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|1834 9 Sep
||The end of the reign of Fath-`Alí Sháh and the accession of his grandson, Muhammad Sháh. [B7; BBD83, 164; BBR153, 482]
Fifty–three sons and 46 daughters survived Fath-`Alí Sháh. [B7]
After his accession Muhammad Sháh executed the Grand Vizier, the Qá'im Máqám, the man who had raised him to the throne. He then installed his tutor, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, to the position (1835). During his first year in office Hájí Mírzá Áqásí succeeded in removing most of the supporters of the previous prime minister from power, filling their positions with his own appointees from Máh-Kú. Among those removed from power was Mírzá Buzurg Núrí, Bahá'u'lláh's father. [B10–11]
See BBD164 for picture.
See B11–122 for the relationship between the Sháh and his new Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí.
For details on the life of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí see BBD19.
For an example of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí's machinations against Bahá'u'lláh and others see DB120-122.
||Fath-Ali Shah; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Grand Viziers; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Iran, General history
|1847. c. 17 Apr
||The Báb sent a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]
Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb wrote to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learned of this last letter and sent a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declined their assistance. [B124–5; DB235–6]
See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
|Tabriz; Zanjan; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Shah; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime ministers; Grand Viziers; Tahirih; Haji Sulayman Khan; Hujjat
|1848. 4 Sep
||The death of the chronically Muhammad Sháh whom Shoghi Effendi described as bigoted, sickly and vacillating. [BBR153–4; GPB4; Encyclopædia Iranica]
This precipitated the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí because many of Tehran's elite arose against him. [Bab147; BBD19; BBR156]
For details of his life, fall and death in Karbila on the 1st of August, 1849, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest was rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
||Muhammad Shah; Grand Viziers; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Antichrist; Bahaullah, Life of; Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1850. 19 or 20 Feb
||Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís were executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]
See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
Three of the victims were so eager to be martyrs that they asked the executioner if they could be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
Their bodies were left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs; Grand Viziers; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil
|1852 Apr - May c.
||Bahá'u'lláh returned to Iran from Karbalá. [DB598]
He was the guest of the Grand Vizier for one month. [BKG74; DB598–9]
||Karbala; Iraq; Iran
||Bahaullah, Life of; Grand Viziers; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Bahá'u'lláh stayed at the summer residence of Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, the brother of the Grand Vizier, in Afchih, Lavásán, near Tihrán. [BKG77; DB599]
||Afchih; Lavasan; Tihran; Iran
||Bahaullah, Life of; Jafar-Quli Khan; Grand Viziers
|1852. 16 Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh rode out towards the headquarters of the imperial army. At the time, He had been in ‘The Abode of the Birds’ (MurghMaḥallih), a garden which had been His summer residence. He stopped at Zargandih at the home of Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, secretary to the Russian legation. [BKG77; DB603, AY235]
Bahá'u'lláh was invited to remain in this home. [DB603]
The Sháh was informed of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival and sent an officer to the legation to demand the delivery of Bahá'u'lláh into his hands. The Russian minister, Prince Dolgorukov, refused and suggested that Bahá'u'lláh be sent to the home of the Grand Vizier. [BKG77; DB603]
Bahá'u'lláh was arrested. [BKG77; DB603]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Mirza Majid Khan-i-Ahi; Russian officials; Shahs; Prince Dolgorukov; Grand Viziers; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1863. c. Jan 1863
||The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, received the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order was ignored by the governor, who was sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders were received and similarly ignored before the governor was compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131]
||Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Grand Viziers; Ali Pasha
|1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec
||Bahá'u'lláh in Constantinople
"spot that art situate on the shores of the two seas" [KA217]
Upon arrival He and His family were driven to the residence of Shamsi Big near the Sharif Mosque. They stayed here about one month. His companions were given accommodation elsewhere in the city. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61, HDBFXXVIII]
See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
His arrival in Constantinople and stay of about 5 years marked the first time in history that a Manifestation of God had set foot in the European continent. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 2 June, 1982 addressed To the Friends gathered at the International Conference in Dublin.]
Among the works Bahá'u'lláh revealed in Constantinople was Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]
It was during Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Constantinople that the conciliatory attitude of the authorities changed to that of hostility as a direct consequence of the intrigues and misrepresentations of the Persian Ambassador. [ALM16]
News was brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He would be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]
Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yahyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuaded Him to go. [BKG201–3]
Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz issued an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. It was issued "less than four months after the arrival of the exiles."[GPB159–60; RB2:57]
The decision was taken to further exile Bahá'u'lláh in part due to the machinations of the Persian Ambassador Mírzá Husayn Khán and his accomplice, Hájí Mírzá Hasan-i-Safá whose government was continually pressing the Turkish forces to arouse hostility against HIm. [GPB159}
See BBIC:34, note 68, BKG201 and GPB159 for reasons for the edict.
On the same day Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá, a Tablet addressed to the Sultán. When the Grand Vizier perused it he turned pale. The text of this Tablet has been lost. [BKG206; GPB160]
"...Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz, the self-styled vicar of the Prophet of Islám and the absolute ruler of a mighty empire. So potent, so august a personage was the first among the sovereigns of the world to receive the Divine Summons, and the first among Oriental monarchs to sustain the impact of God's retributive justice." [GPB158]
|Istanbul; Edirne; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mathnaviyi-i Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala; Grand Viziers; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^