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Search for tag "Iran, General history"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1798 c. Mar Áqá Muhammad Khán, leader of the Qájárs, proclaims himself Sháh of Persia; beginning of Qájár dynasty. [AY213] Iran Aqa Muhammad Khan; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
1797 c. Aug Crown Prince Fath-`Alí Mírzá assumes leadership of Persia. (1797 (or 1798) to 1834) Iran Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history
1798. 21 Mar Fath-`Alí Khán is crowned second Qájár Sháh during Naw-Rúz festival. Iran Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history
1799. 21 Mar Fath-`Alí Sháh's son, `Abbás Mírzá (aged 9), is designated Crown Prince of Persia. Iran Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Abbas Mirza; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history
1804 - 1813 Russo-Persian War resulted in a Russian victory. The Battle of Aslan Duz on 31 October 1812 was the turning point in the war, which led to the complete destruction of the Persian army, thus leaving Fath Ali Shah with no other option but to sign the Treaty of Gulistan on 24 October 1813. Numerically, Persian forces had a considerable advantage during the war, a ratio of 5 to 1 over their Russian adversaries, however, the Persian forces were technologically backwards and poorly trained - a problem that the Persian government failed to recognize. With the Treaty of Gulistan Persia ceded what is now Georgia, Dagestan, parts of northern Armenia, and most of what now comprises modern Azerbaijan to Russia. Gulistan; Aslan Duz; Iran; Russia Russo-Persian War; Treaty of Gulistan; War (general); History (general); Iran, General history
1828 10 Feb Defeat of the Persians at the hands of the Russians. The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran. The war ended following the occupation of Tabriz and had even more disastrous results for Persia than the 1804-1813 war. The ensuing Treaty of Turkmenchay, signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran, stripped Persia of its last remaining territories in the Caucasus, which comprised all of modern Armenia, the southern remainder of modern Azerbaijan, and modern Igdir in Turkey. Through the Gulistan and Turkmenchay treaties Persia had lost all of its territories in the Caucasus to Russia making them the unquestioned dominant power in the region. [BBRSM55] Tabriz; Turkmenchay; Iran Russo-Persian War; Wars; History (general); Iran, General history
1834 9 Sep The end of the reign of Fath-`Alí Sháh and the accession of his grandson, Muhammad Sháh. [B7; BBD83, 164; BBR153, 482]
  • Fifty–three sons and 46 daughters survive Fath-`Alí Sháh. [B7]
  • After his accession Muhammad Sháh executes the Grand Vizier, the Qá'im Máqám, the man who has raised him to the throne. He then installs his tutor, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, to the office (1835). [B10–11]
  • See BBD164 for picture.
  • See B11–122 for the relationship between the Sháh and his new Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí.
  • For details on the life of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí see BBD19.
Iran Fath-Ali Shah; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Grand Viziers; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Iran, General history
1839 Defeat of Persia at the hands of the British. [BBRSM55] Iran War (general); Britain; History (general); Iran, General history
1845. 28 Jun Prince Dolgorukov is appointed Russian ambassador to Tihrán. He was previously first secretary of the Russian legation at Istanbul. He arrives in Tihrán in January 1846. Istanbul; Turkey; Tihran; Iran; Russia Prince Dolgorukov; Ambassadors; History (general); Iran, General history
1846. Jan Prince Dolgorukov arrives in Tihrán as the Russian ambassador. Tihran; Iran Prince Dolgorukov; Russia; Ambassadors; History (general); Iran, General history
1848. 4 Sep The death of Muhammad Sháh. [BBR153–4]
  • This precipitates the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. [B147; BBD19; BBR156]
  • For details of his life, fall and death, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
  • The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest is rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
Iran Muhammad Shah; Grand Viziers; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Antichrist; Bahaullah, Life of; Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1848. 12 Sep The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
  • He is 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
  • He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
  • The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
  • For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
  • See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
  • See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
  • See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
  • He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
  • It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
  • His reform antagonized many and a coalition was formed against him. One of the most active proponents was the queen mother. She convinced the Shah that he wanted his throne. In October of 1851 the shah dismissed him and exiled him to Kashan where he was murdured on the shah's orders.
Tabriz; Iran; Iraq Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Firsts, Other
1848. 19 Oct Entry of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh into Tihrán. [BBR482]
  • MH240 says it took him 45 days to travel to Tihrán to occupy his father's throne.

    Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání takes up post as prime minister. [BBR482]

Tihran; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Prime ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers
1852. 15 Aug Attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]

  • See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
  • See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
  • See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
  • Ja‘far-Qulí Khán writes immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh is denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the ‘would-be murderer'. Ja‘far-Qulí Khán offers to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
Iran Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; Shahs; History (general); Iran, General history; Jafar-Quli Khan; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1856 to Mar 1857 The Anglo-Persian War. [BBR165, 263] Iran History (General); Iran, General history
1869 – 1872 A great famine occurs in Iran in which about 10 per cent of the population dies and a further 10 per cent emigrates. [BBRSM86; GPB233] Iran Iran, General history; Famine
1896. 19 Apr Násiri'd-Dín Sháh was assassinated on the eve of the celebration of his jubilee. He had ascended to the throne in 1848 and by the Islamic lunar calendar it marked the 50th year of his reign. [BKG455]
  • BBRXXIX and BBRSM219 say it was 1 May.
  • His assassin, Mírzá Ridá-yi-Kirmáni, a Pan-Islamic terrorist, was a follower of Jamálu'd-Dín-i-Afghání, one of the originators of the Constitutional movement in Iran and an enemy of the Faith. [BBRSM87; GBP296]
  • For an account of his assassination see PDC67–8.
  • See BKG430–55 for a history of his reign.
  • He is succeeded by his son Muzaffari'd-Dín. [GPB296]
  • See also CBM54-56.
  • See AY214-216.
Rayy; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah; Shahs; Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history; Births and deaths; Jamalud-Din-i-Afghani; Assassinations
1896 1 May Muzaffari'd-Dín became the shah of Persia. He was the son of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. He had been sent as governor to the province of Azerbaijan in 1861 and, as the crown prince, had spent 35 years in the pursuit of pleasure. When he ascended to the throne he was unprepared for the office. In addition, the country had huge debts to both Britain and Russia. Iran Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
1906 5 Aug After an almost bloodless revolution Muzaffari'd-Din Sháh was forced to sign a document calling for a National Assembly to be elected from amount the working guilds, landowners merchants and the nobles. The parliament was opened on the 7th of October. [AY24] Iran Iran, General history; History (general); Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs
1907 8 Jan The death of Muzaffari'd-Dín Sháh just a few days after he had signed the constitution. [BBR354, 482] Iran Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths; Iran, General history; History (general); Constitutions
1907 19 Jan The accession of Muhammad-`Alí Sháh to the throne of Iran. He reigned until 1909. He attempted to rescind the constitution and abolish parliamentary government. After several disputes with the members of the Majlis in June, 1908 he bombed the Majlis building, arrested many of the deputies and closed down the assembly. In July 1909 constitutional forces deposed him and he went into exile in Russia from where he attempted to regain his throne. [BBR354, 482, AY218]
  • The Bahá'í community received some measure of protection under this regime. [BBRSM:97–8]
Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history; Persecution
1907 31 Aug Anglo-Russian Convention relating to Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet, was signed in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The convention brought shaky British–Russian relations to the forefront by solidifying boundaries that identified respective control in the three countries. It delineated spheres of influence in Persia, stipulated that neither country would interfere in Tibet’s internal affairs, and recognized Britain’s influence over Afghanistan. [AY47-48] St Petersburg; Russia; Iran; Afghanistan; Tibet Iran, General history; History (general)
1908 Jun Muhammad-`Alí Sháh undertakes a successful coup d'état in Iran and abolishes the Constitution. [BBR369] Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution; Constitutions; History (general); Iran, General history
1909 18 Jul The accession of Ahmad Sháh, the boy-king, to the throne of Iran. He was twelve years old and because of his youth a regency was established under Azudu'l-Mulk, the head of the Qájár family. Ahmad's official coronation took place on the 21st of July, 1914. His reign formerly lasted until October 1925 when he was deposed by the Majles while he was absent in Europe. He was the last of the Qajar dynasty. [BBR482; CBM57] Iran Ahmad Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
1911 8 Apr W. Morgan Shuster was an American chosen by the Persian Chargé d’Affaires at Washington, Mirza Ali Kuli Khan, to serve as Treasurer-general of Persian for a period of three years. His mandate was to organize and conduct the collection and disbursements of the revenues. Four American assistants were likewise engaged to serve under the Treasurer-general. Since the Anglo-Russian agreement of 1907 the country was under the influence of the Russians in the north and the British in the south. The purpose in engaging Shuster was to put the country's financial affairs in order so that they might attract investment from other nations.
  • After an encounter with the Russian Consul-General he was forced to leave on the 14th of January, 1912. [AY79-82]
Iran; Washington DC; United States Ali-Kuli Khan; Iran, General history; History (general)
1917 Foreign troops occupy nearly all of neutral Iran. [AB416; BBRSM:87] Iran War (general); History (General); Iran, General history
1919 19 Aug The Anglo-Persian agreement was signed whereby Persia would get advisors for every department and give every concession to England. It effectively made Persia a British protectorate and eliminated the Russian influence that had been established by the earlier Anglo-Russian pact. The United States Government was much displeased, for this represented a breach of ‘open covenants openly arrived at’, one of Wilson’s Fourteen Points, and represented a continuation of the secret diplomacy of former times. The price of this agreement, according to one official, was £500,000 paid out to one prominent official, and £300,000 to another.

