Search for tag "History"
|1798 c. Mar
||Áqá Muhammad Khán, leader of the Qájárs, proclaimed himself Sháh of Persia; beginning of Qájár dynasty. [AY213]
||Aqa Muhammad Khan; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
|1797 c. Aug
||Crown Prince Fath-`Alí Mírzá assumed leadership of Persia. (1797 (or 1798) to 1834)
||Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history
|1798. 21 Mar
||Fath-`Alí Khán was crowned second Qájár Sháh during Naw-Rúz festival.
||Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history
|1799 in the year
||Napoleon, returning from Egypt, captured Jaffa and laid siege to Akka.
The French in Egypt were being threatened by the British Fleet. Napoleon's objective was to compare the Ottoman government to come to terms with the French. He defeated the Turks on the Plain of Jereel and advanced as far as Nazareth and Safed but failed to capture Akka. He withdrew his forces in June of 1799. [Handbook of Palestine edited by H C Luke and E Keith Roach, McMillan, London, 1922 pp22-23, Handbook of Palestine]
||Napoleon; History (general); War (general)
|1799. 21 Mar
||Fath-`Alí Sháh's son, `Abbás Mírzá (aged 9), was designated Crown Prince of Persia.
||Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Abbas Mirza; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history
|1804 - 1813
||Russo-Persian War resulted in a Russian victory. The Battle of Aslan Duz on 31 October 1812 was the turning point in the war, which led to the complete destruction of the Persian army, thus leaving Fath Ali Shah with no other option but to sign the Treaty of Gulistan on 24 October 1813. Numerically, Persian forces had a considerable advantage during the war, a ratio of 5 to 1 over their Russian adversaries, however, the Persian forces were technologically backwards and poorly trained - a problem that the Persian government failed to recognize.
With the Treaty of Gulistan Persia ceded what is now Georgia, Dagestan, parts of northern Armenia, and most of what now comprises modern Azerbaijan to Russia.
||Gulistan; Aslan Duz; Iran; Russia
||Russo-Persian War; Treaty of Gulistan; War (general); History (general); Iran, General history
||`Abdu'lláh Páshá became the governor of `Akká in 1819. In 1832 when the Egyptians took `Akká he surrendered and was taken to Egypt. He was freed in 1840 when the area reverted to Turkish rule. [BBD5]
||Akka; Israel; Egypt
||Abdullah Pasha; Governors; History (general)
|1828 10 Feb
||Defeat of the Persians at the hands of the Russians.
The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran.
The war ended following the occupation of Tabriz and had even more disastrous results for Persia than the 1804-1813 war. The ensuing Treaty of Turkmenchay, signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran, stripped Persia of its last remaining territories in the Caucasus, which comprised all of modern Armenia, the southern remainder of modern Azerbaijan, and modern Igdir in Turkey. Through the Gulistan and Turkmenchay treaties Persia had lost all of its territories in the Caucasus to Russia making them the unquestioned dominant power in the region. [BBRSM55]
||Tabriz; Turkmenchay; Iran
||Russo-Persian War; Wars; History (general); Iran, General history
|1831 – 40
||Egyptian occupation of `Akká. [BBR202; DH128]
- 'Abdu'lláh Páshá is the governor of 'Akká from 1919 to 1831. In 1832 when the Egyptians took the city he surrenders and is taken to Egypt. He is freed in 1840 when the area reverted to Turkish rule. [BBD5]
|Akka; Israel; Egypt; Turkey
||History (general); Abdullah Pasha
|1834 9 Sep
||The end of the reign of Fath-`Alí Sháh and the accession of his grandson, Muhammad Sháh. [B7; BBD83, 164; BBR153, 482]
- Fifty–three sons and 46 daughters survive Fath-`Alí Sháh. [B7]
- After his accession Muhammad Sháh executes the Grand Vizier, the Qá'im Máqám, the man who has raised him to the throne. He then installs his tutor, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, to the office (1835). [B10–11]
- See BBD164 for picture.
- See B11–122 for the relationship between the Sháh and his new Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí.
- For details on the life of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí see BBD19.
||Fath-Ali Shah; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Grand Viziers; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Iran, General history
||Defeat of Persia at the hands of the British. [BBRSM55]
||War (general); Britain; History (general); Iran, General history
||The British fleet take `Akká from the Egyptians. [BBR202]
||Akka; Israel; Egypt; United Kingdom
||The sacking of the holy city of Karbalá at the hands of the Turks. Thousands of its citizens were killed even those taking refuge in the Shrines of Imám Husayn or 'Abbás. [BBRSM55, HotD10, DB36]
||Ottoman Empire; War (general); History (general)
||Edict of Toleration The relaxation of the order for the exclusion of the Jews from the Holy Land. GPB iv Luke 21:24
||Edict of Toleration; Jews; Judaism; Bible; History (general)
|1845. 28 Jun
||Prince Dolgorukov is appointed Russian ambassador to Tihrán. He was previously first secretary of the Russian legation at Istanbul. He arrives in Tihrán in January 1846.
||Istanbul; Turkey; Tihran; Iran; Russia
||Prince Dolgorukov; Ambassadors; History (general); Iran, General history
||Prince Dolgorukov arrives in Tihrán as the Russian ambassador.
||Prince Dolgorukov; Russia; Ambassadors; History (general); Iran, General history
|1848. 4 Sep
||The death of Muhammad Sháh. [BBR153–4]
- This precipitates the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. [B147; BBD19; BBR156]
- For details of his life, fall and death, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
- The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest is rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
||Muhammad Shah; Grand Viziers; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Antichrist; Bahaullah, Life of; Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1848. 12 Sep
||The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
- He is 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
- He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
- The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
- For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
- See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
- See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
- See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
- He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
- It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
- His reform antagonized many and a coalition was formed against him. One of the most active proponents was the queen mother. She convinced the Shah that he wanted his throne. In October of 1851 the shah dismissed him and exiled him to Kashan where he was murdured on the shah's orders.
|Tabriz; Iran; Iraq
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Firsts, Other
|1848. 19 Oct
||Entry of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh into Tihrán. [BBR482]
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Prime ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers
||The Faith of the Báb has spread to two countries at this point, Iran and Iraq. [MBW147]
- B148–60, 202–3; BBD147; BBR77–82; DB510–17; GPB49–55; TN26–7.
|Iran; Iraq; Middle East
||Statistics; Babi history
||Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers summer 1850
|1852. 15 Aug
||Attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]
- See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
- See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
- See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
- Ja‘far-Qulí Khán writes immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh is denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the ‘would-be murderer'. Ja‘far-Qulí Khán offers to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
||Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; Shahs; History (general); Iran, General history; Jafar-Quli Khan; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||"In the hecatomb of 1852-1853 the ranks of the Bábís were drastically thinned.
Most of the leading disciples were killed, only a few surviving in distant exile.
The next ten years were hopelessly dark. Within the Bábí community there was
much confusion and fear. It seemed at times that all the heroism, all the sacrifices,
had been in vain. Enemies gloated over the virtual extermination of what they
saw as a pernicious heretical sect. Sympathetic outsiders concluded that the movement
that had shown so much promise cracked under persecution and collapsed,
leaving behind only a glorious memory." [Varqá and Rúhu'lláh: Deathless in Martyrdom by Kazem Kazemzadeh, World Order, Winter 1974-75 p.29]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Babi history
|1856 to Mar 1857
||The Anglo-Persian War. [BBR165, 263]
||History (General); Iran, General history
|1863 probably near end
||Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-Mulúk (Súrih of Kings). [BKG245; GPB171–2; RB2:301-336]
- This is described by Shoghi Effendi as ‘the most momentous Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh', in which He, ‘for the first time, directs His words collectively to the entire company of the monarchs of East and West'. [GPB171]
- See GPB172–5 and RB2:301–25 for a description of the content of the Tablet.
- In The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p41 Shoghi Effendi dates this tablet as "1863". Given the intense activity of that year an assumption was made that it was revealed near the end of the year in either Constantinople or Adrianople.
Chronological list of significant events related to Bahá'u'lláh's historic pronouncement in the Súriy-i-Múlúk
[The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p41-42]
- Fall of the French Monarchy (1870)
- Virtual extinction of the Pope's Temporal Sovereignty (1870)
- Assassination of Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz (1876)
- Assassination of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh (1896)
- Overthrow of Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd II (1909)
- Fall of the Portuguese Monarchy (1910)
- Fall of the Chinese Monarchy (1916)
- Fall of the Russian Monarchy (1917)
- Fall of the German Monarchy (1918)
- Fall of the Austrian Monarchy (1918)
- Fall of the Hungarian Monarchy (1918)
- Fall of the Turkish Monarchy (1922)
- Collapse of the Caliphate (1924)
- Fall of the Qájár Dynasty (1925)
- Fall of the Spanish Monarchy (1931)
- Fall of the Albanian Monarchy (1938)
- Fall of the Serbian Monarchy (1941)
- Fall of the Italian Monarchy (1946)
- Fall of the Bulgarian Monarchy (1946)
- Fall of the Rumanian Monarchy (1947)
|Edirne; Istanbul; Turkey
||Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Tablets to kings and rulers; Timelines; History (general); Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
|1869 – 1872
||A great famine occurs in Iran in which about 10 per cent of the population dies and a further 10 per cent emigrates. [BBRSM86; GPB233]
||Iran, General history; Famine
||The Roman Catholic Vatican Council under Pope Pius IX formulates the doctrine of papal infallibility. Shortly afterwards Italian forces under Victor Emmanuel II attack the Papal States and seize and occupy Rome, virtually extinguishing the temporal sovereignty of the pope. [GPB227; PDC54]
||Pope Pius IX; Popes; Christianity; History (general)
|1870 19 Jul – 1871 10 May
||Franco-Prussian War was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded.
- See KA90 for Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this and KAN121 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation.
||Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III
|1870 1 - 2 Sep
||Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffers defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. Napoleon goes into exile in England, where he dies in 1873.
- Bahá'u'lláh refers to this in KA86.
|Sedan; France; Germany
||Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III; Kaiser Wilhelm I; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book)
|1876. 30 May
||Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz is deposed. He had ruled from 1861. [BBR485]
||Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Sultans; History (General); Ottoman Empire
|1876. 4 Jun
||`Abdu'l-`Azíz either commits suicide or is assassinated. [BBD2; BBR485; GPB225]
Accession of Murád V to the throne. [BBR485]
- Bahá'u'lláh predicted his downfall in the Lawh-i-Fu'ád. RB3:87]
- Bahá'u'lláh stated that the tyranny of Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz exceeded that of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh because the Sultán exiled Bahá'u'lláh to the Most Great Prison without any reason whereas the Sháh had reason to be fearful of the Bahá'ís because of the attempt on his life. [BKG412]
- Bahá'u'lláh addressed two Tablets to the Sultán including the Súriy-i-Mulúk (Tablet to the Kings) but he did not respond. [BBD2]
- See The Summons of the Lord of Hosts p177-181 for the Lawh-i-Fu'ád and p185-235 for the Súriy-i-Mulúk.
||Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Births and deaths; Nasirid-Din Shah; Murad V; Lawh-i-Fuad (Tablet to Fuad Pasha); Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); History (general); Prophecies
|1877 – 1878
||War between Russia and Turkey, freeing some 11 million people from the Turkish yoke. Adrianople is occupied. [BKG262; GPB225]
- See BKG460 for the Siege of Plevna.
|Edirne (Adrianople); Plevna; Turkey; Russia
||Wars; History (general)
|1878. 12 Jul
||The British government takes over the administration of Cyprus. BBR306]
||History (general); British
|1882 11 Jul
||The British navy bombarded Alexandria, beginning or provoking fires that destroyed the city and forced a mass exodus of its population to the interior. In August-September the British invaded the country, restored Khedive Tawfiq to his throne, arrested 'Urabi, the Muslim modernist Muhammad 'Abduh, and other constitutionalists, and imposed a "veiled protectorate" on the country that differed only in name from direct colonial rule. The official British sources attempted to suggest that they had saved Egypt from a military junta allied to Islamic fanaticism, but more impartial observers have characterized the British invasion as the quashing of a grassroots democratic movement by an imperial power in the service of the European bond market. [BFA15, Wilmette Institute faculty notes]
||Britain; History (general); Muhammad Abduh
|1896. 19 Apr
||Násiri'd-Dín Sháh was assassinated on the eve of the celebration of his jubilee. He had ascended to the throne in 1848 and by the Islamic lunar calendar it marked the 50th year of his reign. [BKG455]
BBRXXIX and BBRSM219 say it was 1 May.
