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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1868. 30 Aug The ship arrives at Jaffa at sunset. At midnight the ship leaves for Haifa. [BKG168] Jaffa; Haifa
1868. 31 Aug The ship arrives in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembark and are taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
  • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, throws himself into the sea when he learns he is to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party is put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
  • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
The exiles land in `Akká to begin a confinement in the citadel that is to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
  • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
  • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
  • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
  • DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
  • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
  • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
  • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • The first night the exiles are refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
  • Afterwards each prisoner is allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
  • Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
  • Three of the exiles die soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
  • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
  • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
  • At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'bdu'l-Ahad ahead some time before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
  • The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
  • After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letter to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
Haifa; Famagusta; `Akka; citadel Mishkin-Qalam; Áqa `Abdu'l-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Ra'is; Dr. Petro; Mirza Ja'far
1868. 30 Oct Christoph Hoffman, founder of the Templers, and Georg David Hardegg, his principal lieutenant, land in Haifa. Hardegg remains in Haifa to head the colony, while Hoffman goes to Jaffa to found a colony there. [BBD224; BBR204, 2 15–16; DH133]
  • DH139 and GPB277 say this was 1863.
  • See BBR215–18 for the relationship between Bahá'u'lláh and the Templers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh several times stayed in the houses of the colony. [BBR234]
  • See BBR236–9 for articles written about the Bahá'ís by Templers.
Haifa; Jaffa Christoph Hoffman; Georg David Hardegg; Templers
1883. Aug Bahá'u'lláh travels to Haifa on the second of four known visits (His first is His brief stop there before travelling to Akká in 1868). This second visit lasted about three weeks. [BBD94; DH109; GPB194]
  • He stays in Bayt-i-Fanduq, a house in the German Templar colony, that had served as a guest house. The building is located at the northeast corner of Meir Rutberg and Yafo Street. [BKG373–4; BPP173; DH109]
Haifa; Bayt-i-Fanduq Templar colony
1890 In the year Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar are arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd is imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín is imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar is imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]

Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí is arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he is sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he is imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]

In Mashhad a mob sets out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání but failing to find him they loot his shop. [BW18:384]

`Akká; Haifa; Tihrán; Qazvín; Kalát-i-Nadírí; Mashhad; Haji Ákhund; Haji Amin; Ibn-i-Abhar; Mirza Mahmud-i-Furughi; Mirza Husayn-i-Bajistani; (Khayru'llah)
1890 E. G. Browne is in `Akká. Bahá'u'lláh is staying in the Templer colony in Haifa when he arrives. [BBR253] 'Akká; Haifa; E. G. Browne; Templer colony
1890. Apr Bahá'u'lláh visits Haifa for a third time. He spent about two weeks there on this visit. [BBD94; BPP173; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He first stays near Bayt-i-Zahlán, near the town. [BKG374]
  • He then moves to Oliphant House in the German colony. His tent is pitched on a piece of land opposite (currently on Ben Gurion 6). The plot upon which the tent of Bahá’u’lláh was pitched, is now a centre for soldiers named General Pierre Koenig Soldier Centre. [BKG374; BPP173]
Haifa; Oliphant House; Bayt-i-Zahlan German colony
1891. summer Bahá'u'lláh visits Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He stays three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He lives in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby. [BKG374; DH186]
  • It is during this visit that Bahá'u'lláh points out to `Abdu'l-Bahá the site for the Shrine of the Báb. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
  • One day He pitches His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visits the monastery. [DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh visits the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
  • He reveals the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH109, 174; MBW63; RB4:352]
  • For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
  • For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
  • For a story of the difficulties in obtaining land for access to the site of the Shrine of the Báb see SES79-80.
Haifa; House of Ilyás Abyad Shrine of the Bab; Carmelite monastery; cave of Elijah; Lawh-i-Karmil; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar title; title
1891. Jul-Aug Members of the Afnán family meet Bahá'u'lláh in Haifa. [BKG374, 406]
  • For details of this visit see BKG406–13.
Haifa Afnan
1899 Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí and others carry to the Holy Land the marble casket made by the Bahá'ís of Mandalay to hold the remains of the Báb. [BW10:517] Haifa; Mandalay; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Shrine of the Bab; Remains of the Bab
1900. c. 1900 For the state of affairs in Haifa just after the turn of the century see CB2234. Haifa
1902 Pilgrims from the East and the West are once again permitted to visit `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB232] Haifa; Akka Pilgrims
1904 Through the year the Covenant-breakers plot until the friendly governor of `Akká is replaced by one hostile to `Abdu'l-Bahá, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí stirring up opposition in certain elements of the population. [AB111; CB232]
  • Newspapers in Egypt and in Syria write false reports about `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB111; CB232]
  • Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí draws up an official indictment against `Abdu'l-Bahá full of false accusations. [AB112; CB232]
These actions result in the arrival of a Commission of Inquiry, sent by Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd. [AB112; CB233]
  • The Commission summons `Abdu'l-Bahá to answer the accusations levelled against Him and upon His replies the inquiry collapses. [AB113–14; CB233]
Haifa; Akka Covenant-breakers; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Commission of Inquiry; Sultan `Abdu'l-Hamid
1904 Mahd-i-`Ulyá (Fátimih Khánum), the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, dies. She and all her four surviving children are Covenant-breakers. [CB117] Haifa; Akka Mahd-i-`Ulya; Fatimih Khanum; Covenant-breaker
1907 `Abdu'l-Bahá starts to move His family to the house that He has designed and built in the German colony at the foot of Mount Carmel in Haifa. [BBD107; DH145]
  • Laura Clifford Barney helped to purchase the land for the house and to pay for its construction. [DH145]
  • Some members of the family occupy it as early as February 1907, if not before. [DH145; GBF56]
Haifa; house of `Abdu'l-Baha; Laura Clifford Barney
1907 Six rooms of the Shrine of the Báb are completed. [GBF103]
  • See BBD8 and DH103–4 for information on Mullá Abu-Tálib, the master mason from Bákú, Ádharbáyján, who worked on the Shrine.
Haifa; Bákú; Adharbáyján; Shrine of the Bab; Mulla Abu-Talib
1908 `Abdu'l-Bahá's house in Haifa is completed. [BBD 107] Haifa `Abdu'l-Baha's house in Haifa
1908 31 Aug BW2:22 says that `Abdu'l-Bahá walked free on 31 Aug. Haifa
1909 months following Mar Construction of the Eastern Pilgrim House in Haifa begins. [BBD178]
  • Mírzá Ja`far Rahmání, (also know as Áqá Mírzá Ja’far Shírází) a believer from `Ishqábád, is given permission by `Abdu'l-Bahá to build it. [DH177, SES25-26]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá composes an inscription that it place above the entrance that reads, "This is a spiritual Hostel for Pilgrims, and its founder is Mírzá Ja'far Rahmani. AH 1327."
  • This is the first property to be granted tax exemption by the civil authorities. [GPB307, SES43-47]
Haifa; Eastern Pilgrim House; Mirza Ja`far Rahmani; Áqa Mirza Ja’far Shirazi; BWC Pilgrimage
1909 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá gradually moves His family from `Akká to Haifa. [DH214] Haifa House of `Abdu'l-Baha
1910 10 May Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa to some American pilgrims. Haifa;
1910 13 May Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa to to a number of Jewish, Zoroastrian, Christian and Mohammedan Bahais. Haifa;
1910 Aug Having moved all His family to Haifa, `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself moves from the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá to His new home at 7 Haparsim (Persian) Street, Haifa. [BBD13, 107; DH145] Haifa House of `Abdu'l-Baha
1911 15 May Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa on the day of the commemoration of the Báb's Declaration. Haifa;
1911 18 May Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa to to Mr. Charles Mason Remey and Mr. Howard C. Struven on the day of their departure. Haifa;
1911 Aug Hájí Muhammad-Taqí Afnán, Vakílu'd-Dawlih, the cousin of the Báb largely responsible for the building of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád, is buried in the newly acquired Bahá'í cemetery in Haifa, the earliest recorded burial in the cemetery. [BBD51; DH182] Haifa Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan; Vakilu'd-Dawlih; Baha'i cemetery; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1912 c. Mishkín-Qalam passes away in the Holy Land. [BBD157; EB272] Haifa Mishkin-Qalam
1913 2 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá boards a Lloyd Triestino boat bound for Haifa. [AB402] Haifa; Lloyd Triestino
1914 29 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá instructs the remaining pilgrims in the Holy Land to leave. [AB406]
  • CH191 says the American pilgrims left on the last boat from Haifa to Alexandria on 15 Jan. 1915.
Haifa
1915 (in the year) Jamál Páshá, Commander of the 4th Army Corps of the Turkish army, is put in military control of Syria, including the Holy Land. [AB412]
  • For an account of his relationship with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá see AB412–14.
  • He threatens to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and to destroy the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [AB414; GPB304, 317]
Haifa; Akka Jamal Pasha; Shrine of Baha’u’llah; ‘Abdu’l-Baha
1915 May The Bahá'ís of Haifa and `Akká return to their homes from the village of Abú-Sinán. [DH147] Haifa; `Akká; Abú-Sinán
1916 26 Mar-22 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá reveals eight of the Tablets of the Divine Plan. [AB420; BBD219 BBRSM157; SBBH132-3; TDPX]
  • For the order and place of their revelation see AB420-2 and TDP.
  • For a description of their content see AB422-3.
  • Shoghi Effendi characterizes them as a `mandate' and a `supreme charter for teaching'. [GPB255; TDPVII]
  • The Tablets can be found at TDP on the pages indicated:
  • 1st (Page 1) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Northeastern States. Revealed on March 26, 1916, in ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s room at the house in Bahjí, addressed to the Bahá’ís of nine Northeastern States of the United States: Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York.
  • 2nd (Page 2) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Southern States. Revealed on March 27, 1916, in the garden adjacent to the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, addressed to the Bahá’ís of sixteen Southern States of the United States: Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas.
  • 3rd (Page 3) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Central States. Revealed on March 29, 1916, outside the house in Bahjí, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of twelve Central States of the United States: Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas.
  • 4th (Page 4) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Western States. Revealed on April 1, 1916, in ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s room at the house in Bahjí, addressed to the Bahá’ís of eleven Western States of the United States: New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Nevada, California, Wyoming, Utah, Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Washington.
