourite themes for her public talks were the World Order letters of Shoghi Effendi and the emancipation and education of women.
    • She is interred in the Mount Royal Cemetery in Montreal. A radiant star went from the West to the East. [BW15p488-489
    • Find a grave
    Montreal; QC; Canada Lorol Schopflocher; Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher; In Memoriam; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1981. 24 Aug The publication of the compilation entitled "The Assistance of God" by the Universal House of Justice. It was renamed "The Power of Divine Assistance" when published in the Vol 2 p201. [Messages63-86p504] BWC The Assistance of God; The Power of Divine Assistance
    1981. 16 Sep The Universal House of Justice addressed a message to all National Assemblies with the compilation of prayers and passages from the Bahá'í Writings with a view to have it translated and distributed where there is a dearth of Bahá'í literature. This was published by the Baha'i World Centre under the title of "Words of God". [Messages63-86p486, 504-505] BWC Words of God
    1991 18 Jun The passing of Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, John Aldham Robarts at Rawdon, Quebec. He was born in Waterloo, Ontario 2nd of November, 1901. [VV124]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • Bahá’í World, Vol. 20, 1986-1992, “In Memoriam,” pp. 801-9.
    • For his obituary see BINS250:10.
    • For picture see VV124.
    • For the story of how he came to learn of the Faith see SBR137.
    Rawdon; Quebec Hand of the Cause of God; Knight of Baha'u'llah; John Aldham Robarts; John Robarts; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
    1991 26 Nov "The Office of Ḥuqúqu’lláh has been established in the Holy Land under the direction of the Chief Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh, the Hand of the Cause of God ‘Alí-Muḥammad Varqá, in anticipation of the worldwide application of the Law of Ḥuqúqu’lláh next Riḍván. Concurrent with this development are the steps being taken by Dr. Varqá to organize regional and national Boards of Trustees of Ḥuqúqu’lláh, following the example of the Board already functioning in the United States. " [From the Message of the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 1991.] BWC Hand of the Cause of God ‘Ali-Muḥammad Varqa; Board of Trustees of Ḥuququ’llah; Huququ’llah
    1992 25 Mar William Sears, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Tucson, Arizona. (28 March, 1911) [BINS267; VV124]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    Tucson; Arizona Hand of the Cause of God; Hand of the Cause; William Sears; Bill Sears; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
    2000 19 Jan The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in Haifa. She was born in New York on 8 August 1910. [One CountryVol.11,Issue4]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her as a Hand of the Cause of God after the passing of her father, Hand of the Cause of God Sutherland Maxwell on the 26th of March, 1952. [MoCxxiv]
    Haifa Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Individual Appointment
    2003 26 Nov The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furútan in Haifa at the age of 98. [BWNS261, BW'03-‘04pg227]
    • Born in Sabzivar, Iran, on 29 April 1905.
    • Moved with his family to Ashgabat in what was then Russian Turkestan (now part of Turkmenistan), and, through his years of school and university, he took an active part in the work of the Baha'i communities of Ashgabat, Baku, Moscow, and other parts of Russia.
    • In 1930 expelled from the Soviet Union during the Stalinist persecution of religion and from that time on played an ever more significant role in the work and administration of the Iranian Baha'i community. [BW03-04p227-230]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For a tribute from the Universal House of Justice see message of 27 November, 2003.
