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Search for tag "Hands"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1842 Birth of Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá `Alí-Akbar Shahmírzádí), who was named a Hand of the Cause by Bahá'u'lláh. Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1845. c. 1845 Birth of Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad-i-Khurásání, later known as Ibn-i-Asdaq, Hand of the Cause. Iran Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1948 Sep Bahá'u'lláh is in Bandar-Jaz. An edict comes from Muhammad Sháh ordering His arrest.
  • The Russian agent at Bandar-Jaz offers Him passage on a Russian ship at anchor there but He refuses. [BKG50]
  • Birth of Hájí Mírzá Hasan, Adíb, Hand of the Cause and Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Táliqán.
Bandar-Jaz; Taliqan; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Muhammad Shah; Russian agent; Russia; Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1855 5 Mar Birth of John Henry Hyde Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London; United Kingdom John Henry Hyde Dunn; birth; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1861. c. 1861 ‘Abdu'l-Bahá writes the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14]

Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266]

Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, meets Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and becomes a follower. [BKG18]

Baghdad; Iraq; Mashhad; Iran Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan (Commentary on the tradition of the Hidden Treasure); Commentaries; Hadith; Islam; Hidden Treasure (Hadith); Ali Shawkat Pasha; Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Bahaullah, Life of
1868 Hájí Mullá `Alí-i-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí (later Hand of the Cause Hájí Ákhúnd) is imprisoned in Tihrán as a Bahá'í on the order of Mullá `Alí Kání. This is the first of many imprisonments. [EB266]
  • He was imprisoned so often that `Abdu'l-Bahá later said of him that at the first sign of disturbances, he would `put on his turban, wrap himself in his `abá and sit waiting' to be arrested. [MF11]
Tihran; Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Mulla Ali Kani; Hands of the Cause
1869. 12 May Birth of Clara Davis Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London; United Kingdom Clara Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1872. 10 Aug Birth of Martha Root, Hand of the Cause and itinerant Bahá'í teacher, in Richmond, Ohio. Richmond; Ohio; United States Martha Root; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1874. 19 May Birth of John Ebenezer Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, in Aberdeen, Scotland. Aberdeen; Scotland; United Kingdom Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1874. 6 Jun Birth of Louis George Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God at Charleston, South Carolina. Charleston; South Carolina; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1874 14 Nov Birth of William Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, in Montreal. Montreal; Canada William Sutherland Maxwell; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1875. 21 Jul Birth of Agnes Baldwin Alexander, Hand of the Cause, in Hawaii.
  • She is a granddaughter of two of Hawaii's most famous missionary families, the Baldwins and the Alexanders.
Hawaii Agnes Alexander; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1875. 16 Oct Birth of Tarázu'lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God, in Qazvín. Qazvin; Iran Tarazullah Samandari; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1876. 14 Feb Birth of Keith Ransom-Kehler, Hand of the Cause and the first American Bahá'í martyr, in Kentucky. Kentucky; United States Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
1876. 14 Jun Birth of George Townshend, Hand of the Cause of God, in Dublin. Dublin; Ireland George Townshend; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1877. 26 Sep Birth of Siegfried Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, in Germany. Furth; Bavaria; Germany Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1878 Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí arrives in Burma with Jamál Effendi.
  • He marries into a well-to-do Indo-Burman family of traders and settles in Rangoon, remaining in Burma to build up the Burmese community. [BW10:517; PH23]
  • See BW10:517–18 and MC155 for his conversion of Daidanaw, the first all-Bahá'í village in the world outside Iran.
  • See BW10:517–20 for an account of his life.
  • He is named a Hand of the Cause of God by the Guardian after his passing. In the village of Daidanaw, Burma (Rangoon) there is a building they call "the Shrine of Siyyid Mustafa Rumí" in his honour. [CBN253Aug-Sep1971p5]
Daidanaw; Myanmar (Burma) Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Jamal Effendi; Hands of the Cause; Firsts, Other
1881 to 1928 The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá.
  • Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
  • Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
Akka; BWC Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani (Amin-i-Ilahi); Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Apostles of Bahaullah; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Haji Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin); Public baths
1884 Birth of Valíyu'lláh Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tabríz. [BW18:381-834] Tabriz; Iran Varqa, Valiyullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa
1886 In the year Birth of Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, in Baghdád. Baghdad; Iraq Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1887. 13 Apr The first mention of the concept of `Hand of the Cause' in Bahá'u'lláh's writings is within a Tablet revealed in honour of Ibn-i-Asdaq. [BBD115; EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Appointed arm
1889 In the year The passing of Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání entitled by Bahá'u'lláh Ism'lláh'l-Asdaq (In the Name of God the Most Truthful) in Hamadán. He was born in Mashhad in 1800, the son of a cleric, around the beginning of the 19th century He furthered his own clerical studies in Karbila under the Shaykhi leader Sayyid Qasim Rashti, eventually gaining the rank of mujtahid, and becoming known by the honorific title Muqaddas (‘the holy one’).
  • As a young man he had been a disciple of Siyyid Kázim and had met Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad in Karbilá. He was among the first believers who identified with the Message of the Báb. See DB100 and EB7 for the story of how he independently determined His identity when he met Mullá Husayn in Isfahán on his way to deliver a tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tehran. The very next day he left Isfahán for Shíráz on foot arriving 12 days later to find that the Báb had already departed for pilgrimage.
  • He took up residence in Shíráz and received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to change the Call to Prayer. See DB146-148, EB13-14 for the story of how he endured over 900 strokes of the lash on the command of Husayn Khán-i-Írva´ní, the Governor of the province of Fars, and remained indifferent to the pain. (6 August, 1845) He was expelled from the city and proceeded to Yazd. He had similar fate in that city and was banished.
  • On the way to Khurásán he joined Mullá Husayn and those who would participate in the Tabarsí siege where he was on hand for the death of Mullá Husayn. (DB381) After the deception and massacre he was one of the few survivors and, as a prisoner, was taken to Mázindarán to be executed by the family Prince Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá who had commanded the royal troops and had been killed in battle. On route the party called on the clerics to interrogate him and his fellow Bábi and they became convinced that they were not heretics deserving of execution. The prisoners were to be sent to Tehran but escaped and made their way to Míhámí and eventually to Mashad.
  • In 1861, after life in that city became impossible, he went to Baghdád where he attained the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. After 14 months he returned to his native province of Khurásán.
  • He continued in his audacious teaching and as a result was taken to Tehran where he was kept in the Síhåh-Chál. He taught a number of fellow prisoners about the Promised One and converted Hakím Masíh, the Jewish physician assigned to attend to the prisoners. He was the first Bahá'í of Jewish background in Tehran (and was the grandfather of Lutfu'lláh Hakím, a former member of the Universal House of Justice.) After 28 months imprisonment he was pardoned but refuse to leave without his fellow prisoners. The Sháh released 40 of the 43 prisoners. (The remaining three were guilty of actual crimes.)
  • After Tehran he went to Khurásán and returned to the capital some three years later to help in changing the hiding place of the remains of the Báb. Then he travelled to Káshán, Isfahán and Yazd where he convinced some of the Afnáns to accept the truth of their Nephew's claims. After returning to Khurásán he was given permission to make a pilgrimage to 'Akká where he remained for some four months, returning by way of Mosul and Baghdád. When he reached Hamadán he was exhausted. Twelve days after his arrival he passed.
  • He had been the recipient of many tablets from Bahá'u'lláh including a Tablet of Visitation after his passing. One of the most well-know tablets was the Lawh-i-Ahbáb (Tablet of the Friends). It is thought He revealed this Tablet some time after leaving the barracks in 'Akká, about 1870-1871. [RoB3p258-260, List of the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh]
  • He was the father of Ibn-i-Asdaq who Bahá'u'lláh appointed a Hand of the Cause of God. [EB19]
  • ‘Abdu’l-Baha posthumously referred to him as a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • References [LoF32-41, MF5-8, DB381. EB7-23, BBR 69-70]
Hamadan; Iran Hands referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani)
1889. 19 Nov Birth of General Shu`á`u'lláh `Alá'í, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran; Iran Shuaullah Alai; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1891 Apr c. Two believers were arrested during the same period. Hájí Amín was sent to the prison of Qazvín, and Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Abhar was consigned for four years in Tíhran, in which he bore the same chains as Bahá'u'lláh did, during the Latter's imprisonment in 1852.[Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Qazvin; Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Hands of the Cause; Chains; Imprisonments
1892 6 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Nabil-i-Akbar Áqá Muhammed-i-Qá'iní. He was born in Naw-Firist, Persia (Iran) on 29 March 1829.
  • “It has been claimed that no one within the enclave of the Baha’i Faith has ever surpassed the profundity of his erudition.” Bahá’u’lláh addressed the Lawh-i-Hikmat* (Tablet of Wisdom), in his honour. [EB115]
  • He was imprisoned a number of times in Iran for his Bahá’í activities and eventually moved to Ashkhabad (‘Ishqábád, Turkmenistan). He died in Bukhárá, Uzbekistan. ‘Abdu’lBahá designated him a Hand of the Cause of God. [LoF28-31]
  • For details of his life see EB112–15.
  • See OPOP86 for "Pilgrim's Note" concerning what Jináb-i-Fádil said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá said about Nabil's suicide.
  • Bukhara; Uzbekistan; Naw-Firist; Iran Nabil-i-Akbar (Aqa Muhammed-i-Qaini); Hands referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom)
    1896. 15 Feb Birth of Leroy C. Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, in Wilmington, Illinois. Wilmington; Illinois Leroy Ioas; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by, Hajib’ud-Dawleh, one of the Qajar courtiers, in fact the Chief Steward, in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
  • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22 and World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p29-44.
  • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
  • He was posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
  • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Yazd; Tihran; Iran Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Varqa, Ruhullah; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Varqa
    1896. 13 May Birth of Dr Ugo Giachery, Hand of the Cause of God, in Palermo, Sicily. Palermo; Sicily Ugo Giachery; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1897 In the year The passing of Hand of the Cause Mullá Muhammad-Ridá in a Tehran prison.
    • born in Muhammad-Ábád in the province of Yazd into a well-known family in about 1814. He is provided a good education and he becomes a divine known for his piety, eloquence and courage.
    • Becomes a follower of the Báb in the early days of the Revelation. He recognizes Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One of the Bayan some time after 1855 upon reading Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih, "Ode of the Dove". (Bahá'u'lláh had composed this ode while still in Sulaymáníyyih.)
    • He became well-known for his courage in teaching and his endurance in withstanding abuse. He was found to be picking his teeth while being bastinadoed and, while a elderly man, withstood a brutal flogging on his bare back in the prison yard. (A witness to this flogging, Ghulám-Ridá Khán, a notable of Tehran who happened to be imprisoned at the same time, became a believer upon seeing his steadfastness under the lashing.) [RoB1p84-91, EB89-111, LoF21-27]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá referred to a few of the believers posthumously as being Hands of the Cause (see MF5 and BW14p446) Adib Taherzadeh points out that "since there are one or two others by the same name (Shaykh-Ridáy-i-Yazdí) it is not possible to identify him. However, some believe strongly that he is Mullá Muhammad-i-Ridáy-i-Muhammmad-Ábádí. [RoB4p186n]
    Muhammadabad; Yazd; Tihran; Iran Hands referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Zdupl
    1897 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Shaykh Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Yazdí (Mullá Ridá) while incarcerated in the Síyáh-Cháh. He was born in Muhammadábád, Yazd in 1814. [LoF21-27]
  • He was a fearless teacher who was outspoken and often suffered imprisonment and torture. "Other than seventeen-year-old Badi, no one has surpassed Mulla Rida's unusual power of endurance. The rare combination of endurance, eloquence, courage and humour made him that unique hero who illuminated the pages of the history of the Baha'i Faith." [Extract from a Persian book called Masabih-i-Hidayat, Volume I by Azizu'llah-i-Sulaymani]
  • Muhammadabad; Yazd; Tihran; Iran Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Shaykh Muhammad-riday-i-Yazdi; Mulla Rida; Zdupl
    1897. 24 Feb Birth of Jalal Khazeh (Jalál Khádih), Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran; Iran Jalal Khazeh; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1898. 21 Dec Birth of Dorothy Beecher Baker, Hand of the Cause of God. Dorothy Baker; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1899 The Consulting Assembly of Tihrán, a forerunner of the National Spiritual Assembly, is established. [EB175–6]
    • Four Hands of the Cause are permanent members; nine others are elected by special electors appointed by the Hands. [EB175–6]
    Tihran; Iran National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Hands of the Cause; Appointments
    1899. 16 Feb The third group of Western pilgrims arrives in the Holy Land. [BFA1:145]
    • See BFA1:145 for those in the group.
    Birth of Hermann Grossmann, Hand of the Cause of God, in Rosario de Santa Fé, Argentina, into a family of German background.
    Rosario de Santa Fe; Argentina Pilgrims; Herman Grossmann; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1905 29 Apr Birth of `Alí-Akbar Furútan, Hand of the Cause of God, in Sabzivár, Khurásán. Sabzivar; Khurasan; Iran Ali Akbar Furutan; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1906 c. Birth of `Abu'l-Qásim Faizí, Hand of the Cause of God, in Qum. Qum; Iran Abul-Qasim Faizi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1908 7 Sep The birth of Hasan Muvaqqar Balyuzi, Hand of the Cause of God. [SBBR5:XI] Hasan Balyuzi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1909 (In the year) Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, becomes a Bahá'í. [BFA2:156] Montreal; Quebec; Canada Sutherland Maxwell; Hands of the Cause
    1909. July 23 Louis George Gregory joins the Bahá'í Faith after investigating since 1907. [Wikipedia] Washington DC; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause
    1909 20 Aug Birth of Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, in Chicago.
    • His given name is `Abdu'l-Bahá, bestowed upon him by `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself at his birth.
    Chicago; United States Paul Haney; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1910 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, (Hájí Akhund). He was born in Shahmírzád around 1842/3.
    • Bahá’u’lláh had entrusted him with the sacred task of moving and hiding the remains of the Báb. In Tehran he transferred the remains to Hand of the Cause Amínu’l-Bayán who moved them through innumerable dangers to a safe hiding place in the Mosque of the Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran, where they lay concealed until the time when, at the behest of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, they were transferred to the Holy Land to be laid in their permanent resting place on the slopes of Mount Carmel. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
    • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause by Bahá’u’lláh. [LoF3-8]
    Tihran; Shahmirzad; Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Activities
    1910 4 Mar Hand of the Cause of God `Alí-Akhar-i-Shahmírzádí (Hájí Ákhúnd) passes away in Tihrán. [BBD14; EB266] Tihran; Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1910 8 Aug Birth of Mary Sutherland Maxwell, Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause of God, in New York City. New York; United States Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1912 Birth of `Alí Muhammad Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran; Iran Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa
    1914 9 Jan John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, is born in Southsea, England. Southsea; United Kingdom John Ferraby; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1917 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Abharí (Ibn-i-Abhar). He was born in 1853/4 in Abhar.
    • For four years he suffered in Síyáh-Chál wearing the very same chains as Bahá’u’lláh had worn in 1852.
    • His services during the time of the Master included teaching journeys through Persia, the Caucasus and India. He also made some eleven journeys to the Holy Land with the permission of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
    • A special service rendered by Ibn-i-Abhar was the promotion of the education of women. He and his wife played an important part in the advancement of women in Persian society.
    • In 1886 Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause. He died in 1917. [LoF13-16, BBD114, EB268]
    Abhar; Tihran; Iran; Caucasus; India Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Haji Mirza Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Abhari; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Women; Gender; Equality
    1917 The passing of Ibn-i-Abhar (Mullá Muhammad Taqí), Hand of the Cause of God. [BBD114; EB268] Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1919 (in the year) Amelia Collins, Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bahá'í in Pasadena, California. [PSBW74] Pasadena; California; United States Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause
    1919 13 Aug Adíb, Mírzá Hasan Táliqání, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD98]

    EB273 says he died on 2 September.

    • For a brief history of his life see EB272-3.
    Tihran; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1919 2 Sep The passing of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, entitled Adíbu'l-'Ulamá, know as Adíb in Tihrán. He was born in Talaqán in 1848 and became a Bahá’í around 1889.
  • Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God. [SDH138-140]
  • He was one of the founders of the Tarbíyat Schools in Tihrán. He died in Tihrán. [LoF17-18]
  • Tihran; Talaqan; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Tarbiyat School
    1920 George Townshend becomes a Bahá'í, sending a letter of acceptance of the Faith to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [GT49] Dublin; Ireland George Townshend; Hands of the Cause
    1920 10 Apr Clara and Hyde Dunn arrive in Sydney, Australia. [AB445]

    SBR158 says this was 18 Apr 1919.

    • They are thought to be the first Bahá'í pioneers to have arrived at their post after the release of the Tablets of the Divine Plan. [G. Hassel]
    Sydney; Australia Clara and Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; John Henry Hyde Dunn; Hands of the Cause
    1921 summer Siegfried Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, becomes a Bahá'í. Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause
    1925 22 Nov John Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away in Haifa. [BW3p84-85, BBD81, SETPE1p108-110]
    • For letters of Shoghi Effendi announcing his death and giving details of his life and funeral see BA97–8 and UD40–3.
    • For an obituary see BW1:133–6 and BW8:929–35.
    • He is buried next to the grave of Vakílu’d-Dawlih, the chief builder of the House of Worship at ‘Ishqábád. [DJEE37]
    • Shoghi Effendi elevates him to the station of Hand of the Cause of God on his death. The announcement is made on November 30th. [BA7-98; BWT3:333; DJEE40; PP92; UD403, MoCxxii
    • See also Moojan Momen, Dr John E. Esslemont (BPT UK 1975) and BW8p929-935 for "John Ebenezer Esslemont: His Life and Service" by Jesse E. Revell.
    Haifa Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Vakilud-Dawlih; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Cemeteries and graves
    1926 24 Jun Enoch Olinga, future Hand of the Cause of God, is born in Abaango, Uganda. Abaango; Uganda Enoch Olinga; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1928 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1.
  • His father was Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khursúní, referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [EM19] While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran.
  • He begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a martyr. Baha’u’llah said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Baha’u’llah conferred the station of martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”) .”
  • He is the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá’u’lláh.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class” the Faith.
  • He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
  • Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
  • For details of his life see EB171–6.
  • Tihran; Mashhad; Iran In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Apostles of Bahaullah; Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Apostles of Bahaullah; Mulla Sadiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursuni; Names and titles; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
    1928 27 May Hájí Amín, Abu’l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, Hand of the Cause of God and Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD7; EB263]
    • For his biography see EB263.
    • He is named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously by Shoghi Effendi. [BBD7; EB263]
    • See BBD7 for a picture and an account of his life.
    Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1933 23 Oct Keith Ransom-Kehler dies of smallpox in Isfahán. [BW5:24, 398]
    • For her obituary see BW5:389–410.
    • She is buried near the grave of the King of Martyrs. [BW5:398]
    • For a picture of her grave see BW5:399.
    • Shoghi Effendi names her America’s ‘first and distinguished martyr’. [BW5:398]
    • Shoghi Effendi elevates her to the rank of Hand of the Cause on 28 October, 1933. [BW5:398, MoCxxii]
    • For her mission in Iran see BW5:23–7.
    • See also PP306–7.
    • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 176-181) for a pen portrait of Keith Ransom-Kehler .
    Isfahan; Iran Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Cemeteries and graves; Names and titles; Firsts, Other
    1938 to 1955 The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]

    He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]

    Tubingen; Germany; Tabriz; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon; Akka Varqa, Valiyullah; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; American University at Beirut; Varqa
    1939 28 Sep Martha Root, ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh’, passes away in Honolulu. (b. 10 August,1872 Richwood Union County Ohio, USA) [BBD198–9; GPB388; MRHK486; PP105]
    • Photos of her gravesite 1, 2 and 3. Directions to the gravesite.
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see GPB386–9.
    • On the 2nd of October Shoghi Effendi announced her appointment to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. [MoCxxii]
    • Shoghi Effendi calls her the ‘archetype of Bahá’í itinerant teachers’, the ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh since ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing’, ‘Leading ambassadress of His Faith’ and ‘Pride of Bahá’í teachers’. [GPB386]
    • From the Guardian...her "acts shed imperishable lustre American Bahá'í Community". [PP106]
    • For her obituary see BW8:643–8.
    • She is buried in the Nuuanu Cemetery, Honolulu.
    • See also Garis, Martha Root: Lioness at the Threshold and Martha Root: Herald of The Kingdom.
    • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 170-175) for a pen-portrait of Martha Root.
    • She was designated a Hand of the Cause of God on the 3rd of October, 1954
    Honolulu; Hawaii Martha Root; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam
    1940 Sep William Sears, Hand of the Cause of God, becomes a Bahá’í in Salt Lake City, Utah. Salt Lake City; Utah; United States William Sears; Hands of the Cause
    1941 17 Feb John Henry Hyde Dunn, passes away in Sydney. [BW9:595; SBR166]
    • Shortly after his passing Shoghi Effendi appoints him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. (26 April, 1952) [MoCxxii]
    • For the story of his life see SBR153–68.
    • For his obituary see BW9:593–7.
    Sydney; Australia John Henry Hyde Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1942 13 Mar The passing of Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí. who became a Baha'i in1875 through the teaching of Jamal Effendi. He was nearly 99 years old at the time of his death.
    • He was born of a noble family from Iraq who had settled in Madras, India where he encounter Jamal Effendi. Together they journeyed to Burma in 1878 and he married and settle in Rangoon. In 1899 he and some others carried the marble casket made by the Bahá'ís of Mandalay to the Holy Land for the Holy Remains of the Báb. After the loss of his wife and his business interests in 1910 he was free to devote his full time to the Faith. He was instrumental in establishing a new centre in Daidanaw in the township of Kungyangoon.
    • Among his many services for the Faith he translated the Writing to Urdu and to Burmese.
    • The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the 14th of July, 1945 and made a donation for the construction of his tomb. [MoCxxi, BW10p517-520i]
    Myanmar (Burma); Daidanaw; Thingagyun In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Jamal Effendi
    1942 25 May ‘Abdu’l-Jalíl Bey Sa‘ad passes away and is named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously. [BW9:597]
    • For his obituary see BW9:597–9.
    • On the day of his passing Shoghi Effendi announced his appointment to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. [MoCxxii]
    Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam
    1942 25 Jun The passing of 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad who was, for many years, the president of the National Spiritual Assembly and a judge in the Civil Courts in Egypt. Through his sustained effort the Declaration of Trust was recognized as valid and legalized in 1934.
    • He made an important contribution in translating into Arabic. Among his accomplishments were The Dawn-Breakers, Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era, Laws of Personal Status and Rules of Procedure.
    • In 1941 he employed the Declaration of Trust as an instrument to induce the Ministry of Civil Defence to grant permission to build the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Cairo. While supervising this project in the intense heat he fell ill and died suddenly after an operation.
    • Shoghi Effendi appointed him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the day of his passing. [MoC597-599]
    Egypt Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abdul Jalil Bey Saad; Declaration of Trust; Haziratul-Quds; Dawn-Breakers (book); Esslemont; Arabic language; Translation
    1945 13 Mar Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí passes away at the age of 99, in Burma. [BW10:519; PH23]
    • He is named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously. [BW10:519]
    • For his obituary see BW10:517–20.
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute see BW10:519–20 and DND215.
    Myanmar (Burma) Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1946 22 Nov Amelia Collins is appointed a Hand of the Cause of God by Shoghi Effendi. [PP258; PSBW878]
    • He does not make this appointment public until 24 December, 1951 when he announces the first contingent of the Hands. [MoCxxiii]
    Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1946 13 Dec The passing of Muhamman Taqí Isfahání. He had been born in Persia and was horrified by the behaviour of Mullá Huhammad Báqir (The Wolf) and Imám-Jum'íh who killed the two brothers Muhammad Hasan and Muhammad Hasan so he left for Egypt and encounter many believers on his way. He passed through Akka and met both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'-Bahá.
    • His name is closely associated with the early progress of the Faith in Egypt. His house was the centre of activity and was were both Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl and Lua Getsinger spent their last days. He received 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit to Egypt. He was the chief member of the Publishing Committee and helped to translate many books into Arabic such as the Iqán and Some Answered Questions.
    • The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God two days after his passing and donated a sum of money to be used for his tomb. He is buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery. [MoCxxii, BW11p500-502]
    Egypt Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; In Memoriam; Muhamman Taqi Isfahani; Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Translation
    1946 13 Dec Muhammad Taqíy-i-Isfahání passes away in Egypt. He was born in Iran. [BW11:500]
    • Shoghi Effendi names him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously. [BW11:502]
    • For his obituary see BW11:500–2.