  • 5th (Page 5) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of Canada and Greenland. Revealed on April 5, 1916, in the garden adjacent to the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of Canada—Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Mackenzie, Keewatin, Ungava, Franklin Islands—and Greenland.
  • 6th (Page 6) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada. Revealed on April 8, 1916, in the garden outside the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada.
  • 7th (Page 8) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada. Revealed on April 11, 1916, in ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s room at the house in Bahjí, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada.
  • 8th (Page 11) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada. Revealed on April 19, 1916, in ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s room at the house in Bahjí; on April 20, in the pilgrims’ quarters of the house in Bahjí; on April 22, in the garden adjacent to the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada.
Haifa `Abdu'l-Baha; Tablets of the Divine Plan
1917 2 Feb-8 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá reveals six Tablets of the Divine Plan. [AB422; BBD219]
  • As there is no communication with America at this time, the Tablets are stored in a vault under the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD219]
  • The Tablets can be found at TDP on the pages indicated:
  • 9th (Page 14)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Northeastern States. Revealed on February 2, 1917, in Ismá’íl Áqá’s room at the house of ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá in Haifa, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the nine Northeastern States of the United States: Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York.
  • 10th (Page 16)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Southern States. Revealed on February 3, 1917, in Haifa in Ismá’íl Áqá’s room, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the sixteen Southern States of the United States: Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas.
  • 11th (Page 18)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Central States. Revealed on February 8, 1917, in Bahá’u’lláh’s room at the house of Abbúd in ‘Akká, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the twelve Central States of the United States: Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas.
  • 12th (Page 20)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Western States. Revealed on February 15, 1917, in Bahá’u’lláh’s room at the house of Abbúd in ‘Akká, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the eleven Western States of the United States: New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Nevada, California, Wyoming, Utah, Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Washington.
  • 13th (Page 21)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of Canada and Greenland. Revealed on February 21, 1917, in Bahá’u’lláh’s room at the house of Abbúd in ‘Akká, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of Canada—Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Mackenzie, Keewatin, Ungava, Franklin Islands—and Greenland.
  • 14th (Page 23)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada. Revealed on March 8, 1917, in the summerhouse (Ismá’íl Áqá’s room) at ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s house in Haifa, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada.
Haifa `Abdu'l-Baha; Tablets of the Divine Plan
1917 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá sends a message to the Bahá'ís of the world assuring them of His safety. [AB412]
  • The Tablet is carried by an aged Arab Bahá'í, Hájí Ramadán. It takes him 45 days to walk from `Akká to Tihrán. On his return trip he brings gold and messages. [AB412; CH206-7]
  • For text of the Tablet see CH207-8.
Haifa; Tihran `Abdu'l-Baha; World War I; Haji Ramadan
1918 Jan The British Bahá'ís alert the Foreign Office about the importance of ensuring `Abdu'l-Bahá's safety in Haifa. [BBR332-5; CH219; GPB305-6]

CH219 says this was in the Spring but letters to the Foreign Office are dated Jan 1918.

  • For the actions of Lady Blomfield see BBR333, CH219-20, AB425-26 and ER169.
  • For the role of Major Wellesley Tudor Pole see BBR332-3; CH222-5; and ER168-70.
Haifa British Foreign Office; `Abdu'l-Baha; Lady Blomfield; Major Wellesley Tudor Pole
1918 18 Sep Allenby begins his last offensive against Haifa. [BBR335] Haifa General Allenby
1918 23 Sep The British army takes Haifa. [BBR335; DH148, Scroll In 68095]
  • For details of the battle see BBR335-6.
  • For letters from the British authorities stating that `Abdu'l-Bahá is safe see BBR336-7.
Haifa `Abdu'l-Baha
1918 Sep 23 The 1st Battle of Haifa: The battle was won due to a courageous uphill assault by the Jodhpur Lancers of the Indian Army which took the German and Turkish artillery and machine gun emplacements on top of Mount Carmel by surprise. This attack is believed to have been one of the last cavalry charge in modern military history. Each year, on this date, the Indian Army commemorates this victory as Haifa Day.

"During the early years of World War I, though no longer imprisoned, ‘Abdu’l-Baha faced repeated threats against His life by authorities that were antagonistic toward Him and the Baha’is. The Commander of the Ottoman fourth army corps had even threatened to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Baha if the Turkish army were ever to be displaced out of Haifa." Lady Bloomfield in London had learned of this threat and through her contacts in Cabinet the British Army were instructed to protect Him and His family. [BWNS69, BWNS1202]

Mount Carmel; Israel battle; Jodhpur Lancers; Indian Army; German; Turkish; Turkey; Haifa Day
1918. 23 Dec Ahmad Sohrab leaves the Holy Land to take the Tablets of the Divine Pan to America. [AB434] Haifa Tablets of the Divine Plan; Ahmad Sohrab
1919 Nov William Harry Randall, an American, asks `Abdu'l-Bahá if he might contribute to the building of the Western Pilgrim House. [DH179]
  • Plans are drawn up and work begun but the funds available are insufficient to continue the work until 1923, when money is contributed by Amelia Collins. [BBD178; DH180; GPB307]
Haifa William Harry Randall; `Abdu'l-Baha; Western Pilgrim House; Amelia Collins
1919 17 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá sends His `Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace at the Hague' in response to a communication addressed to Him by the executive committee. [AB438; BBD1 15; GPB308]
  • It is delivered in person by Ibn-i-Asdaq. [EB176]
  • It defines the Bahá'í peace programme. [BW3:12]
  • For the text of the Tablet see AB438-9.
Haifa `Abdu'l-Baha; Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace at the Hague; Ibn-i-Asdaq; Baha'i peace programme
1920 20 Apr Shoghi Effendi leaves Haifa to take up his studies at Balliol College in Oxford. As instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá he stays in a sanitarium in Neuilly (Maison d'Hydrothérapie et de convalescence du Parc de Neuilly, 6 Boulevard du Château, Neuilly-sur-Seine) before leaving for England in July. [SEO58} Haifa; Oxford; Neuilly; Shoghi Effendi; Balliol College; Oxford; Neuilly
1920 27 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá is invested with the insignia of the Knighthood of the British Empire in a ceremony in Haifa. [AB443; BBRXXX, 343-5; CH214; DH149; GPB306]
  • For the document recommending `Abdu'l-Bahá for knighthood, see BBR344.
  • The knighthood is in recognition of `Abdu'l-Bahá's humanitarian work during the war for famine relief. [AB443]
  • He accepts the honour as a gift from a `just king'. [AB443]
  • He does not use the title. [AB443]
  • For Lady Bloomfield's account see AB443-4 and CH214-15.
Haifa; New York `Abdu'l-Baha; Knighthood of the British Empire; Lady Blomfield
1920 Dec The passing of Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni known as 'the Angel of Mount Carmel' in Haifa. He is buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery on Mount Carmel.
  • For the story of his life see RB2:438–50.
  • His autobiography was published as Stories from the Delight of Hearts - The Memoirs of Hají Mírzá Haydar-Alí, was translated by A Q Faizi and published by Kalimat in 1980.
  • Acting on the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he wrote Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD. It covers the events from March to September and was published in English as a 28-page book in 1904 and 1917.
Haifa; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali
1920 27 Dec Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí, the `Angel of Carmel' passes away in Haifa. [BBD98; EB250]
  • For his biography see EB237-50 and Stories from The Delight of Hearts: The Memoirs of Hájí Mirzá Háydar-'Alí].
Haifa Haji Mirza Haydar-`Ali
1921 28 Nov The Ascension of `Abdu'l-Bahá: `Abdu'l-Bahá passes away at about 1:00 a.m., in Haifa. [AB452; BBD4; BBR347; GPB311; UD170]
  • For details of His passing see AB452, BW1:19-23; BW15:113-15 and GPB310-11.
  • This marks the end of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age of the Bahá'í Faith and the beginning of the Transitional Formative or Iron Age. [BBD35-6]
  • For a photograph of the cable sent announcing His passing see SW12, 15:245.
  • For a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá see The Oriental Rose by Mary Hanford Ford pg 158-159
  • Also see AB452-83; HLS93-100.
Haifa `Abdu'l-Baha Apostolic; Heroic or Primitive Age; Transitional Formative or Iron Age; pen portrait
1921 29 Nov The funeral of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:115]
  • For details of the funeral see AB464-74; BW1:23-6; BW15:115-19; GPB312-14; and SW12, 17:259-67.
  • For Western and newspaper accounts see AB474-80; BBR347-9; BW1:26-8; and BW15:119-20.
  • For eulogies to `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB481-2, BW1:28-9 and BW15 120-1.
  • Ten thousand people attend `Abdu'l-Bahá's funeral. [v7]
  • For a number of pictures of the funeral procession see SW12, 91:290, 292-8.
  • Bahíyyih Khánum looks for instructions on where to bury `Abdu'l-Bahá and, finding none, entombs Him in a vault next to the one where the remains of the Báb lie. [AB464; GBF14]
  • The Faith has spread to 35 countries. [MBW61; PP391]
  • The Bahá'í property at Bahjí does not exceed a thousand square metres; the Bahá'í property on Mount Carmel is about ten thousand square metres. [PP267]
  • Also see Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; Blomfield, The Chosen Highway; Honnold, Vignettes from the Life of `Abdu'l-Bahá; SW12, 15:245 and several following issues.
Haifa; Bahjí; Mount Carmel `Abdu'l-Baha; Bahiyyih Khanum; Shrine of the Bab
1921 2 Dec Ethel Rosenberg arrives in the Holy Land, having learned on the train from Port Said of the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [ER181-2] Haifa Ethel Rosenberg; `Abdu'l-Baha
1921 4 Dec On the seventh day after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá, corn is distributed in His name to about a thousand of the poor.
  • Up to this day 50 to 100 poor are fed daily at the Master's House. [BW15:122]
Haifa `Abdu'l-Baha; House of `Abdu'l-Baha
1921 29 Dec Shoghi Effendi arrives in the Holy Land from England by train from Egypt. [GBF14; PP42]
  • An envelope addressed to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá is waiting for him. It contained the Will and Testament. [Ruhi8.2p2]
  • He is so worn and grief-stricken that he has to be assisted up the stairs and is confined to bed for a number of days. [CB285]
Haifa Shoghi Effendi; Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Baha
1922 6 Jan A memorial feast for 600 people of Haifa, `Akká and the surrounding area is held 40 days after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:122; ER195]
  • More than a hundred poor are also fed. [BW15:122; ERT95-6]
  • For details of the memorial service see ER195-9 and SW13, 2:404.