- His assassin, Mírzá Ridá-yi-Kirmáni, a Pan-Islamic terrorist, was a follower of Jamálu'd-Dín-i-Afghání, one of the originators of the Constitutional movement in Iran and an enemy of the Faith. [BBRSM87; GBP296; MCS540]
- For an account of his assassination see PDC67–8.
- See BKG430–55 for a history of his reign.
- He is succeeded by his son Muzaffari'd-Dín. [GPB296]
- See also CBM54-56.
- See AY214-216.
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Shahs; Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history; Births and deaths; Jamalud-Din-i-Afghani; Assassinations
|1896 1 May
||Muzaffari'd-Dín became the shah of Persia. He was the son of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. He had been sent as governor to the province of Azerbaijan in 1861 and, as the crown prince, had spent 35 years in the pursuit of pleasure. When he ascended to the throne he was unprepared for the office. In addition, the country had huge debts to both Britain and Russia.
||Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
|1906 5 Aug
||After an almost bloodless revolution Muzaffari'd-Din Sháh was forced to sign a document calling for a National Assembly to be elected from amount the working guilds, landowners merchants and the nobles. The parliament was opened on the 7th of October. [AY24]
||Iran, General history; History (general); Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs
|1907 8 Jan
||The death of Muzaffari'd-Dín Sháh just a few days after he had signed the constitution. [BBR354, 482]
||Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths; Iran, General history; History (general); Constitutions
|1907 19 Jan
||The accession of Muhammad-`Alí Sháh to the throne of Iran. He reigned until 1909. He attempted to rescind the constitution and abolish parliamentary government. After several disputes with the members of the Majlis in June, 1908 he bombed the Majlis building, arrested many of the deputies and closed down the assembly. In July 1909 constitutional forces deposed him and he went into exile in Russia from where he attempted to regain his throne. [BBR354, 482, AY218]
- The Bahá'í community received some measure of protection under this regime. [BBRSM:97–8]
||Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history; Persecution
|1907 31 Aug
||Anglo-Russian Convention relating to Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet, was signed in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The convention brought shaky British–Russian relations to the forefront by solidifying boundaries that identified respective control in the three countries. It delineated spheres of influence in Persia, stipulated that neither country would interfere in Tibet’s internal affairs, and recognized Britain’s influence over Afghanistan. [AY47-48]
||St Petersburg; Russia; Iran; Afghanistan; Tibet
||Iran, General history; History (general)
||Muhammad-`Alí Sháh undertakes a successful coup d'état in Iran and abolishes the Constitution. [BBR369]
||Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution; Constitutions; History (general); Iran, General history
|1908 24 Jul
||In Constantinople, a bomb intended for Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd as he returned from the mosque on Friday, killed and injured a number of people. This event prompted the authorities to recall all the members of the Commission who were gathering evidence against 'Abd'l-Bahá at the time. Some months later the "Young Turk" revolutionaries demanded the release of all political and religious prisoners. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was free by in September. [AB123; BBD4; BBRXXX; CB237; DH71; GPB272]
- A cable is sent to Constantinople to enquire whether `Abdu'l-Bahá is included in the amnesty. `Abdu'l-Bahá is set free. [AB123; GPB272]
||Commission of Inquiry; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Young Turks; History (general); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1909 27 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Hamid II is deposed. [BBR486]
Sultan 'Abdu'l-Hamid II lived from 1842 to 1918) and reigned from 1876 to 1909. During his reign large portions of the Ottoman Empire were lost. Following his defeat in the war with Russia in 1878, Tunisia was occupied by France (1881), and Egypt was controlled by Britain (1882). In 1897, the Empire was forced by the Europeans to recognize the autonomy of Crete. The Sultán ruled as a despot, and brutally repressed the Armenians between 1894-6. In 1908, due to the lack of support among the army and the rise of the Young Turks, 'Abdu'l-Hamid was forced re-enact the Constitution of 1876 which he had earlier suspended, and which, for the first time in an Islámic state, defined the rights of both the ruler and his subjects. He was ultimately deposed when he attempted to plot a counterrevolution against the Young Turks and was exiled to Salonika, where he died in disgrace.
See AY189-191 for a description of his riches and his last years. He died in January of 1918.
Accession of Muhammad (-Rishád) V [BBR486]
The last Ottoman Sultán, Muhammad VI, was deposed and was succeeded briefly by a cousin, but in 1924, the caliphate was abolished by Ataturk.
||Abdul-Hamid II; Sultans; Muhammad-Rishad VI; Armenian genocide; Caliphate; Ottoman Empire; History (general)
|1909 18 Jul
||The accession of Ahmad Sháh, the boy-king, to the throne of Iran. He was twelve years old and because of his youth a regency was established under Azudu'l-Mulk, the head of the Qájár family. Ahmad's official coronation took place on the 21st of July, 1914. His reign formerly lasted until October 1925 when he was deposed by the Majles while he was absent in Europe. He was the last of the Qajar dynasty. [BBR482; CBM57]
||Ahmad Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
|1910 sometime in the year
||The Ottoman officials, architects and masons came from Constantinople for the express purpose of planning a city outside of the old prison walls. They opened two large gateways through the thick, solid and ancient walls of the old fort of Acca. Both open out on the green plain in front of Bahji. -Ameen U. Fareed (Star of the West, vol. 1, no. 9, August 20, 1910)
|1911 8 Apr
||W. Morgan Shuster was an American chosen by the Persian Chargé d’Affaires at Washington, Mirza Ali Kuli Khan, to serve as Treasurer-general of Persian for a period of three years. His mandate was to organize and conduct the collection and disbursements of the revenues. Four American assistants were likewise engaged to serve under the Treasurer-general. Since the Anglo-Russian agreement of 1907 the country was under the influence of the Russians in the north and the British in the south. The purpose in engaging Shuster was to put the country's financial affairs in order so that they might attract investment from other nations.
- After an encounter with the Russian Consul-General he was forced to leave on the 14th of January, 1912. [AY79-82]
|Iran; Washington DC; United States
||Ali-Kuli Khan; Iran, General history; History (general)
|1911 21 Oct
||News of the Battle of Benghazi (17 October) was headline news. It was one of the opening salvos of the Turko-Italian War and began on the 17th of October when Italian invasion forces began their bombardment of the Turkish garrison. The Turks were forced to abandon the city and there were many lives lost, Italians, Turks and civilians.
His talk, "The Pitiful Causes of War, and the Duty of Everyone to Strive for Peace". [ABF96-100 PT28-30]
|Paris; France; Benghazi; Lybia; Turkey; Italy
||Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; War (general); History (general); Peace
|1914 28 Jun
||The heir to the Austrian throne is assassinated in Sarajevo.
||Sarajevo; Serbia; Austria
||World War I; War (general); History (General)
|1914 28 Jul
||The Great War (1914–18) breaks out in Europe. (28 July, 1914 to 11 November, 1918)
Austria declares war on Serbia.
|Europe; Austria; Serbia
||World War I; War (general); History (general)
|1914 4 Aug
||England declares war on Germany.
||United Kingdom; Germany; Europe
||World War I; War (general); History (general)
|1914 1 Nov
||Turkey enters the war on the side of the Central Powers.
- Palestine is blockaded and Haifa is bombarded. [GPB304]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá sends the Bahá'ís to the Druze village of Abú-Sinán for asylum. [AB411; DH124; GPB304]
- For `Abdu'l-Bahá in war time see CH188–228.
- `Abdu'l-Bahá had grown and stored corn in the years leading up to the war and was now able to feed not only local people but the British army. [AB415, 418; CH210; GPB304, 306]
- See CH209–10 for other villages inhabited by Bahá'ís.
|Palestine; Israel; Abu-Sinan; Haifa
||World War I; War (general); Druze; Abdul-Baha, Life of; British; Charity and relief work; History (General); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
|1916 16 May
||The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented. The agreement allocated to Britain control of areas roughly comprising the coastal strip between the Mediterranean Sea and the River Jordan, Jordan, southern Iraq, and an additional small area that included the ports of Haifa and Acre, to allow access to the Mediterranean. France got control of southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. Russia was to get Istanbul, the Turkish Straits and Armenia. The controlling powers were left free to determine state boundaries within their areas. Further negotiation was expected to determine international administration in the "brown area" (an area including Jerusalem, similar to and smaller than Mandate Palestine), the form of which was to be decided upon after consultation with Russia, and subsequently in consultation with the other Allies, and the representatives of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca. [Wikipedia]
||Haifa; Akka; Israel; Palestine
||Sykes–Picot Agreement (Asia Minor Agreement); History (general); Middle East
||Foreign troops occupy nearly all of neutral Iran. [AB416; BBRSM:87]
||War (general); History (General); Iran, General history
|1917 6 Apr
||The United States enters World War I.
- See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi's opinion of its participation in the war.
|Europe; United States
||World War I; War (general); History (general); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1917. 2 Nov
||The Balfour Declaration was a letter sent to Lord Walter Rothschild by British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour declaring support for the establishment of a ‘national home for the Jewish people’ in what was to become the British Mandate of Palestine. It was the first official declaration of political support for Jewish independence and is viewed by some as paving the way for the legal foundations of the modern State of Israel as evidenced by the level of international diplomacy that went into securing the letter. In the context of WWI which was still raging at the time, it offered Britain the opportunity for a stake in the Middle East in the expected wake of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. It also marked one of the first major successes of the political Zionist movement which had officially been established with the First Zionist Congress in 1897.
Given that the Balfour Declaration was not a unilateral document on behalf of the British but rather something which had been agreed upon privately by allied diplomats before it was issued, it is viewed as the beginning of a legal process, which involved the San Remo conference of 1920 where the Declaration was officially adopted by the allied powers and latter, the creation of the British Mandate for Palestine in 1922.
The implementation of the Declaration was not without its failings. It provided for the safeguarding of the rights of the residents of Palestine saying ‘nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine’.
In the run up to WWII that the British wanted to placate the Arab leadership in the Mandate. They issued a White Paper limiting Jewish immigration to the Mandate to fifteen thousand every year for five years, ultimately refusing entry to thousands of Jewish refugees from Europe, many of whom would tragically die in the Holocaust. [Wikipedia]
||Balfour Declaration; Jews; Judaism; History (general); United Kingdom
|1918 8 Jan
||President Woodrow Wilson in a speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress outlined his Fourteen Points. It was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I.
President Wilson was influenced by the Bahá’í Teachings in formulating his Fourteen Points, at least three Bahá’í volumes were known to be in the White House. The Hidden Words appears on a 1921 listing of Wilson’s private library. Also, a compilation on peace given the President by a delegation of Washington Bahá’ís ‘turned up in general reference at the Library of Congress marked “transfer from the White House”‘. And Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy (Boston, 1918) is said to have much influenced his thinking. [AY155]
Commenting on the Fourteen Points laid down by the President for the world community, the
Master says that twelve of them derive from principles advocated by Bahá’u’lláh fifty years before, and that these Teachings had been
spread worldwide through various publications, thus becoming known to leaders in Europe and America (Persian Tablets, vol. III, p. 312). [AY156-157]
|United States; Washinton DC
||Woodrow Wilson; Fourteen Points; History (general); Principles; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy; Peace; World War I; War (general); United States, Presidents
|1918 23 Sep
||"During the early years of World War I, though no longer imprisoned, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá faced repeated threats against His life by authorities who were antagonistic towards Him and the Baha’is. The Commander of the Ottoman fourth army corps had even threatened to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Bahá if the Turkish army were ever to be displaced out of Haifa." Lady Blomfield in London had learned of these threats and through her contacts in Cabinet, the British Army was instructed to protect Him and His family. [BWNS69, BWNS1202]
The British army took the city in the 1st Battle of Haifa: The battle was won due to a courageous uphill assault by the Jodhpur Lancers of the Indian Army who took the German and Turkish artillery and machine gun emplacements on top of Mount Carmel by surprise. This attack is believed to have been one of the last cavalry charge in modern military history. Each year, on this date, the Indian Army commemorates this victory as Haifa Day. [AY104; BBR335; DH148, Scroll In 68095]
|Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel
||World War I; War (general); History (general); Jodhpur Lancers; Indian Army; Germany; Turkey; Haifa Day; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; BWNS; Lady Blomfield
|1919 28 Jun
||The Treaty of Versailles was concluded. The United States never signed the Treaty of Versailles, never joined the League of Nations which President Wilson's foes derisively referred to as ‘Wilson’s League’. The USA made separate treaties with Germany and the other Central Powers. Wilson died on the 3rd of February, 1924. [AY160-169] Shoghi Effendi's tribute is as follows:
"To ....President...Woodrow Wilson, must be ascribed the unique honour, among the statesmen of any nation, whether of the East or of the West, of having voiced sentiments so akin to the principles animating the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, and of having more than any other world leader, contributed to the creation of the League of Nations—achievements which the pen of the Centre of God’s Covenant acclaimed as signalizing the dawn of the Most Great Peace, whose sun, according to that same pen, must needs arise as the direct consequence of the enforcement of the laws of the Dispensation of Bahá’u’lláh." [CoF36]
||Treaty of Versailles; Woodrow Wilson; League of Nations; History (general); World War I; War (general)
|1919 19 Aug
||The Anglo-Persian agreement was signed whereby Persia would get advisors for every department and give every concession to England. It effectively made Persia a British protectorate and eliminated the Russian influence that had been established by the earlier Anglo-Russian pact. The United States Government was much displeased, for this represented a breach of ‘open covenants openly arrived at’, one of Wilson’s Fourteen Points, and represented a continuation of the secret diplomacy of former times. The price of this agreement, according to one official, was £500,000 paid out to one prominent official, and £300,000 to another.
