Search for tag "Hujjat"
|1812. c. 1812
||Birth of Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, Hujjat.
||Hujjat, Mulla Muhammad-'Ali
|1845. Jul and months following
||The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
- He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
- see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
- Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
- After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
- This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
- The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
- Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
- Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
- In Karbalá Táhirih revives the remnant of the Bábí community there. She is considered a part of the radical element of Shaykhí Bábís because she believes that the Shaykhí tradition has been abrogated by the new Revelation. The new Bábí movement causes the Shaykhí leaders to unite in their opposition to the Báb and to redefine the nature of the school, toning down its more controversial teachings and moving back towards mainstream Shí`ísm. [BBRSM16–18]
|Shíráz, Isfahán, Khurásán, Yazd, Kirmán, Nayríz, Iran, Persia, Karbalá, Iraq
||Bab, Mosque Vakil, Hidden Imam, Mulla Husayn, uncle, Babi, Shah, Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi, Vahid, scholar, Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Zanjani, Hujjat, Qayyumu'l-Asma', Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi, learned, Tahirih, Shaykhi, Shi`ism, Karim Khan, Shaykhi, Ishaqu'l-Batil, Crushing Falsehood, Shaykhism
|1847. c. 17 Apr
||The Báb sends a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]
Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb writes to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learns of this last letter and sends a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declines their assistance. [B124–5; DB235–6]
- See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
|Iran, Persia, Tabríz, Zanján,
||Bab, letter, Shah, prime minister, Bab, Shah, Grand Vizier, Tahirih, Haji Sulayman Khan, Hujjat
||The Báb is taken back to Chihríq, where He remains until June/July 1850. [B147; DB322; TN15]
- B147 says He must have arrived in the first days of August.
- On His return the Báb writes a denunciatory letter to Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. He sends it to Hujjat in Tihrán, who delivers it personally. [B147; DB323; GPB27]
- The Báb completes the Arabic Bayán. [BBR45; GBP25]
|Chihríq, Iran, Persia
||Bab, Haji Mirza Áqasi, Hujjat, Arabic Bayan
|1850. 13 May-
2 Jan 1851 c.
|Zanján upheaval. A quarrel among children escalates into opposition and hostility towards Hujjat. [B185; DB540–1]
- Hujjat had converted a sizeable proportion of the town. Tension mounted between the Bábís and the ‘ulamá. [BBR114]
- See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
- B185–8, 209–13; BBD111, 245; BBR114–26; BBRSM28, 216; DB527–81; GPB44–5; TN245.
|Zanján, Iran, Persia
||Hujjat, Babi, ‘ulama
||Newspaper coverage of the Zanjan Upheaval|
|1850. 19 May
||The Governor sends a mob against Hujjat, which is dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sends to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján is split into two camps. [BW18:381]
- See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
|Tihrán, Tehran, Zanján, Iran, Persia
||Governor, Hujjat, Mír Saláh, Zaynab, Bábí
||Muhammad Khán, the commander of the government forces at Zanján, tries to deceive Hujjat into surrender by drawing up a peace proposal. Hujjat, recalling Tabarsí and Nayríz, responds by sending children and old men to Muhammad Khán, who has them thrown into a dungeon. This signals the beginning of the final month-long siege at Zanján. [B186–7; DB564–8]
||Zanján, Tabarsí, Nayríz, Iran, Persia
||Muhammad Khan, Hujjat
|1850. early Dec
||Hujjat is wounded in the arm. His companions lay down their arms and rush to his assistance. The royal forces take advantage of the lull to breach the fortifications. [B187; BBR121; DB569]
- About 100 women and children are taken captive. They are left exposed in the open for 15 days without food, shelter or appropriate clothing. [BBR121; DB569–70]
- The remaining Bábís, about 140, shelter in Hujjat's residence under fierce attack. [BBR121]
The bombardment of the fortress is stepped-up and Hujjat's house particularly targeted. Hujjat's wife and baby are killed. [B187; DB572–3]
||Hujjat, wounded, killed, Babis
|1850. 29 Dec
||Hujjat dies of his wounds. [B187; BRR122; BW18:382]
- DB573 says this was on 8 January 1851.
|Zanján, Iran, Persia
|1851 2 Jan c.
||End of the Zanján upheaval. [BW18:382]
- With the death of Hujjat the Bábí resistance weakens. A general assault by the royal forces ends the siege. [B187; BBR122; BW18:382; DB573–4]
- See B187 and DB574–7 for the fate of the survivors.
- See B187 and DB577–9 for the fate of Hujjat's body.
- About 1,800 Bábís were killed during the upheaval. [DB580, 598]
|Zanján, Iran, Persia
||death, Hujjat, Babi
|1867. Jan or Feb
||Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a Bahá'í physician, is executed in Zanján. [BBR253; BKG238; BW18:383]
Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání, a disciple of Hujjat, is executed in Tihrán. [BBR254; BW18:383]
||Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, Bahá'í, physician, executed, Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání, Hujjat
||Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffers defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. He goes into exile in England, where he dies in 1873.
Násiri'd-Dín Sháh makes a pilgrimage to the shrines in Iraq. In preparation for his visit the Bahá'ís are rounded up, arrested and exiled. [BBR267; BBRSM90; BKG441]
- Bahá'u'lláh refers to this in KA86.
In Zanján, Áqá Siyyid Ashraf is arrested, condemned to death as a Bábí and executed. [BWG470]
- See BKG441–3 for details of the exile.
`Údí Khammár completes the restoration and expansion of the mansion at Bahjí originally built by `Abdu'lláh Páshá in 1821. [BBD42, 128; DH1067]
- He is the son of Mír Jalíl, one of the companions of Hujjat who was martyred in Tihrán at the end of the Zanján episode. [BKG470]
- He was born during the siege at Zanján. [BKG470]
- His mother was brought to prison to persuade him to recant his faith but she threatened to disown him if he did so. [BBD25; BKG470; ESW73–4; GPB199–200]
- See G135–6 for Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet concerning Ashraf and his mother.
- See DH107 for the inscription he places over the door.
|Iraq, Zanján, Bahjí
||Napoleon III, Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Áqá Siyyid Ashraf, Mír Jalíl, Hujjat, `Údí Khammár, `Abdu'lláh Páshá
|1950 (in the decade)
||In Iran, the Hujjatiyya Society is started by Shaykh Mahmúd Halabí to persecute and harass the Bahá’ís. [s1296]
- During the Pahlaví era it confined itself to this end and was called the Anti-Bahá’í Society. [SI296]
||Hujjatiyya Society, Shaykh Mahmud Halabi, Anti-Baha’i Society, religious persecution
||Anjoman-e Hojjatieh ("Society of Allah's Proof Over Creation"), also called the Hojjatieh Society founded specifically as an anti-Bahá'í organization by a charismatic Shiite Muslim cleric, Shaikh Mahmoud Halabi in the aftermath of the coup d'état of 1953. Between the early 1950s and the early 1970s a great number of the future elite of the Islamic revolution were trained by Hujjatieh. During the 1979 Iranian revolution, the Society was to play an important role in stirring animosity against Bahá'ís. However, in part because of differences in theology—among other things the Hojjatieh believe a truly Islamic state cannot be established until the return of the 12th Imam—the Society fell into disfavour and was banned by the regime in 1984. [Hojjatieh Society, Wiki]
||Hujjatieh, anti-Baha'i, Shaikh Mamud Halabi, Anjoman-e Hojjatieh
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