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||`Abdu'lláh Páshá became the governor of `Akká in 1819. In 1832 when the Egyptians took `Akká he surrendered and was taken to Egypt. He was freed in 1840 when the area reverted to Turkish rule. [BBD5]
||Akka; Israel; Egypt
||Abdullah Pasha; Governors; History (general)
||Manúchihr Khán is appointed Governor of Isfahán. [BBR167]
||Manuchihr Khan; Governors
|1845. 23 Jun
||The governor of Fárs, Husayn Khán, has Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib arrested, tortured and expelled from Shíráz. [B78; BBR69; BW18:380; DB145–8; GPB11, BBR1pxxviii]
- Note: B78 says that Mullá Abú-Tálib was not among the group.
- Note: DB146 note2 says "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D."
- The London Times of November 1st and November 19, 1945 reports that this took place on the 23rd of June. [B76, BBR1p69,82]
- The governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán orders that the Báb be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [B84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11] Búshihr,
- The Báb leaves Búshihr for Shíráz on an unknown date. [B 105]
|Fars; Iran; Shiraz; Iran; Bushihr
||Governors; Husayn Khan; Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; Husayn Khan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1846. 23 Sep
||The governor, Husayn Khán, threatened by the Báb's rising popularity, orders His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, takes the Báb into custody and escorts Him to the governor's home but finds it abandoned. He takes the Báb to his own home and learns that a cholera epidemic has swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cures the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He has washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigns his post and begs the governor to release the Báb. He agrees on condition the Báb leaves Shíráz. The incident proves to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismisses him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; GPB13; TN9]
- See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán.
- DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son.
||Husayn Khan; Governors; Bab, Life of; Abdul-Hamid Khan; Epidemics; Muhammad Shah; Shahs
|1850. 19 May
||The Governor sends a mob against Hujjat, which is dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sends to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján is split into two camps. [BW18:381]
- See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
|Tihran; Zanjan; Iran
||Governors; Hujjat; Mir Salah; Zaynab; Gender; Women; Equality; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
|1850. 27 May-
|First Nayríz upheaval.
Vahíd travels from Yazd towards Shíráz, eventually coming to Nayríz. He goes to the Mosque of Jum‘ih where he ascends the pulpit and proclaims the Cause of God. The Governor makes moves against him and Vahíd orders his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih. The siege that follows lasts a month. [B178, 204–5; BBR109–13; BW18:381]
- See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
- See RB1:325–31 for the story of Vahíd. See also GPB50, KI223.
- See also B178–82; BBD171; BBR109–13; BBRSM28, 216; DB485–99; GPB42–4; RB1:264; TN245.
|Nayriz; Yazd; Shiraz; Iran
||Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Mosques; Jumih; Governors; Fort Khajih; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1853. 26 Mar
||Five Bábís, acting on their own initiative, murder the governor of Nayríz, providing the spark for the second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147]
||Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Governors; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Assassinations
|1863. c. Jan 1863
||The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, receives the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order is ignored by the governor, who is sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders will be received and similarly ignored before the governor is compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131]
||Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Grand Viziers; Ali Pasha
|1863. 27 Mar
||Bahá'u'lláh meets the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news. At first he summons Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]
See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Baghdád, the Persian Consul had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68]
||Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Ottoman citizenship
||Sulaymán Páshá, a Súfí, succeeds Muhammad Pásháy-i-Qibrisí as Governor of Adrianople. Both are admirers of Bahá'u'lláh. [CH59, BBR487; BKG254]
||Sulayman Pasha; Sufism; Muhammad Pashay-i-Qibrisi; Governors
||Death of Governor Sulaymán Páshá of Adrianople. He is succeeded by ‘Árif Páshá, who is not well-disposed to Bahá'u'lláh and His followers. [BBR487]
||Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey
||Governors; Sulayman Pasha; Arif Pasha; Bahaullah, Life of
||Khurshíd Páshá takes up the governorship of Adrianople. [BBR487; BKG233]
||Khurshid Pasha; Governors
||Ahmad Big Tawfíq (Ahmad Bey) becomes Mutasarrif of `Akká. [BBD12, 20; BBR487; DH126–9; GPB192]
- His governorship lasts two years. [BKG337]
- This `sagacious and humane governor' meets `Abdu'l-Bahá and is greatly impressed by Him. The governor peruses some of the writings, which also impress him. [BKG334; GPB191]
- In response to a request for permission to render Bahá'u'lláh some service, the suggestion is made to him to restore the disused aqueduct built to bring water into `Akká, a suggestion which he immediately arose to carry out'. [DH52; GBP192]
- See DH126–9 for history of the aqueduct.
- See BKG333–4 for information on Ahmad Big Tawfíq.
||Ahmad Big Tawfiq (Ahmad Bey); Mutasarrifs; Governors
|1874. 8 May
||The arrival of the eldest son of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Sultán-Mas'úd Mírzá, Zillu's-Sultán, arrives in Isfahán as governor. [BBR269]
Within a few days of the arrival of Zillu's-Sultán in Isfahán, a general persecution of Bahá'ís begins. [BBRXXXIX, 269–70]
- This can be traced to Shaykh Muhammad Báqir, the `Wolf'. [BBR270]
- See SDH104 for comment by Bahá'u'lláh on a challenge made by Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir.
- For Western reports of this outburst see BBR270–3.
||Sultan-Masud Mirza; Governors; Zillus-Sultan; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf