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Search for tag "Hands of the Cause"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1861. c. 1861 ‘Abdu'l-Bahá writes the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14]

Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266]

Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, meets Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and becomes a follower. [BKG18]

Baghdad; Iraq; Mashhad; Iran Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan (Commentary on the tradition of the Hidden Treasure); Commentaries; Hadith Islam; Hidden Treasure (Hadith); Ali Shawkat Pasha; Haji Akhund; Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Hands of the Cause; Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurasani; Ismulahul-Asdaq; Ibn Asdaq; Life of Bahaullah
1874. 6 Jun Birth of Louis George Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God at Charleston, South Carolina. Charleston; South Carolina Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause of God
1874 14 Nov Birth of William Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, in Montreal. Montreal; Canada William Sutherland Maxwell; Hands of the Cause - Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1875. 16 Oct Birth of Tarázu'lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God, in Qazvín. Qazvin; Iran Tarazullah Samandari; Hands of the Cause
1881 to 1928 The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá.
  • Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
  • Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
Akka; BWC Huququ'llah; Huququ'llah, Trustees of; Haji Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani (Amin-i-Ilahi); Hands of the Cause; Apostles of Bahaullah; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Haji Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin); Public baths
1886 In the year Birth of Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, in Baghdád. Baghdad Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause of God
1889 In the year The passing of Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání entitled by Bahá'u'lláh Ism'lláh'l-Asdaq (In the Name of God the Most Truthful) in Hamadán. He was born in Mashhad in 1800, the son of a cleric, around the beginning of the 19th century He furthered his own clerical studies in Karbila under the Shaykhi leader Sayyid Qasim Rashti, eventually gaining the rank of mujtahid, and becoming known by the honorific title Muqaddas (‘the holy one’).
  • As a young man he had been a disciple of Siyyid Kázim and had met Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad in Karbilá. He was among the first believers who identified with the Message of the Báb. See DB100 and EB7 for the story of how he independently determined His identity when he met Mullá Husayn in Isfahán on his way to deliver a tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tehran. The very next day he left Isfahán for Shíráz on foot arriving 12 days later to find that the Báb had already departed for pilgrimage.
  • He took up residence in Shíráz and received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to change the Call to Prayer. See DB146-148, EB13-14 for the story of how he endured over 900 strokes of the lash on the command of Husayn Khán-i-Írva´ní, the Governor of the province of Fars, and remained indifferent to the pain. (6 August, 1845) He was expelled from the city and proceeded to Yazd. He had similar fate in that city and was banished.
  • On the way to Khurásán he joined Mullá Husayn and those who would participate in the Tabarsí siege where he was on hand for the death of Mullá Husayn. (DB381) After the deception and massacre he was one of the few survivors and, as a prisoner, was taken to Mázindarán to be executed by the family Prince Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá who had commanded the royal troops and had been killed in battle. On route the party called on the clerics to interrogate him and his fellow Bábi and they became convinced that they were not heretics deserving of execution. The prisoners were to be sent to Tehran but escaped and made their way to Míhámí and eventually to Mashad.
  • In 1861, after life in that city became impossible, he went to Baghdád where he attained the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. After 14 months he returned to his native province of Khurásán.
  • He continued in his audacious teaching and as a result was taken to Tehran where he was kept in the Síhåh-Chál. He taught a number of fellow prisoners about the Promised One and converted Hakím Masíh, the Jewish physician assigned to attend to the prisoners. He was the first Bahá'í of Jewish background in Tehran (and was the grandfather of Lutfu'lláh Hakím, a former member of the Universal House of Justice.) After 28 months imprisonment he was pardoned but refuse to leave without his fellow prisoners. The Sháh released 40 of the 43 prisoners. (The remaining three were guilty of actual crimes.)
  • After Tehran he went to Khurásán and returned to the capital some three years later to help in changing the hiding place of the remains of the Báb. Then he travelled to Káshán, Isfahán and Yazd where he convinced some of the Afnáns to accept the truth of their Nephew's claims. After returning to Khurásán he was given permission to make a pilgrimage to 'Akká where he remained for some four months, returning by way of Mosul and Baghdád. When he reached Hamadán he was exhausted. Twelve days after his arrival he passed.
  • He had been the recipient of many tablets from Bahá'u'lláh including a Tablet of Visitation after his passing. One of the most well-know tablets was the Lawh-i-Ahbáb (Tablet of the Friends). It is thought He revealed this Tablet some time after leaving the barracks in 'Akká, about 1870-1871. [RoB3p258-260, List of the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh]
  • He was the father of Ibn-i-Asdaq who Bahá'u'lláh appointed a Hand of the Cause of God. [EB19]
  • ‘Abdu’l-Baha posthumously referred to him as a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • References [LoF32-41, MF5-8, DB381. EB7-23, BBR 69-70]
Hamadan Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani)
1891 Apr c. Two believers were arrested during the same period. Hájí Amín was sent to the prison of Qazvín, and Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Abhar was consigned for four years in Tíhran, in which he bore the same chains as Bahá'u'lláh did, during the Latter's imprisonment in 1852.[Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Qazvin; Tihran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar; Hands of the Cause; Chains; Imprisonments
1896. 15 Feb Birth of Leroy C. Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, in Wilmington, Illinois. Wilmington; Illinois Leroy Ioas; Hands of the Cause
1896. 13 May Birth of Dr Ugo Giachery, Hand of the Cause of God, in Palermo, Sicily. Palermo; Sicily Ugo Giachery; Hands of the Cause of God; Births and deaths
1898. 21 Dec Birth of Dorothy Beecher Baker, Hand of the Cause of God. Dorothy Baker; Hands of the Cause of God
1906 c. Birth of `Abu'l-Qásim Faizí, Hand of the Cause of God, in Qum. Qum Abul-Qasim Faizi; Hands of the Cause
1909. July 23 Louis George Gregory joins the Bahá'í Faith after investigating since 1907. [Wikipedia] Washington DC; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause
1910 4 Mar Hand of the Cause of God `Alí-Akhar-i-Shahmírzádí (Hájí Ákhúnd) passes away in Tihrán. [BBD14; EB266] Tihran Haji Akhund (Ali-Akhar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause; In Memoriam
1910 8 Aug Birth of Mary Sutherland Maxwell, Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause of God, in New York City. New York City Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Hands of the Cause of God
1912 Birth of `Alí Muhammad Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran; Iran Ali-Muhammad Varqa; Hands of the Cause of God; Births and deaths
1917 The passing of Ibn-i-Abhar (Mullá Muhammad Taqí), Hand of the Cause of God. [BBD114; EB268] Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Hands of the Cause; In Memoriam
1919 13 Aug Adíb, Mírzá Hasan Táliqání, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD98]

EB273 says he died on 2 September.

  • For a brief history of his life see EB272-3.
Tihran; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1919 2 Sep The passing of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, entitled Adíbu'l-'Ulamá, know as Adíb in Tihrán. He was born in Talaqán in 1848 and became a Bahá’í around 1889.
  • Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God. [SDH138-140]
  • He was one of the founders of the Tarbíyat Schools in Tihrán. He died in Tihrán. [LoF17-18]
  • Tihran; Talaqan; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; In Memoriam
    1925 22 Nov John Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away in Haifa. [BW3p84-85, BBD81, SETPE1p108-110]
    • For letters of Shoghi Effendi announcing his death and giving details of his life and funeral see BA97–8 and UD40–3.
    • For an obituary see BW1:133–6 and BW8:929–35.
    • He is buried next to the grave of Vakílu’d-Dawlih, the chief builder of the House of Worship at ‘Ishqábád. [DJEE37]
    • Shoghi Effendi elevates him to the station of Hand of the Cause of God on his death. The announcement is made on November 30th. [BA7-98; BWT3:333; DJEE40; PP92; UD403, MoCxxii
    • See also Moojan Momen, Dr John E. Esslemont (BPT UK 1975) and BW8p929-935 for "John Ebenezer Esslemont: His Life and Service" by Jesse E. Revell.
    Haifa; Ishqabad Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Vakilud-Dawlih; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1928 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1.
  • His father was Mullá Sádiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursúní, referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [EM19] While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran.
  • He begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a martyr. Baha’u’llah said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Baha’u’llah conferred the station of martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”) .”
  • He is the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá’u’lláh.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class” the Faith.
  • He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
  • Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
  • For details of his life see EB171–6.
  • Tihran; ; Mashhad; Iran In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause of God; Hands of the Cause of God (appointments); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Mulla Sadiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursuni
    1928 27 May Hájí Amín, Abu’l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, Hand of the Cause of God and Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD7; EB263]
    • For his biography see EB263.
    • He is named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously by Shoghi Effendi. [BBD7; EB263]
    • See BBD7 for a picture and an account of his life.
    Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; In Memoriam
    1938 to 1955 The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]

    He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]

    Tubingen; Germany; Tabriz; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon; Akka Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Valiyullah Varqa; Hands of the Cause; Varqa; American University at Beirut
    1942 25 May ‘Abdu’l-Jalíl Bey Sa‘ad passes away and is named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously. [BW9:597]
    • For his obituary see BW9:597–9.
    • On the day of his passing Shoghi Effendi announced his appointment to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. [MoCxxii]
    Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1942 25 Jun The passing of 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad who was, for many years, the president of the National Spiritual Assembly and a judge in the Civil Courts in Egypt. Through his sustained effort the Declaration of Trust was recognized as valid and legalized in 1934.
    • He made an important contribution in translating into Arabic. Among his accomplishments were The Dawn-Breakers, Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era, Laws of Personal Status and Rules of Procedure.
    • In 1941 he employed the Declaration of Trust as an instrument to induce the Ministry of Civil Defence to grant permission to build the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Cairo. While supervising this project in the intense heat he fell ill and died suddenly after an operation.
    • Shoghi Effendi appointed him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the day of his passing. [MoC597-599]
    Egypt In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Abdul Jalil Bey Saad; Declaration of Trust; Haziratul-Quds; Dawn-Breakers; Esslemont; Arabic language; Translation
    1951 24 Dec Shoghi Effendi appoints 12 Hands of the Cause of God, the first contingent of Hands to be appointed. BBRSM127; BW12:38–40, 374–5; BW13:333–4; MBW20]
    • They are Sutherland Maxwell, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins (she had been appointed in 1946, but her appointment had not been made public), Valíyu’lláh Varqá, Tarázu’lláh Samandarí, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Horace Holley, Dorothy Baker, Leroy Ioas, George Townshend, Herman Grossmann and Ugo Giachery [GBF110–11; MBW20; PP253–4]
    Haifa Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Sutherland Maxwell; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Valiyullah Varqa; Tarazullah Samandari; Ali Akbar Furutan; Horace Holley; Dorothy Baker; Leroy Ioas; George Townshend; Herman Grossmann; Ugo Giachery
    1952 29 Feb Shoghi Effendi appoints the second contingent of Hands of the Cause of God. [BW12:375–6; CT202–3 MBW20–1; PP254; ZK47]
    • They are Fred Schopflocher, Corinne True, Dhikru’lláh Khádem, Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Músá Banání and Clara Dunn. [BW12:375–6; MWB19–20]
    • Shoghi Effendi describes their two-fold function: propagation of the Faith and preservation of its unity. [BW12:376; MBW21]
    Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Fred Schopflocher; Corinne True; Dhikrullah Khadem; Shuaullah Alai; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Musa Banani; Clara Dunn
    1952 26 Mar Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum is appointed Hand of the Cause of God to replace her father. [GBF111; MBW132–3] Haifa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; ; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1952 8 Oct Shoghi Effendi announces his decision to launch ‘the fate-laden, soul-stirring, decade-long world-embracing Spiritual Crusade’ in the coming year. [BW12:253–5; MBW411
    • For the objectives of the Crusade see BW12:256–14.
    • Among the goals to be achieved is the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives building. [BBD22; DH168; MBW43]
    • He calls upon the Hands of the Cause to appoint during Ridván 1954 five auxiliary boards to act as their adjuncts or deputies to work with the national spiritual assemblies to execute the projected national plans. [MBW44, BW13p335]
    Haifa Spiritual Crusade; International Bahai Archives; Hands of the Cause; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; NSA
    1953 12–18 Feb The first Intercontinental Teaching Conference is convened by the British National Spiritual Assembly in Kampala, Uganda. [BW12:121, MBW135-140]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:121–4.
    • For a report of the conference see BW12:124–30.
    • It is attended by ten Hands of the Cause, Bahá’ís from 19 countries and representatives of over 30 tribes. [PP413]
    • Over a hundred new African believers attend as personal guests of the Guardian. [PP413]
    • With this conference the Ten Year World Crusade is launched. [BBRSM158–9; BW12:253; MBW41]
    Kampala; Uganda Hands of the Cause; Guardianship; Ten Year World Crusade; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; First conferences
    1953 3 – 6 May The All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Chicago. [BW12:133]
    • For the texts of Shoghi Effendi’s messages to the conference see BW12:133–41 and MBW142–6.
    • Twelve Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:143]
    • At the conference, five members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States resign from that body in order to go pioneering: Elsie Austin, Dorothy Baker, Matthew Bullock, Mamie Seto and Dr William Kenneth Christian. [ZK102]
    • Extract from the cecond message to All-American Intercontinental Conference from Shoghi Effendi... [MBW150]
      .....the lands contributed in Latin America for a similar purpose approximate one-half of a million square meters, ninety thousand of which have been set aside near Santiago, Chile, for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of South America..
    Chicago; US; Santiago; Chile; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Pioneering; Elsie Austin; Dorothy Baker; Matthew Bullock; Mamie Seto; William Kenneth Christian; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Chile; Land purchases
    1953 21 – 26 Jul The European Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Stockholm. [BW12:167]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:167–71.
    • For a report of the conference see BW12:171–8.
    • Fourteen Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:171]
    • 374 Bahá’ís from 30 countries attend, of these 110 come from the ten goal countries. [BW12:171]
    Stockholm; Sweden; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; Hands of the Cause
    1954 6 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces the creation of five Auxiliary Boards with the following number of members: Asia 7; America 9; Europe 9; Africa 9; Australia 2. [MBW59]
    • Their function is to ‘act as deputies of the Hands in their respective continents’, to ‘aid and advise them in the effective prosecution of the’ and to assist them ‘in the discharge of their dual and sacred task of safe-guarding the Faith and of promoting its teaching activities’. [MBW63]
    • See also BBD26; BBRSM127; MC3.
    • These boards were mandated with the propagation of the Faith.
    Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Hands of the Cause; Ten-Year Plan
    1955 to 2007 The fifth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was 'Ali-Muhammad Varqá. He inherited both the Trusteeship and the station of Hand of the Cause of God from his father upon his passing. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
    • During his tenure the compilation Huqúqu'lláh was published (1985) by the Universal House of Justice.
    • The delegates gathered at the National Convention of the Bahá'ís of the United States in 1984 petitioned the Universal House of Justice to make the Law of the Huqúqu'lláh applicable in their country. (Up to this point the law only applied to Bahá'is of Persian origin.) The Universal House of Justice replied that it was not yet time for such a measure but did agree to make more information available in preparation for such a time. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 3 January, 1985, AWH30]
    • Friends in Austria and the United States had published codifications on the Law of the Huqúqu'lláh and so the the benefit of the believers everywhere the Research Department at the World Centre was asked to prepare a brief history and a Codification. This information was sent to all national assemblies in the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987.
    • In 1991 the Central Office of Huqúqu'lláh was established in the Holy Land under the direction of the Chief Trustee in anticipation of the worldwide application of the law. Subsequently regional and national boards were established. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 1991]
    • With the publication of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in English in 1992 the law of the Huqúqu'lláh became universally applicable.
    • In 2005 an International Board of Trustees of the Huqúqu'lláh was established to guide the regional and national boards. Three members appointed to the Board were Sally Foo, Ramin Khadem, and Grant Kvalheim. Their term of office was to be determined. [Ridván 2005]
    • The last Hand of the Cause of Cause and Trustee of the Huqúqu'llah, Alí Muhammad Varqá, passed away in Haifa on the 22nd of September, 2007. [BWNS579]
    BWC; Haifa Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Ali-Muhammad Varqa; Varqa; Hands of the Cause
    1957 Oct The third contingent of Hands of the Cause of God is appointed: Enoch Olinga, William Sears, John Robarts, Hasan Balyuzi, John Ferraby, Collis Featherstone, Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí. [GBF111; MBW127; PP254, 442; SS47]
    • See TG160 for the story of how Enoch Olinga reacted to the news of being appointed a Hand of the Cause of God
    Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Enoch Olinga; William Sears; John Robarts; Hasan Balyuzi; John Ferraby; Collis Featherstone; Rahmatullah Muhajir; Abul-Qasim Faizi
    1957 10 Nov The Hands of the Cause meet in London. [TG157]
    • See SDSC191-195 and SDSC430 note 8 for excerpts from the transcript of the talk recorded in shorthand by Rose M Wade and given by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum to the gathered Hands and other friends.
    London; United Kingdom Hands of the Cause; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
    1957 15 Nov Hands of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins and Leroy Ioas, accompanied by Hand of the Cause Ugo Giachery, enter the apartment of Shoghi Effendi and seal with tape and wax the safe where his important documents were kept as well as the drawers to his desk. [BW13:341]
    • The keys to the safe are placed in an envelope, which is sealed and signed by the five Hands and then placed in the safe of Leroy Ioas. BW13:341]
    Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Ugo Giachery
    1957 19 Nov Nine Hands of the Cause are chosen by Rúhíyyih Khánum to examine Shoghi Effendi’s apartment. [BW 13:341]
    • These are the five members of the International Bahá’í Council (Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery and Leroy Ioas), an Afnán (Hasan Balyuzi), a representative of the Hands of the Western Hemisphere (Horace Holley), a representative of the Hands of the African continent (Músá Banání) and the Trustee of the Huqúqu’lláh (‘Alí Muhammad Varqá). [BW13:341]
    • After seeing that the seals are intact, the Hands examine the contents of Shoghi Effendi’s safe and desk. [BW13:341]
    • The nine Hands sign a document testifying that no Will or Testament of any nature executed by Shoghi Effendi has been found. This is reported to the entire body of Hands assembled in the Mansion of Bahjí. [BW13:341]
    • See CB378–9 for an explanation of why Shoghi Effendi left no Will.
    Haifa; Bahji Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Horace Holley; Musa Banani; Ali-Muhammad Varqa
    1957 25 Nov Nine Hands are chosen to serve as Custodians of the Faith residing in the Holy Land. [BBD57; BW13:342; DH215]
    • The Hands residing in the Holy Land are established as a legal body under the title ‘The Custodians of the Bahá’í World Faith’.
    • The Hands chosen as first Custodians are Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Leroy Ioas, Hasan Balyuzi, ‘Alí Akbar Furútan, Jalál Kházeh, Paul Haney and Adelbert Mühlschlegel. [BW13:345–6; MC40–1]
    Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Custodians; Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Ali Akbar Furutan; Jalal Khazeh; Paul Haney; Adelbert Muhlschlegel
    1957 Nov-1963 Apr The six year ministry of the Hands of the Cause residing in the Holy Land, or ‘Custodians’. [BW16:90; WG45–6]
    • This period is known as the ‘interregnum’. [BBD 120]
    • See BW14:467 for a summary of the work of the Hands of the Cause during this period.
    • The International Bahá’í Council continues to perform its duties at the World Centre under the direction of the Custodians. [BBD118]
    • See also The Ministry of The Custodians 1957–1963.
    Haifa Hands of the Cause; Custodians; International Bahai Council
    1959 23 Oct - 1 Nov The third Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. [BW13:351; MC161–2]
    • For the agenda of the meeting see MC163–4.
    • Charles Mason Remey unsuccessfully attempts to convince his fellow Hands that the Guardianship should continue. [BBRSM130; MC217]
    ‘Akka Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
    1959 4 Nov The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their third Conclave. [MC166–70]
    • The date for the election of the Universal House of Justice is fixed at Ridván 1963. [MC166]
    • They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of 21 national spiritual assemblies in Latin America. [MC167–8]
    • They call for the election at Ridván 1962 of 11 national spiritual assemblies in Europe. [MC168]
    • They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of the International Bahá’í Council by postal ballot of the members of the national and regional spiritual assemblies constituted at Ridván 1960. [MC168]
    • The name of Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey is missing from the list of signatories to this letter. [MC170]
    ‘Akka Hands of the Cause; Universal House of Justice, Election of; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
    1960 5 May Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí is sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
    • After consultation, five members of the assembly continue to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resign from the assembly. The national assembly is dissolved. [MC203]
    France Hands of the Cause; Abul-Qasim Faizi; National Spritual Assemblies; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship; France
    1960 12 Jul Horace Hotchkiss Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 April, 1887 in Torrington, CT) [MC226-227, BW13:849]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW13:849–858.
    • For cable from the Hands of the Cause see MC217–18.
    • See also SBR214-247, LoF253-264 and Holley, Horace Hotchkiss by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram.
    • His publications Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion, Religion for Mankind, World Unity, Bahai, The Spirit of the Age, Baha'i Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha, Read-aloud Plays, Divinations and Creation, The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh, The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse .
    Haifa; Torrington; CT Horace Holley; Hands of the Cause of God; In Memoriam; Appointment Hands - First Contingent; Bahai Scriptures (book); Read-aloud Plays; Play
    1960 26 Jul The Hands of the Cause of God declare Charles Mason Remey a Covenant-breaker. [BBRSM221; MC224–5] Haifa Hands of the Cause; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
    1960 18 – 27 Oct The fourth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. [MC229] ‘Akká Bahji; Hand of the Cause; Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God
    1961 Jan - Feb Hand of the Cause of God Dr Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir travels to India and demonstrates the principle of mass teaching. [DM172–84; SBBH2:165–7]
    • Mass teaching begins in the rural area of Madhya Pradesh among the Hindu population. In 1961 there are 850 Bahá’ís; in 1963 87,000; by 1973 nearly 400,000; and by 1987 about two million. In 1983 45 per cent of all local spiritual assemblies are in India. [BBRSM195; BW13:299]
    Madhya Pradesh; India Hands of the Cause; Rahmatullah Muhajir; Mass teaching; Teaching
    1963 19 May The Hands of the Cause cable the annual conventions with the names of the five Hands chosen to reside in the Holy Land: Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Leroy Ioas, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Paul Haney and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí. [MC427] Haifa Hands of the Cause; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Leroy Ioas; Ali Akbar Furutan; Paul Haney; Abul-Qasim Faizi
    1966 12 Dec The Hand of the Cause John Robarts departed Africa from Cape Town after a stay of nearly 13 years. They were recalled from their pioneer post by the Universal House of Justice to help Canada win the goals of the Nine Year Plan. The objective was to raise 154 local assemblies by 1973 but the count had fallen from 68 to only 50, eighteen less than the number won during the Ten Year Plan and 104 short of the objective.LNW158 Cape Town; South Africa; Canada John Robarts; Hands of the Cause
    1968 21 Jun The Universal House of Justice establishes the Continental Boards of Counsellors to continue into the future the functions of the Hands of the Cause in the protection and propagation of the Faith. [BBD58–9, 97; BW15:611–13; BW17:319; MUHJ4–5; WG141]
    • For details of the eleven Boards and their membership see BW15:612 and WG140–4.
    • For pictures of the Counsellors see BW15:614, 615, 618, 619, 622, 623, 625, 627.
    UHJ; CBC; Hands of the Cause
    1971 The ‘Lake Victoria Plan’, a joint venture among the National Spiritual Assemblies of Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Burundi designed to carry the Faith to all the peoples and tribes living within Africa’s largest lake basin, is inaugurated at the suggestion of Hand of the Cause Dr Muhájir. [DM96–8] Lake Victoria; Africa Rahmatullah Muhajir; Hands of the Cause
    1973 5 Jun The International Teaching Centre is established at the Bahá’í World Centre for the purpose of continuing the work of the Hands of the Cause of God into the future. [BBD118–19; BBRSM132–3; BW16:134, 411–14; BW17:322–5; VV16]
    • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW16:413.
    • Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Paul Haney and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí and Counsellor members Hooper Dunbar, Florence Mayberry and Aziz Yazdí are appointed. [BW16:413]
    • For pictures see BW16:412 and VV16.
    • The duties and the organization of the International Teaching Centre were deliniated in the Message from the Universal House of Justice of June 8th, 1973.
    Haifa; BWC International Teaching Centre; Hands of the Cause; Counsellors; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ali Akbar Furutan; Paul Haney; Abul-Qasim Faizi; Hooper Dunbar; Florence Mayberry; Aziz Yazdi
    1979 29 Dec Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir, Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Quito, Ecuador. (b. 1923) [BW18:486, 651]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW18:651–9.
    • See also Muhájir, Dr Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh.
    Quito; Ecuador Rahmatullah Muhajir; Hands of the Cause; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
    1980 29 Jul Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away at his pioneer post in Athens, Greece. (b.16 June 1897) [BW18:613; VV52]
    • For his obituary see BW18:611–13.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    Athens; Greece Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Hands of the Cause; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1980 20 Nov Abu’l-Qásim Faizí, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b.1906) [BW18:659; VV52] Haifa Abul-Qasim Faizi; Hands of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hands - Third Contingent
    1991 18 Jun The passing of Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, John Aldham Robarts at Rawdon, Quebec. He was born in Waterloo, Ontario 2nd of November, 1901. [VV124]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • Bahá’í World, Vol. 20, 1986-1992, “In Memoriam,” pp. 801-9.
    • For his obituary see BINS250:10.
    • For picture see VV124.
    • For the story of how he came to learn of the Faith see SBR137.
    Rawdon; Quebec Hands of the Cause; Knights of Bahaullah; John Robarts; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    2007 22 Sep The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Dr. Ali-Muhammad Varqa at his home in Haifa. (b.1911) He was the last survivor of the 27 Hands of the Cause who were alive when Shoghi Effendi passed away in 1957. [BWNS579]
    • He had been appointed Hand of the Cause on the 15th of March, 1955 after the passing of his father Hand of the Cause of God Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, [MoVxxiv]
    Haifa; Israel Hands of the Cause; Ali-Muhammad Varqa; In Memoriam

    from the main catalogue

    1. Adíb Tálaqání (Hand of the Cause), by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 1 (1985). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    2. Akhund, Haji (Haji Mulla `Ali-Akbar Shahmirzadi), by Moojan Momen (1995). Short biography of an Iranian Hand of the Cause of God. [about]
    3. Alexander, Agnes: 70 years of service, by Duane Troxel, in Bahá'í News (1983). Biography of a prominent American Baha'i and Hand of the Cause of God. [about]
    4. Alí Akbar Shahmírzádí (Hájjí Akhund), by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 1 (1985). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
    5. Authority of the Hands of the Cause to direct the Faith and expel Covenant-breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Authority of the Hands of the Cause assume control of the Faith and eject Covenant-breakers following Shoghi Effendi's passing. [about]
    6. Bahá'í Teachings, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Authenticity of Statements; Mathnavi; Quranic quotations; Marriage Prayer; 'Sun' and 'Moon'; Hands of the Cause; Night of Power; Khatt-i-Badi; Sarcophagus for Baha'u'llah; International Baha'i Library Building; Lunar Calendar and Holy Days; Leiden, Kings. [about]
    7. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
    8. Continental Boards of Counselors, Elucidation of the Nature of, by Universal House of Justice (1972). The nature of the Institution of the Continental Boards of Counselors and its relationship to the Institution of the Hands of the Cause. [about]
    9. Evening with Hands of the Cause, by Varqa Roberts Furutan. [about]
    10. Fadil-i-Mazandarani, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Was Fadil-i-Mazandarani declared a Hand of the Cause of God, and on determining if there were other Hands. [about]
    11. Hands of the Cause of God, by Universal House of Justice and Lilian Ala'i, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Six documents from Baha'i World 18 part four section 2: The Hands of the Cause of God and their functions, their work and travels 1979-1983, Boards of Counsellors and the International Teaching Centre, and tributes by Lilian Ala'i and Ray Hudson. [about]
    12. Hands of the Cause of God: List of 43 brief bios, with photos (2013). Table of mini bios and thumbnail photos for 43 Hands of the Cause. [about]
    13. Hands of the Cause of God: Personal Recollections, by Bill Washington (2014). Recollections of A.Q. Faizi, A.A. Furútan, Clara Dunn, Rúhíyyih Khánum, Ugo Giachery, Leroy Ioas, Enoch Olinga, Rahmátu’lláh Muhajir, Bill Sears, Agnes Alexander, John Robarts, Collis Featherstone, and Jalal Khazeh. [about]
    14. Indexes to Bahá'í World volumes: Obituaries, chronologies, contents, illustrations, in Bahá'í World (2013). Seven separate indexes for Bahá'í World, in PDF, Word, and Excel versions. [about]
    15. Letters to Bahá'í princesses: Tablets revealed in honour of the women of Ibn-i Asdaq's household, by Dominic Parvis Brookshaw, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
    16. Members of the Universal House of Justice 1963-2014 and Hands of the Cause: Timeline (2003). List of names and dates of all who served on the House of Justice or as Hands. [about]
    17. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-86, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    18. Ministry of the Custodians: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause 1957-1963, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Account of the stewardship of the Hands of the Cause of God from 1957-63, from the passing of Shoghi Effendi to the election of the House, riding the waves of crisis to the moment of victory — the fulfillment of prophecy. [about]
    19. Rahmatu'llah Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God the Treasure of All Humanity, by Richard Francis (1998). Short biography of a Hand of the Cause of God. [about]
    20. Visits of the Hands of the Cause of God to Ireland, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 3 (2003). An overview of all known visits by the Hands, the highest-ranking officers of the Bahá’í Faith, to Ireland. Review of the many historical sources about this largely-uninvestigated topic. Includes timeline of the visits between 1952 and 1986. [about]
     
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