|1897 In the year
||Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, the first Bahá'í to have settled China, dies in Bombay on his way back to Shíráz. [PH24]
The Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh are instructed by `Abdu'l-Bahá to gather to begin the consultations regarding the future organization of the Bahá'í community in Tihrán.
Fifteen Bahá'ís are arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They are taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]
- This gathering leads to the formation of the Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán in 1899. [BBD98, 114, 115; EB268]
Three Bahá'ís are arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]
The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán are looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]
|China; Bombay; Tihrán; Saysán; Ádharbáyján; Tabríz; Nayríz; Hamadán
||Haji Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihran; Áqa Najafi; Iranian persecution
||The Junaynih Garden northwest of Mazra`ih, owned by several Bahá'ís, is registered under the name of `Abdu'l-Bahá and a brother. [BBD 124]
William Hoar, one of the first Bahá'ís in America, is asked by `Abdu'l-Bahá to meet with the Persian ambassador in Washington to request justice for the Bahá'ís of Iran, thus marking the beginning of the efforts of the American Bahá'í community to alleviate the persecution of their brethren. [BFA2:51]
||Junaynih Garden; William Hoar; Iranian persecution
||Ghulám-Ridá is killed in Najafábád. [BW18:385]
||Ghulam-Ri?a; Iranian persecution
|1902 18 Mar
||Áqá Muhammad-Zamá-i-Sabbágh and Siyyid Ja`far are executed in Isfandábád and Abarqú, Fárs. Several Bahá'ís are expelled from the town and another Bahá'í killed. [BW18:385]
||Isfandabad and Abarqu; Fars;
||Aqa Muhammad-Zama-i-Sabbagh; Siyyid Ja`far; Iranian persecution
||Upheaval at Rasht. [BBRXXX, 373; BW18:385]
Upheaval at Isfahán. [BW18:385]
- See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events.
- See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events.
- The Bahá'ís take sanctuary at the Russian Consulate. [BBR376]
- For Western accounts of the episode see BBR377–85.
|1903 28 May
||A large mob gather outside the Russian Consulate in Isfahán and beat the Bahá'ís as they leave. One Bahá'í dies. [BW18:385]
|1903 8 Jun
||Bahá'ís in Maláyir, Hamadán, are attacked, beaten and imprisoned. Two are killed. [BW18:385]
||The Yazd Upheaval. [BBRXXX]
- See BW18:385–6 for a chronicle of events.
- This is said to be one of the bloodiest events to take place during the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
- For Western responses see BBR385–98 and SBBH1:67.
- For details of the martyrdom of Hájí Mírzáy-i-Halabí-Sáz during the upheaval see RB2:358–66.
- For the effect on Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background see SBBH2:80.
||Iranian persecution; Haji Mirzay-i-Halabi-Saz
|1905 c. 30 Mar
||Hájí Kalb-`Alí is shot and killed in Najafábád. [BW18:386]
||Haji Kalb-`Ali; Iranian persecution
||Bahá'ís in Sangsar, Khurásán, are persecuted such that they take to the hills. [BW18:386]
||Several Bahá'ís in Sangsar and Shahmírzád are killed or injured by bullets; six Bahá'ís are arrested. [BW18:386]
||Sangsar and Shahmírzád
|1907 25 Apr
||Karbalá'í Sádiq is martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:386]
||Karbala'i Sadiq; Iranian persecution
||Eighteen or 19 Bahá'ís are brutally assassinated in Nayríz when the Constitutionalists take control of the city. [BBR369; BW18:386; DH71, 138; GPB298; RB1:268]
||Constitutionalists; Iranian persecution
||Bahá'ís of Námiq, Khurásán, are attacked and Kad-khudá Ismá'íl is killed. [BW18:386]
||Námiq; Khurásán; Kad-khudá
||Kad-khuda Isma'il; Iranian persecution
|1909 22 Apr
||Three Bahá'ís are killed in Hisár, Khurásán, and their wives seriously injured. [BW18:386]
|1909 28 Jul
||Bahá'ís in Námiq, Khurásán, are killed. [BW18:386]
|1909 8 Nov
||Hájí Haydar, a leading Bahá'í of Najafábád, is shot and killed at Isfahán. [BBR432]
- BRXXX and BW18:387 say this occurred on 5 November.