When the Persians discovered by what dubious means this Agreement was contrived, they arose in fury, there was a coup d’état with the backing of the Cossack Brigade, Siyyid Zia-ed-Din came to power (1921) and abrogated the Agreement. Then he himself would be overthrown, and replaced by Reza Khan of the Cossack Brigade as Minister of War and Commander in Chief. Thus an illiterate one-time army private, once a sentry at a hospital gate, would eventually (1925) become a powerful Shah. [AY172, 210]

Iran; United Kingdom Anglo-Persian agreement; British history; History (general); Iran, General history
1921 Feb Ahmad Sháh (reigned 1909–25), who succeeded to the throne at age 11, was deposed in a coup d'état led by Reza Khán who appointed himself prime minister. He ruled as Reza Sháh Pahlaví between 1925–41. Iran Ahmad Shah; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
1925 31 Oct Ahmad Sháh was deposed and the Qájár dynasty (1785-1925) was formerly terminated by declaration of the National Consultative Assembly. He was replaced by Reza Shah Pahlavi. [BBD190; BBR482; BBRSM87, PDC66-69, AY46-47] Iran Ahmad Shah; Qajar dynasty; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Iran, general history
1925 13 Dec Ridá (or Reza) Sháh accedes to the throne of Iran. The Pahlaví dynasty commences. [BBR482] Iran Reza Shah Pahlavi; Pahlavi dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
1941 16 Sep In Iran, Ridá Sháh abdicates and Muhammad-Ridá Sháh ascends to the throne. His rule was to last until 1979. [BBR482]
  • Ridá Sháh is overthrown by the British and Russians. [BBRSM173]
  • His reign can be described in three phases:

    The first phase, from1941 through 1955, was a period characterized by physical danger, during which Baha’is were scapegoated in the interactions among the government, the clerics and the people, and experienced several bloody incidents, the culmination of which was the 1955 anti-Baha’i campaign and its aftermaths.

