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Search for tag "History (general)"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1798 c. Mar Áqá Muhammad Khán, leader of the Qájárs, proclaims himself Sháh of Persia; beginning of Qájár dynasty. Iran Aqa Muhammad Khan; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general)
1797 c. Aug Crown Prince Fath-`Alí Mírzá assumes leadership of Persia. Iran Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general)
1846. Jan Prince Dolgorukov arrives in Tihrán as the Russian ambassador. Tihran; Iran Prince Dolgorukov; Russia; Ambassadors; History (general)
1848. 12 Sep The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
  • He is 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
  • He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
  • The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
  • For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
  • See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
  • See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
  • See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
  • He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
  • It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
Tabriz; Iran; Iraq Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Firsts, Other
1848. 19 Oct Entry of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh into Tihrán. [BBR482]
  • MH240 says it took him 45 days to travel to Tihrán to occupy his father's throne.

    Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání takes up post as prime minister. [BBR482]

Tihran; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Prime ministers
1852. 15 Aug Attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]

  • See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
  • See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
  • See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
  • Ja‘far-Qulí Khán writes immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh is denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the ‘would-be murderer'. Ja‘far-Qulí Khán offers to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
Iran Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; Shahs; History (general); Jafar-Quli Khan; Bahaullah, Life of
1863 probably near end Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-Mulúk (Súrih of Kings). [BKG245; GPB171–2; RB2:301-336]
  • This is described by Shoghi Effendi as ‘the most momentous Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh', in which He, ‘for the first time, directs His words collectively to the entire company of the monarchs of East and West'. [GPB171]
  • See GPB172–5 and RB2:301–25 for a description of the content of the Tablet.
  • In The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p41 Shoghi Effendi dates this tablet as "1863". Given the intense activity of that year an assumption was made that it was revealed near the end of the year in either Constantinople or Adrianople.

Chronological list of significant events related to Bahá'u'lláh's historic pronouncement in the Súriy-i-Múlúk
     Fall of the French Monarchy (1870)
     Virtual Extinction of the Pope's Temporal Sovereignty (1870)
     Assassination of Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz (1876)
     Assassination of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh (1896)
     Overthrow of Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd II (1909)
     Fall of the Portuguese Monarchy (1910)
     Fall of the Chinese Monarchy (1916)
     Fall of the Russian Monarchy (1917)
     Fall of the German Monarchy (1918)
     Fall of the Austrian Monarchy (1918)
     Fall of the Hungarian Monarchy (1918)
     Fall of the Turkish Monarchy (1922)
     Collapse of the Caliphate (1924)
     Fall of the Qájár Dynasty (1925)
     Fall of the Spanish Monarchy (1931)
     Fall of the Albanian Monarchy (1938)
     Fall of the Serbian Monarchy (1941)
     Fall of the Italian Monarchy (1946)
     Fall of the Bulgarian Monarchy (1946)
     Fall of the Rumanian Monarchy (1947) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p41-42]
Adrianople; Constantinople Suriy-Muluk; Tablets to kings and rulers; Timelines; History (general); Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Writings of; - Basic timeline
1896. 19 Apr Násiri'd-Dín Sháh is assassinated on the eve of the celebration of his jubilee. He ascended the throne in 1848 and by the Islamic lunar calendar it marked the 50th year of his reign. [BKG455]
  • BBRXXIX and BBRSM219 say it was 1 May.
  • His assassin, Mírzá Ridá-yi-Kirmáni, a Pan-Islamic terrorist, was a follower of Jamálu'd-Dín-i-Afghání, one of the originators of the Constitutional movement in Iran and an enemy of the Faith. [BBRSM87; GBP296]
  • For an account of his assassination see PDC67–8.
  • See BKG430–55 for a history of his reign.
  • He is succeeded by his son Muzaffari'd-Dín. [GPB296]
  • See also CBM54-56.
Nasirid-Din Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Births and deaths; Jamalud-Din-i-Afghani; Killings
1907 19 Jan The accession of Muhammad-`Alí Sháh to the throne of Iran. [BBR354, 482]
  • The Bahá'í community received some measure of protection under this regime. [BBRSM:97–8]
Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Persecution
1908 Jun Muhammad-`Alí Sháh undertakes a successful coup d'état in Iran and abolishes the Constitution. [BBR369] Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution; Constitutions; History (general)
1909 18 Jul The accession of Ahmad Sháh, the boy-king, to the throne of Iran. [BBR482; CBM57] Iran Ahmad Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general)
1917. 2 Nov The Balfour Declaration was a letter sent to Lord Walter Rothschild by British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour declaring support for the establishment of a ‘national home for the Jewish people’ in what was to become the British Mandate of Palestine. It was the first official declaration of political support for Jewish independence and is viewed by some as paving the way for the legal foundations of the modern State of Israel as evidenced by the level of international diplomacy that went into securing the letter. In the context of WWI which was still raging at the time, it offered Britain the opportunity for a stake in the Middle East in the expected wake of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. It also marked one of the first major successes of the political Zionist movement which had officially been established with the First Zionist Congress in 1897.

