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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by, Hajib’ud-Dawleh, one of the Qajar courtiers, in fact the Chief Steward, in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
  • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22 and World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p29-44.
  • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
  • He was posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
  • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Yazd; Tihran; Iran Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Varqa, Ruhullah; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Varqa
    1974 1 Feb The passing of Daoud Toeg (b. Baghdad, Iraq in 1897) in Hull, Quebec (now Gatineau).
    • After he had learned of the Faith he enrolled eight other persons before writing the Guardian with his own declaration.
    • He pioneered to Italy in the 1930s for about a year and a half.
    • In 1954 he was appointed Auxiliary Board Member for Iraq, on the first Auxiliary Board for Asia. He served for sixteen years.
    • He supervised the construction of the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Baghdad and was helpful in securing a Temple site.
    • Mr. Toeg served the Guardian by conveying artifacts and Huqúqu'lláh payments from Persia to the Holy Land at a time when there was no direct communications.
    • He served as a representative of the Huqúqu'lláh for the believers in Iraq.
    • He was instrumental in locating and photographing the caves of Sar-Galú in Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán where Bahá'u'lláh lived for two years while in retreat.
    • He, his wife Latifa, and their sons pioneered to Kirkuk during the Ten Year Crusade but after seven years were asked to return to Baghdad to assist with the work there.
    • The family left Iraq in 1970 and settled in Hull where they helped to establish the first Local Spiritual Assembly. [BW16p527-528, Bahá'í World 16, Grave]
    Hull; Quebec; Baghdad; Sulaymaniyyih; Kurdistan Daoud Toeg; In Memoriam
    1998 21 Jul Mr. Ruhu'llah Rawhani, a 52-year-old medical supplies salesman was hanged in Mashhad solely for religious reasons. Later that morning, Mr. Rawhani's family was summoned to collect his body and required, despite their protests, to complete the burial within one hour, under the supervision of Government intelligence agents.
    • In 1984, Mr. Rawhani was arrested and imprisoned for more than a year. According to an account given by Mr. Rawhani's relatives in the Australian Bahá'í News, Mr. Rawhani was tortured during his first imprisonment. He was arrested a second time about four years ago. The charge was apparently related to his work in the conduct of purely religious activities, such as prayer meetings and children's classes. He was released after 24 hours.
    • Mr. Rawhani was arrested for a third time in September 1997 and placed in solitary confinement in Mashhad. He had been accused of "converting" a woman from Islam to the Bahá'í Faith. The woman, however, denied that she had converted; she explained that her mother was a Bahá'í and that she herself had been raised as a Bahá'í. She was not arrested.
    • The killing of Mr. Rawhani was the first government execution of a Bahá'í in Iran in six years, and, coupled with the widespread arrest of some 32 Bahá'í educators in fourteen different cities throughout Iran in late September and early October. From the Daily Telegraph, August 2nd 1998. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
    Mashhad; Iran Ruhullah Rawhani; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution

    from the main catalogue

    1. Reunion with the Beloved: Poetry and Martyrdom (2004). Poetry by or in honor of early Babi and Baha'i martyrs. Includes foreword by Hushmand Fatheazam, and discussion of the concept of martyrdom, cultural issues, and history of persecutions. [about]
    2. Unrestrained as the Wind: A Life Dedicated to Bahá'u'lláh (1985). Compilation of quotations on topics of especial interest to Bahá'í youth. [about]
    3. Varqa and Son: The Heavenly Doves, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). History of the family of Varqa, the only family with the distinction of having a grandfather, a father, and a son all named Hand of the Cause. [about]
    4. Varqá, Ali-Mohammad, by Iraj Ayman, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2017). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    5. Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
     
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