Haifa; `Akka `Abdu'l-Baha
1922 21 Jan Shoghi Effendi writes to the two major communities of the Faith, Persia and America, urging the believers to arise in service for the triumph of the Cause. [BA15-17; CB298-300; CT154] Haifa Shoghi Effendi
1922 Feb-Mar Shoghi Effendi calls together a group of well-known Bahá'ís to discuss the future development of the Faith and the possible election of the Universal House of Justice. [BBRSM:120, 126; ER207; PP247-8]
  • See ER207-8 and PP55 for those attending.
  • It seems he decided that a firm base of local and national institutions to support the House of Justice would be required first. [PP248; SBR66]
Haifa Shoghi Effendi; Universal House of Justice
1922 Apr c. Shoghi Effendi appoints a body of nine people to act tentatively as an assembly in the Holy Land while he is away and entrusts the affairs of the Faith to the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GBF19; PP57, 276] Haifa Shoghi Effendi; local assembly; Greatest Holy Leaf
1922 5 Apr Shoghi Effendi leaves the affairs of the Faith in the hands of the Greatest Holy Leaf and departs the Holy Land for Europe, accompanied by his eldest cousin. [PP57]
  • See BA25 for his reasons for his departure.
Haifa Shoghi Effendi
1922 7 Apr The Haifa Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly is seen to be in operation this date, perhaps earlier. [SETPE1p50,] Haifa; Haifa Spiritual Assembly
1922 9 Apr Work commences on the Western Pilgrim House. [PP69] Haifa Western Pilgrim House
1922 autumn The Greatest Holy Leaf sends Shoghi Effendi's mother and other family members to Switzerland to ask him to return to the Holy Land. [PP63] Haifa Greatest Holy Leaf; Shoghi Effendi
1922 15 Dec Shoghi Effendi returns to the Holy Land to take up his duties as Guardian. [PP63-4]
  • He sends cablegrams to a number of national communities announcing his return and his eagerness to resume the work. [PP64-5]
Haifa Shoghi Effendi; Guardian
1923 (in the year) Charles Mason Remey makes preliminary plans for a monumental domed superstructure for the Shrine of the Báb. [BW6:723]

Haifa Charles Mason Remey; Shrine of the Bab
1923 Amelia Collins contributes the funds necessary to complete the Western Pilgrim House. [DH180; PSBW76] Haifa Amelia Collins; Western Pilgrim House; BWC Pilgrimage
1923 12 Mar Shoghi Effendi writes to Bahá'ís in America, Great Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Japan and Australasia about Bahá'í administration, outlining the process for annual elections of assemblies and calling for the establishment of local and national funds. [BA34-43; PP330]
  • See ER223-4 for the response of the British Bahá'ís.
Haifa Shoghi Effendi; Baha'i administration; annual elections; local and national funds
1923 Jun Shoghi Effendi leaves Haifa for Switzerland. [PP72; BBRSM116]
  • He returns to Haifa in November 1923. [BRRSM116]
Switzerland; Haifa; Shoghi Effendi
1923 Nov (sometime before 14 Nov) Shoghi Effendi returns from Switzerland. [PP73] Switzerland; Haifa Shoghi Effendi
1924 Memorials of the Faithful is published under the auspices of the Haifa Bahá'í Assembly. [MFXII] Haifa; Memorials of the Faithful
1924 Sep Shoghi Effendi returns to the Holy Land after an absence of some six months. [BA65-7; BBRSM117; UD279] Haifa Shoghi Effendi
1924 21 Nov Dr John E. Esslemont arrives in Haifa to help Shoghi Effendi with his work. [DJEE31; SBR233] Haifa Dr John E. Esslemont; Shoghi Effendi
1925 Oct Faced with the possibility of Jewish developments on land near the Shrine of the Báb, Shoghi Effendi appeals to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada to purchase the land in question. They respond quickly to the request. [BA92-3, SETPE1p108, PP97] Haifa land purchase; Shrine of the Bab
1925 21 Nov On his way from Iran to study at the American University of Beirut (then called the Syrian Protestant College) the 17-year-old Husan Balyuzi spent two days in Haifa. Although from a prominent Bahá'í family he was neither knowledgeable nor confirmed in his faith. After having spent more than one hour with Shoghi Effendi his faith was confirmed and the course of his life was set. [SETPE1p110-111, BW18p637-651] Haifa
1925 22 Nov John Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away in Haifa. [BW3p84-85, BBD81, SETPE1p108-110]
  • For letters of Shoghi Effendi announcing his death and giving details of his life and funeral see BA97–8 and UD40–3.
  • For an obituary see BW1:133–6 and BW8:929–35.
  • He is buried next to the grave of Vakílu’d-Dawlih, the chief builder of the House of Worship at ‘Ishqábád. [DJEE37]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevates him to the station of Hand of the Cause of God on his death. The announcement is made on November 30th. [BA7-98; BWT3:333; DJEE40; PP92; UD403, MoCxxii
  • See also Moojan Momen, Dr John E. Esslemont (BPT UK 1975) and BW8p929-935 for "John Ebenezer Esslemont: His Life and Service" by Jesse E. Revell.
Haifa; ‘Ishqabad John Esslemont; Hand of the Cause; Disciple of Abdul-Baha; Vakilu’d-Dawlih; House of Worship; Mashriqul-Adhkar; In Memoriam; Hand appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
1925 Nov With the passing of Dr Esslemont Shoghi Effendi is left without qualified secretarial help. This situation remained in place until the formation of the International Bahá'í Council in 1951. [PP92-95, SETPE1p112]
  • On November 30th Shoghi Effendi appoints him a Hand of the Cause of God.
Haifa
1925 Dec The Guardian express his "heartfelt and abiding gratitude" to Milly Collins and seven others who had donated the necessary funds to complete the Western Pilgrim House construction project. It had been started in 1919 with a donation from Ruth and Harry Randal but had come to a halt when the funds ran out. [Millyp7] Haifa Western Pilgrim House; Milly Collins
1926 Jan Orcella Rexford and her husband Dr Gayne Gregory (the first to accept the Faith in Alaska) come to Haifa on pilgrimage and are technically the first from Alaska to do so. They are in the process of moving from Alaska to the Continental USA. [SETPE1p112-112]
  • See BW11p495-498 for for details of the life of Orella Rexford
Haifa; Alaska Orcella Rexford; Dr Gayne Gregory
1927 Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, a 19-year-old student who had attended the Tarbiyát School in Tehran but now enrolled at the American University at Beirut visits Haifa to meet Shoghi Effendi. Like Hasan Balyuzi before him, he is immediately possessed by a great desire to serve him. [SETPE1p146-7] Haifa Abu'l-Qasim Faizi; Tarbiyat School; American University at Beirut
1927 Mar Shoghi Effendi retranslates the Hidden Words.
  • He is assisted by George Townshend and Ethel Rosenberg, the ‘English friends’ mentioned on the title page. [ER246–7, 253–6; GT109, SETPE1p126]
Haifa Shoghi Effendi; Hidden Words; George Townshend; Ethel Rosenberg
1927 11 Mar Sadie Oglesby and her daughter Bertha Parvine arrive in Haifa, the first black American women to make the pilgrimage. [TMW173, 206, SETPE1p141-145] Haifa Sadie Oglesby; Bertha Parvine
1927 May The funeral of a believer resident in the Holy Land, Mírá Moshen Afnán, is the first entirely Bahá'í funeral to take place in Palestine showing the strong independence of the Faith. [SETPE1p147] Haifa; Palestine Mira Moshen Afnan; funeral
1927 Oct Shoghi Effendi entrusts Dr William Slater and his wife Ida Slater, who are visiting Haifa on a 19-day pilgrimage, with carpets from the Shrines of the Báb and 'Abdu'l-Bahá for the House of Worship in Chicago. [SETPE1p149] Haifa; Chicago Dr William Slater; Ida Slater; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; Shrine of the Bab
1927 mid-Oct Shoghi Effendi announces the defection of 'Abdu'l-Husayn Ávarih. He had been a very successful teacher and the author of a book on the history of the Faith but opposed Shoghi Effendi's efforts to build the Administrative Order. He was insistent that the Universal House of Justice be formed at that time. He was denounced by the believers in Egypt and Iran. [SETPE1p149, BA137-139, Ruhi8.2-20, CoC294-296] Haifa Covenant-breaker; 'Abdu'l-Husayn Àvarih
1928 Jan A Covenant-breaker, Jamil Irani, tries to still up trouble by implicating the Bahá'ís with Saláru'd-Dawlih, an ambitious brother of Muhammad-'Ali Sháh who had been deposed by the 1909 Revolution in Iran. The allegation was investigated by Lord Plummer, the British High Commissioner in Palestine who learned the truth of the matter. [SETPE1p151-152] Iran; Haifa Covenant-breaker; Jamil Irani; Lord Plummer
1929 14 Feb Work begins on the three additional chambers of the Shrine of the Báb after the rock had been excavated from behind the building during the previous year. [DH154]
  • Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí, the builder who had completed the repairs on the House of Bahá'u'llah in Baghdad was chosen to be in charge of the work.
  • Originally the centre room had been separated by wooden walls and doors. These were removed and replaced by archways. [SETPE1p164]
  • These rooms, when completed, are used as the International Bahá’í Archives. There is a second repository of the archives at this time near the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GPB347]
Haifa Shrine of the Bab; International Baha’i Archives.Haji Mahmud Qassabchi
1929 4 May When the British Mandate in Palestine had been set up, an Order-in-Council had been enacted that allowed each of the recognized religious communities to be administered in all affairs of personal status according to their own religious laws and courts. The Bahá'í community had not, however, been accorded this "recognized" status and was thus compelled to submit to the Muslim Courts. In 1929 Shoghi Effendi asked Mountfort Mills to raise the matter with the authorities and the Bahá’í Community of Haifa formally petitions the government that the Bahá’í laws on personal status be recognized in Palestine. [BBR459; PP284]
  • Recognition is granted later in the year. [BBR459; DH116; PP284]
Haifa laws of personal status in Palestine.