When the Persians discovered by what dubious means this Agreement was contrived, they arose in fury, there was a coup d’état with the backing of the Cossack Brigade, Siyyid Zia-ed-Din came to power (1921) and abrogated the Agreement. Then he himself would be overthrown, and replaced by Reza Khan of the Cossack Brigade as Minister of War and Commander in Chief. Thus an illiterate one-time army private, once a sentry at a hospital gate, would eventually (1925) become a powerful Shah.
|Iran; United Kingdom
||Anglo-Persian agreement; British history; History (general); Iran, General history
|1920 (in the year)
||The British Mandate for Palestine begins. [BBR488]
- For `Abdu'l-Bahá's attitude to the administration see BBR339.
- For British accounts of `Abdu'l-Bahá and the Bahá'ís in this period see BBR339-43 and CH225-8.
- For details see SA140-3.
||Britain; History (general); Abdul-Baha, Life of
||Ahmad Sháh (reigned 1909–25), who succeeded to the throne at age 11, was deposed in a coup d'état led by Reza Khán who appointed himself prime minister. He ruled as Reza Sháh Pahlaví between 1925–41.
||Ahmad Shah; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
|1925 31 Oct
||Ahmad Sháh was deposed and the Qájár dynasty (1785-1925) was formerly terminated by declaration of the National Consultative Assembly. He was replaced by Reza Shah Pahlavi. [BBD190; BBR482; BBRSM87, PDC66-69, AY46-47]
||Ahmad Shah; Qajar dynasty; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Iran, general history
|1925 13 Dec
||Ridá (or Reza) Sháh accedes to the throne of Iran. The Pahlaví dynasty commences. [BBR482]
||Reza Shah Pahlavi; Pahlavi dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
||The New History Society is founded in New York by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s former secretary and interpreter Ahmad Sohrab. [BRRSM124, LDG2p134]
- It comes into conflict with the local Bahá’í Assembly, which sees the organization as a threat to the unity of the Bahá’í Faith. [BBRSM124]
|New York; United States
||New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
|1930 39 May
||With respect to the New History Society and Ahmad Sohrab, Shoghi Effendi writes to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada to make a definitive statement regarding that organization and the Cause.
- "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá’u’lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety. To take exception to one basic principle is to deny the authority and sovereignty of Bahá’u’lláh, and therefore is to deny the Cause. The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed, it is to disobey His law."
- The message goes on to say that "unfailing kindness and goodwill" should be paid to the individuals and that the doors to Bahá'í fellowship should always remain open. [Bahá'í News p333]
|BWC; United States
||New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breaker
||The National Spiritual Assembly published a statement in the Bahá'í News entitled The Case of Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society. Summarized, the article stated that the “New History Society was begun in New York early in 1929 by Sohrab and "one of its avowed purposes being to spread the Bahá'í teachings. Neither the local nor the National Assembly was consulted in the matter, and the meetings and activities of the New History Society have been maintained apart from the principles of consultation which today, under the Will and Testament of 'Abdu’l-Bahá, form the basis of Bahá'í unity and the protection of the Cause."
"Both the local and National Assembly on several occasions attempted, through oral and written communications, to bring about full and frank consultation with the leaders of the New History Society, but without success.
"Under these conditions it becomes the obvious responsibility of the National Spiritual Assembly to inform the friends that activities conducted by Ahmad Sohrab through the New History Society are to be considered as entirely independent of the Cause, as outside the jurisdiction of the local and National Assembly, and hence in no wise entitled to the cooperation of Bahá'ís."
This statement also quoted from a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by his Secretary to the National Spiritual Assembly on May 30, 1930: "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá’u’lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety...." "The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed, it is to disobey His law." [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society]
|New York; United States
||Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
||The National Assembly published a detailed supplementary statement in the Bahá’í News, quoting passages from the Aqdas, from the Master's Will and Testament, and from the Guardian's letters published in Bahá’í Administration, followed by a reprint of the exchange of correspondence and cables with Mrs. Chanler, and with the Guardian, including the Guardian's cable to New York believers: "True unity can only be preserved by maintenance paramount position National Spiritual Assembly," and his cable approving the statement published in August, 1930, Bahá'í News. Further, in a letter from Haifa to the Yonkers Assembly, “The Guardian pointed out the difference between the freedom defined by Bahá'u'lláh ("To have liberty is to observe My commandments") and that advocated by Sohrab ("The other kind of freedom which is in defiance of law He (Bahá'u'lláh) considers to be animal, and far from being of any good to man"). [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society]
||New York; United States
||Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
|1932 3 Oct
||The term of The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or Mandatory Iraq comes to an end. It had been created in 1921 following the Iraqi Revolt in 1920 and enacted via the 1922 Anglo-Iraqi Treaty. The British chose Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashimi as king of of Iraq and Syria. He fostered unity between Sunni and Shiite Molsems and tried to promote pan-Arabism with the goal of creating an Arab state in Iraq, Syria and the rest of the Fertile Crescent. Faisal died in Switzerland at the age of 48, under what some consider to be suspicious circumstances, while there for a medical examination. [Wikipedia]
- Iraq is admitted to the League of Nations. [BW5p357]
||King Faisal; History (General)
||Shoghi Effendi remains in Europe for the year owing to terrorist activities in Palestine. [PP219]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; History (general)
|1939 3 Sep
||World War II begins with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invades Poland.
||Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland
||World War II; History (general); War (general)
|1941 16 Sep
||In Iran, Ridá Sháh abdicates and Muhammad-Ridá Sháh ascends to the throne. His rule was to last until 1979. [BBR482]
- Ridá Sháh is overthrown by the British and Russians. [BBRSM173]
- His reign can be described in three phases:
The first phase, from1941 through 1955, was a period characterized by physical danger, during which Baha’is were scapegoated in the interactions among the government, the clerics and the people, and experienced several bloody incidents, the culmination of which was the 1955 anti-Baha’i campaign and its aftermaths.
The second phase, from the late 1950s to around 1977, marked almost two decades of relative respite from physical attacks, during which Baha’is enjoyed more security than before, without ever being officially recognized as a religious community and while their existence as Baha’is was essentially ignored or denied.
The last two years of the reign of the Shah comprised the third phase, the revival of a bloody period. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by
||Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada distributed a mimeographed statement concerning the New History Society entitled The Basis of the Bahá’í Community, which explained the purpose and outcome of the lawsuit entered against the founders of the New History Society to prevent their misuse of the name "Bahá’í” on which the National Spiritual Assembly had obtained a trademark patent. The court took the position that it was not authorized to decide religious questions. [The Basis of the Bahá'í Community: A Statement Concerning the New History Society]
||Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
|1945 8 May
||The war in Europe ends.
- For Shoghi Effendi’s response see MA80–1, PP185 and UD175.
- For the war’s effect on the Bahá’í community worldwide see BW17:80.
- See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi’s opinion of the significance of the role of the United States in the war.
||World War II; War (general); History (general)
|1945 2 Sep
||The war in Japan ends.
||World War II; War (general); History (general)
|1945 24 Oct
||The United Nations is formally established.
- For the relationship of the Bahá’í Faith to the United Nations see BW16:327–52.
See SDC64-65 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's prophetic statement, written in 1875, "True civilization will unfurl its banner...".
|San Francisco; California; United States
||United Nations; Secret of Divine Civilization (book); Collective security; Prophecies; World War II; War (general); Peace; History (general)
||War breaks out in Palestine.
- See DH118 for the effect on the Bahá’ís.
||War (general); History (general)
|1948 21 - 22 Apr
||The 2nd Battle of Haifa: A Jewish offensive to gain control of the strategic port of Haifa. Prior to the 30-hour battle the Arab population of Haifa was estimated to be 65,000 compared to 70,000 Palestinian Jews. At the end of the operation the Arab population was reduced to about 4,000 people. [Battle of Haifa]
||War (general); History (general)
|1948 14 May
||The British Mandate in Palestine ends and the state of Israel is proclaimed.
||Palestine; Israel; Haifa
||Britain; History (general)
|1949. 9 Dec
||The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Resolution entitled Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
- It was largely through the one-man campaign of a Polish jurist, Raphael Lemkin, someone who had lost family members in the Nazi holocaust, and who had invented the term "genocide", that the Resolution was adopted. [In Search of a Better World by Payam Akhavan p91-92]
- The attitude at the time could be summed up in the words "Never again!" however the world would have to wait another 50 years before the International Criminal Court would be established to provide any real meaning to this Resolution.
||Genocide; United Nations; Justice; Law, International; World War II; War (general); History (general)
|1952 1 Jun
||In a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by the Assistant Secretary, the National Spiritual Assembly was informed that Ahmad Sohrab had cabled the Israeli Minister of Religion to influence the court case brought by the Covenant-breakers, against the Guardian, and which resulted in complete vindication of the Guardian's control of the Bahá'í Shrines and properties. Sohrab's cable identified the Caravan with the Covenant-breakers and stated that the organization was not under the authority of Shoghi Effendi. In a letter dated May 25, 1941, the Guardian wrote through his Secretary that Sohrab "is no doubt the most subtle, resourceful and indefatigable enemy the Faith has had in America."
||Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
|1957 26 Dec
||The passing of Mirzā Asad-Allāh, known as Fāżel Māzandarāni (b. Bábol, Persia 1881).
- He became a Bahá'í in Tehran in 1909. He travelled to Egypt in 1919-1911 where he met with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and was send to India and Burma to promote the Faith.
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent him to North America for the period 1920-1921. He arrived in North America with Manúchihr Khán in time to speak at the National Convention. His purpose was to assist and stimulate the Bahá'í communities. He departed for the Holy Land on the 9th of July, 1921. [AB443; SBR88]
- Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání visited North America again in 1923-1925 at the request of Shoghi Effendi. [Fádl Mázandarání, Mírzá Asadu'lláh by Moojan Momen]
- See Jináb-i-Fádil Mazandarání in the United States by Fadl Mazandarani (published as Jinab-i-Fadil Mazandarani) compiled by Omeed Rameshni for transcripts of his talks.
- In about 1924 Shoghi Effendi wrote to the Central Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Persia, asking them to gather materials towards the compilation of a general history of the Bahá'í faith. Initially this work was handed to a committee and Fāżel served as the liaison between this committee and the Assembly, of which he was himself a member at the time. However, after the committee failed to make significant progress, Fāżel took on the responsibility to compile this work himself. His work, Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq (variously also called Tāriḵ-e Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq and Ketāb-e Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq) is said to be the most comprehensive history of the first century of the Bahá'í faith yet written. It was compiled in nine volumes: volumes 1-3 completed in May of 1932, the fourth in February, 1936, and the final volume in 1943. For various reasons it has not been translated into English. [Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq]
||Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bahai studies; Bahai history; Zuhur al-Haqq (Zuhurul-Haqq); Translation
|1958 20 Apr
||Mírzá Ahmad (Esphahani) Sohrab, the Covenant-breaker who rebelled against Shoghi Effendi, dies. [MC90]
- For the story of his defection from the Faith see CB343–7.
- He is buried in the Saint Paul Episcopal Church Cemetery, Glen Cove, Nassau County, New York.
|Glen Cove; Nassau County; New York; United States
||Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breakers; New History Society
|1969 29 Oct
||A mechanism of world inter-communication will be devised, embracing the whole planet, freed from national hindrances and restrictions, and functioning with marvellous swiftness and perfect regularity. WOB203
1844 May 24 Samuel F.B. Morse sent the first telegraphic message over an experimental line from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore, the message said: "What hath God wrought?"
1894 May 10 Marconi sends a radio wave 3/4 mile, the first "wireless" transmission.
1897 Marconi Co sends the first ship-to-shore message 12 miles. 1899 Mar 3 the ship "East Goodwin" is save after sending the distress signal "HELP".
1858 Aug 16 the first transatlantic telegraph cable is an undersea cable running under the Atlantic Ocean used for telegraph communications was laid across the floor of the Atlantic from Telegraph Field, Foilhommerum Bay, Valentia Island in western Ireland to Heart's Content in eastern Newfoundland. The first communications occurred August 16, 1858, reducing the communication time between North America and Europe from ten days.
1969 October 29 The birth of the Internet. First message from computer to computer in different locations. UCLA student Charley Kline attempts to transmit the text “login” to a computer at the Stanford Research Institute over the first link on the ARPANET, which was the precursor to the modern Internet. After the letters “l” and “o” are sent the system crashed, making the first message ever sent on the Internet “lo” and the first crash of the system.
||Internet; Communication; Firsts, Other; History (general)
|1979 17 Jan
||Mohammad Rezā Pahlavi, known as Mohammad Reza Shah, entitled Shāhanshāh ("Emperor" or "King of Kings"), fled Iran. The dissolution of the monarchy was complete on the 11th of February.
||Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
|1979. 1 Feb
||Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran from exile in France.
||Ayatollah Khomeini; History (general); Iran, General history; Ayatollahs
|1983 5 – 7 Aug
||The first Los Angeles Bahá’í History Conference is held at the University of California at Los Angeles. [BW19:369–70]
||Los Angeles; United States
||Bahai history; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; Conferences; First conferences
|1990 22 May
||The nations of Northern Yemen and Marxist Southern Yemen unite to become the Republic of Yemen with Ali Abdullah Saleh, a former a conservative military leader, as President.
Saleh had served as President of North Yemen for 12 years until then.
Ali Salim al-Beidh, a Soviet-trained southern army commander, was chosen as Vice President. Mr. Bidh, had ruled Southern Yemen when it was a Marxist state. A unification of the two countries' political and economic systems was to take place over 30 months. In that time, a unified parliament was formed and a unity constitution was agreed upon. Tensions between North and South continued with sporadic fighting.
||Yemen, Recent history
||Vice President Ali Salim Al-Beidh quits Saleh’s government and returns to Aden in southern Yemen and said he would not return to the government until his grievances were addressed. These included northern violence against his Yemeni Socialist Party, as well as the economic marginalization of the south. Negotiations to end the political deadlock dragged on into 1994. The government of Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr Al-Attas, the former PDRY Prime Minister, became ineffective due to political infighting.
||Yemen, Recent history
||An accord between northern and southern leaders was signed in Amman but this could not stop the civil war. During these tensions, both the northern and southern armies–which had never integrated–gathered on their respective frontiers
||Yemen, Recent history
|1994 27 Apr
||Civil war (The War of Secession of 1994, May to early July) erupts in Yemen and ends in a victory for Saleh within three months.
A major tank battle erupted in Amran, near San'a. Both sides accused the other of starting it.
On 4 May, the southern air force bombed San'a and other areas in the north; the northern air force responded by bombing Aden.
President Saleh declared a 30-day state of emergency, and foreign nationals began evacuating the country.
Vice President al-Beidh was officially dismissed.
South Yemen fired Scud missiles into San'a, killing dozens of civilians.
Prime Minister Haidar Abu Bakr al-Attas was dismissed on May 10 after appealing for outside forces to help end the war.
Southern leaders seceded and declared the Democratic Republic of Yemen (DRY) on 21 May 1994. No international government recognized the DRY.
In mid-May, northern forces began a push toward Aden. The key city of Ataq, which allowed access to the country's oil fields, was seized on May 24.
The United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 924 calling for an end to the fighting and a cease-fire. A cease-fire was called on 6 June, but lasted only six hours; concurrent talks to end the fighting in Cairo collapsed as well.
The north entered Aden on 4 July. Supporters of Ali Nasir Muhammad greatly assisted military operations against the secessionists and Aden was captured on 7 July 1994. Most resistance quickly collapsed and top southern military and political leaders fled into exile.
Almost all of the actual fighting in the 1994 civil war occurred in the southern part of the country, despite air and missile attacks against cities and major installations in the north. Southerners sought support from neighbouring states and may have received military assistance from Saudi Arabia and Oman, which felt threatened by a united Yemen. The United States repeatedly called for a cease-fire and a return to the negotiating table. Various attempts, including by a UN special envoy and Russia, were unsuccessful to effect a cease-fire.
President Saleh now had control over all of Yemen. A general amnesty was declared, except for 16 southern figures accused of misappropriation of official funds.
YSP (Yemen Socialist Party) leaders within Yemen reorganized following the civil war and elected a new politburo in July 1994. However, much of its influence had been destroyed in the war.
||Yemen, Recent history
|1994 1 Oct
|| President Ali Abdallah Saleh was elected by Parliament on 1 October 1994 to a 5-year term. However, he remained in office until 2012.
||Yemen, Recent history
|1997 27 Apr
||In the second parliamentary election in Yemen the GPC won a majority of the seats, Iṣlāḥ finished second, and the YSP (Yemen Socialist Party) virtually committed political suicide by boycotting the elections.
Given its sizable majority, the GPC chose to rule alone, thereby making Iṣlāḥ the major opposition party in parliament.
In late 1994 the plural executive had been abolished and President Ṣāliḥ reelected to a five-year term by parliament.
||Yemen, Recent history
||September 1999 President Ṣāliḥ was again returned to office, this time in the country’s first direct presidential elections and for a term lengthened to seven years. He had run virtually unopposed, as the YSP candidate was unable to secure the minimum number of votes necessary in the GPC-dominated parliament to stand in the election.
||Yemen, Recent history
||The publication of Century of Light, a statement by the Universal House of Justice. The purpose of the book is to provide members of the Faith with a perspective on two defining processes that unfolded during the 20th century; on the one hand, the sequence of events that made the unification of humanity the principal feature of modern history and, on the other, the emergence from obscurity of the Cause of God and its Administrative order. It is primarily a resource for Bahá'í study and deepening. It is not a public information publication. [TP777-778]
||Century of Light (book); Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Publications; History (general); Bahai history; 20th century; World order (general)
|2003 27 Apr
||Bahá'ís from the north and south of Cyprus met when they were permitted to cross the demarcation line that had divided the island for three decades. The event followed the decision by the Turkish Cypriot authorities to lift the ban on travel across the cease-fire line. Some 60 Turkish and Greek Bahá'ís held a devotional meeting together at the Bahá'í center in Nicosia. [BWNS216]
||History (general); Unity; BWNS
|2003 6 - 7 Sep
||The celebration of the Jubilee of the opening of the Faith in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was commemorated in Kinshasa by some 600 participants.
Among those at the celebrations in the capital were three of the first Congolese Baha'is: Louis Selemani, 81, Remy Kalonji, 83, and Valerien Mukendi, 83.
One guest who could not make it was Ola Pawlowska, 93, though she participated in the celebrations by sending from her home in Canada a message of congratulations and love to a community to which she devoted three decades of her life.
Guests of honour at the jubilee included Mr. Nakhjavani, former member of the Universal House of Justice, and Mrs. Nakhjavani, as well as Joan Lincoln, counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre, and Albert Lincoln, secretary-general of the Baha'i International Community. All four had spent many years as pioneers in Africa.
Active teaching in the area began in 1953.
Before that time, colonial authorities did not permit the promotion of the Faith and that is when Ali Nakhjavani and his wife, Violette, driving across Africa from Uganda, took Ugandan Baha'i Samson Mungongo to the city of Kamina.
The first local assembly was formed in 1957 and the National Assembly was inaugurated in 1970. This event also marked the first time the National Spiritual Assembly had been able to meet in Kinshasa since 1998 because of the war.
- For further details on the development of the Faith in the DRC see Legacy of Courage: The Life of Ola Pawlowska, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh by Suzanne Schuurman.
|Kinshasa; Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC)
||Bahai history by country; BWNS
|2006 16 Jun
||The Baha'i International Community's Office of Public Information announced the launch of a new website called "Baha'i Media Bank,". The site contained more than 2,500 high-quality photographs on Baha'i-related themes and the plan was to eventually include video and audio material.
- In September 2017, after nearly 11 years, the site was given an upgrade in time for the historic 200th anniversary of the birth of Baha’u’llah. [BWNS1200]
||Bahai Media Bank; Websites; Visuals; BWC; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Monument gardens; Gardens; Pilgrim houses; Montreal Shrine; Junayn Gardens; Ridvan garden; Haziratul-Quds (general); Bahai history; Pilgrimage; Knights of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Bahaullah, Family of; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Relics; First Bahais by country or area; Activities (general); Core activities; - Institute process; Devotional gatherings; Prayer; Ruhi institute; Study Circles; Childrens classes; Social action; Social and economic development; Conferences; Regional conferences; World Congresses; Conventions, International; Conventions, National; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Counsellors; Bahai International Community; Symbolism; Greatest Name; Persecution, Iran; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
||Hundreds killed in crackdown on mass protests that called for fall of President Saleh and an end to corruption and repression and accountability for human rights violations.
The longtime authoritarian president, Ali Abdullah Saleh was forced to resign and sign power-transfer deal to hand over power to his deputy Abdrabbuh Mansour Hadi.
The new president Hadi struggled to deal with a variety of problems, including attacks by al-Qaeda, a separatist movement in the south, the continuing loyalty of many military officers to Mr Saleh, as well as corruption, unemployment and food insecurity.
||Yemen, Recent history
||Abd Rabbu Mansour Hadi elected as president initiating a two-year transitional period. However, government forces continue to commit human rights violations, including unlawful killings and enforced disappearances, against supporters of secession in south and a conflict with the Huthi armed group in north is renewed.
||Yemen, Recent history
||After the January 25th revolution against Mubarak and a period of rule by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, the Muslim Brotherhood took power in Egypt through a series of popular elections with Egyptians electing Islamist Mohamed Morsi to the presidency in June 2012.
On 3 July 2013, Morsi was deposed by a coup d'état led by the minister of defense General Abdel Fattah El-Sisi. The situation of Egypt’s Bahá’í community remained uncertain. The prescriptions of the 1960 Presidential Decree, despite the revolution, had yet to be annulled. This meant that despite the 2009 lifting of the restrictions on identification documents, the Bahá’í Faith still had not received actual recognition as a religion and Bahá'í were frequently subjected to public vilification. It was a period of extreme unrest. It is estimated that between Sisi's overthrow of Morsi and the 2014 presidential elections, an estimated 20,000 activists and dissidents were arrested by the police under the interim government. El-Sisi went on to become Egypt's president by popular election in 2014.
||Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; History (general)
|2014. 28 May
||In the presidential election in Egypt, former Egyptian defence minister Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was elected with 97% of the vote according to government sources. The subsequent 2014 Constitution of the Sisi government, while guaranteeing the ‘inviolable’ right of freedom of religion, extended this only to Islam, Christianity and Judaism – meaning that Bahá’i were still prohibited from many basic freedoms, such as practicing their religious laws and constructing places of worship. Though Bahá’í representatives lobbied during the constitutional drafting processes to expand religious freedoms to their community, this did not occur.
In December 2014, a public workshop was held by the Ministry of Religious Endowments to warn of the dangers of the spread of the Bahá’i faith in Egypt.
||Opposition; Persecution, Egypt; Persecution; Human rights; History (general); Constitutions
|2014 21 Sep
||The Houthi movement, which championed Yemen's Zaidi Shia Muslim minority and had fought a series of rebellions against Mr Saleh during his tenure as president in the previous decade, took advantage of President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi's weakness by taking control of their northern heartland of Saada province and neighbouring areas overthrowing the internationally-recognised government.
By February 2015 the group had dissolved parliament and announced plans for a transitional government.
||Yemen, Recent history
||In Yemen, Houthis appoint presidential council to replace President Hadi who flees to Aden.
||Sana'a; Yemen; Aden
||Adbrabbuh Mansour Hadi; Yemen, Recent history
||Clashes escalated between pro and anti-Huthis allied with security forces loyal to Mr Saleh - who is thought to have backed his erstwhile enemies in a bid to regain power. Southerners took to arms and formed resistance to further advance their cause for independence by fighting in order to defend their territory from northern control and a coup of the legitimate government. President Hadi was forced to flee to Saudi Arabia in March. He appealed to Gulf and Arab states to intervene militarily.
A Saudi Arabian-led military coalition of Arab states backed by the United States launched air strikes against the Huthi armed group positions in Sana’a and Sa’da with ousted President Ali Abdullah Saleh in support of Hadi's government.
The Islamic State carried out its first major attacks in Yemen, two suicide bombings targeting Shia mosques in Sana'n in which 137 people were killed. Houthi rebels started to advance towards southern Yemen at which point President Hadi fled to Aden. The Saudi-led coalition of Gulf Arab states launched air strikes against Houthi targets and imposed a naval blockade on Aden.
Over the next six months the conflict spread across Yemen.
In the southern part of the country, the United Arab Emirates, which was part of the Saudi-led coalition, set up its own security forces, running virtually a state-within-a-state and fuelling the south's independence movement.
The Houthis were dislodged from most of the south, but remained in control of Sana'a and much of the north.
||Sana'a; Aden; Yemen
||Yemen, Recent history; Ali Abdullah Saleh; Islamic State
||President Hadi returned to Aden after Saudi-backed government forces recaptured the port city from Houthi forces.
||Yemen, Recent history; Hadi
||The conflict continues to rage throughout the year. UN-sponsored peace talks begin in Kuwait in April but breakdown in early August. On 8 October, a Saudi Arabia-led coalition killed more than 100 people attending a funeral gathering in Sana’a and injured more than 500 others – one of the largest death tolls in any single incident since the start of the coalition’s bombing campaign.
||Yemen, Recent history
||UN-sponsored peace talks began between the government on one side and the Houthis and form President Saleh's General People's Congress (GPC) on the other.
||Yemen, Recent history; Saleh
||An airstrike by the Saudi-led coalition hit a crowded funeral in Sana'a killing 140 mourners and injuring another 500.
||Yemen, Recent history
|2017 Jun - Nov
||An outbreaks of cholera killed 2.100 and affected almost 900,000 others.
||Yemen, Recent history
||Former president Ali Abdullah Saleh was killed after fierce fighting in Sana'a.
||Yemen, Recent history; Ali Abdullah Saleh
|2017 3 Dec
||Ali Abdullah Saleh, the ousted strongman who once governed Yemen and then conspired with Iranian-backed rebels to claw his way back to power, was killed after a bomb blew up his family’s compound in the capital, Sana'a. After fighting along side the Iran-backed Houthis for two years it appears that he had switched sides to join the Saudi-led coalition. [New York Times headline Monday, December 4, 2017 10:10 AM EST]
||Yemen, Recent history
||Southern Yemeni separatists backed by the United Arab Emirates seize control of Aden.
||Yemen, Recent history
from the main catalogue
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- 100 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe, by Graham Hassall and Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). Overview of the first 100 years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe, including growth and the distinctive aspects of this community, external affairs, the role of women, and Bahá'í studies. [about]
- 1970-1995: Newspaper articles archive (1970). Collection of newspaper articles from 1970-1995. [about]
- 20,000 Martyrs, Source of Statements about, by Universal House of Justice (1984). Two letters from the Research Department: one from 1984 identifies the source of the statement that 20,000 Bábís were martyred, and one from 2005 says that this source has not actually been found. [about]
- 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). Papers from the proceedings from the 1995 National Bahá'í Studies Conference, Australia. [about]
- 'Abdu'l Bahá's Tablet of the Two Calls: Civilizing Barbarity, by Manooher Mofidi, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). [about]
- `Abdu'l-Baha in Abu-Sinan: September 1914, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The story of Abdu'l-Baha's relocating the Haifa/Akka Baha'i community of some 140 people to a nearby Druze village to keep them safe during World War I. [about]
- Abdu'l-Baha in Britain: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2011). Short overview of Abdu'l-Baha's travels to Britain. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Baha Writes to Kansas City, by Duane L. Herrmann (2002). Early history of the Baha'i Faith in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, from 1896 to 1919 and beyond. Includes three new provisional translations. [about]
- Account of How I Became a Bahá'í and My Stays in Paris in 1901 and 1937, An: Written at the Request of Mrs. Laura Dreyfus-Barney, by Agnes Baldwin Alexander (1958). [about]
- Account of the Main Events in Persia during October 1912 to October 1913, An, by G. D. Turner (1913). Overview of developments in Iran in 1913, with passing references to Abdu'l-Baha and E.G. Browne. [about]
- Afnán Family, The: Some Biographical Notes, by Ahang Rabbani (2007). Genealogy of the Báb and biographies of his descendants; meaning of afnan. [about]
- Africa, by Hooper Dunbar (1984). Stories of Dunbar's travels through Africa, its unique energy, and its place in the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- African American Baha'is, Race Relations and the Development of the Baha'i Community in the United States, by Richard Thomas (2005). Robert Turner, Susie Steward, Louis Gregory, and the roles played by blacks in the history of the Baha'is of the US. [about]
- Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society, by Paul E. Haney and Horace Holley (1958). Overview of the defection of Ahmad Sohrab and the formation of the "New History Society" and the "Caravan of East and West." [about]
- American Bahá'í Community in the Nineties, The, by Robert Stockman, in America's Alternative Religions, Timothy Miller, ed. (1995). Overview of the contemporary Baha'i community, its activities, and its concerns. [about]
- Ashkhabad (Ashgabat), Bahá'í Community of, by Vahid Rafati, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to full article offsite. [about]
- Aspects of the History of the Bahá'í Faith in Switzerland, Some, by John Paul Vader (2009). Switzerland was among the first countries opened to the Bahá’i religion. This paper describes the connections between the Bahá’i Faith and Switzerland and a selection of episodes in the early history of the development of the community there.
- Atlanta Bahá'í Community and Race Unity, The: 1909-1950, by Mike McMullen, in World Order, 26.4 (1995). History of the Baha'i faith in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, a city whose Baha'i community dates back almost to the earliest beginnings of the Baha'is in the United States. [about]
- Australia: History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Graham Hassall (1998). Short history of the Baha'i community of Australia. [about]
- Australian Bahá'í Studies: Vol. 2 (2000). The complete issue of volume 2. Some papers were delivered at the 18th annual ABS conference "The Creative Inspiration: Arts and Culture in the Bahá’í Faith" (Melbourne, September 1999). [about]
- Australian Women and Religious Change: Margaret Dixson and the First Melbourne Baha'is, by Graham Hassall, in Proceedings of the Association for Bahá'í Studies (1988). [about]
- Australian-New Zealand Bahá'í Connections, The, by David Brown Carr, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). History and relationship of the early Australian and New Zealand Baha'i communities, the magazine Herald of the South, and some brief biographies. [about]
- Báb in Shiraz, The: An Account by Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 16 (2008). Recollections of the early years of the Bab and his family, and the times following his declaration; written by a relative. [about]
- Babi and Bahá'í community of Iran, The: A case of 'suspended genocide'?, by Moojan Momen, in Journal of Genocide Research, 7:2 (2005). A description of the four phases of the persecutions that the Babis and Baha’is in Iran have suffered (the Babis, the early Baha'is, during the Pahlavi dynasty, and following the 1979 Islamic revolution) and how they fit in with categories of genocide. [about]
- Bábís of Nayriz, The: History and Documents, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 2 (2006). Extensive collection of historical documents: autobiographies, narratives, genealogies and chronologies, the transition from the Babi to the Baha'i community, provisional translations, and a list of Babi martyrs. [about]
- Babis, The, by Edward Sell, in The Church Missionary Intelligencer, 47:21 (1896). An early 10-page overview, published in a monthly journal of missionary information. [about]
- Bábism Faith in Nayriz, by Hussein Ahdieh, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2015). Brief excerpt on Nayriz and Sayyed Yahyá Dárábí (Vahíd), with link to article offsite. [about]
- Badasht, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Bahá'í country notes: China, by Graham Hassall (1997). History of the Baha'i community in China. [about]
- Bahá'í country notes: Egypt, by Graham Hassall (1997). History of Baha'is in Egypt from 1860s to 1961 referencing early merchant settlements, Abdu'l-Baha's visits, the Alexandria, Cairo, Port Said and national communities plus persecutions, court decisions, and the Presidential anti-Baha'i decree 263 of 1960. [about]
- Bahá'í country notes: Africa, by Graham Hassall (1999). [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in the Asia Pacific: Issues and Prospects, by Graham Hassall, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). [about]
- Bahá'í Cause, The, by Mirza Ahmad Sohrab, in Living Schools of Religion, ed. Vergilius Ferm (1956). Brief overview of the Baha'i Faith, with passing references to Sohrab's "New History Society." [about]
- Bahá'í Centenary, The: 100 years of the Bahá'í Faith in Britain, A Brief History: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1998). Short history of the Baha'is of the United Kingdom. [about]
- Bahá'í Communities by Country: Research Notes, by Graham Hassall (2000). Brief notes on the history of Baha'i activities and the dates of NSA formation in Africa, China, Australia, and elsewhere. [about]
- Bahá'í Communities in the Asia-Pacific: Performing Common Theology and Cultural Diversity on a 'Spiritual Axis', by Graham Hassall and William Barnes (1998). [about]
- Bahá'í Community of Ashkhabad, The: Its Social Basis and Importance in Bahá'í History, by Moojan Momen, in Cultural Change and Continuity in Central Asia, ed. Shirin Akiner (1991). Origin and history of the Baha'is in Ishqabad (Ashgabat) in Turkistan, analysis of the social composition of this community, and its importance of in terms of the rest of the Bahá'í world. [about]
- Bahá'í Community of Canada, The: A Case Study in the Transplantation of Non-Western Religious Movements to Western Societies, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Origins of the Bahá'í Community of Canada, 1898-1948 (1996). [about]
- Bahá'í Community of Iran, The: Patterns of Exile and Problems of Communication, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Refugees and Exiles Since Khomeini, ed. Asghar Fathi (1991). [about]
- Bahá'í Community of Randwick: A Survey of 75 Years, by Graham Hassall, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, 1:1 (1999). History of the Baha'i community of Randwick, Australia. [about]
- Baha'i country notes: Australia, by Graham Hassall (1997). [about]
- Bahá'í Faith: Origin, Missionary Work, and the Entrance into Vietnam, by Mai Thanh Hai, in Religious Studies Review, 4:2 (2008). An outsider's short history of the Faith in Vietnam since 1954 and current activities in the country. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith 1957-1988, The: A Survey of Contemporary Developments, by Peter Smith and Moojan Momen, in Religion, 19 (1989). A general account of developments in the Bahá'í Faith during these three decades. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in Africa, The: Establishing a New Religious Movement, 1952-1962, by Anthony Lee (2011). African presence in early Babi and Baha'i history; Baha'i response to crises in Middle East and West Africa; histories of British Camaroons, Calabar. Studies of Religion in Africa series, vol. 39. [about]
- Baha'i Faith in America, by William Garlington: Review, by Peter Terry (2017). [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in Australia: 75 Years Remembered, by Graham Hassall, in Herald of the South (1995). [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in Australia 1947-1963, by Graham Hassall, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in England and Germany, 1900-1913, by Robert Stockman, in World Order (1996). Historical overview of the early years of the Faith in the British Isles and Germany. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in Hong Kong, by Graham Hassall (1998). Extensive and detailed overview of the history of the Baha'i community in Hong Kong. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in Iran, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes essay "Three Clerics and a Prince of Isfahan: background to Bahá'u'lláh's Epistle to the Son of the Wolf" and bios of Ayatollah Khomeini and Zill al-Sultan. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in Tasmania 1923-1963, by Graham Hassall, in The Family: Our Hopes and Challenges (1995). Early history of the Baha'i community of Tasmania. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in Turkey, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes bios of individuals from Turkey who figure prominently in Baha'i history. [about]
- Baha'i Faith, The: The Emerging Global Religion, by William S. Hatcher and Douglas Martin (1985). Overview of Baha'i history and teachings, designed as an introductory textbook. Available as an ebook in English or a PDF in Persian. [about]
- Baha'i Faith, The: 50 Years in Singapore (2000). History of Baha'i activity and teaching in Singapore, from May 26 1950, when the first Baha’i pioneer, Dr. K.M. Fozdar, arrived in Singapore, until the year 2000. [about]
- Bahá'í Health Initiatives in Iran: A preliminary survey, by Seena B. Fazel and Minou Foadi, in The Bahá'ís of Iran: Socio-historical Studies, ed. Dominic Parviz Brookshaw & Seena B. Fazel (2008). Baha'i-related initiatives in Iran in the 19th-20th centuries: Baha'is made important contributions to public health such as introducing showers in public baths, school vaccinations, women's health, and privately-financed clinics open to all Iranians. [about]
- Bahá'í History, by Firuz Kazemzadeh. Significance of history to the study of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Bahá'í History, by Moojan Momen and Peter Smith (1993). A general survey of the history of the Baha'i Faith, including a brief overview of main events in Babi and Baha'i history. Next, a series of themes that have developed throughout Baha'i history is examined. [about]
- Bahá'í History, in Journal of Religious History, 36:4 (2012). A complete issue of this well-known journal was dedicated entirely to Baha'i Studies. So far, only 3 articles from it are online. [about]
- Baha'i Religious History: Introduction, by Todd Lawson, in Journal of Religious History, 36:4 (2012). Introduction to a special issue of this journal titled "Baha'i History," summarizing the prophetic record, the divine hierarchy of history, and the primacy of science and education. [about]
- Baha'i Studies in Iran: A Preliminary Survey, by Bijan Ma'sumian and Adib Ma'sumian, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 20 (2014). Overview of the cultivation and evolution of religious education in the Baha’i Faith in Iran in the 19th and 20th centuries. [about]
- Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
- Baha'is and the Constitutional Revolution, The: The Case of Sari, Mazandaran, 1906-1913, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Studies, 41:3 (2008). Accounts of the Constitutional Revolution in Iran have tended to ignore the role of the Baha’is. They educated people about the reforms envisaged and about the modern world, for which they were persecuted. [about]
- Bahá'ís of the United States, The, by Robert Stockman, in New Religions (1995). [about]
- Bahai Religious Faith and Tradition in Bangladesh, by Muhammad Jahangir Alam, in Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology, 8:1 (2011). History of the Faith in eastern Bengal and a sketch of current distribution, organization, and activities of Baha'is in Bangladesh. [about]
- Barbados, by Patricia Paccassi (1995). [about]