Given that the Balfour Declaration was not a unilateral document on behalf of the British but rather something which had been agreed upon privately by allied diplomats before it was issued, it is viewed as the beginning of a legal process, which involved the San Remo conference of 1920 where the Declaration was officially adopted by the allied powers and latter, the creation of the British Mandate for Palestine in 1922.

The implementation of the Declaration was not without its failings. It provided for the safeguarding of the rights of the residents of Palestine saying ‘nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine’. In the run up to WWII that the British wanted to placate the Arab leadership in the Mandate. They issued a White Paper limiting Jewish immigration to the Mandate to fifteen thousand every year for five years, ultimately refusing entry to thousands of Jewish refugees from Europe, many of whom would tragically die in the Holocaust.

Palistine Balfour Declaration; Jews; History (general)
1921 Feb Ahmad Sháh (reigned 1909–25), who succeeded to the throne at age 11, was deposed in a coup d'état led by Reza Khán who appointed himself prime minister. He ruled as Reza Sháh Pahlaví between 1925–41. Iran Ahmad Shah; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general)
1925 13 Dec Ridá (or Reza) Sháh accedes to the throne of Iran. The Pahlaví dynasty commences. [BBR482] Iran Reza Shah Pahlavi; Pahlavi dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general)
1939 3 Sep World War II begins with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invades Poland. World War II; History (general); Europe; 20th century; War (general)
1941 16 Sep In Iran, Ridá Sháh abdicates and Muhammad-Ridá Sháh ascends to the throne. His rule was to last until 1979. [BBR482]
  • Ridá Sháh is overthrown by the British and Russians. [BBRSM173]
  • His reign can be described in three phases:

    The first phase, from1941 through 1955, was a period characterized by physical danger, during which Baha’is were scapegoated in the interactions among the government, the clerics and the people, and experienced several bloody incidents, the culmination of which was the 1955 anti-Baha’i campaign and its aftermaths.

    The second phase, from the late 1950s to around 1977, marked almost two decades of relative respite from physical attacks, during which Baha’is enjoyed more security than before, without ever being officially recognized as a religious community and while their existence as Baha’is was essentially ignored or denied.

    The last two years of the reign of the Shah comprised the third phase, the revival of a bloody period. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani]

Iran Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general)
1945 8 May The war in Europe ends.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s response see MA80–1, PP185 and UD175.
  • For the war’s effect on the Bahá’í community worldwide see BW17:80.
  • See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi’s opinion of the significance of the role of the United States in the war.
Europe World War II; History (general)
1945 2 Sep The war in Japan ends. Japan World War II; History (general)
1979 17 Jan Mohammad Rezā Pahlavi‎, known as Mohammad Reza Shah, entitled Shāhanshāh ("Emperor" or "King of Kings"), fled Iran. The dissolution of the monarchy was complete on the 11th of February. Tihran; Iran Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general)
2012 Jun After the January 25th revolution against Mubarak and a period of rule by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, the Muslim Brotherhood took power in Egypt through a series of popular elections with Egyptians electing Islamist Mohamed Morsi to the presidency in June 2012.