    Egypt Muhammad Taqiy-i-Isfahani; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1951 30 Jul Louis Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Eliot, Maine, near Green Acre. [BW12:666; TMW310, LOF98]
    • Soon after his passing he is designated by Shoghi Effendi the first Hand of the Cause of his race. (On 5 August, 1951) [BBD91; BW12:666, MoCxxii]
    • See TG114, 117-8 for a description of his passing .
    • For his obituary see BW12:666–70.
    • For biographical information on Hand of the Cause Louis Gregory see Gayle Morrison, To Move the World: Louis G. Gregory and the Advancement of Racial Unity in America (Wilmette, IL, USA Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1982, 1999 printing).
    • For short biographical information see Bahá'í Encyclopedia]
    Eliot; Maine; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Firsts, Other
    1951 20 Dec Roy C. Wilhelm, (b.17 September, 1875) passes away in Lovel, Maine. [BW12:662]
    • On his passing Shoghi Effendi designates him a Hand of the Cause of God. (23 December, 1951) [MoCxxii, BW12:662]
    • For his obituary see BW12:662–4.
    • Find a grave
    Lovel; Maine; United States Roy Wilhelm; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1951 24 Dec Shoghi Effendi appoints 12 Hands of the Cause of God, the first contingent of Hands to be appointed. BBRSM127; BW12:38–40, 374–5; BW13:333–4; MBW20]
    • They are Sutherland Maxwell, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins (she had been appointed in 1946, but her appointment had not been made public), Valíyu’lláh Varqá, Tarázu’lláh Samandarí, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Horace Holley, Dorothy Baker, Leroy Ioas, George Townshend, Herman Grossmann and Ugo Giachery [GBF110–11; MBW20; PP253–4]
    Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Sutherland Maxwell; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Varqa, Valiyullah; Varqa; Tarazullah Samandari; Ali Akbar Furutan; Horace Holley; Dorothy Baker; Leroy Ioas; George Townshend; Herman Grossmann; Ugo Giachery
    1952 29 Feb Shoghi Effendi appoints the second contingent of Hands of the Cause of God. [BW12:375–6; CT202–3 MBW20–1; PP254; ZK47]
    • They are Fred Schopflocher, Corinne True, Dhikru’lláh Khádem, Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Músá Banání and Clara Dunn. [BW12:375–6; MWB19–20]
    • Shoghi Effendi describes their two-fold function: propagation of the Faith and preservation of its unity. [BW12:376; MBW21]
    Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent; Fred Schopflocher; Corinne True; Dhikrullah Khadem; Shuaullah Alai; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Musa Banani; Clara Dunn
    1952 26 Mar Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum is appointed Hand of the Cause of God to replace her father. [GBF111; MBW132–3] Haifa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1952 27 Apr Hyde Dunn is posthumously appointed a Hand of the Cause of God in a cable sent to the National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand. [BW13:861; SBR169] Hyde Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1952 8 Oct Shoghi Effendi announces his decision to launch ‘the fate-laden, soul-stirring, decade-long world-embracing Spiritual Crusade’ in the coming year. [BW12:253–5; MBW411
    • For the objectives of the Crusade see BW12:256–14.
    • Among the goals to be achieved is the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives building. [BBD22; DH168; MBW43]
    • He calls upon the Hands of the Cause to appoint during Ridván 1954 five auxiliary boards to act as their adjuncts or deputies to work with the national spiritual assemblies to execute the projected national plans. [MBW44, BW13p335]
    Haifa Ten Year Crusade; International Bahai Archives; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm; NSA; Teaching plans
    1953 12–18 Feb The first Intercontinental Teaching Conference is convened by the British National Spiritual Assembly in Kampala, Uganda. [BW12:121, MBW135-140]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:121–4.
    • For a report of the conference see BW12:124–30.
    • It is attended by ten Hands of the Cause, Bahá’ís from 19 countries and representatives of over 30 tribes. [PP413]
    • Over a hundred new African believers attend as personal guests of the Guardian. [PP413]
    • With this conference the Ten Year World Crusade is launched. [BBRSM158–9; BW12:253; MBW41]
    Kampala; Uganda; Africa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; First conferences
    1953 3 – 6 May The All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Chicago. [BW12:133]
    • For the texts of Shoghi Effendi’s messages to the conference see BW12:133–41 and MBW142–6.
    • Twelve Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:143]
    • At the conference, five members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States resign from that body in order to go pioneering: Elsie Austin, Dorothy Baker, Matthew Bullock, Mamie Seto and Dr William Kenneth Christian. [ZK102]
    • Extract from the cecond message to All-American Intercontinental Conference from Shoghi Effendi... [MBW150]
      .....the lands contributed in Latin America for a similar purpose approximate one-half of a million square meters, ninety thousand of which have been set aside near Santiago, Chile, for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of South America..
    Chicago; United States; Santiago; Chile; America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Pioneering; Elsie Austin; Dorothy Baker; Matthew Bullock; Mamie Seto; William Kenneth Christian; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Land purchases
    1953 21 – 26 Jul The European Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Stockholm. [BW12:167]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:167–71.
    • For a report of the conference see BW12:171–8.
    • Fourteen Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:171]
    • 374 Bahá’ís from 30 countries attend, of these 110 come from the ten goal countries. [BW12:171]
    Stockholm; Sweden; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities
    1953 27 Jul Siegfried (Fred) Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Montreal and is buried beside the grave of Sutherland Maxwell in Mount Royal Cemetery. He was born in Germany in 1877. [BW12:664-666, LOF390, TG119, CBNS 24 July 2014, Bahá'í Chronicles, SCRIBD, Schopflocher, Siegfried (1877–1953) by Will C. van den Hoonaard]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    • See TG32, 228 for a short biography.
    • See Schopflocher, Siegfried by Will C. van den Hoonaard.
    • For his obituary see BW12:664–6.
    • He was known as the “Temple Builder” because of his great contributions to the completion of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the West. [BW12:664-666]
    Montreal; Canada Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1953 7 Dec Jalál Kházeh is appointed a Hand of the Cause of God after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. [GBF111–12; MBW55] Jalal Khazeh; Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1954 10 Jan Dorothy Baker, (b.21 December, 1898) Hand of the Cause of God, dies in a plane crash in the Mediterranean Sea, near the island of Elba. [BW12:670]
    • For the Guardian’s cable see BW12:670, CF161.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For her obituary see BW12:670–4.
    • See also Freeman, From Copper To Gold.
    • See TG229 for a short story about her and a comment from her on the Long Obligatory Prayer.
    • See Remembering Dorthy Baker at Bahá'í Blog.
    Mediterranean Sea; Elba; Italy Dorothy Baker; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Obligatory prayer, Long
    1954 19 Mar Paul Haney is appointed Hand of the Cause of God following the death of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker. [GBF111; MBW57] Paul Haney; Dorothy Baker; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1954 6 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces the creation of five Auxiliary Boards with the following number of members: Asia 7; America 9; Europe 9; Africa 9; Australia 2. [MBW59]
    • Their function is to ‘act as deputies of the Hands in their respective continents’, to ‘aid and advise them in the effective prosecution of the’ and to assist them ‘in the discharge of their dual and sacred task of safe-guarding the Faith and of promoting its teaching activities’. [MBW63]
    • See also BBD26; BBRSM127; MC3.
    • These boards were mandated with the propagation of the Faith.
    Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ten Year Crusade
    1954 27 Nov Shoghi Effendi describes the significance of the world administrative centre of the Faith and the ‘structures, which will serve as the administrative seats of such divinely appointed institutions as the Guardianship, the Hands of the Cause, and the Universal House of Justice’ to be ranged along a ‘far-flung arc’. [MBW74] BWC Guardianship; Hands of the Cause; Universal House of Justice, Seat; Arc (World Centre); World Centre
    1955 to 2007 The fifth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was 'Ali-Muhammad Varqá. He inherited both the Trusteeship and the station of Hand of the Cause of God from his father upon his passing. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
    • During his tenure the compilation Huqúqu'lláh was published (1985) by the Universal House of Justice.
    • The delegates gathered at the National Convention of the Bahá'ís of the United States in 1984 petitioned the Universal House of Justice to make the Law of the Huqúqu'lláh applicable in their country. (Up to this point the law only applied to Bahá'is of Persian origin.) The Universal House of Justice replied that it was not yet time for such a measure but did agree to make more information available in preparation for such a time. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 3 January, 1985, AWH30]
    • Friends in Austria and the United States published codifications on the Law of the Huqúqu'lláh. To the benefit of the believers everywhere the Research Department at the World Centre was asked to prepare a brief history and a Codification. This information was sent to all national assemblies in the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987.