1929 summer Shoghi Effendi makes plans to hold an international conference to consider, among other things, how to establish national spiritual assemblies as a prelude to the Universal House of Justice. [PP250]
  • He cancels the conference when he perceives that the Bahá’ís will find it a source of confusion and misunderstanding. [BBRSM126; PP250]
Haifa Universal House of Justice
1930 39 May With respect to the New History Society and Ahmad Sohrab, Shoghi Effendi writes to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada to make a definitive statement regarding that organization and the Cause.
  • "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station ot Baha'u'lkih, To be a Baha'I is to accept the Cause in its entirety. To take exception to one basic principle is to dcny the authority and sovereignty of Baha'u'lIah, and therefore is to deny the Cause. The administration is the social order of Bahi'u'llah. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric t,hat Baha'u'lhih has prescribed, it is to disobey His law."
  • The message goes on to say that "unfailing kindness and goodwill" should be paid to the individuals and that the doors to Bahá'í fellowship should always remain open. [Bahá'í News p333]
Haifa New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breaker
1930 7 Oct Ruth White writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she has sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requests she sends that same evidence to him and he forwards it to the Governor of Haifa who requests to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declares the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157] Haifa; England; Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Dr Ainsworth Mitchell
1932 15 Jul The Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahíyyih Khánum, ‘outstanding heroine of the Bahá’í Dispensation’ passes away in Haifa about one hour after midnight. [BW5:169; GPB108]
  • Her passing marks the end of the Heroic Age of the Faith. [BBD102; WOB98]
  • She is comparable in rank to Sarah, Ásíyih, the Virgin Mary, Fátimih and Táhirih. [GPB347]
  • Shoghi Effendi is in Switzerland and immediately goes to Italy to commission a memorial for her grave. [DH156]
  • For Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá revealed in her honour see BW5:171–3.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see BW5:174–9.
  • For Marjory Morten’s obituary of her see BW5:181–5.
  • The design of the monument for the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf is a symbol of the Bahá’í administrative order. [CB298]
  • See also Bahíyyih Khánum and Gail, Khánum, The Greatest Holy Leaf; BBD42; CB121–2, 305; DH156–61; GBF65–8; PP144–8.
Haifa Greatest Holy Leaf; Bahiyyih Khanum; Heroic Age; Marjory Morten; In Memoriam
1937 25 Mar Shoghi Effendi marries Mary Maxwell, Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum. [PP151; UD115]
  • For a description of the simple wedding see GBF68–9 and PP151–2.
  • Shoghi Effendi stresses that the marriage draws the Occident and the Orient closer together. [GBF69–70; PP153]
  • The American Bahá’í community sends $19 from each of its 71 Assemblies as a wedding gift. [GBF70; PP153]
  • An extension is built onto Shoghi Effendi’s apartment on the roof of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s house in Haifa to accommodate the couple. [BBD107; DH152]
  • See also MA89.
Haifa Shoghi Effendi; Mary Maxwell; Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum
1938 - 1939 Shoghi Effendi disbands the Haifa Spiritual Assembly which had been in operation since at least 1922, and sends the local community away. [PP348]
  • The disbanding of the spiritual assembly apparently did not mean the end to the publication of the "Haifa News Letter" in which news from the World Centre had been forwarded to all the Bahá'í centres in the East in Persian with an English translation of the publication distributed in the West. The last known mention of the Haifa News Letter is in Bahá'í News Dec. 1945 p780. [PP50, 282,348]
Haifa Haifa Spiritual Assembly; Haifa News Letter
1938 30 Apr Munírih Khánum, the Holy Mother, wife of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away. [BBD166; BW8:260; CB358; DH161]
  • Note: UD119 records this was 28 April.
  • Shoghi Effendi inters her body just west of the Shrine of Bahíyyih Khánum and erects a simple monument over her grave. [DH161]
  • For excerpts from her autobiography see BW8:259–63.
  • For tributes to her see BW8:263–7.
Haifa Munirih Khanum; Holy Mother; In Memoriam; Shrine of Baha'u'llah
1940 9 Feb The monuments of Navváb and the Purest Branch are dedicated at a ceremony in Haifa. [ZK293]
  • For details of the ceremony, see ZK293–6.
Haifa Navváb; Purest Branch
1940 27 Dec Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum are back in Haifa. [PP181] Haifa Shoghi Effendi; Ruhiyyih Khanum
1942 Late in the year Shoghi Effendi asks Sutherland Maxwell to design the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210; DH140; GBF103–5] Haifa Sutherland Maxwell; Shrine of the Báb
1944 22 Jan Prior to mailing the manuscript to Horace Holley, Shoghi Effendi made the last corrections of the last installment of God Passes By. At that time the book had the working title of "Prospect and Retrospect". This marks the culmination of approximately two years of almost continuous work. [PP222] Haifa God Passes By; Prospect and Perspect
1944 22–23 May The Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb is commemorated in the Holy Land. [BW10:150]
  • For a description of this event by Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW10:150–7.
  • For press accounts see BW10:156–7.
Haifa Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb
1944 23 May Shoghi Effendi unveils the model of the Shrine of the Báb at the centenary celebration of the Declaration of the Báb in Haifa. [BBD210; BW10:154, 157; DH140; GBF104; PP239–40; UD166]
  • BW10:157 suggests this was 24 May
Haifa Shrine of the Báb; Declaration of the Báb
1946 Jan-Feb Canadian Elizabeth Greenleaf is on pilgrimage in Haifa. SETPE1p114 Haifa Elizabeth Greenleaf
1946 11 Apr Shoghi Effendi instructs Sutherland Maxwell to set plans in motion for the first stages of the building of the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [GBF104–5] Haifa Sutherland Maxwell; Shrine of the Báb
1947 Gladys Anderson Weeden arrives at the World Centre to assist Shoghi Effendi, taking responsibility for liaising with government and other officials. [BW18:694]
  • She marries Ben Weeden on 20 March 1948 in Jerusalem; he assists with building projects at the World Centre. [BW15:478; BW18:694]
Haifa; BWC; Gladys Anderson Weeden; Ben Weeden
1947 9 Jul Shoghi Effendi receives a letter from the chairman of the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine requesting a statement on the relationship the Bahá’í Faith has to Palestine and the Bahá’í attitude to any future changes in the status of the country. [BW11:43, Text]
  • Shoghi Effendi replies on 14 July setting out the non-political character of the Bahá’í Faith and explaining that Palestine is both the administrative and the spiritual headquarters of the religion. [BW11:43–4]
  • He also includes a statement of the history, aims and significance of the Bahá’í Faith, later published by the American National Spiritual Assembly in pamphlet form. [BW11:44; PP351]
  • For the text of this latter statement see GTT1–10.
Haifa United Nations Special Committee on Palestine; Shoghi Effendi
1948 21 - 22 Apr The 2nd Battle of Haifa: A Jewish offensive to gain control of the strategic port of Haifa. Prior to the 30-hour battle the Arab population of Haifa was estimated to be 65,000 compared to 70,000 Palestinian Jews. At the end of the operation the Arab population was reduced to about 4,000 people. [Battle of Haifa] Haifa
1949 Construction begins on the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210] Haifa Shrine of the Bab
1951 Shoghi Effendi receives the original manuscript of The Kitáb-i-Íqán, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá with some marginal additions by Bahá’u’lláh, and places it in the International Bahá’í Archives. Haifa International Baha’i Archives; The Kitab-i-Íqan
1951 9 Jan Shoghi Effendi announces the establishment of the International Bahá’í Council. [BBD118; BBRSM127; GBF109; MBW7–8; PP252]
  • It is a forerunner to the Universal House of Justice. [BBD118]
  • For its functions see MBW7–8.
  • Its seat is the Western Pilgrim House. [BBD178]
  • For the stages of its evolution see CB324.
Haifa International Bahá’í Council; UHJ; Western Pilgrim House
1951 30 Nov Shoghi Effendi announces plans for the Great Jubilee commemorating the centenary of the birth of the Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh in the Síyáh-Chál. [BW12:24–6, 115–16; MBW16–18] Haifa Great Jubilee; centenary of birth of Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh
1951 24 Dec Shoghi Effendi appoints 12 Hands of the Cause of God, the first contingent of Hands to be appointed. BBRSM127; BW12:38–40, 374–5; BW13:333–4; MBW20]
  • They are Sutherland Maxwell, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins (she had been appointed in 1946, but her appointment had not been made public), Valíyu’lláh Varqá, Tarázu’lláh Samandarí, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Horace Holley, Dorothy Baker, Leroy Ioas, George Townshend, Herman Grossmann and Ugo Giachery [GBF110–11; MBW20; PP253–4]
Haifa Hand of the Cause; Sutherland Maxwell; Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Valiyu’llah Varqa; Tarazu’llah Samandari; Ali Akbar Furutan; Horace Holley; Dorothy Baker; Leroy Ioas; George Townshend; Herman Grossmann; Ugo Giachery; Appointment Hand - First Contingent
1952 29 Feb Shoghi Effendi appoints the second contingent of Hands of the Cause of God. [BW12:375–6; CT202–3 MBW20–1; PP254; ZK47]
  • They are Fred Schopflocher, Corinne True, Dhikru’lláh Khádem, Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Músá Banání and Clara Dunn. [BW12:375–6; MWB19–20]
  • Shoghi Effendi describes their two-fold function: propagation of the Faith and preservation of its unity. [BW12:376; MBW21]
Haifa Hands of the Cause; Fred Schopflocher; Corinne True; Dhikru’lláh Khádem; Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í; Adelbert Mühlschlegel; Músá Banání; Clara Dunn
1952 Mar The octagonal second component of the Shrine of the Báb is completed. Haifa Shrine of the Bab
1952 4 Mar Shoghi Effendi describes plans for a marble colonnade to encircle the Shrine of the Báb as an intermediate step to building a superstructure for the Shrine and sends his ideas to Italy for scale drawings and estimate. [SE133–4] Haifa Shrine of the Báb
1952 8 Mar Shoghi Effendi announces the enlargement of the International Bahá’í Council to eight members. [MBW22; PP252–3]
  • Its members are Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery, Leroy Ioas, Jessie Revell, Ethel Revell and Lotfullah Hakim. [BW12:379; MBW22]
Haifa International Bahá’í Council; Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum; Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Jessie Revell; Ethel Revell; Lotfullah Hakim
1952 26 Mar Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum is appointed Hand of the Cause of God to replace her father. [GBF111; MBW132–3] Haifa Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Hand of the Cause
1952 8 Oct Shoghi Effendi announces his decision to launch ‘the fate-laden, soul-stirring, decade-long world-embracing Spiritual Crusade’ in the coming year. [BW12:253–5; MBW411
  • For the objectives of the Crusade see BW12:256–14.