On 3 July 2013, Morsi was deposed by a coup d'état led by the minister of defense General Abdel Fattah El-Sisi. The situation of Egypt’s Bahá’í community remained uncertain. The prescriptions of the 1960 Presidential Decree, despite the revolution, had yet to be annulled. This meant that despite the 2009 lifting of the restrictions on identification documents, the Bahá’í Faith still had not received actual recognition as a religion and Bahá'í were frequently subjected to public vilification. It was a period of extreme unrest. It is estimated that between Sisi's overthrow of Morsi and the 2014 presidential elections, an estimated 20,000 activists and dissidents were arrested by the police under the interim government. El-Sisi went on to become Egypt's president by popular election in 2014.

Egypt Opposition; Persecution; Human rights; History (general)
2014. 28 May In the presidential election in Egypt, former Egyptian defence minister Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was elected with 97% of the vote according to government sources. The subsequent 2014 Constitution of the Sisi government, while guaranteeing the ‘inviolable’ right of freedom of religion, extended this only to Islam, Christianity and Judaism – meaning that Bahá’i were still prohibited from many basic freedoms, such as practicing their religious laws and constructing places of worship. Though Bahá’í representatives lobbied during the constitutional drafting processes to expand religious freedoms to their community, this did not occur.

In December 2014, a public workshop was held by the Ministry of Religious Endowments to warn of the dangers of the spread of the Bahá’i faith in Egypt.