    Haifa; Sabzivar; Iran; Ashgabat; Turkmenistan; Baku; Moscow; Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furutan; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent

    from the main catalogue

    1. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Baha (1990). [about]
    2. Answered Questions, Some: A Philosophical Perspective, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). Philosophical foundations of the Bahá’í teachings, including ontology, theology, epistemology, philosophical anthropology and psychology, and personal and social ethics. [about]
    3. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2014). New 2014 translation (with a version side-by-side with the original). [about]
    4. Apocalypse and Millennium: Catastrophe, Progress, and the Lesser Peace, by William P. Collins, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 12:1-4 (2002). Some approaches to the Lesser Peace in light of millennialism, and the Baha'i vision of a divine plan leading to the Lesser Peace and the Most Great Peace which has "progressive” and "catastrophic" aspects. [about]
    5. Báb's Epistle on the Spiritual Journey towards God, The, by Todd Lawson, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
    6. Bahá'í Perspective on the Origin of Matter, A, by Keven Brown, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:3 (1990). The origin of matter is spiritual. Science sees that, at its most fundamental level, reality is not particular materials or structures, but probabilities and transformation. The four elements, three-fold structure of being, and balance are also examined. [about]
    7. Bahá'í Teachings on The Universe, by Ernie Jones (2017). Compilation of writings related to the cosmos, the worlds of God, and spiritual evolution. [about]
    8. Baha'u'llah: The Desire of the World, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1982). Materials for the contemplation of God and His Manifestation for this day, compiled from the Words of Bahá’u’lláh. [about]
    9. Bahá'u'lláh's "Most Sublime Vision", by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
    10. Biblical discrepancies in God Passes By, by Universal House of Justice (1993). Citation errors for quotations from Ezekiel in God Passes By. [about]
    11. Celestial Pavilion, Inmates of, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). [about]
    12. Comparison of God and Soul Concepts from a Bahá'í and Hindu Point of View: Conceptions and Experiences of the Afterlife, by Diane Robinson Kerr (2014). Common ground between Hinduism’s Brahman and the Baha'i conception of God, and the complex understanding they propose of the soul and Atman. [about]
    13. Concept of the Manifestation of God in Chinese Symbolism: An Inter-civilizational Hermeneutic Study, by Amrollah Hemmat, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:1-2 (2016). Seemingly incompatible symbols can point to a common underlying meaning, connecting worldviews and perspectives often considered incommensurable. There are elements of the Chinese tradition that resonate deeply with the Bahá’í concept of Manifestation. [about]
    14. Creation: The Nature of God and the Creation of the Universe in Bahá'í Cosmology, by Keven Brown (2003). [about]
    15. Cry in the Wilderness: An Environmentalist Looks at Bahá'í Teachings on Nature, by Bill Knight-Weiler, in dialogue magazine, 2:1 (1987). Baha'i Writings use images from nature to illustrate spiritual truths and call mankind to recognize the beauty of God. [about]
    16. Dashavatara and Progressive Revelation, by Anupam Premanand, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
    17. Day of God (Yawmu'llah) and the Days of God (Ayyamu'llah), by Khazeh Fananapazir, in Scripture and Revelation: Papers presented at the First Irfan Colloquium (1997). Comparison of Biblical and Islamic antecedents of the symbol of the "Day of God." [about]
    18. Diacritics; meaning of "Self-subsisting", by Universal House of Justice (1993). Two disparate topics: the translation style adopted by the Guardian and other considerations related to literary style and the sacred writings, and the meaning of the term "self-subsisting." [about]
    19. Enigmatic Questions Surrounding the Appearances of the Prophets, by John S. Hatcher (2011). [about]
    20. Epistemological Implications of the Gradated Claims to Divine Authority in the Bahá'í Writings: Reflections on Infallibility, by William S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 17 (2007). There are different levels of infallibility, from the greater (the Manifestations who are "omniscient at will") to the lesser (like the Guardian, who has conferred freedom-from-error). [about]
    21. Excerpts from the Risáliy-i-Dhahabiyyih, by Báb, The (2001). On effulgences, essence, and unity of existence. [about]
    22. Father and the Maiden, The: The Abrahamic Patriarchate and the Divine Feminine, by Mark A. Foster (1999). [about]
    23. Fear of God, by Báb, The and Bahá'u'lláh (2002). [about]
    24. Genealogy of The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh, by Kay Zinky (1950). Chart showing the Semitic line of prophets, including source citations. [about]
    25. God of Bahá'u'lláh, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). A close look at the view of God presented in the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh and analysis of the consequences of a number of His statements. [about]
    26. God Passes By, by Shoghi Effendi (1971). [about]
    27. God Passes By: Outline and cross-reference of chapters correlated with A Traveler's Narrative and The Dawn-Breakers (2002). A variety of indexes and tables correlating these three books. [about]
    28. God, Nature of: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1994). The nature of God in the Baha'i Faith. [about]
    29. Goddess Religion, Ancient, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Ancient goddess religions and the role of the feminine in theology. [about]
    30. Greatest Name and the 99 Names of God, The: Compilation (1998). Includes (1) Allah'u'Abhá in Arabic, (2) compilation on the Baha'i and Islamic use of "Greatest Name," and (3) a list of the ninety-nine names of God from Islamic theology. [about]