    • In 1991 the Central Office of Huqúqu'lláh was established in the Holy Land under the direction of the Chief Trustee in anticipation of the worldwide application of the law. Subsequently regional and national boards were established. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 1991]
    • With the publication of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in English in 1992 the law of the Huqúqu'lláh became universally applicable.
    • In 2005 an International Board of Trustees of the Huqúqu'lláh was established to guide the regional and national boards. Three members appointed to the Board were Sally Foo, Ramin Khadem, and Grant Kvalheim. Their term of office was to be determined. [Ridván 2005]
    • The last Hand of the Cause of Cause and Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh, Alí Muhammad Varqá, passed away in Haifa on the 22nd of September, 2007. [BWNS579]
    BWC; Haifa Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Varqa; BWNS
    1955 12 Nov Hand of the Cause of God Valíyu’lláh Varqá passes away in Stuttgart.
    • For his obituary see BW13:831–834.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    Stuttgart; Germany Varqa, Valiyullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa
    1955 15 Nov ‘Alí Muhammad Varqá is appointed a Hand of the Cause to succeed his father. [GBF111; MBW91] Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Varqa
    1956 20 May Louisa Mathew Gregory, whose wedding to Hand of the Cause of God Louis Gregory in 1912 was the first interracial western Bahá’í marriage, passes away in Eliot, Maine. [BW13:878]
    • For her obituary see BW13:376–8.
    Eliot; Maine; United States Louisa Mathew Gregory; Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
    1957 25 Mar Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend passes away in Dublin, Ireland. (b.14 June, 1896) [BBD226, BW02-03p169]
    • For his obituary see BW13:841–846.
    • See also David Hofman's biography, George Townshend.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • /ul>
    Dublin; Ireland Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; George Townshend; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1957 27 Mar Agnes Alexander is appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the passing of Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend. [GBF112; MBW174; PP255] Agnes Alexander; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; George Townshend
    1957 4 Jun Shoghi Effendi adds protection of the Cause to the duties of the Hands of the Cause. [BBRSM127; CB380; MBW122–3] BWC Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Protection; Appointed arm
    1957 Oct The third contingent of Hands of the Cause of God is appointed: Enoch Olinga, William Sears, John Robarts, Hasan Balyuzi, John Ferraby, Collis Featherstone, Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí. [GBF111; MBW127; PP254, 442; SS47]
    • See TG160 for the story of how Enoch Olinga reacted to the news of being appointed a Hand of the Cause of God
    Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; Enoch Olinga; William Sears; John Robarts; Hasan Balyuzi; John Ferraby; Collis Featherstone; Rahmatullah Muhajir; Abul-Qasim Faizi
    1957 Oct Shoghi Effendi designates the Hands of the Cause the ‘Chief Stewards of Bahá’u’lláh’s embryonic World commonwealth’. [MBW127] BWC Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Appointed arm
    1957 10 Nov The Hands of the Cause meet in London. [TG157]
    • See SDSC191-195 and SDSC430 note 8 for excerpts from the transcript of the talk recorded in shorthand by Rose M Wade and given by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum to the gathered Hands and other friends.
    London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
    1957 15 Nov Hands of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins and Leroy Ioas, accompanied by Hand of the Cause Ugo Giachery, enter the apartment of Shoghi Effendi and seal with tape and wax the safe where his important documents were kept as well as the drawers to his desk. [BW13:341]
    • The keys to the safe are placed in an envelope, which is sealed and signed by the five Hands and then placed in the safe of Leroy Ioas. BW13:341]
    Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Ugo Giachery
    1957 18–25 Nov The first conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. Twenty-three Hands were present. [BBRSM128; DH215; MC8–11, TG158]
    • This is the first meeting of the Hands of the Cause as a group.
    • For a personal account of the Conclave by Hand of the Cause Zikrullah Khadem. see ZK119.
    • For the nature of the six Conclaves see MC9–10, 12.
    Akka Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Zikrullah Khadem
    1957 18 Nov The Hands of the Cause conduct a memorial meeting for Shoghi Effendi in the Haram-i-Aqdas. [BW13:341; MC35] Akka Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Haram-i-Aqdas; Bahji
    1957 19 Nov Nine Hands of the Cause are chosen by Rúhíyyih Khánum to examine Shoghi Effendi’s apartment. [BW 13:341]
    • These are the five members of the International Bahá’í Council (Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery and Leroy Ioas), an Afnán (Hasan Balyuzi), a representative of the Hands of the Western Hemisphere (Horace Holley), a representative of the Hands of the African continent (Músá Banání) and the Trustee of the Huqúqu’lláh (‘Alí Muhammad Varqá). [BW13:341]
    • After seeing that the seals are intact, the Hands examine the contents of Shoghi Effendi’s safe and desk. [BW13:341]
    • The nine Hands sign a document testifying that no Will or Testament of any nature executed by Shoghi Effendi has been found. This is reported to the entire body of Hands assembled in the Mansion of Bahjí. [BW13:341]
    • See CB378–9 for an explanation of why Shoghi Effendi left no Will.
    Haifa; Bahji Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Horace Holley; Musa Banani; Varqa, Ali-Muhammad
    1957 25 Nov A proclamation is issued stating that Shoghi Effendi left no heir and made no appointment of another Guardian. [BW13:341–5; MC25–30]
    • See LOG310 for an explanation of the various meanings of the word ‘Guardianship’.
    • See CB388–9 for a discussion of the continuation of the institution of the Guardianship.
    Haifa; BWC Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Covenant (general); Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Custodians; Appointed arm
    1957 25 Nov Nine Hands are chosen to serve as Custodians of the Faith residing in the Holy Land. [BBD57; BW13:342; DH215]
    • The Hands residing in the Holy Land are established as a legal body under the title ‘The Custodians of the Bahá’í World Faith’.
    • The Hands chosen as first Custodians are Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Leroy Ioas, Hasan Balyuzi, ‘Alí Akbar Furútan, Jalál Kházeh, Paul Haney and Adelbert Mühlschlegel. [BW13:345–6; MC40–1]
    Haifa; BWC Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Custodians; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Ali Akbar Furutan; Jalal Khazeh; Paul Haney; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Appointed arm
    1957 Nov-1963 Apr The six year ministry of the Hands of the Cause residing in the Holy Land, or ‘Custodians’. [BW16:90; WG45–6]
    • This period is known as the ‘interregnum’. [BBD 120]
    • See BW14:467 for a summary of the work of the Hands of the Cause during this period.
    • The International Bahá’í Council continues to perform its duties at the World Centre under the direction of the Custodians. [BBD118]
    • See also The Ministry of The Custodians 1957–1963.
    Haifa; BWC Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Custodians; Interregnum; Ministry of The Custodians (book); International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Appointed arm
    1958 21–24 Mar The second Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Sydney, Australia. [BW13:319]
    • Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative and who is the architect of the Mother Temple of Australasia, attends, accompanied by four other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:317]
    • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC72–5.
    • For a report of the conference see BW13:319–21.
    Sydney; Australia; Australasia Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects
    1958 2–4 May The third Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Wilmette, Illinois. [BW13:323]
    • Hand of the Cause Dr Ugo Giachery, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by four other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:323]
    • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC90–8.
    • For a report of the conference see BW13:323–5.
    Wilmette; Illinois; United States; America Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ugo Giachery; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1958 25–29 Jul The fourth Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Frankfurt, Germany. [BW13:327]
    • Amelia Collins, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by ten other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:327]
    • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC102–6.
    • For a report of the conference see BW13:327–9.
    Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1958 21 Sep Hand of the Cause Leroy Ioas arrives in Indonesia and is plunged into negotiations regarding the holding of the conference. He meets with local Bahá’ís and anoints them with attar of roses as they pass to the room to view the portrait of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:331–2] Indonesia Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Leroy Ioas
    1958 27 – 29 Sep The fifth Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Singapore. [BW13:331]
    • Hand of the Cause Leroy Ioas, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by eight other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:331–2]
    • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC111–6.
    • For a report of the conference see BW13:331–2.