- Basis of the Bahá'í Community, The: A Statement Concerning the New History Society, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1941). A statement on Ahmad Sohrab's activities and its trademark infringement case. [about]
- Bábís of Persia, The: I. Sketch of Their History, and Personal Experiences amongst Them, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21:3 (1889). Results of Browne's investigations into the doctrines, history, and circumstances of this "most remarkable" religious phenomenon, and outline of things yet to be studied. [about]
- Bábís of Persia, The: II. Their Literature and Doctrines, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21:4 (1889). Overview of Babi literature and doctrine. [about]
- Black Roses in Canada's Mosaic: Four Decades of Black History, by Will C. van den Hoonaard and Lynn Echevarria-Howe (1994). Survey of African-Americans in Canada, their activities in the Baha'i community, and statistical information. [about]
- Brief History of the Bahá'í Faith in Guyana, A (2009). Short overview of Baha'i activities in this part of South America, since the first visit by Leonora Armstrong in 1927. [about]
- British influence in Persia in the 19th century, by Abbas Amanat, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 11 (2003). Includes various mentions of the Babi context. Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Broad Contours of the Canadian Baha'i Community, by Will C. van den Hoonaard and Deborah K. van den Hoonaard (1994). Historical and sociological overview of the Canadian Baha'i community. [about]
- Browne, Edward Granville: Persian Constitutional movement, by Kamran Ekbal, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Bushires' British Residency Records (1837-50): The Appearance of Babism in Persia, by Syed Shakeel Ahmed, in Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 43:4 (1995). Records from Mirza 'Ali Akbar, a British agent in Shiraz, from 1837, 1839, and 1850, with possible early mentions of the Báb. [about]
- Canadian Bahá'ís 1938-2000, The: Construction of Oneness in Personal and Collective Identity, by Lynn Echevarria-Howe, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). On how globalization includes greater consciousness of the whole world, and a sociological perspective on how this consciousness has been nurtured within the Canadian Baha'i community. [about]
- Cause of the Rise and Fall of Civilizations, The, by Ruhaniyyih Ruth Moffett (1954). A chart correlating the growth of maturity of humanity and the evolution of religions with major events in history. [about]
- Celestial Burning, A: A Selective Study of the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Jack McLean (2012). Style, content, and context of World Order of Baha'u'llah and Dispensation of Baha'u'llah: part of chapter 1 of this lengthy analysis of the work of Shoghi Effendi (pages 1-71), offered as a sample. [about]
- Century of Light, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Survey of the history and dramatic changes of the 20th Century and the Bahá'í Faith's emergence from obscurity, "demonstrating on a global scale the unifying power with which its Divine origin has endowed it." [about]
- Change of Culture, A, by Moojan Momen (2007). An overview of the process of cultural change in the Baha'i community. [about]
- Characterization in the Writings of Shoghi Effendi: With Special Attention to Yahya, by Jack McLean (2000). The Guardian employed a creative literary device of adding moralistic comment about historical figures, such as kings and clerics, casting them as "heroes" or "villains." Mirza Yahya is depicted with aspects of the demonic. [about]
- Chart of the Eras and Epochs of Bahá'í History, by Arjen Bolhuis (2000). Diagram of the periods of Bahá'í history. Available in English and Russian. [about]
- Chronicle of `Abdu'l-Ahad Zanjani: Personal Reminiscences of the Insurrection at Zanjan, by Aqa Abdu'l-Ahad Zanjani, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 29 (1897). [about]
- Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 1 (1850-1853), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
- Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 2 (1854-1876), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
- Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 3 (1873-1895), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
- Chronological study: Tablets to the Rulers, by Melissa Tansik (1998). Timeline of the rise of nation states, 1844-1871, and the history and fate of the rulers to whom Baha'u'llah wrote in the 1860s. [about]
- Circumpolar Regions (Arctic): History of the Baha'i Faith, by Will C. van den Hoonaard (1994). [about]
- Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East , by Kamran Ekbal (2014). Abdu'l-Baha was opposed to the cultural and political colonialism of foreign powers and their militaries. In spite of the Baha'i principle of abstaining from politics, exceptions can be made in the face of tyranny and injustice. [about]
- Conspiracies and Forgeries: The Attack upon the Bahá'í Community in Iran, by Moojan Momen, in Persian Heritage, 9:35 (2004). [about]
- Conversion of Religious Minorities to the Bahá'í Faith in Iran: Some Preliminary Observations, by Susan Maneck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:3 (1990). Conversion patterns of Zoroastrians and Jews in the period 1877-1921. [about]
- Critical Examination of 20th-Century Baha'i Literature, A, by Vance Salisbury (1997). Explores the claim, first made by E. G. Browne, that some Baha'is suppress or distort historical texts. Includes tables of changes made in different editions of four popular Baha'i books. [about]
- Crossroads of Civilization: 3000 Years of Persian History, by Clive Irving (1979). Passing mentions of Babi history and the word "Bábí" being used as a label to tarnish political dissidents. [about]
- Crowning Anguish: Memoirs of a Persian Princess from the Harem to Modernity 1884-1914, by Taj al-Saltana (1993). Passing references to the Babis in Amanat's introduction to, and in the autobiography of, Nasir al-Din's daughter. [about]
- Cyprus Exiles, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 5:3-6:1 (1991). History of Mirza Yahya's family and the four followers of Baha'u'llah exiled with them in Cyprus. Includes genealogies. [about]
- Dawn-Breakers: Nabil's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Nabil-i-A'zam (1932). The extensive and preeminent history of Babism and the early Baha'i Faith, by Nabil-i-A'zam [aka Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí, aka Nabíl-i-Zarandí]. [about]
- Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of The Bahá'í Revelation: Study Guide, by National Teaching Committee (1932). [about]
- Dear Co-worker: Messages from Shoghi Effendi to the Benelux countries, by Shoghi Effendi (2009). Messages from Shoghi Effendi to the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg). [about]
- Debunking the Myths: Conspiracy Theories on the Genesis and Mission of the Bahá'í Faith, by Adib Ma'sumian (2009). Response to Iranian conspiracy theories portraying the Baha'i Faith as a subversive political group, Zionist spies, affiliates of the secret police, British agents, etc. Available in English and Persian. Includes interview with author. [about]
- Demystifying Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of the Holy Mariner: History, Translations, Interpretations and Analysis, by Hui Bau (2016). Lengthy compilation, with background information on the Tablet, and commentary from Bau, Adib Taherzadeh, Michael Sours, Jamsheed Samandari, and Aziz Mboya. [about]
- Descripción de La Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í, by Bahá'í International Community. Descripción de La Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í [about]
- Diary of H.M. the Shah of Persia, during his tour through Europe in 1873, The, by Nasir al-Din Shah (1874). Contains no mention of the Babi or Baha'i Faiths, but is useful for historical context, and a window into the Sháh's worldview. [about]
- Divide and Rule: The Creation of the Alawi State after World War I, by Necati Alkan, in Fikrun wa Fann ("Art and Thought") (2013). Summary of 20th-century history of the Nusayri/Alawi Shi'i movement in Syria and Turkey. (No mention of Baha'is.) [about]
- Early Western Accounts of the Babi and Bahá'í Faiths, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
- Emergence of the Bahá'í Faith in Singapore (1950-1972), The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 1 (1996). The first two decades of the Faith in Singapore, from the arrival of pioneers in 1950 to the formation of the NSA in 1972; the activities of the LSA of Singapore; strategies used to proclaim the existence of the Faith; features of the early community. [about]
- En Perse: La Constitution, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Revue du Monde Musulman, 1:1 (1906). Three documents related to the first Iranian Constitution, with passing mentions of Babis. [about]
- Europe, Eastern, and the Soviet Union, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3.1 (1993). [about]
- Exile from El Salvador: A Conversation with Antonio, by Eileen Estes and Richard Hollinger, in dialogue magazine, 1:4 (1987). Interview with a former member of the Salvadorean Baha'i community about his history, and about threats to the Central American refugee community in Los Angeles. Includes report "Human Rights Workers in El Salvador Suppressed," by Steven Hall-Williams. [about]
- Exposition of the Tablet of the World (Lawh-i-Dunyá), An, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). To fully appreciate the historical significance of the Tablet of the World, this essay first portrays the developing conditions in Persia and in the world that preceded this Tablet, then discusses its salient points. [about]
- Fighting for the Nuṣayrī Soul: State, Protestant Missionaries and the ʿAlawīs in the Late Ottoman Empire, by Necati Alkan, in Die Welt des Islams, 52 (2012). Overview of the Alawites/Nusayris (Syrian Shi'is) in the start of the 19th century, political attitudes in Syria and Istanbul, and the influence of Protestant missionaries. [about]
- First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith (2013). Six versions of the first public mentions in English of the Bábís, from November 1845. [about]
- From: Ron Price's Epic Autobiographical History: Pioneering Over Five Epochs: A History of The Bahá'í Faith in The Northern Territory and Adjoining Regions of Australia: 1947 to 1997, by Ron Price, in Published Essays in Cyberspace, At: Bahai Library Online (2001). This Bahai Library Online document contains The History of the Baha'i Community in the Northern Territory of Australia and adjacent regions: 1947-1997. This history is written in some three dozen short instalments totalling about 10000 words. [about]
- Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in Middle Eastern Modernity, The, by Juan Cole, in ISIM Newsletter, 2 (1999). Middle Eastern religion is seldom mentioned in the same breath with modernism. The Baha'i faith, which originated in Iran, poses key conundrums to our understanding of the relationship between modernity and religion in the global South. [about]
- Germany, France, Italy, and Switzerland, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Compilation of new perspectives on the future of European civilization. Includes introduction by Julio Savi. [about]
- Globalization of the Bahá'í Community: 1892-1921, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). On the connection between Abdu’l-Baha’s thinking and his practical directives in the global expansion of the Baha’i religion, considered in light of Jan Aart Scholte's globalization categories: normative, psychological, economic, and institutional. [about]
- Grenada, by Patricia Paccassi (1995). [about]
- Growth and Spread of the Baha'i Faith, The, by Arthur Hampson (1980). A detailed attempt to describe and account for the spread of the Baha'i Faith, including the roles played by its centralized leadership, its belief system, and its policies, as well as attitudes and conditions outside the control of the Baha'i movement. [about]
- Half the Household Was African: Recovering the Histories of Two African Slaves in Iran, by Anthony Lee, in UCLA Historical Journal, 26:1 (2015). Biographies of two enslaved Africans in Iran, Haji Mubarak and Fezzeh Khanum, the servants of The Bab. A history of slavery in Iran can be written, not only at the level of statistics, laws, and politics, but also at the level of individual lives. [about]
- Hints for Residents and Travellers in Persia, by A. R. Neligan (1914). 2-sentence mention of Babis/Baha'is. [about]
- Historia de su Cooperacion con las Naciones Unidas, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
- Historical Account of Two Indian Babis: Sa'en Hindi and Sayyid Basir Hindi, by Sepehr Manuchehri (2001). Includes translated excerpts from a number of Persian sources on these two individuals. [about]
- Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
- Historical Background of the Panama Temple, by Ruth Pringle, in Bahá'í News (1972). A history of the Bahá’í Faith in Panama during the first and second U.S. Seven Year Plans, from the arrival of the first pioneers in 1939 to the formation of the first Regional Assembly in 1951. [about]
- Historical Development of Genoa Square in Acre Israel from the Seventh Century to the Present Day, The, by Amy Suzanne Hollander (1995). A study of the structure, development, space, and historic preservation of a portion of Akka, including discussion of its place in Baha'i history. [about]
- History of Persia from the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century to the Year 1858, A, by Robert Grant Watson (1866). A review of the events that led to the establishment of the Qajar dynasty, with discussion of the Babis. [about]
- History of the Bahá'í Faith in Arizona, The: The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950, by Maureen M. Thur (2004). Historical details and biographies about Arizona, from Nellie French moving from Chicago to Bisbee in 1900, to the formation of LSAs in 1949. Includes biographies of Amelia Collins and Orcella Rexford aka Louise Cutts-Powell (Appendices 1-2). [about]
- History of the Bahá'í Faith in Boston, by The Pluralism Project (2010). Two short documents by Harvard University's religious pluralism project: "Timeline of the Bahá’í Faith in Greater Boston" and "The Bahá’í Faith in Greater Boston." [about]
- History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, by John William Draper (1864). A selection of excerpts from the book. Contains no mention of the Baha'i Faith, but is of interest partly because Abdu'l-Baha referred to this book in Secret of Divine Civilization. [about]
- House of Abdu'llah Pasha, The, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Short history and restoration of a house associated with "some of the most dramatic and historically significant events of the Heroic Age of the Bahá'í Faith." [about]
- Humanity's Coming Encounter with Baha'u'llah, by Douglas Martin, in American Bahá'í (1992). Retrospective look at the previous 100 years of Baha'i history, current shifts of focus and teaching plans, and the prospects for the future which the new Message can bring. [about]
- Infallibility and Historical Knowledge of the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). While the Guardian's infallibility applies to interpretation of revelation, it does not include historical and scientific knowledge. [about]
- Interdependence of Bahá'í Communities, The: Services of North American Bahá'í Women to Iran, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). [about]
- International Bahá'í Council, by Duane L. Herrmann, in Bahá'í News (1990). History of the formation of the IBC. [about]
- Interracial "Bahá'í Movement" and the Black Intelligentsia, The: The Case of W. E. B. Du Bois, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Religious History, 36:4 (2012). Du Bois’s encounters with the Baha’i religion from 1910 to 1953, his connection to the New York Baha’i community, and discussion of segregated Baha’i meetings in Tennessee in 1937. [about]
- Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law , by Ignaz Goldziher (1981). An early academic overview of Babi and Baha'i history and theology. From translation of a 1910 book Vorlesungen uber den Islam, "Lectures on Islam." [about]
- Introduction to Shi'i Islam, An: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism, by Moojan Momen (1985). The most lengthy and authoritative contemporary overview of Shi'ism; a commonly-assigned college textbook. Includes biographies of prominent historical figures. Not yet formatted.