Egypt Opposition; Persecution; Human rights; History (general); Consitutions

from the main catalogue

  1. 'Abdu'l Bahá's Tablet of the Two Calls: Civilizing Barbarity, by Manooher Mofidi, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). [about]
  2. Account of the Main Events in Persia during October 1912 to October 1913, An, by G. D. Turner (1913). Overview of developments in Iran in 1913, with passing references to Abdu'l-Baha and E.G. Browne. [about]
  3. Cause of the Rise and Fall of Civilizations, The, by Ruhaniyyih Ruth Moffett (1954). A chart correlating the growth of maturity of humanity and the evolution of religions with major events in history. [about]
  4. Celestial Burning, A: A Selective Study of the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Jack McLean (2012). Style, content, and context of World Order of Baha'u'llah and Dispensation of Baha'u'llah: part of chapter 1 of this lengthy analysis of the work of Shoghi Effendi (pages 1-71), offered as a sample. [about]
  5. Century of Light, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Survey of the history and dramatic changes of the 20th Century and the Bahá'í Faith's emergence from obscurity, "demonstrating on a global scale the unifying power with which its Divine origin has endowed it." [about]
  6. Characterization in the Writings of Shoghi Effendi: With Special Attention to Yahya, by Jack McLean (2000). The Guardian employed a creative literary device of adding moralistic comment about historical figures, such as kings and clerics, casting them as "heroes" or "villains." Mirza Yahya is depicted with aspects of the demonic. [about]
  7. Chart of the Eras and Epochs of Bahá'í History, by Arjen Bolhuis (2000). Diagram of the periods of Bahá'í history. Available in English and Russian. [about]
  8. Chronological study: Tablets to the Rulers, by Melissa Tansik (1998). Timeline of the rise of nation states, 1844-1871, and the history and fate of the rulers to whom Baha'u'llah wrote in the 1860s. [about]
  9. Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East , by Kamran Ekbal (2014). Abdu'l-Baha was opposed to the cultural and political colonialism of foreign powers and their militaries. In spite of the Baha'i principle of abstaining from politics, exceptions can be made in the face of tyranny and injustice. [about]
  10. Conspiracies and Forgeries: The Attack upon the Bahá'í Community in Iran, by Moojan Momen, in Persian Heritage, 9:35 (2004). [about]
  11. Crossroads of Civilization: 3000 Years of Persian History, by Clive Irving (1979). Passing mentions of Babi history and the word "Bábí" being used as a label to tarnish political dissidents. [about]
  12. Crowning Anguish: Memoirs of a Persian Princess from the Harem to Modernity 1884-1914, by Taj al-Saltana (1993). Passing references to the Babis in Amanat's introduction to, and in the autobiography of, Nasir al-Din's daughter. [about]
  13. Debunking the Myths: Conspiracy Theories on the Genesis and Mission of the Bahá'í Faith, by Adib Ma'sumian (2009). Response to Iranian conspiracy theories portraying the Baha'i Faith as a subversive political group, Zionist spies, affiliates of the secret police, British agents, etc. Available in English and Persian. Includes interview with author. [about]
  14. Divide and Rule: The Creation of the Alawi State after World War I, by Necati Alkan, in Fikrun wa Fann ("Art and Thought") (2013). Summary of 20th-century history of the Nusayri/Alawi Shi'i movement in Syria and Turkey. (No mention of Baha'is.) [about]
  15. Exposition of the Tablet of the World (Lawh-i-Dunyá), An, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). To fully appreciate the historical significance of the Tablet of the World, this essay first portrays the developing conditions in Persia and in the world that preceded this Tablet, then discusses its salient points. [about]
  16. History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, by John William Draper (1864). A selection of excerpts from the book. Contains no mention of the Baha'i Faith, but is of interest partly because Abdu'l-Baha referred to this book in Secret of Divine Civilization. [about]
  17. Infallibility and Historical Knowledge of the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). While the Guardian's infallibility applies to interpretation of revelation, it does not include historical and scientific knowledge. [about]
  18. Majestic Process, The: Cycles, Eras, Epochs and Stages (2004). A one page chart developed as a class handout on the "Majestic Process," the Ages and Epochs of the Faith. [about]
  19. Mid-East History during the Islamic Period: Chronology and Commentary, by Brian A. Miller (2000). Brief overview of Islamic history. [about]
  20. Notes on the Twentieth Century, by Douglas Martin (2001). Multiple transcriptions of talks given in Atlanta, New York, and Massachusetts in September and October, 2001, largely based on the document Century of Light. [about]
  21. Pivot of the Universe: Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy 1831-1896, by Abbas Amanat: Review, by Sholeh A. Quinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). [about]
  22. Secret of Divine Civilization, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1957). [about]
  23. Shoghi Effendi's View of Providential History in Light of the Judaeo-Christian Tradition, by Jack McLean, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The Guardian's letters reveal six feature of his historicity: palingenesis and transitional history; providential synchronization; teleological history; organically whole history; periodisation of ages and epochs; history as community identity-creation. [about]
  24. Tablet of Maqsud, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Date of the revelation of the Tablet of Maqsúd and its mention of "Two great powers." [about]
  25. Tablet to Napoleon III (Lawh-i-Napulyún): Biography of Napoleon, in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). First Tablet to Napoleon. [about]
  26. Tablet to Pope Pius IX (Lawh-i-Páp): Biography of Pope Pius IX, in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). [about]
  27. Tablet to Tsar Alexander II (Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus): Biography of Tsar Alexander, in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). Short biography of Tsar Alexander ll describing him as a great historical figure without the charisma of a great man. Suggests history should view what he did, such as abolishing serfdom and building railroads, as more important than who he was. [about]
  28. Tafsir and the Meaning of the Qur'an: The Crucifixion in Muslim Thought, by Todd Lawson (2010). Using Qur'án 4:156-7 as an example, classical tafsīr, “scholastic" exegesis, has not always taken account of the way all Muslims understand the Quranic text. Other understandings may be found in poetry, philosophy, mysticism and even historical writing. [about]
 
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