    The second phase, from the late 1950s to around 1977, marked almost two decades of relative respite from physical attacks, during which Baha’is enjoyed more security than before, without ever being officially recognized as a religious community and while their existence as Baha’is was essentially ignored or denied.

    The last two years of the reign of the Shah comprised the third phase, the revival of a bloody period. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani]

Iran Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
1979 17 Jan Mohammad Rezā Pahlavi‎, known as Mohammad Reza Shah, entitled Shāhanshāh ("Emperor" or "King of Kings"), fled Iran. The dissolution of the monarchy was complete on the 11th of February. Tihran; Iran Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
1979. 1 Feb Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran from exile in France. Tihran; Iran Ayatollah Khomeini; History (general); Iran, General history; Ayatollahs

from the main catalogue

  1. Account of the Main Events in Persia during October 1912 to October 1913, An, by G. D. Turner (1913). Overview of developments in Iran in 1913, with passing references to Abdu'l-Baha and E.G. Browne. [about]
  2. Baha'is and the Constitutional Revolution, The: The Case of Sari, Mazandaran, 1906-1913, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Studies, 41:3 (2008). Accounts of the Constitutional Revolution in Iran have tended to ignore the role of the Baha’is. They educated people about the reforms envisaged and about the modern world, for which they were persecuted. [about]
  3. British influence in Persia in the 19th century, by Abbas Amanat, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 11 (2003). Includes various mentions of the Babi context. Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  4. Browne, Edward Granville: Persian Constitutional movement, by Kamran Ekbal, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  5. Crossroads of Civilization: 3000 Years of Persian History, by Clive Irving (1979). Passing mentions of Babi history and the word "Bábí" being used as a label to tarnish political dissidents. [about]
  6. Crowning Anguish: Memoirs of a Persian Princess from the Harem to Modernity 1884-1914, by Taj al-Saltana (1993). Passing references to the Babis in Amanat's introduction to, and in the autobiography of, Nasir al-Din's daughter. [about]
  7. En Perse: La Constitution, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Revue du Monde Musulman, 1:1 (1906). Three documents related to the first Iranian Constitution, with passing mentions of Babis. [about]
  8. Hints for Residents and Travellers in Persia, by A. R. Neligan (1914). 2-sentence mention of Babis/Baha'is. [about]
  9. History of Persia from the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century to the Year 1858, A, by Robert Grant Watson (1866). A review of the events that led to the establishment of the Qajar dynasty, with discussion of the Babis. [about]
  10. Introduction to Shi'i Islam, An: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism, by Moojan Momen (1985). The most lengthy and authoritative contemporary overview of Shi'ism; a commonly-assigned college textbook. Includes biographies of prominent historical figures. Not yet formatted. [about]
  11. Introduction to Shi'i Islam, An, by Moojan Momen (1985). Summary of Shi'i history and doctrines, excerpted from the book Introduction to Shí'í Islam. [about]
  12. Introduction to the History and Culture of Iran, An, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). [about]
  13. Left in Contemporary Iran, The, by Sepehr Zabih (1986). Discussion of "urban guerilla warfare" pre-1979 with one passing mention of an unnamed Baha'i businessman as owner of Export Bank. [about]
  14. Paranoid Style in Iranian Politics, The, by Ervand Abrahamian, in Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic (1993). A seminal essay which mentions contemporary Iranian attitudes toward the Baha'is. Includes three other mentions of the Baha'i Faith elsewhere in the book in which this essay was first published. [about]
  15. Persian Revolution of 1905-1909, The, by E. G. Browne: Reviews, by Various (1996). Three reviews, published in CIRA Bulletin, International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, and Journal of Islamic Studies. [about]
  16. Pivot of the Universe: Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy 1831-1896, by Abbas Amanat: Review, by Sholeh A. Quinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). [about]
  17. Religious Background of the 1979 Revolution in Iran, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
 
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