  • Among the goals to be achieved is the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives building. [BBD22; DH168; MBW43]
  • He calls upon the Hands of the Cause to appoint during Ridván 1954 five auxiliary boards to act as their adjuncts or deputies to work with the national spiritual assemblies to execute the projected national plans. [MBW44, BW13p335]
Haifa Spiritual Crusade; International Baha’i Archives; Hand of the Cause; auxiliary board; NSA
1953 29 Apr In a moving ceremony, Shoghi Effendi places a silver box containing a fragment of plaster from the ceiling of the Báb’s cell in Máh-Kú under a tile in the golden dome of the Shrine of the Báb. [BW12:239; ZK285] Haifa Shrine of the Bab
1953 Oct The superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb is completed. [BBD210; CB324–5; PP235; ZK85–6] Haifa Shrine of the Bab
1954 Apr The site for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the Holy Land is selected. [DH175; MBW63] Haifa Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1954 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces that plans for the International Bahá’í Archives have been completed and that steps have been taken to begin its construction. [BBD22–3; DH169; GBF117–8; MBW64] Haifa International Baha’i Archives
1954 26 Apr President of Israel Ben Zvi and his wife visit the Shrines on Mount Carmel, the first official visit paid by a head of a sovereign state to the Shrines of the Báb and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. [GBF139–140; MBW68; PP2923] Haifa Ben Zvi; Shrine of the Báb
1954 1 Oct The title of the a parcel of land on Mount Carmel is transferred to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, Israel Branch. The title deed is for Parcel No. 304, Block 10811 Mount Carmel, Haifa. Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel. BWC; title find reference
1954 Nov A plot of land of slightly less than half an acre owned by Farah Sprague, a Covenant-breaker, is purchased, overcoming the final obstacle to beginning the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives. [DH169; MBW73–4] Haifa Farah Sprague; Covenant-breaker; International Baha’i Archives Was she the Iranian-born wife of Sidney Sprague? See BFA2p155
1954 27 Nov Shoghi Effendi describes the significance of the world administrative centre of the Faith and the ‘structures, which will serve as the administrative seats of such divinely appointed institutions as the Guardianship, the Hands of the Cause, and the Universal House of Justice’ to be ranged along a ‘far-flung arc’. [MBW74] Haifa Guardianship; Hand of the Cause; UHJ
1955 to 2007 The Fifth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was 'Ali-Muhammad Varqá. He inherited both the Trusteeship and the station of Hand of the Cause of God from his father upon his passing. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • During his tenure the compilation Huqúqu'lláh was published (1985) by the Universal House of Justice.
  • The delegates gathered at the National Convention of the Bahá'ís of the United States in 1984 petitioned the Universal House of Justice to make the Law of the Huqúqu'lláh applicable in their country. (Up to this point the law only applied to Bahá'is of Persian origin.) The Universal House of Justice replied that it was not yet time for such a measure but did agree to make more information available in preparation for such a time. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 3 January, 1985, AWH30]
  • Friends in Austria and the United States had published codifications on the Law of the Huqúqu'lláh and so the the benefit of the believers everywhere the Research Department at the World Centre was asked to prepare a brief history and a Codification. This information was sent to all national assemblies in the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987.
  • In 1991 the Central Office of Huqúqu'lláh was established in the Holy Land under the direction of the Chief Trustee in anticipation of the worldwide application of the law. Subsequently regional and national boards were established. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 1991]
  • With the publication of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in English in 1992 the law of the Huqúqu'lláh became universally applicable.
  • In 2005 an International Board of Trustees of the Huqúqu'lláh was established to guide the regional and national boards. Three members appointed to the Board were Sally Foo, Ramin Khadem, and Grant Kvalheim. Their term of office was to be determined. [Ridván 2005]
  • The last Hand of the Cause of Cause and Trustee of the Huqúqu'llah, Alí Muhammad Varqá, passed away in Haifa on the 22nd of September, 2007. [BWNS579]
BWC; Haifa; Fifth Trustee of the Huququ'llah; 'Ali-Muhammad Varqa; Hand of the Cause; Trustee of the Huququ'llah; Huququ’llah
1955 20 Mar Shoghi Effendi announces the commencement of the excavation for the foundations of the International Bahá’í Archives. [MBW75] Haifa International Bahá’í Archives
1955 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces the acquisition of 36,000 square metres of land for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the Holy Land. [DH175; MBW78–9]
  • The entire sum for the purchase was donated by Amelia Collins. [MBW79]
Haifa Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Amelia Collins
1955 4 May Sylvia Ioas is appointed to the International Bahá’í Council as its ninth member. [BW19:612; GBF110; MBW86; PP253] Haifa Sylvia Ioas; International Bahá’í Council
1957 3 Feb Enoch Olinga arrives in the Holy Land, the first black African Bahá’í to go on pilgrimage. Haifa Enoch Olinga
1957 Ridván The International Bahá’í Archives is completed. [DH169; GBF63–4; PP264–5]
  • For details of its construction and photographs see BW13:403–33.
Haifa International Baha’i Archives
1957 4 Jun Shoghi Effendi adds protection of the Cause to the duties of the Hands of the Cause. [BBRSM127; CB380; MBW122–3] Haifa Hand of the Cause
1957 Oct The third contingent of Hands of the Cause of God is appointed: Enoch Olinga, William Sears, John Robarts, Hasan Balyuzi, John Ferraby, Collis Featherstone, Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí. [GBF111; MBW127; PP254, 442; SS47]
  • See TG160 for the story of how Enoch Olinga reacted to the news of being appointed a Hand of the Cause of God
Haifa Hand of the Cause; Enoch Olinga; William Sears; John Robarts; Hasan Balyuzi; John Ferraby; Collis Featherstone; Rahmatu’llah Muhajir; Abu’l-Qasim Faizi
1957 Oct Shoghi Effendi designates the Hands of the Cause the ‘Chief Stewards of Bahá’u’lláh’s embryonic World commonwealth’. [MBW127] Haifa Hand of the Cause
1957 Oct Shoghi Effendi calls for the convocation of a series of Intercontinental Conferences to be held successively in Kampala, Uganda; Sydney, Australia; Chicago, United States; Frankfurt, Germany; and Djakarta, Indonesia. [BW13:311–12; MBW125] Haifa
1957 Oct Shoghi Effendi announces the appointment of a second Auxiliary Board responsible for the protection of the Faith. [MBW127–128; PP442] Haifa Auxiliary Board
1957 15 Nov Hands of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins and Leroy Ioas, accompanied by Hand of the Cause Ugo Giachery, enter the apartment of Shoghi Effendi and seal with tape and wax the safe where his important documents were kept as well as the drawers to his desk. [BW13:341]
  • The keys to the safe are placed in an envelope, which is sealed and signed by the five Hands and then placed in the safe of Leroy Ioas. BW13:341]
Haifa Hand of the Cause; Rúhíyyih Khánum; Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Ugo Giachery
1957 19 Nov Nine Hands of the Cause are chosen by Rúhíyyih Khánum to examine Shoghi Effendi’s apartment. [BW 13:341]
  • These are the five members of the International Bahá’í Council (Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery and Leroy Ioas), an Afnán (Hasan Balyuzi), a representative of the Hands of the Western Hemisphere (Horace Holley), a representative of the Hands of the African continent (Músá Banání) and the Trustee of the Huqúqu’lláh (‘Alí Muhammad Varqá). [BW13:341]
  • After seeing that the seals are intact, the Hands examine the contents of Shoghi Effendi’s safe and desk. [BW13:341]
  • The nine Hands sign a document testifying that no Will or Testament of any nature executed by Shoghi Effendi has been found. This is reported to the entire body of Hands assembled in the Mansion of Bahjí. [BW13:341]
  • See CB378–9 for an explanation of why Shoghi Effendi left no Will.
Haifa Shoghi Effendi; Hand of the Cause; Ruhiyyih Khanum; International Baha’i Council; Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Horace Holley; Musa Banani; ‘Ali Muhammad Varqa
1957 25 Nov A proclamation is issued stating that Shoghi Effendi left no heir and made no appointment of another Guardian. [BW13:341–5; MC25–30]
  • See LOG310 for an explanation of the various meanings of the word ‘Guardianship’.
  • See CB388–9 for a discussion of the continuation of the institution of the Guardianship.
Haifa Guardianship
1957 25 Nov Nine Hands are chosen to serve as Custodians of’ the Faith residing in the Holy Land. [BBD57; BW13:342; DH215]
  • The Hands residing in the Holy Land are established as a legal body under the title ‘The Custodians of the Bahá’í World Faith’.
  • The Hands chosen as first Custodians are Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Leroy Ioas, Hasan Balyuzi, ‘Alí Akbar Furútan, Jalál Kházeh, Paul Haney and Adelbert Mühlschlegel. [BW13:345–6; MC40–1]
Haifa The Custodians of the Bahá’í World Faith; Rúhíyyih Khánum; Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; ‘Alí Akbar Furútan; Jalál Kházeh; Paul Haney; Adelbert Mühlschlegel
1957 Nov-1963 Apr The six year ministry of the Hands of the Cause residing in the Holy Land, or ‘Custodians’. [BW16:90; WG45–6]
  • This period is known as the ‘interregnum’. [BBD 120]
  • See BW14:467 for a summary of the work of the Hands of the Cause during this period.
  • The International Bahá’í Council continues to perform its duties at the World Centre under the direction of the Custodians. [BBD118]
  • See also The Ministry of The Custodians 1957–1963.