    Singapore; Asia Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Leroy Ioas; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1958 21–28 Nov The Second Conclave of the Hands of the Cause convenes at Bahjí. [BW13:347–8; MC118]
    • It is attended by 25 of the 27 Hands of the Cause. [BW13:347; MC118]
    • The Hands of the Cause call for the election of the Universal House of Justice at the time of the Most Great Jubilee in 1963. BBRSM129; BW13:351; MC122]
    Akka Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Most Great Jubilee; Centenaries
    1959 14 Jun The Hands of the Cause announce that the remains of the cousin of the Báb have been identified and have been transferred to a cemetery. [MC161] Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities
    1959 23 Oct - 1 Nov The third Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. [BW13:351; MC161–2]
    • For the agenda of the meeting see MC163–4.
    • Charles Mason Remey unsuccessfully attempts to convince his fellow Hands that the Guardianship should continue. [BBRSM130; MC217]
    Akka Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
    1959 4 Nov The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their third Conclave. [MC166–70]
    • The date for the election of the Universal House of Justice is fixed at Ridván 1963. [MC166]
    • They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of 21 national spiritual assemblies in Latin America. [MC167–8]
    • They call for the election at Ridván 1962 of 11 national spiritual assemblies in Europe. [MC168]
    • They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of the International Bahá’í Council by postal ballot of the members of the national and regional spiritual assemblies constituted at Ridván 1960. [MC168]
    • The name of Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey is missing from the list of signatories to this letter. [MC170]
    Akka Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Universal House of Justice, Election of; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
    1960 5 May Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí is sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
    • After consultation, five members of the assembly continue to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resign from the assembly. The national assembly is dissolved. [MC203]
    France Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abul-Qasim Faizi; National Spritual Assemblies; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship; France
    1960 12 Jul Horace Hotchkiss Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 April, 1887 in Torrington, CT) [MC226-227, BW13:849]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW13:849–858.
    • For cable from the Hands of the Cause see MC217–18.
    • See also SBR214-247, LoF253-264 and Holley, Horace Hotchkiss by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram.
    • His publications Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion, Religion for Mankind, World Unity, Bahai, The Spirit of the Age, Baha'i Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha, Read-aloud Plays, Divinations and Creation, The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh, The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse .
    Haifa; Torrington; CT Horace Holley; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Bahai Scriptures (book); Read-aloud Plays; Plays
    1960 26 Jul The Hands of the Cause of God declare Charles Mason Remey a Covenant-breaker. [BBRSM221; MC224–5] Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
    1960 18 – 27 Oct The fourth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. [MC229] Akka Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves
    1960 2 Nov The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their fourth Conclave. [MC237–44]
    • All the Hands of the Cause are henceforth to render their services on a global, rather than a regional, scale. [MC239]
    Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves
    1960 18 Nov Clara Dunn, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Sydney. (b.12 May 1869) [BW13:859; MC245]
    • For her obituary see BW13:859–62.
    • For cable from the Hands see MC245.
    • See also SBR153–75.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    Sydney; Australia Clara Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1961 Jan - Feb Hand of the Cause of God Dr Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir travels to India and demonstrates the principle of mass teaching. [DM172–84; SBBH2:165–7]
    • Mass teaching begins in the rural area of Madhya Pradesh among the Hindu population. In 1961 there are 850 Bahá’ís; in 1963 87,000; by 1973 nearly 400,000; and by 1987 about two million. In 1983 45 per cent of all local spiritual assemblies are in India. [BBRSM195; BW13:299]
    Madhya Pradesh; India Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Rahmatullah Muhajir; Mass conversion; Mass teaching; Teaching; LSA; Statistics; Growth
    1961 3 Apr Corinne True, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Chicago. [BW13:846]
    • For her obituary see BW13:846–9.
    • For cables from the Custodians see MC257.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    • See also Rutstein, Corinne True.
    Chicago; United States Corinne True; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1961 15 Oct – 2 Nov The fifth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. [MC297]
    • For the agenda see MC298.
    Akka Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Bahji
    1961 5 Nov The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their fifth Conclave. [MC313–23]
    • They call for the election of the Universal House of Justice at a convention to be held in the Holy Land on the first, second and third days of Ridván 1963. [CB392; MC321]
    • They ask the electors to leave the Hands free to ‘discharge their duties’. [MC321]
    • The celebration of the Most Great Jubilee, the Centenary of the Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh, is to be held in London rather than Baghdád, owing to the situation in the Middle East. [MC322]
    Akka; Baghdad; Iraq; London; United Kingdom Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Bahji; Most Great Jubilee; Centenaries; Universal House of Justice, Election of; UHJ
    1962 1 Jan Amelia Collins passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 June, 1873) [BW13:399, 840; MC12]
    • For her obituary see BW13:834–41.
    • Shoghi Effendi appoints her (publicly) among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For the cable of the Hands of the Cause see MC333.
    • See also Faizí, Milly ,"The Fulfilled hope of 'Abdu'l-Bahá" by Richard Francis and PSBW73–106.
    • For a timeline of her life see Shareable Bahá'í Resources
    • While serving in Haifa she was given 'Abdu'l-Bahá's room. She was the last person to occupy it. [TG231]
    Haifa Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; In Memoriam
    1963 9 Apr The sixth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí.
    • For the agenda see MC404.
    • For cabled message from the Conclave see MC420.
    Akka Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Bahji
    1963 7 May The Universal House of Justice issues its first message to national conventions. [WG4–8]
    • It pays tribute to the Hands of the Cause. [WG5]
    • It announces that the body has no officers and that its communications will be signed ‘Universal House of Justice’ over an embossed seal. [WG6]
    Haifa Hands of the Cause; UHJ
    1963 9 May The Hands of the Cause of God pass a resolution regarding the principles that will apply between the body of the Hands and the Hands Residing in the Holy Land and the activities of the Hands in the Holy Land. [MC426]
    • Five Hands of the Cause are assigned to the Holy Land.
    Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities
    1963 19 May The Hands of the Cause cable the annual conventions with the names of the five Hands chosen to reside in the Holy Land: Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Leroy Ioas, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Paul Haney and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí. [MC427] Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Leroy Ioas; Ali Akbar Furutan; Paul Haney; Abul-Qasim Faizi
    1964 Nov The Universal House of Justice announces that ‘there is no way to appoint, or to legislate to make it possible to appoint, Hands of the Cause of God’. [WG41]
    • For decisions of the Universal House of Justice regarding the development of the institution of the Hands of the Cause of God see WG40–3.
    Haifa Hands of the Cause; ; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice
    1965 22 Jul Leroy Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b.15 February, 1986) [BW14:291-300, VV7]
    • For his obituary see BW14:291–300.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see WG157.
    Haifa Leroy Ioas; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1966 12 Dec The Hand of the Cause John Robarts departed Africa from Cape Town after a stay of nearly 13 years. They were recalled from their pioneer post by the Universal House of Justice to help Canada win the goals of the Nine Year Plan. The objective was to raise 154 local assemblies by 1973 but the count had fallen from 68 to only 50, eighteen less than the number won during the Ten Year Plan and 104 short of the objective.LNW158 Cape Town; South Africa; Canada John Robarts; Hands of the Cause
    1968 21 Jun The Universal House of Justice establishes the Continental Boards of Counsellors to continue into the future the functions of the Hands of the Cause in the protection and propagation of the Faith. [BBD58–9, 97; BW15:611–13; BW17:319; MUHJ4–5; WG141, Mess63-86p130]
    • For details of the eleven Boards and their membership see BW15:612 and WG140–4.
    • For pictures of the Counsellors see BW15:614, 615, 618, 619, 622, 623, 625, 627.
    BWC Universal House of Justice; Counsellors; Hands of the Cause; Appointed arm
    1968 7 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause Hermann Grossmann in Neckargemünd, near Heidelberg, (b.16 February, 1899) [BW15p416-421]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his biography see Herman Grossmann: Hand of the Cause of God, A Life for the Faith by Susanne Pfaff-Grossmann.
    Neckargemund; Germany In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Herman Grossmann
    1968 7 Jul Hermann Grossman, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Germany. [BW15:416]
    • For his obituary see BW15:416–21.
    • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:416 and WG157–8.
    Germany Herman Grossmann; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1968 2 Sep Tarázu’lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b.1874 in Qazvin, Persia)
    • For his obituary see BW15p410-416.
    • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:416 and WG158–9.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    Haifa Tarazullah Samandari; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1971 The ‘Lake Victoria Plan’, a joint venture among the National Spiritual Assemblies of Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Burundi designed to carry the Faith to all the peoples and tribes living within Africa’s largest lake basin, is inaugurated at the suggestion of Hand of the Cause Dr Muhájir. [DM96–8] Lake Victoria; Africa Rahmatullah Muhajir; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities
    1971 1 Jan The passing of Agnes Baldwin Alexander, Hand of the Cause; “the daughter of the Kingdom”, and “the beloved maid-servant of the Blessed Perfection” (‘Abdu’l-Baha); the only Hand of the Cause mentioned in the Tablets of the Divine Plan; The first Baha’i to set foot on Hawaiian soil; the first Baha’i to settle in Japan; and the first Baha’i to teach the Faith in Korea passes away in Honolulu. (b. 21 July 1875) [BW15:423; VV8]
    • She was appointed a Hand of the Cause on the 27th of March, 1957 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend. [MoCxxiv]
    • For her obituary see BW15:423–30.
    • See Life of Agnes Alexander by Duane Troxel.
    Honolulu; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Firsts, Other
    1971 4 Sep Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Kampala, Uganda. (b.1886) [BW15:42; VV7]
    • For his obituary see BW15:421–423.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    Kampala; Uganda Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1973 5 Jun The International Teaching Centre is established at the Bahá’í World Centre for the purpose of continuing the work of the Hands of the Cause of God into the future. [BBD118–19; BBRSM132–3; BW16:134, 411–14; BW17:322–5; VV16]
    • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW16:413.
    • Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Paul Haney and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí and Counsellor members Hooper Dunbar, Florence Mayberry and Aziz Yazdí are appointed. [BW16:413]
    • For pictures see BW16:412 and VV16.
    • The duties and the organization of the International Teaching Centre were deliniated in the Message from the Universal House of Justice of June 8th, 1973.
    Haifa; BWC International Teaching Centre; International Teaching Centre, Members of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Counsellors; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ali Akbar Furutan; Paul Haney; Abul-Qasim Faizi; Hooper Dunbar; Florence Mayberry; Aziz Yazdi; Appointed arm
    1973 5 Sep John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Cambridge, England. (b. 9 January,1914) [BW16:511, VV8]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW16:511–12.
    Cambridge; United Kingdom John Ferraby; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1979 16 Sep Enoch Olinga—Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh—his wife and three of his children are murdered in Kampala, Uganda. (b.24 June, 1926) [BBD 172; BW18:633]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW18:618–35.
    Kampala; Uganda Enoch Olinga; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; Persecution, Uganda
    1979 29 Dec Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir, Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Quito, Ecuador. (b. 1923) [BW18:486, 651]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW18:651–9.
    • See also Muhájir, Dr Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh.
    Quito; Ecuador Rahmatullah Muhajir; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1980 12 Feb Hasan M. Balyuzi, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in London. (b. 7 September, 1908) [BW18:635; VV52]
    • For his obituary see BW18:635–51 and SBBR5:XI–XX.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    London; United Kingdom Hasan Balyuzi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1980 29 Jul Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away at his pioneer post in Athens, Greece. (b.16 June 1897) [BW18:613; VV52]
    • For his obituary see BW18:611–13.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    Athens; Greece Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1980 20 Nov Abu’l-Qásim Faizí, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b.1906) [BW18:659; VV52] Haifa Abul-Qasim Faizi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1982 3 Dec Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, dies in Haifa in an automobile accident. [BW18:617; VV52]
    • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 19th of March,1954 following the death of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker. [MoCxxiv}
    • For his obituary see BW18:613–18.
    Haifa Paul Haney; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1984 16 Nov Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Scottsdale, Arizona. (b. 16 November 1889) [BW19:594; VV123]
    • BW19: 159 says this was 17 November.
    • For his obituary see BW19:593–5.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    Scottsdale; Arizona; United States Shuaullah Alai; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1986 13 Nov Zikrullah Khadem (Dhikru’lláh Khádem), Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Skokie, Illinois. (b.1904) [VV123; ZK151]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    • See also Khadem, Zikrullah Khadem: The Itinerant Hand of the Cause of God.
    Skokie; Illinois; United States Zikrullah Khadem; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1989 5 Jul Dr Ugo Giachery, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away while on a visit to Western Samoa. [BINS204:1; VV123]
    • For the cable of the Universal House of Justice see BINS204:1.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    Samoa Ugo Giachery; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1990 22 Feb Jalál Kházeh, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Toronto. (b.1897) [BINS219:90]

    Note: VV123 says it was 20 February.

    • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 6th of December, 1953 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. [MoCxxiv]
    Toronto; Canada Jalal Khazeh; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1990 29 Sep The passing of Hand of the Cause of God H. Collis Featherstone in Katmandu, Nepal. He was born at Quorn, South Australia on May 5th, 1913. [BINS232:8, VV12, The Bahá'í Encyclopedia, Find a grave]
    • For his obituary see BW20p809-818.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • See Bahá'í Recollections for an article complete with pictures by Narenda Pande about Mr. Featherstone last days and funeral.
    Kathmandu; Nepal; Quorn; South Australia Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Collis Featherstone; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1991 18 Jun The passing of Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, John Aldham Robarts at Rawdon, Quebec. He was born in Waterloo, Ontario 2nd of November, 1901. [VV124]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • Bahá’í World, Vol. 20, 1986-1992, “In Memoriam,” pp. 801-9.
    • For his obituary see BINS250:10.
    • For picture see VV124.
    • For the story of how he came to learn of the Faith see SBR137.
    Rawdon; Quebec Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; John Robarts; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1992 The publication of the book entitled The Ministry of the Custodians 1957-1963: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause was published by the Bahá'í World Centre. [VV122] BWC Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Custodians; Ministry of the Custodians (book); Publications
    1992 25 Mar William Sears, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Tucson, Arizona. (28 March, 1911) [BINS267; VV124]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    Tucson; Arizona; United States Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; William Sears; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    2000 19 Jan The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in Haifa. She was born in New York on 8 August 1910. [One CountryVol.11,Issue4, Mess86-01p699-700, 19 January, 2000]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her as a Hand of the Cause of God after the passing of her father, Hand of the Cause of God Sutherland Maxwell on the 26th of March, 1952. [MoCxxiv]
    Haifa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths
    2003 26 Nov The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furútan in Haifa at the age of 98. [BWNS261, BW'03-‘04pg227]
    • Born in Sabzivar, Iran, on 29 April 1905.
    • Moved with his family to Ashgabat in what was then Russian Turkestan (now part of Turkmenistan), and, through his years of school and university, he took an active part in the work of the Baha'i communities of Ashgabat, Baku, Moscow, and other parts of Russia.
    • In 1930 expelled from the Soviet Union during the Stalinist persecution of religion and from that time on played an ever more significant role in the work and administration of the Iranian Baha'i community. [BW03-04p227-230]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For a tribute from the Universal House of Justice see message of 27 November, 2003.