- Introduction to Shi'i Islam, An, by Moojan Momen (1985). Summary of Shi'i history and doctrines, excerpted from the book Introduction to Shí'í Islam. [about]
- Introduction to the History and Culture of Iran, An, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). [about]
- Iran: History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
- Iran: Province of Ádharbáyján, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
- Iran: Province of Fárs, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
- Iran: Province of Gílán, by Moojan Momen (1994). History of the Baha'i Faith in the Iranian province of Gilan. [about]
- Iran: Province of Isfahan, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
- Iran: Province of Káshán and Central Provinces (Sultánábád, Mahallát, and Gulpáygán), by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
- Iran: Province of Khamsih (Zanján), by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
- Iran: Province of Khurásán, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
- Iran: Province of Khúzistán, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
- Iran: Province of Qazvín, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
- Iran: Province of Tehran (including Qumm, Simnán, and Dámghán), by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
- Iran: Province of Yazd, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
- Iran: Provinces of Kirmán and Sístán, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
- Iran: Provinces of Kirmánsháh, Hamadán, Kurdistán, and Luristán, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
- Iran: Provinces of Mázandarán and Gurgán, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
- Iranian Believers Throughout the World, Message to, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Inspirational discussion of the history of the Baha'is in Iran, including exhortations for the education of Persian children and youth. [about]
- Islam in Persia, by W. St. Clair Tisdall, in The Mohammedan World of To-Day (1906). Passing discussions of Babis and Baha'is in Iran at the start of the 20th century (pages 115-118, 121, 129-130). [about]
- Islands of the North Sea, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). [about]
- Islands of the South Pacific, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). [about]
- Ita and the Sandinista Revolution, by Robert G. Wilson, in dialogue magazine, 1:4 (1987). An interview with Ita, one of the earliest participants in the Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua that resulted in the removal of Anastasio Somoza from power in 1979. Includes letter about the organization "Quest for Peace." [about]
- Jamal Effendi and Sayyid Mustafa Rumi in Celebes: The Context of Early Bahá'í Missionary Activity in Indonesia, by Jelle de Vries, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007). [about]
- Jamál Effendi and the early history of the Bahá'í Faith in South Asia, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). Includes maps on Jamal Effendi's journeys in India, and journeys in Southeast Asia. [about]
- Judeo-Persian Communities of Iran in the Qajar Period: Conversion to the Bahá'í Faith, by Mehrdad Amanat, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2009). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Kashan: Religious Communities: Bahá'í Community, by Mehrdad Amanat, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, 16:1 (2012). [about]
- Learning from History, by Moojan Momen, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1989). [about]
- Left in Contemporary Iran, The, by Sepehr Zabih (1986). Discussion of "urban guerilla warfare" pre-1979 with one passing mention of an unnamed Baha'i businessman as owner of Export Bank. [about]
- Macau Bahá'í Community in the Early Years, by Barbara R. Sims (1991). Brief overview of the history of Macau, and a detailed account of Baha'i involvement 1953-1975, and stories of early believers. [about]
- Mafia, Mob and Shiism in Iraq: The Rebellion of Ottoman Karbala 1824-1843, by Juan Cole and Moojan Momen, in Past and Present, 112 (1986). On the role of gangs in urban social history of the 19-century Ottoman empire; with a decline in government control, gangs ran protection rackets and acted as a parallel government, making alliances and becoming popular leaders against an alien threat. [about]
- Majestic Process, The: Cycles, Eras, Epochs and Stages (2004). A one page chart developed as a class handout on the "Majestic Process," the Ages and Epochs of the Faith. [about]
- Making of Central America, The: Intervention, Dictatorship, and Revolution, by Phillip Berryman, in dialogue magazine, 1:4 (1986). History of Western and Christian involvement in Latin America. (No mention of the Baha'i Faith.) [about]
- Map of Stages in Baha'u'llah's Successive Exiles from Tihran to Akka, by Muhammad Labib (1968). Map of Stages in Baha'u'llah's Successive Exiles from Tihran to Akka, compiled and designed by Muhammad Labib in 1968, includes an extensive list of which tablets Baha'u'llah revealed and where. [about]
- Map of the Travels of Baha'u'llah (1991). The progressive exiles of Baha'u'llah through the Middle East. [about]
- Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1918). An early collection of historical documents related to Baha'i and Babi studies. (Not fully complete.) [about]
- Meaning of Baha'i History, The, by Moshe Sharon (1999). [about]
- Men and the Baha'i Faith: The role of indigenous men in the early Baha'i community in the British Isles, by Lil Osborn (2016). Includes slide-show included when presenting the paper at the Baha'i Studies Seminar, Kellogg College, Oxford (July 2016). [about]
- Mid-East History during the Islamic Period: Chronology and Commentary, by Brian A. Miller (2000). Brief overview of Islamic history. [about]
- Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in the Nineteenth-century Middle East [introduction only], by Juan Cole, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions (1998). Introduction and first 4 pages of Chapter One. [about]
- "Most Great Reconstruction": The Bahá'í Faith in Jim Crow South Carolina, 1898-1965, by Louis E. Venters (2010). The Faith enjoyed a period of growth from the 1960s-1980s that was largely inspired by interracial teaching campaigns in the South. The Baha'i movement in South Carolina was a significant, sustained response to racist ideologies. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
- Moths Turned Eagles: The Spiritual Conquests of Sabri and Raissa Elias, by Gamal Hassan (2008). Introduction of the Baha'i Faith to Ethiopia and Djibouti, and the activities of Gila Bahta. [about]
- Mutilated Body of the Modern Nation: Qurrat al-'Ayn's Unveiling and the Persian Massacre of the Bábís, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 18:2 (1998). [about]
- Nabil's Narrative: What History has Forgotten, by Soheila Vahdati (2008). An outsider's view of how Iranian media and society have glossed over or intentionally obscured Iran's treatment of 19th-century dissidents. [about]
- Netherlands: History of the Baha'i Faith, by Will C. van den Hoonaard (1993). [about]
- New History (tarikh-i-jadid) of Mirza Ali-Muhammed the Bab, The, by Husayn Hamadani (1893). Detailed history of the Bab, translated into English. Also known as Tarikh-i Badi'-i Bayani. [about]
- New Religion, Babism, A, by Paul Carus, in The Open Court, 18:6-18:7 (1904). Overview of early Baha'i history, the Faith in Chicago, a review of Myron Phelps' book Life and Teachings of Abbas Effendi (1903), and a review of Ibrahim Kheiralla's book Beha Ullah (1900). [about]
- New York, History of the Bahá'í Faith In, by Robert Stockman (1995). [about]
- No Jim Crow Church: The Origins of South Carolina's Bahá'í Community, by Louis Venters: Review, by Richard W. Thomas, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies (2016). [about]
- Notes on the Babi and Bahá'í Religions in Russia and its territories, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:3 (1993). Overview of the history of Babi and Baha'i communities in Russia and Russian territories. [about]
- Notes on the Twentieth Century, by Douglas Martin (2001). Multiple transcriptions of talks given in Atlanta, New York, and Massachusetts in September and October, 2001, largely based on the document Century of Light. [about]
- Notes on the Zuhuru'l-Haqq series, by John Walbridge (1996). Brief overview of this historical work. Includes letter from the World Centre explaining that no official translation is forthcoming. [about]
- Nuqtat al-Káf, by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2008). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Nuqtat al-Kaf and the Babi Chronicle Traditions, by Juan Cole, in Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2:6 (1998). History of the writing of this early Babi historical text, and some recent interpretations of its history. [about]
- Origins of the Bahá'í Faith in the Pacific Islands: The Case of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 16:1-4 (2006). [about]
- Our Precious Heritage: The Coming of the Faith to Wales, by C. Edmund Card (n.d.). History of Baha'i activities in Wales 1942-1973, focusing especially the active sixteen-year period 1946-1962. [about]
- Outpost of a World Religion: The Bahá'í Faith in Australia 1920-1947, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Religious History, 16:3 (1991). An updated version of a paper published in two places. [about]
- Pacific Bahá'í Communities 1950-1964, by Graham Hassall, in Pacific History: Papers from the 8th Pacific History Association Conference, Donald H. Rubinstein, ed. (1992). Detailed overview of the history of Baha'is in Pacific island states. [about]
- Paranoid Style in Iranian Politics, The, by Ervand Abrahamian, in Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic (1993). A seminal essay which mentions contemporary Iranian attitudes toward the Baha'is. Includes three other mentions of the Baha'i Faith elsewhere in the book in which this essay was first published. [about]
- Part of the Baha'i History of the Family of Charles and Maria Ioas, by Viola Tuttle and Margarite Ioas Ullrich (1978). Biographies of Charles and Maria: from his birth in 1859, their introduction to the Faith in 1898, experiences with 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 1912, and four Tablets from 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
- Permanence of Change, The: Contemporary Sociological and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Hoda Mahmoudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18 (2008). Sociohistorical changes of the Axial Age and the Renaissance, sociological views on modernity and its contemporary challenges, and key features of modernity as identified in the Bahá’í writings as "the universal awakening of historical consciousness." [about]
- Persian Bahá'ís in Australia, by Graham Hassall, in Religion and Ethnic Identity, An Australian Study, Abe Ata, ed. (1989). Overview of the history and modern activities (ca. 1989) of the Persian Baha'i community in Australia. [about]
- Persian Revolution of 1905-1909, The, by E. G. Browne (1910). Includes discussion of Bahá'ís and Bábís in "Attitude of Bahá’ís towards Persian Politics" (pp. 424-429) and "The Assassination of Nasiru'd-Din Shah" (60-62). Search text for Bábí for other references. [about]
- Persian Revolution of 1905-1909, The, by E. G. Browne: Reviews, by Various (1996). Three reviews, published in CIRA Bulletin, International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, and Journal of Islamic Studies. [about]
- Picture Gallery of Early British Bahá'ís (1998). Published in honor of the UK Baha'i Centenary, 1998/99. [about]
- Pivot of the Universe: Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy 1831-1896, by Abbas Amanat: Review, by Sholeh A. Quinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). [about]
- Preliminary History of the Bahá'í Community of Samarkand, Uzbekistan, by Duane L. Herrmann and Hasan T. Shodiev, in Bahá'í Vizier (2004). Since repression of religion ended in the USSR, Baha'is in former Soviet territories resumed practice of their faith and become curious about their history, most of which had been destroyed. This article is an early step at rediscovering this history. [about]
- Preliminary Survey of the Bahá'í Community of Iran during the Nineteenth Century, A, by Moojan Momen, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Enstehung der Baha'i Religion, ed. Christoph Burgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). [about]