Haifa Hand of the Cause; Custodians; International Bahá’í Council
1957 2 Dec On the advice of their lawyer, Dr Abraham Weinshall, the Custodians ask each National and Regional Assembly to send a letter recognizing them as the supreme body in the Cause. [MC40–1] Haifa NSA
1958 12 Jun The Custodians release the ‘Statement regarding the Guardianship’, explaining that Shoghi Effendi had left no heir, that only he could appoint a second Guardian and that the Bahá’ís must dismiss all hopeful expectation that a Will appointing a second Guardian will be found. [MC100-2] Haifa Guardianship
1959 Ridván The Custodians announce that the number of national and regional spiritual assemblies has risen to 31, the Faith is established in 255 countries, Bahá’ís live in over 5,200 localities and have formed nearly 1,275 local spiritual assemblies, and Bahá’í literature has been translated into 261 languages. [MC137–8] Haifa Custodians
1959 Ridván The Custodians announce that the resting place of the remains of the father of Bahá’u’lláh has been identified. [MC144] Haifa
1959 14 Jun The Hands of the Cause announce that the remains of the cousin of the Báb have been identified and have been transferred to a cemetery. [MC161] Haifa Hand of the Cause
1960 Ridván The Custodians announce that the Bahá’í Faith is represented in over 256 territories and is established in over 5,800 localities; there are 31 national spiritual assemblies and nearly 1,500 local spiritual assemblies; and Bahá’í literature is in 268 languages. [Mc183–96] Haifa Custodian
1960 27 Apr The International Bahá’í Council by unanimous vote rejects the claim of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC206–7] Haifa International Baha’i Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-Breaker
1960 28 Apr The Custodians call upon all believers to join the Hands in repudiation of the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC196–7] Haifa Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-Breaker
1960 13 May The International Bahá’í Council writes to the Custodians recording its decision taken on 27 April to reject the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [Mc206–7] Haifa International Baha’i Council; Charles Mason Remey; Custodians; Covenant-Breaker
1960 12 Jul Horace Hotchkiss Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 April, 1887 in Torrington, CT) [MC226-227, BW13:849]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW13:849–858.
  • For cable from the Hands of the Cause see MC217–18.
  • See also SBR214-247, LoF253-264 and Holley, Horace Hotchkiss by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram.
  • His publications Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion, Religion for Mankind, World Unity, Bahai, The Spirit of the Age, Baha'i Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha, Read-aloud Plays, Divinations and Creation, The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh, The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse .
Haifa; Torrington; CT Horace Holley; Hand of the Cause of God; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent; Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion; Religion for Mankind; World Unity; Bahai; The Spirit of the Age; Baha'i Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha; Read-aloud Plays; Divinations and Creation; The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh; The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse
1960 26 Jul The Hands of the Cause of God declare Charles Mason Remey a Covenant-breaker. [BBRSM221; MC224–5] Haifa Hand of the Cause of God; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breaker
1960 2 Nov The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their fourth Conclave. [MC237–44]
  • All the Hands of the Cause are henceforth to render their services on a global, rather than a regional, scale. [MC239]
Haifa Hand of the Cause
1961 Ridván The International Bahá’í Council is elected for the first time, by postal ballot of the members of the national spiritual assemblies. [BW13:397; MC282]
  • The members are Jessie Revell, ‘Alí Nakhjavání, Lutfu’lláh Hakím, Ethel Revell, Charles Wolcott, Sylvia Ioas, Mildred Mottahedeh, Ian Semple and Borrah Kavelin. [MC282]
  • See BW13:398 for picture.
  • See also BBD118; BBRSM131; BW16:90; CB324; MC168, 242.
Haifa International Baha’i Council; Jessie Revell; ‘Ali Nakhjavani; Lutfu’llah Hakim; Ethel Revell; Charles Wolcott; Sylvia Ioas; Mildred Mottahedeh; Ian Semple; Borrah Kavelin
1961 autumn/winter The International Bahá’í Archives is opened to Bahá’í pilgrims. [BW13:429; MC20]
  • For details of the Archives building and several pictures see BW13:403–34.
Haifa International Baha’i Archives; pilgrim
1962 1 Jan Amelia Collins passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 June, 1873) [BW13:399, 840; MC12]
  • For her obituary see BW13:834–41.
  • Shoghi Effendi appoints her (publicly) among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For the cable of the Hands of the Cause see MC333.
  • See also Faizí, Milly ,"The Fulfilled hope of 'Abdu'l-Bahá" by Richard Francis and PSBW73–106.
  • For a timeline of her life see Shareable Bahá'í Resources
  • While serving in Haifa she was given 'Abdu'l-Bahá's room. She was the last person to occupy it. [TG231]
Haifa Amelia Collins; Hand of the Cause; Appointment Hand - First Contingent; In Memoriam
1962 28 Jun President Tubman of Liberia visits the Shrine of the Báb.
  • This is the second official visit of a head of state and is notable in that Liberia is the first black republic on the continent of Africa. [BW13:400]
  • See BW13:400 for picture.
Haifa Shrine of the Báb; President Tubman
1963 21 – 23 Apr The First International Convention is convened in Haifa. [MC424]
  • For programme see MC424–5.
  • For details of the Convention and pictures see BW14:425–30.
Haifa
1963 21 Apr The Universal House of Justice is elected for the first time. [BW14:427; MC424]
  • The election is held at 9:30 in the morning at the home of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 7 Haparsim Street, Haifa. [BW14:427; MC425]
  • Ballots are received from all 56 national spiritual assemblies. [BW14:427]
  • 288 members of 51 national spiritual assemblies are present at the election. [BW14:427]
  • For a list of the electors see MC406–13.
  • For details of the election see BW14:425–9 and MC20–1.
Haifa Election; UHJ
1963 22 Apr The results of the election of the Universal House of Justice are announced at the close of the morning session of the International Convention: Charles Wolcott, ‘Alí Nakhjavání, H. Borrah Kavelin, Ian Semple, Lutfu’lláh Hakím, David Hofman, Hugh Chance, Amoz Gibson and Hushmand Fatheazam. [BBD231–3; BBRSM131; BW14:425 MC425; SS50; VVXI-XII]
  • For a picture of the Hands of the Cause of God with the Universal House of Justice see ZK123.
Haifa Charles Wolcott; ‘Ali Nakhjavani; H. Borrah Kavelin; Ian Semple; Lutfu’llah Hakim; David Hofman; Hugh Chance; Amoz Gibson; Hushmand Fatheazam
1963 7 May The Universal House of Justice issues its first message to national conventions. [WG4–8]
  • It pays tribute to the Hands of the Cause. [WG5]
  • It announces that the body has no officers and that its communications will be signed ‘Universal House of Justice’ over an embossed seal. [WG6]
Haifa Hand of the Cause; UHJ
1963 9 May The Hands of the Cause of God pass a resolution regarding the principles that will apply between the body of the Hands and the Hands Residing in the Holy Land and the activities of the Hands in the Holy Land. [MC426]
  • Five Hands of the Cause are assigned to the Holy Land.
Haifa Hand of the Cause
1963 19 May The Hands of the Cause cable the annual conventions with the names of the five Hands chosen to reside in the Holy Land: Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Leroy Ioas, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Paul Haney and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí. [MC427] Haifa Hand of the Cause; Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Leroy Ioas; Ali Akbar Furutan; Paul Haney; Abu’l-Qasim Faizi
1963 16 Jun The Universal House of Justice announces that it will for the present use the Western Pilgrim House at 10 Haparsim Street, Haifa, as its seat and that both the Eastern and Western Pilgrim will be housed in the Haifa Pilgrim House. [WG9] Haifa Western Pilgrim House; UHJ; BWC Pilgrimage
1963 Oct After the International Conference in London, those members of the newly elected Universal House of Justice who were not already resident in Haifa returned to their homes to make plans to relocate. This was finally completed by October.
  • The Universal House of Justice announces the launching at Ridván 1964 of the Nine Year Plan. [WG14]
  • As a preliminary step 19 new national spiritual assemblies are to formed at Ridván 1964. [WG15–17]
  • The next election of the Universal House of Justice will be in spring 1968. [WG17]
  • The Faith has now entered the third epoch of the formative age. [WG17]
Haifa Nine Year Plan; formative age
1964 3 Feb Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion Violette Nakhjavání leave Haifa at the start of their 55,000 mile, 9-month journey through India, Ceylon, Nepal and Sikkim. [AV114; VV11] Haifa Hand of the Cause; Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum; Violette Nakhjavání
1964 Nov The Universal House of Justice announces that ‘there is no way to appoint, or to legislate to make it possible to appoint, Hands of the Cause of God’. [WG41]
  • For decisions of the Universal House of Justice regarding the development of the institution of the Hands of the Cause of God see WG40–3.
Haifa Hand of the Cause; UHJ
1965 22 Jul Leroy Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b.15 February, 1986) [BW14:291-300, VV7]
  • For his obituary see BW14:291–300.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see WG157.
Haifa Leroy Ioas; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent
1966 14 Apr Jessie Revell, formerly a member of the International Bahá’í Council, passes away in Haifa. [BW14:300]
  • For her obituary see BW14:300–3.
Haifa International Baha’i Council; Jessie Revell
1966 10 Jun The Universal House of Justice addresses its first letter to ‘Bahá’í Youth in Every Land’. [BW15:324; WG92–7] Haifa UHJ
1967 Ridván The Universal House of Justice calls upon the Bahá’ís to launch a global campaign proclaiming the message of Bahá’u’lláh to every stratum of society. A special edition of The Proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh is to be presented to Heads of State. [BW14:211, Ridván 1967] BWC; Haifa UHJ; The Proclamation of Baha'u'llah
1967 Oct A special edition of The Proclamation of Bahá’u’lláh is published by the Universal House of Justice for presentation to 140 heads of state. [BW14:204–6; CB406]
  • For a picture of the book see BW14:194.
  • For pictures and descriptions of some of the rulers addressed by Bahá’u’lláh see BW14:196–203.
  • For responses from present-day leaders to the book, and pictures, see BW14:207–10.
Haifa UHJ
1968 Ridván The Universal House of Justice is elected for a second time by delegates from 81 National Spiritual Assemblies. [BW15:557]
  • Dr David Ruhe is elected to replace Dr Hakím, who resigned for reasons of ill health. The members were: Amoz Gibson, 'Ali Nakhjavani, Hushmand Fatheazam, Ian Semple, Charles Wolcott, David Hofman, H. Borrah Kavelin, Hugh Chance and David Ruhe. [VV3]
  • For a description of the second international convention and pictures see BW14:564–8.
Haifa International Convention; Election; David Ruhe; UHJ
1968 10 Aug Dr Lutfu’lláh Hakím, former member of the Universal House of Justice, passes away in Haifa. [BW15:434]
  • For his obituary see BW15:430–4.
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:434 and WG158.
Haifa Lutfu’llah Hakim; In Memoriam
1968 26 – 31 Aug The centenary of the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh in the Holy Land is commemorated at the World Centre. [BW15:81–4]
  • For details of the commemoration, the pilgrimage to follow and pictures see BW15:81–6.