    31. "He hath known God who hath known himself": A Deepening Course on the Bahá'í Revelation (2012). A lengthy compilation by the granddaughter of Howard Colby Ives designed to be a study guide to the Writings, covering knowledge of God, the station of the Manifestations, the nature of the Covenant, and the dynamics of creation, constancy, and servitude. [about]
    32. Hindu Concept of God, The: Unity in Diversity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). The fundamental unity behind Hindu concepts of God and those found in the Semitic traditions, and the principle of unity in diversity, allow Hindu and Baha'i beliefs to come together and further their common goal of uniting the world's religions. [about]
    33. Holocaust, the Greater Plan of God, and the Destiny of the Jewish People, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    34. "I am all the Prophets": The Poetics of Pluralism in Bahá'í Texts, by Juan Cole, in Poetics Today, 14:3 (1993). Literary analysis of a passage from Tablet of Blood (Súriy-i-Damm) in which Bahá'u'lláh identifies Himself with all the past Prophets and their sufferings, depicting himself mortally wounded on the field of battle, like Imám Husayn. [about]
    35. Jesus the Son of God and the Incarnation Doctrine, by Antonella Khursheed and Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 1 (1996). The Baha'i approach to the sonship and divinity of Christ is consistent with Old and New Testament usage. It examines the Incarnation Doctrine, the roots of which can be traced to pagan influences coloring Christian belief in its early centuries. [about]
    36. Kaleidoscope: Some Aspects of Angelology, Light, the Divine Throne and Color Mysticism in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, by Stephen Lambden, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
    37. Keys to the Proper Understanding of Islam in The Dispensation of Baha'u'llah, by Brian Wittman, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). [about]
    38. Kitab-i-Panj Sha'n, by John Walbridge, in Sacred Acts, Sacred Space, Sacred Time: Baha'i Studies volume 1 (1996). Brief essay on, and partial translation of, this work of the Bab. [about]
    39. Letters of the Quranic Dispensation and Letters of the Living (huruf), by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). Some meanings of the term huruf ("letters") in Baha'i texts, including Letters of the Bayan, Letters of the Living, and Letters of the Quranic Dispensation. [about]
    40. Logical Proof of the Existence of God, A, by William S. Hatcher (2003). [about]
    41. Material and Spiritual Worlds, by Peter J. Khan (2010). Four talks on the Five-Year Plan given at the North Island Baha'i Summer School, Hamilton, New Zealand, December 2010. [about]
    42. Names of God. A list of some of the names of God from English translations of the Baha'i Writings. [about]
    43. New Religions and Religious Movements: The Common Heritage, by Moshe Sharon, in Studies in Modern Religions and Religious Movements and the Bábí Bahá'í Faiths (2004). Excerpt from longer document including two short sections "Names and Letters - The Bab" and "The Letter bá'" [about]
    44. Prayer of the Bab "God Sufficeth...," Two versions of, by Universal House of Justice (1996). The original text of the prayer "God Sufficeth" has not been found, and there may be two versions. [about]
    45. Prophets and Mountains, by Moshe Sharon, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
    46. Realms of Divine Existence as described in the Tablet of All Food, by Bijan Ma'sumian, in Deepen, 3.2.2 (1994). Bahá'í theoretical theology in the Lawh-i-Qullu'Ta'am. [about]
    47. Recognition of the Next Manifestation by the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1997). On concerns that a future Universal House of Justice might not recognize the next Manifestation of God. [about]
    48. Recognition of the Next Manifestation of God, by Universal House of Justice (1997). On the eventual recognition of the next Prophet by the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    49. Scientific Proof of the Existence of God, A, by William S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:4 (1993). [about]
    50. Seed of Creation: A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation, by Ahmad Aniss (1998). A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation. [about]
    51. Self-Defense, the Ungodly, Infallibility, and Sexual Violence and Abuse, by Universal House of Justice (2004). Answers to a number of questions, with extracts from four letters of the House, on self-defense, the ungodly, infallibility, sexual violence, and abuse. [about]
    52. Silences of God, The: A Meditation, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:3-4 (2014). While the Word of God dominated the history of religion, contemporaries question the orthodoxy of language. God's Silence is also essential in shaping our individual choices and collective histories, and understanding Baha'u'llah's words. [about]
    53. Study of the Pen Motif in the Bahá'í Writings, A, by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani and Nafeh Fananapazir, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:1 (1999). Theology and background of the "pen" metaphor — the creative force presented by the Manifestation of God — and the "tablet" — the recipient of the creative force. Also the five realms of existence: Háhút, Láhút, Jabarút, Malakút, and Násút. [about]
    54. Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Bahá Explaining Three Verses in the Lawh-i-Hikmat, A, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2005). Insights into three statement by Baha'u'llah on pre-existence, creation, and nature as the essence of God. [about]
    55. Traveler's Narrative, A Study Outline and Cross-Reference (2001). Summary headings and correlation of passages with The Dawn-Breakers, God Passes By, the Lawh-i-Sultán, and other works. [about]
    56. Wrathful God of Martin Luther and Baha'u'llah: Tablet of Ahmad-i-Farsi and Martin Luther (A comparison), by Roberta Law (1998). Comparison of the theologies of Baha'u'llah's Tablet of Ahmad (Persian) and early Protestantism. [about]
    57. "Yá Alláhu'l-Mustagháth": Original Source, Correct Transliteration and Translation, by Universal House of Justice (2001). [about]
     
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