- President Wilson and the Bahá'í Connection, by Paul Pearsall, in Herald of the South (1988). Short overview of myths and facts on the Wilson-Baha'i connection. Includes addenda on the League of Nations, by Vincent Littrell, and on the Fourteen Points, by Bahram Nadini. [about]
- Protecting the Human Family: Humanitarian Intervention, International Law, and Bahá'í Principles, by Brian D. Lepard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 13:1-4 (2003). [about]
- Qourrèt-oul-Aíne [Qurratu'l-`Ayn], by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Tahirih in History: Perspectives on Qurratu'l-'Ayn from East and West, ed. Sabir Afaqi (2004). First publication in English translation of early accounts of the life and death of Táhirih. These passages are from Seyyed Ali Mohammad dit le Bab (1905) by A.-L.-M. Nicolas, French diplomat and author. [about]
- Race and Racism: Perspectives from Bahá'í Theology and Critical Sociology, by Matthew Hughey, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:3 (2017). Review of the concepts of race and racism based on social scientific understanding, in order to better understand their definition and to delineate their relation to one another, and correlate them with the Bahá'í Writings. [about]
- Radio Bahá'í del Lago Titicaca, 20 años de historia, by Rene Quiñonez, in La Pluma del Conocimiento, 2 (2002). Un breve relato sobre los logros de un proyecto de desarrollo socio económico al servicio de los pobladores del altiplano peruano boliviano. [about]
- Radio Baha'i Ecuador, by Kurt Hein: Review, by Des O'Shea, in CADE: Journal of Distance Education, 4:1 (1989). [about]
- Rationalisation and re-enchantment in Malaysia: Temiar religion 1964-1995, by Geoffrey Benjamin (1996). Extensive discussion of the Baha’i Faith among the Temiars of Malaysia. Link to paper (offsite). [about]
- Religion in the Modem World, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). On aspects of the Western secular rebellion against theocracy and the rise of free enquiry and freedom of conscience through the lens of the European Reformation and Galileo’s conflict with the Papacy; religion's role in strengthening family unity. [about]
- Religion of the Bab, The, by Robert E. Speer and Henry H. Jessup, in Missions and Modern History: A Study of the Missionary Aspects of some Great Movements of the Nineteenth Century (1904). Two articles: Speer's "The Religion of the Bab," pp. 119-174, is followed by Jessup's "The Babites," pp. 174-182 (originally published in The Outlook, 1901). [about]
- Religious Background of the 1979 Revolution in Iran, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
- Rise of the Bahá'í Community of 'Ishqábád, The, by Anthony Lee, in Bahá'í Studies, 5: "The Bahá'í Faith in Russia: Two Early Instances" (1979). Materials about the early history of Ishqabad, site of the first Baha'i Temple, based in part on interviews with former residents. [about]
- Ruptured Spaces and Effective Histories: The Unveiling of the Babi Poetess Qurrat al-'Ayn-Tahirih in the Gardens of Badasht, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1998). Implications of Tahirih's revolutionary act at Badasht in terms of a decisive break with Islamic history; also Shaykh Abu Turab's recollections of the event and his literary role in Nabil's Dawn-Breakers. [about]
- Russia, by Moojan Momen (1995). Overview of the development of the Baha'i community in Russia. [about]
- Sacred Mythology and the Bahá'í Faith, by William P. Collins, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:4 (1990). [about]
- Secret of Divine Civilization, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1957). [about]
- Seeking Light in the Darkness of "Race", by Jamar Wheeler, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:3 (2017). A historical sketch of how race concepts evolved, with analysis at macro and micro levels of society. Oneness of mankind is an enlightening force that, through individual agency and collective social action, can transform society. [about]
- Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation, by Bradford W. Miller, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:3 (1998). [about]
- Servants in the Households of Baha'u'llah and the Bab, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Whether or not the servants of the Bab and Baha'u'llah were slaves, and a list of relevant sources for further research. [about]
- Servants of the Glory: A Chronicle of Forty Years of Pioneering, by Adrienne Morgan and Dempsey Morgan (2017). Memoirs of a black couple from the United States who lived and spread the Bahá’í Faith in across parts of east Asia and Africa in the 1950s-1980s. Text by Dempsey Morgan, poems by Adrienne Morgan. Link to document offsite. [about]
- Seventy Five Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Victoria, Australia, by Graham Hassall (1998). History of the Baha'i community of Victoria, Australia. [about]
- Shoghi Effendi's View of Providential History in Light of the Judaeo-Christian Tradition, by Jack McLean, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The Guardian's letters reveal six feature of his historicity: palingenesis and transitional history; providential synchronization; teleological history; organically whole history; periodisation of ages and epochs; history as community identity-creation. [about]
- Situation of the Bahá'ís in Egypt, by Bahá'í International Community (2007). Oral Statement of the Bahá’í International Community to the Human Rights Council (6th Session of the Human Rights Council),
Geneva, Switzerland. [about]
- Social Activism Among Some Early Twentieth-Century Bahá'ís, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Socialist Studies, 2:1 (2006). Socialist involvement of some of Canada's earliest Baha'is, before and after the prohibition of involvement in political affairs. [about]
- Star of the West: Use of, in Electronic Form, by Universal House of Justice (1999). Guidance on use of the publication Star of the West in electronic form as well as advice on how to describe the authoritativeness of the material [about]
- Stories of Baha'u'llah and Some Notable Believers, by Adib Taherzadeh (2003). Extracts compiled from Adib Taherzadeh’s The Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh, Volumes 1-4. [about]
- Story of the Last One Hundred Years of the Baha'i Faith in Seattle, The, by Zabine Van Ness (2007). Compiled for the 2007 centenary of the Seattle and Spokane Bahá’í assemblies, detailing the 100 year history of the Bahá'í Faith in Seattle. [about]
- Suggestions for Bahá'í Hermeneutics, by Mark A. Foster (1999). Four essays: "Non-Overlapping Magisteria [science, religion, and Stephen Jay Gould]," "Infallibility: Sinlessness and Prophetic Ecology," "The Case of Some Answered Questions [pedagogy and evolution]," and "The Gospel According to Nabíl." [about]
- Sweet and Enchanting Stories (2005). Stories and memoirs by and about ‘Abdu’l-Baha, Mirza Haydar ‘Ali, Zia Baghdadi, ‘Ali Akbar Furutan, Adib Tahirzadih, Abul-Qasim Faizi, and other loved and historic figures. [about]
- Tablet of Maqsud, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Date of the revelation of the Tablet of Maqsúd and its mention of "Two great powers." [about]
- Tablet of the Centennial, by Shoghi Effendi (1998). An epistle to the Persian-speaking Baha'is. Includes English translation of Muhammad Varqa's "Le Style persan du Gardien." [about]
- Tablet of Wisdom Questions and Answers, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Ethel Jenner Rosenberg, the Life and Times of England's Outstanding Bahá'í Pioneer Worker, by Robert Weinberg (1995). Authorized translation of unpublished Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Ethel Rosenberg in 1906 in reply to her questions about historical statements in the Lawh-i-Hikmat. [about]
- Tablet to Napoleon III (Lawh-i-Napulyún): Biography of Napoleon, in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). First Tablet to Napoleon. [about]
- Tablet to Pope Pius IX (Lawh-i-Páp): Biography of Pope Pius IX, in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). [about]
- Tablet to Tsar Alexander II (Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus): Biography of Tsar Alexander, in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). Short biography of Tsar Alexander ll describing him as a great historical figure without the charisma of a great man. Suggests history should view what he did, such as abolishing serfdom and building railroads, as more important than who he was. [about]
- Tafsir and the Meaning of the Qur'an: The Crucifixion in Muslim Thought, by Todd Lawson (2010). Using Qur'án 4:156-7 as an example, classical tafsīr, “scholastic" exegesis, has not always taken account of the way all Muslims understand the Quranic text. Other understandings may be found in poetry, philosophy, mysticism and even historical writing. [about]
- Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle: An Historical Record of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Faith in Taiwan, by Barbara R. Sims (1994). Baha'i activities in Taiwan and personal histories, 1952-1992. Includes earliest pamphlet published in Chinese. [about]
- Tehran, Iran, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the capital city of Iran and birthplace of Bahá’u’lláh, called by Him the "Land of Tá" (Ard-i-Tá), site of numerous important events in Bahá’í history. [about]
- The Bahá'í Revelation, by Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, in The Open Court (1905). Article, with photographs, correcting and expanding on some of Open Court's previous articles on the Faith. Introduced by Paul Carus with a brief essay, "The Behaist Movement." [about]
- Traces That Remain: A Pictorial History of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Faith among the Japanese, by Barbara R. Sims (1989). Extensive history of Baha'i events and personages in Japan, 1914-1983. [about]
- Turkmenistan, by Moojan Momen (1995). History of the Baha'i Faith in Turkmenistan. [about]
- Unassailable Foundation of the Cause of God: Questions about the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1965). Why were steps taken to elect a Universal House of Justice with the foreknowledge that there would be no Guardian? Was the time ripe for such an action? Could not the International Baha'i Council have carried on the work? [about]
- Understanding Bahá'í History: Introduction to the study of history, by Moojan Momen (2013). Video and transcript, prepared for the Wilmette Institute, about how to approach and understand the study of history, biases of eyewitnesses, and the subjective construction of facts. [about]
- United Kingdom: History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Moojan Momen (1998). A short history of the Baha'i community of the United Kingdom. [about]
- United States National Spiritual Assembly vs. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (1941). In 1941 the National Spiritual Assembly unsuccessfully sued Covenant Breaker Mirza Ahmad Sohrab for his use of the word "Baha'i." This is the court's conclusions. [about]
- United States of America: History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Robert Stockman (1995). History of the Baha'i community of the United States. [about]
- Virgin Islands, U.S. and British, by Patricia Paccassi (1995). [about]
- Visits of the Hands of the Cause of God to Ireland, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 3 (2003). An overview of all known visits by the Hands, the highest-ranking officers of the Bahá’í Faith, to Ireland. Review of the many historical sources about this largely-uninvestigated topic. Includes timeline of the visits between 1952 and 1986. [about]
- Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
- Witness to Shaykh Tabarsi: The Narrative of Haji Nasir Qazvini, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 8 (2007). Biography of Qazvini, sources for the study of the conflict at Shaykh Tabarsi, and Qazvini's narrative. Includes the Persian text, and bios of Táríkh Samandar and M. A. Malik-Khusravi (in Persian). [about]
- Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, by Ahang Rabbani (1996). Multiple volumes of historical materials, translations, and original research. [about]
- "Wonderful True Visions": Magic, Mysticism, and Millennialism in the Making of the American Bahai Community, 1892-1895, by Richard Hollinger, in Search for Values: Ethics in Bahá'í Thought (2004). The early growth of the American, and especially the Chicago, communities was more gradual and eclectic than previously thought, and Kheiralla's influence was less crucial. [about]
- Zuhur al-Haqq, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2002). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]