Haifa; BWC; pilgrimage
1968 2 Sep Tarázu’lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b.1874 in Qazvin, Persia)
  • For his obituary see BW15p410-416.
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:416 and WG158–9.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
Haifa Tarazu’llah Samandari; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent
1968 9 Oct The Universal House of Justice addresses its second letter to Bahá’í Youth. [BW15:324; WG152–4] Haifa UHJ
1969 Owing to the increased flow of pilgrims, the pilgrim house in Haifa is converted to a pilgrim centre and the decision taken to accommodate pilgrims in hotels. [DH178] Haifa pilgrimage; BWC Pilgrimage
1972 7 Jun The Universal House of Justice announces the decision to construct its Seat. [DH172; MUHJ98–9; VV37] Haifa Seat UHJ
1972 26 Nov The constitution of the Universal House of Justice is adopted. [BW15:169; BBRSM132, 138; VV14]
  • For full text of the constitution see BW15:555–64.
Haifa UHJ Constitution
1973 Ridván The Universal House of Justice is elected for the third time. The conference was attended by 472 National Spiritual Assembly members of the possible 1,017 from the 113 National and Regional Assemblies. Members of 14 Assemblies were prevented from attending for circumstances beyond their control but at least one person attended from the remaining 99 Assemblies. [VV14, SDSC296] Haifa Election; UHJ
1973 5 Jun The International Teaching Centre is established at the Bahá’í World Centre for the purpose of continuing the work of the Hands of the Cause of God into the future. [BBD118–19; BBRSM132–3; BW16:134, 411–14; BW17:322–5; VV16]
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW16:413.
  • Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Paul Haney and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí and Counsellor members Hooper Dunbar, Florence Mayberry and Aziz Yazdí are appointed. [BW16:413]
  • For pictures see BW16:412 and VV16.
  • The duties and the organization of the International Teaching Centre were deliniated in the Message from the Universal House of Justice of June 8th, 1973.
Haifa; BWC ITC; Hand of the Cause; Counsellor; Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ali Akbar Furutan; Paul Haney; Abu’l-Qasim Faizi; Hooper Dunbar; Florence Mayberry; Aziz Yazdi
1973 14 Jun The International Teaching Centre meets for the first time. [VV16] Haifa ITC
1973 18 Sep Husayn Amánat is appointed architect of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. [BW16:133; DH172; VV37] Haifa Seat UHJ; Husayn Amánat
1974 7 Feb The construction of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice is initiated with the acceptance of the design conceived by architect Husayn Amánat. [BW17:73] Haifa Husayn Amánat; Seat UHJ
1975 5 Jun Excavation of the site of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice begins. [BW16:133; BW18:465]
  • See BW16:399–404 for an article on the Seat by architect Husayn Amánat.
  • See BW17:301 for the significance of the seat.
Haifa; BWC; Husayn Amanat; Seat UHJ
1976 7 May Saichiro Fujita, the second Japanese to become a Bahá’í, passes away in Haifa. [BW17:406]
  • For his obituary see BW17:406–8.
Haifa Saichiro Fujita; In Memoriam
1977 11 Jun The centenary of the termination of Bahá’u’lláh’s confinement in ‘Akká is commemorated at the World Centre. [BW17:64] Haifa; BWC;
1978 Ridván The Universal House of Justice is elected for the fourth time at the International Convention held in Haifa. [BW17:293]
  • For details of the International Convention and pictures see BW17:293–300.
Haifa Election; UHJ; International Convention
1978 Ridvan Delegates to the International Convention attend a ceremony to further dedicate the new building for the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. The superstructure of the building is completed at this stage. Chairing the event is Hand of the Cause Dr. Ugo Giachery with special guest Ethel Revell, former member of the International Bahá'í Council in attendance. A casket containing dust from both Holy Shrines is placed in a niche specially designed for it.
  • Delegates from 123 National/Regional Assemblies attended. {BW17p293-300]
BWC; Haifa; Seat of the Universal House of Justice; Shrine of Baha’u’llah; Shrine of the Bab
1979 21 Mar The Universal House of Justice outlines the broad goals of the Seven Year Plan to he launched at Ridván 1979. [BW18:81–5] Haifa Seven Year Plan
1980 20 Nov Abu’l-Qásim Faizí, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b.1906) [BW18:659; VV52] Haifa Abu’l-Qasim Faizi; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
1982 14 May Amoz Gibson, a member of the Universal House of Justice from 1963 until 1982, passes away in Haifa. [BW18:669; VV52]
  • For his obituary see BW18:665–9.
Haifa Amoz Gibson; UHJ
1982 15 Jul In commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahá’ís at the World Centre pray at midnight at the Shrine of the Báb and at the tomb of the Greatest Holy Leaf, commemoration services are held in many parts of the world. [BW18:53, 102]
  • For a list of references to the Greatest Holy Leaf found in English-language works see BW18:55–6.
  • For a list of works published to commemorate this anniversary see BW18:57–8.
  • For an article about her life and service see BW18:68–73.
  • Five international conferences and their satellites, held in June, August and September, are dedicated to her memory. [BW18:102]
Haifa commemoration of fiftieth anniversary of passing of Bahíyyih Khánum; the Greatest Holy Leaf; Shrine of the Báb
1982 17 Jul A seminar on the life of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, is conducted at the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the first gathering held in the building. [BW18:53–4; VV62]
  • For excerpts from the talk by ‘Alí Nakhjavání on this occasion see BW18:59–66.
Haifa Bahíyyih Khánum; the Greatest Holy Leaf; Seat of the Universal House of Justice; ‘Alí Nakhjavání
1982 3 Dec Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, dies in Haifa in an automobile accident. [BW18:617; VV52]
  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 19th of March,1954 following the death of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker. [MoCxxiv}
  • For his obituary see BW18:613–18.
Haifa Paul Haney; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Individual Appointment
1983 Jan - Feb c. The Seat of the Universal House of Justice is completed; the Universal House of Justice formally occupies it. [BBD204; BW19:23; VV62]
  • For a description and history of the building see BW19:24–6.
  • For pictures see BW18:466–72 and Construction.
Haifa Seat of the Universal House of Justice
1983 29 Apr - 2 May The Universal House of Justice is elected for the fifth time at the International Convention held in Haifa.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Iran is unable to attend but sends 133 red roses as its gift to its sister Assemblies. [BW18:461]
  • For a report of the Convention see BW18:461–4.
  • See BW18:462, 464 for pictures.
Haifa International Convention
1983 May The number of members of the International Teaching Centre is raised to nine. [BW19:27] Haifa ITC
1983 23 May A five year term for the Counsellor members of the International Teaching Centre is established. [BW19:27] Haifa Counsellor; ITC
1983 Jul The Office of Social and Economic Development is opened at the Bahá’í World Centre. [AWH8; BBD70; BBRSM154; BW19:58; VV78]
  • See BW19:351–5 for a survey of Bahá’í social and economic projects.
Haifa; BWC; Office of Social and Economic Development
1983 20 Oct The Universal House of Justice calls on individuals and Bahá'í communities to apply the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh systematically to the problems of their societies. This seminal statement points to the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh as a source of order in the world, asserts the coherence of the spiritual and the material dimensions of human life, praises the social and economic progress achieved by the Bahá'í community of Iran, announces the establishment of the Office of Social and Economic Development at the World Centre and defines the role of various Bahá'í agencies in fostering development. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 20 October, 1983, Mess63-86p602-603,AWH6–10; BW19:153, BW92-93pg229-245]
  • For the response of the Bahá’í world to the letter see BW19:112–13.
  • See also Vick, Social and Economic Development: A Bahá’í Approach.
BWC; Haifa; Office of Social and Economic Development
1984 3 Jan The Universal House of Justice addresses a letter to the Bahá’í youth of the world encouraging them to volunteer a period of service to the Bahá’í Faith. [AWH14–17; BW19:297–8, 299, 311–13; VV116] Haifa UHJ; year of service
1984 21 Oct His Excellency Chaim Herzog, President of the State of Israel, pays an official visit to the Bahá’í World Centre at the invitation of the Universal House of Justice. [BW19:377; VV88]
  • This is the first visit by a head of state to the Seat of the House of Justice. [VV88]
Haifa Chaim Herzog
1984 9 Nov The Universal House of Justice meets with representatives of the Bahá’í International Community and various national spiritual assemblies at the World Centre. Haifa UHJ; BIC; NSA
1985 May The Office of Public Information is established at the Bahá’í World Centre. [BBD38; BW19:58–9; VV54] Haifa; BWC; Office of Public Information
1985 24 Oct On the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations and in anticipation of the United Nations International Year of Peace, the Universal House of Justice addresses a statement to the peoples of the world, The Promise of World Peace, on the theme of universal peace. [BBD174, 187–8; BW19:139, 155; VV59, 86–8]
  • Within six months national spiritual assemblies present copies to 167 world leaders, including 140 to leaders of independent countries. [BW19:139, 334–6]
  • For pictures see BW19:337–44.
  • For text see BW19:324–33.
Haifa United Nations; UHJ; The Promise of World Peace
1985 27 Dec - 1986 2 Jan The Universal House of Justice convenes a Counsellors’ Conference at the Bahá’í World Centre. [AWH39; BW19:29; VV122]
  • The gathering, held in the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, consulted on the opportunities and challenges facing the Bahá’í world community. [BW19:29]
  • See BW19:494, 504 for pictures.
Haifa; BWC; Counsellor
1986 2 Jan The Universal House of Justice ends the Counsellors’ Conference at the Bahá’í World Centre by announcing in a letter that the Bahá’í world has entered the fourth epoch in the Formative Age of the Cause. [AWH39–42; BBD79, 85; BW19:29; VV91]
  • The seven major objectives of the Six Year Plan, to begin at Ridván 1986, are outlined. [AWH40]
  • On the closing day of the Counsellors' Conference, the Universal House of Justice announced certain features of the Six Year Plan and the methods by which the national goals were to be worked out in consultation between the Counsellors and National Spiritual Assemblies. [Mess63-86p717]
  • year from Ridván 1992 is designated a Holy Year. [AWH40–1]
Haifa; BWC Formative Age; Six Year Plan; Holy Year; Fourth Epoch
1986 3 – 4 Aug The Honourable Sir Thomas David, Prime Minister of the Cook Islands, at his request, consults with the Universal House of Justice at the Bahá’í World Centre about world peace, ‘the most concrete response to date by a political leader to the Peace Statement’. BINS157:1; VV88]
  • For picture see VV86.