    Haifa; Sabzivar; Iran; Ashgabat; Turkmenistan; Baku; Moscow Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Ali Akbar Furutan; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; BWNS
    2006 16 Jun The Baha'i International Community's Office of Public Information announced the launch of a new website called "Baha'i Media Bank,". The site contained more than 2,500 high-quality photographs on Baha'i-related themes and the plan was to eventually include video and audio material. [BWNS455] BWC; Worldwide Bahai Media Bank; Websites; Visuals; BWC; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Monument gardens; Gardens; Pilgrim houses; Montreal Shrine; Junayn Garden; Ridvan garden; Haziratul-Quds (general); Bahai history; Pilgrimage; Knights of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Bahaullah, Family of; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Relics; First Bahais by country or area; Activities (general); Core activities; - Institute process; Devotional gatherings; Prayer; Ruhi institute; Study Circles; Childrens classes; Social action; Social and economic development; Conferences; Regional conferences; World Congresses; Conventions, International; Conventions, National; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Counsellors; Bahai International Community; Symbolism; Greatest Name; Persecution, Iran
    2007 22 Sep The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Dr. Ali-Muhammad Varqa at his home in Haifa. (b.1911) He was the last survivor of the 27 Hands of the Cause who were alive when Shoghi Effendi passed away in 1957. [BWNS579]
    • He had been appointed Hand of the Cause on the 15th of March, 1955 after the passing of his father Hand of the Cause of God Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, [MoVxxiv]
    Haifa Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Varqa; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Appointed arm; BWNS

    from the main catalogue

    1. Adíb Tálaqání (Hand of the Cause), by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 1 (1985). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    2. Akhund, Haji (Haji Mulla `Ali-Akbar Shahmirzadi), by Moojan Momen (1995). Short biography of an Iranian Hand of the Cause of God. [about]
    3. Alexander, Agnes: 70 years of service, by Duane Troxel, in Bahá'í News (1983). Biography of a prominent American Baha'i and Hand of the Cause of God. [about]
    4. Alí Akbar Shahmírzádí (Hájjí Akhund), by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 1 (1985). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
    5. Amín Hájjí: trustees of Huqúqu'lláh, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 1 (1985). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
    6. Amin, Haji Abu'l-Hasan, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
    7. Ardakání, Hajjí Abu'l-Hasan (Hand of the Cause), by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 2 (1987). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
    8. Authority of the Hands of the Cause to direct the Faith and expel Covenant-breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Authority of the Hands of the Cause assume control of the Faith and eject Covenant-breakers following Shoghi Effendi's passing. [about]
    9. Bahá'í Teachings, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Authenticity of Statements; Mathnavi; Quranic quotations; Marriage Prayer; 'Sun' and 'Moon'; Hands of the Cause; Night of Power; Khatt-i-Badi; Sarcophagus for Baha'u'llah; International Baha'i Library Building; Lunar Calendar and Holy Days; Leiden, Kings. [about]
    10. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
    11. Balyuzi, Hasan M., by Richard Francis (1998). Brief bio of this "Hand of the Cause of God, the Treasure of All Humanity." [about]
    12. Collins, Amelia: The Fulfilled Hope of 'Abdu'l-Baha, by Richard Francis (1993). Short biography of a prominent American Baha'i. [about]
    13. Continental Boards of Counselors, Elucidation of the Nature of, by Universal House of Justice (1972). The nature of the Institution of the Continental Boards of Counselors and its relationship to the Institution of the Hands of the Cause. [about]
    14. Divine Simplicity: Remembering the last Hand of the Cause of God, 'Ali-Muhammad Varqa, by Jack McLean (2008). Biography of Dr. Varqa, partly based on interviews with people who knew him in Iran. [about]
    15. Dunn, Clara and Hyde, by Graham Hassall (2000). Biography of two early Baha'i teachers and pioneers. [about]
    16. Dunn, Clara and John Henry Hyde, by Graham Hassall, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the couple who went to Australia in 1920 in response to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s call for worldwide expansion of the Bahá’í Faith and firmly established it in the Antipodes, designated Hands of the Cause of God by Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    17. Evening with Hands of the Cause, by Varqa Roberts Furutan. [about]
    18. Fadil-i-Mazandarani, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Was Fadil-i-Mazandarani declared a Hand of the Cause of God, and on determining if there were other Hands. [about]
    19. Fayzí, Abu'l-Qásim (Hand of the Cause), by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 9 (1999). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
    20. Giachery, Ugo: Obituary, in American Bahá'í (1989). [about]
    21. H. Collis Featherstone, by Graham Hassall, in Australian Bahá'í Bulletin (1990). Biography of a prominent Australian Baha'i and Hand of the Cause of God. [about]
    22. H. Collis Featherstone 1913-1990: An Extraordinary, Ordinary Man, by Graham Waterman and Kaye Waterman, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). [about]
    23. Hands of the Cause (Ayádí Amr Alláh), by Eunice Braun, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the institution, established by Bahá’u’lláh, of individuals named by Bahá’u’lláh, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi, charged with protecting and propagating the Bahá’í Faith; one of the two parallel lines of responsibility in Bahá’í administration. [about]
    24. Hands of the Cause of God, by Universal House of Justice and Lilian Ala'i, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Six documents from Baha'i World 18 part four section 2: The Hands of the Cause of God and their functions, their work and travels 1979-1983, Boards of Counsellors and the International Teaching Centre, and tributes by Lilian Ala'i and Ray Hudson. [about]
    25. Hands of the Cause of God: List of 43 brief bios, with photos (2013). Table of mini bios and thumbnail photos for 43 Hands of the Cause. [about]
    26. Hands of the Cause of God: Personal Recollections, by Bill Washington (2014). Recollections of A.Q. Faizi, A.A. Furútan, Clara Dunn, Rúhíyyih Khánum, Ugo Giachery, Leroy Ioas, Enoch Olinga, Rahmátu’lláh Muhajir, Bill Sears, Agnes Alexander, John Robarts, Collis Featherstone, and Jalal Khazeh. [about]
    27. Hands of the Cause of God Cannot Appoint a Guardian, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Short letter quoting the Guardian's statement that the Hands of the Cause of God have to ratify the current guardian's appointment of another guardian, and they may also suggest another guardian, but cannot themselves appoint one. [about]
    28. Haney, Paul, by Richard Francis (1998). Brief bio of the life of a Hand of the Cause of God. [about]
    29. Holley, Horace Hotchkiss, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram (1995). Biography of a Hand of the Cause of God. [about]
    30. Ibn Abhar, Hand of the Cause, by Stephen Lambden, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 7 (1996). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
    31. Ibn Asdaq, missionary and martyr, by Stephen Lambden, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 7 (1996). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
    32. Indexes to Bahá'í World volumes: Obituaries, chronologies, contents, illustrations, in Bahá'í World (2013). Seven separate indexes for Bahá'í World, in PDF, Word, and Excel versions. [about]
    33. Letters to Bahá'í princesses: Tablets revealed in honour of the women of Ibn-i Asdaq's household, by Dominic Parvis Brookshaw, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
    34. List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Babi studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
    35. Martha Root: "Herald of the Kingdom", by Barbara Casterline, in Bahá'í News, 496-497 (1972). Two-part overview of Root's life and a concise history of her travels. [about]
    36. Members of the Universal House of Justice 1963-2014 and Hands of the Cause: Timeline (2003). List of names and dates of all who served on the House of Justice or as Hands. [about]
    37. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    38. Ministry of the Custodians: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause 1957-1963, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Account of the stewardship of the Hands of the Cause of God from 1957-63, from the passing of Shoghi Effendi to the election of the House, riding the waves of crisis to the moment of victory — the fulfillment of prophecy. [about]
    39. Olinga, Enoch, by Richard Francis (1998). Life of Hand of the Cause of God and "Father of Victories." [about]
    40. Rahmatu'llah Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God the Treasure of All Humanity, by Richard Francis (1998). Short biography of a Hand of the Cause of God. [about]
    41. Ransom-Kehler, Keith Bean, by Janet Ruhe-Schoen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the American Bahá’í lecturer and world traveler, designated by Shoghi Effendi as the first American Bahá’í martyr, and a Hand of the Cause of God, the first woman to be so named. [about]
    42. Remey, Charles Mason, by Robert Stockman (1995). [about]
    43. Root, Martha, by Richard Francis (1993). Bio of the "Herald of the Kingdom, Lioness at the Threshold." [about]
    44. Ruhiyyih Khanum, by Loni Bramson, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
    45. Schopflocher, Siegfried, by Will C. van den Hoonaard (1993). Short biography of a prominent Baha''i from a German-Jewish background who served as a Hand of the Cause of God. [about]
    46. Schopflocher, Siegfried, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the Canadian Bahá’í of German-Jewish background named by Shoghi Effendi a Hand of the Cause of God in 1952. [about]
    47. Statement on Mason Remey from the Western Hands of the Faith, by Corinne True and Hermann Grossmann (1960). Background information on the claims of Remey, compiled by the Hands of the Cause of God in the Western hemisphere. [about]
    48. Teaching the Faith, Magic Moments, Meeting Great Souls, by Jack McLean (2012). Autobiography of a prominent Baha'i scholar, written on occasion of the 50th anniversary of his conversion. [about]
    49. Varqa and Son: The Heavenly Doves, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). History of the family of Varqa, the only family with the distinction of having a grandfather, a father, and a son all named Hand of the Cause. [about]
    50. Varqá, Ali-Mohammad, by Iraj Ayman, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2017). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    51. Varqá, Wali-Alláh, by Iraj Ayman, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2017). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    52. Visits of the Hands of the Cause of God to Ireland, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 3 (2003). An overview of all known visits by the Hands, the highest-ranking officers of the Bahá’í Faith, to Ireland. Review of the many historical sources about this largely-uninvestigated topic. Includes timeline of the visits between 1952 and 1986. [about]
     
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