Haifa; BWC; Thomas David; UHJ
1987 The first conference on Huqúqu’lláh is held at the Bahá’í World Centre. Haifa; BWC; Huququ’llah; conference on Huququ’llah
1987 26 Jan Charles Wolcott, member of the Universal House of Justice, passes away in Haifa. [BINS162:1; VV97] Haifa Charles Wolcott; UHJ; In Memoriam
1987 22 Apr A ceremony is held to sign a ‘status agreement’ between the Bahá’í International Community and the Government of Israel defining the relationship of the Bahá’í World Centre with the State of Israel. [LETTER OF THE UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE, 30 APR 87]
  • Shimon Peres, Vice-President and Foreign Minister, represents the Government of Israel while Donald Barrett signs the agreement in his capacity as Secretary-General of the Bahá’í International Community. [LETTER OF THE UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE, 30 APR 87]
Israel; Haifa; BWC; status agreement; BIC; Shimon Peres; Donald Barrett
1988 Apr The House of Abdu'lláh Páshá is open for the Bahá'ís to visit for the first time on the occasion of the Sixth International Convention. [ARG61-62] Haifa House of Abdu'llah Pasha
1988 Ridván The Universal House of Justice is elected for the sixth time at the International Convention held in Haifa. Delegates from 148 National/Regional Assemblies participated. [BINS176; VV97]
  • David Hofman and H. Borrah Kavelin announce their retirement. [VV97]
  • A gift of a large bowl of 120 roses was received from the Bahá'í of Iran.
BWC; Haifa International Convention; David Hofman; H. Borrah Kavelin
1988 29 Dec The Universal House of Justice issues a letter to the Bahá’ís in the United States published as Individual Rights and Freedoms in the World Order of Bahá’u’lláh. Haifa UHJ; Individual Rights and Freedoms in the World Order of Baha’u’llah
1989. 10 Oct The Bahá'í World Centre received official approval by the Local Town Planning Committee and City Council of Haifa of the Town Planning Scheme for the initiation of the Projects on Mt Carmel. Haifa Mt Carmel Project find reference
1990 Mar The Haifa District Town Planning Commission approves the plan submitted by the World Centre for the building projects on Mount Carmel. [AWH76] Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel. BWC; World Centre
1990 23 May The work started on the project to reinforce and extend the main terrace of the Shrine of the Báb. This was the initial step in the work to have the Terraces extend from the foot of the ridge of the mountain. [Ridván Message 1992, AWH83, 102] World Centre; Akká; Haifa; Israel; BWC; terraces; Shrine of the Bab
1991 17 Jun The contracts were signed for the second phase of construction for the terraces to the Shrine of the Báb. Haifa Shrine of the Bab; terraces
1991 Sep The ground was broken for the construction of the Centre for the Study of the Texts and for the Extension to the International Archives Building. [Ridván Message 1992] Haifa Centre for the Study of the Texts; Extension to the International Archives Building
1992 27 – 30 May Thirty thousand Bahá'ís representing approximately 200 countries and territories, gather at the Bahá'í World Centre to mark the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [BINS271:1–2; BW92–3:96–8, 121]
  • For pictures see BINS271:10 and BW92–3:97.
On the 27th of May...the gathering of one hundred thirteen Knights of Bahá'u'lláh along with 19 representatives of every National Spiritual Assembly (165) and 9 representatives of every territory without a National Spiritual Assembly (40-50) at Bahjí in commemoration of the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh (some 3,000 persons). A scroll bearing the Roll of Honour of the Knights of Bahá'u'lláh was deposited at the entrance door of the inner Sanctuary of the Most Holy Shrine. [AWH90 105] [VV128] [BW92-3p98] [BINS271:1]

BWC; Haifa; Centenary of the Ascension of Baha'u'llah; Shrine of Baha’u’llah
1993 16 Sep The document Bahá’í Social and Economic Development: Prospects for the Future, prepared at the World Centre, is approved for publication by the Universal House of Justice for use by the Office of Social and Economic Development (OSED) in orienting and guiding the work in this area. Most central to this vision was the question of capacity building. That activities should start on a modest scale and only grow in complexity in keeping with available human resources was a concept that gradually came to influence development thought and practice. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 2012] BWC; Haifa; Prospects for the Future; capacity building
1994 Jun 13 The Prime Minister of Israel, Yitzhak Rabin, visits the Bahá'í World Centre to view the Terraces Project. [BW94–5:77] Israel; Haifa; BWC; Yitzzhak Rabin
1994 Aug 4 Shimon Peres, Israel's Minister of Foreign Affairs, makes an official visit to the Bahá'í World Centre. [BW94–5:77] Israel; Haifa; BWC; Shimon Peres
2000 19 Jan The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in Haifa. She was born in New York on 8 August 1910. [One CountryVol.11,Issue4]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her as a Hand of the Cause of God after the passing of her father, Hand of the Cause of God Sutherland Maxwell on the 26th of March, 1952. [MoCxxiv]
Haifa Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Individual Appointment
2000 26 Jan The passing of Mr. Adib Taherzadeh, member of the Universal House of Justice since 1988, in Haifa after some months of illness. He was 78. [One Country] Haifa; Israel Adib Taherzadeh; UHJ; In Memoriam
2001 9 - 13 Jan The Counsellors in all continents met at the World Centre to take part in deliberations on the general features of the Five Year Plan. They were joined by the Auxiliary Board members (849 from 172 countries) who gathered from throughout the world to participate in events marking the occupation by the International Teaching Centre of its permanent seat on Mount Carmel. [From a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 29th of October, 2000 and the16th of January, 2001] Haifa; BWC Counsellor; Five Year Plan; Auxiliary Board; International Teaching Centre
2001 22 May At dusk, the opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb, a project begun ten years ago that has transformed the ancient barren face of the mountain into 19 majestic terraced gardens cascading down the length of the mountain.
  • The nineteen Canadian believers who had the extraordinary blessing of being present in the Holy Land for the official opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb are: Dr. Akouete Akakpo-Vida, Mr. Riel Aubichon, Mr. Garrett Brisdon, Mrs. Pearl Downie, Mrs. Nellie Ironeagle, Mrs. Aghdas Javid, Mr. Joseph Kowtow, Mrs. Joo Jong Kung, M. Fréderic Landry, Ms. Giselle Melanson, Mr. Borna Noureddin, Mr. James Patrick, Mrs. Valerie Pemberton-Piggott, Mlle. Cindy Poitras, Mrs. Janice Schlosser, Mlle. Caroline Simon, Mrs. Doris Toeg, Mrs. Linda Wilkinson and Mme. Elizabeth Wright. In addition, several students from the Maxwell International Bahá'í School were present as members of the delegations from their home countries.
  • The event was attended by some 4,500 people, 3,300 of them Bahá'ís, as representative of more than 200 countries and territories. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 1]
  • For the statement read at the official opening of the flight of terraces see Ruhi 8.3 page 93.
Haifa; BWC; Shrine of the Bab; terraces
2001 4 Jun The public opening of the terraces surrounding the Shrine of the Báb on Mount Carmel. [BWNS134, BWNS221, BWNS123, BWNS122, BWNS121, BWNS120,]

Haifa; BWC Terraces; Public opening; Shrine of the Bab
2003 26 Nov The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furútan in Haifa at the age of 98. [BWNS261, BW'03-‘04pg227]
  • Born in Sabzivar, Iran, on 29 April 1905.
  • Moved with his family to Ashgabat in what was then Russian Turkestan (now part of Turkmenistan), and, through his years of school and university, he took an active part in the work of the Baha'i communities of Ashgabat, Baku, Moscow, and other parts of Russia.
  • In 1930 expelled from the Soviet Union during the Stalinist persecution of religion and from that time on played an ever more significant role in the work and administration of the Iranian Baha'i community. [BW03-04p227-230]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For a tribute from the Universal House of Justice see message of 27 November, 2003.
Haifa; Sabzivar; Iran; Ashgabat; Turkmenistan; Baku; Moscow; Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furutan; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent
2007 22 Sep The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Dr. Ali-Muhammad Varqa at his home in Haifa. (b.1911) He was the last survivor of the 27 Hands of the Cause who were alive when Shoghi Effendi passed away in 1957. [BWNS579]
  • He had been appointed Hand of the Cause on the 15th of March, 1955 after the passing of his father Hand of the Cause of God Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, [MoVxxiv]
Haifa; Israel Hand of the Cause Dr Ali-Muhammad Varqa; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Individual Appointment
2008 8 Jul The Shrine of the Báb and the Resting Place of Baháu'lláh chosen as UNESCO World Heritage sites. [BWNS642, BWNS643] Haifa; Israel; Akka; BWC; UNESCO; World Heritage Site; Shrine of Baha’u’llah; Shrine of the Bab
2012 21 Apr Plans are announced for the building of the first two national Mashriqu’l-Adhkárs that are to be raised up in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Papua New Guinea. [Riḍván 2012 To the Bahá’ís of the World] Haifa; Israel; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Papua New Guinea; national Baha'i Temples; national Mashriqu’l-Adhkars; Mashriqul-Adhkar
2012 21 Apr Plans are announced that the Universal House of Justice is entering into consultations with respective National Spiritual Assemblies regarding the erection of the first local Houses of Worship in each of the following clusters: Battambang, Cambodia; Bihar Sharif, India; Matunda Soy, Kenya; Norte del Cauca, Colombia; and Tanna, Vanuatu. [Riḍván 2012 To the Bahá’ís of the World] Haifa; Israel; Battambang; Cambodia; Bihar Sharif; India; Matunda Soy; Kenya; Norte del Cauca; Colombia; and Tanna; Vanuatu. local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Local House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
2017. 25 Aug The announcement of the opening of the new Pilgrim Reception Centre. The three-story stone structure, which is located immediately to the west of the Shrine of the Bab, was opened in time to receive the season’s first pilgrim group in October, on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the birth of Baha’u’llah. [BWNS1188] BWC; Haifa; BWC Pilgrimage

from the main catalogue

  1. Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
  2. Tablet of [Mount] Carmel (Lawh-i-Karmil): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Peter Terry and Ted Brownstein (1999). [about]
  3. Tablet to Hardegg (Lawh-i-Hirtík): A Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Templer Leader Georg David Hardegg, by Stephen Lambden and Kamran Ekbal, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). [about]
 
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