- For Western accounts of the incident see BRR432–4.
||Haji Haydar; Iranian persecution
|1910 20 Sep
||Muhammad-Ja`far-i-Sabbágh is martyred at Najafábád. [BW18:387]
||Muhammad-Ja`far-i-Sabbagh; Iranian persecution
||By this year at least 70 Bahá'í books and pamphlets have been produced in English. [BBRSM:103–4]
There are about two dozen Bahá'ís in Canada by this year. [BFA2:158]
|Canada; Tihrán; Bárfurúsh; Mázandarán
||`Ali Muhammad Varqa; Hand of the Cause of God; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Mu`inu't-Tujjar; Iranian persecution
|1912 3 Jan
||In Sárí, Mázandarán, a mob attacks houses of Bahá'ís and four Bahá'ís are killed; a few days later another Bahá'í is killed. [BW18:387]
|1912 4 Feb
||Two Bahá'ís are killed in Máhfurúzak, Mázandarán. [BW18:387]
|1914 27 Aug
||Áqá Mírzá Yúsif-i-Qá'iní is killed in Mashhad. [BW18:387]
||Aqa Mirza Yusif-i-Qa'ini; Iranian persecution
|1915 14 Mar
||Shaykh ‘Alí Akbar-i-Qúchání is shot to death in Mashhad. Considerable anti-Bahá’í agitation follows and many Bahá’ís are forced to seek sanctuary. Three hundred people are arrested. [BBRXXX; BW18:387; GPB298–9]
||Shaykh ‘Alí Akbar-i-Qúchání; Iranian persecution
|1916 22 Feb
||In Sultánábád Mírzá `Alí-Akbar, his wife, his sister-in-law (aged 12) and their four children (aged from 46 days to 11 years) are killed by having their throats cut. [BW18:387; GPB299]
||Mirza `Ali-Akbar; Iranian persecution
|1916 28 Jul
||Mullá Nasru'lláh-i-Shahmírzádí is martyred at Sangsar, Khurásán. [BW18:387]
||Mulla Nasru'llah-i-Shahmirzadi; Iranian persecution
|1917 17 Feb
||A mob in Najafábád disinters the bodies from two Bahá'í graves. A general agitation against Bahá'ís follows. The Bahá'ís are boycotted in the bazaar and public baths and 32 are arrested. [BW18:387]
|1917 2 May
||The martyrdom of Mírzá Muhammad-i-Bulúr-Furúsh in Yazd. [BBRXXX, BBR443]
||Mirza Muhammad-i-Bulur-Furush; Iranian persecution
|1918 15 Mar
||Áqá Mírzá Javád, I`timádu't-Tujjár, is shot in Bandar Jaz and the houses of the Bahá'ís are looted, causing the death of Javád's 14-year-old nephew. [BW18:387]
||Bandar Jaz; Iran;
||Áqa Mirza Javad; I`timadu't-Tujjar; Iranian persecution
|1920 21 May
||The execution at Sultánábád of Hájí `Arab by hanging. [BBRXXX, 444-6; BW18:387]
||Haji `Arab; Iranian persecution
||The tombs of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in Isfahán are demolished by a mob. [BBR437]
- For Western responses see BBR437-9.
||King of Martyrs; the Beloved of Martyrs; Iranian persecution
|1921 23 Jan
||Mírzá Ya`qúb-i-Muttahidih is assassinated in Kirmánsháh. [BBRXXX, 446-50; BW18:387; GPB299]
- He is the last to lay down his life in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá. GPB299]
||Mirza Ya`qub-i-Muttahidih; Iranian persecution; `Abdu'l-Baha
||Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background are harassed by the Zoroastrian agent in Qum. [BW18:388]
|1921 20 Oct
||Áqá Siyyid Mustafá Tabátabá'í is poisoned in Sangsar. Continual agitation prevents the burial of the body for several days. [BW18:388]
||Áqa Siyyid Mustafa Tabataba'i; Iranian persecution
|1924 9 Mar
||Two Bahá'ís are imprisoned for several months in Marághih, Iran, after two mullás stir up trouble against the Bahá'ís. [BW18:388]
|1924 21-28 Mar
||Daily attacks on Bahá'ís and their shops in Mashhad culminate in the expulsion from the town of áqá Gulkání and other Bahá'ís. [BW13:388]
||aqa Gulkani; Iranian persecution
|1924 2 Apr
||Bahá'ís in Turbat-i-Haydarí, Iran, are attacked; some are arrested and imprisoned and others are forced to leave the town permanently. [BW18:388]
|1924 5 Apr
||Shaykh `Abdu'l-Majíd is beaten to death in Turshíz, Khurásán, Iran. [BW18:388]
||Turshiz; Khurasan; Iran
||Shaykh `Abdu'l-Majid; Iranian persecution
|1924 22 Jun
||áqá Husayn-`Alí is martyred in Firúzábád, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388]
||Firuzabad; Fars; Iran
||aqa Husayn-`Ali; Iranian persecution
|1991 25 Feb
||In Irán, a secret Government memorandum, drawn up by the Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council which was obtained and made public in 1993 by United Nations' Special Representative Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, who was then charged with investigating the human rights situation in Iran. Signed by Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the memorandum established a subtle government policy aimed at essentially grinding the community into nonexistence by
[One Country, Iran Press Watch]
- forcing Bahá'í children to have a strong Islamic education,
- pushing Bahá'í adults into the economic periphery and forcing them from all positions of power or influence, and
- requiring that Bahá'í youth "be expelled from universities, either in the admission process or during the course of their studies, once it becomes known that they are Bahá'ís."
||Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council; United Nations' Special Representative; human rights; Ali Khamenei; Iranian persecution
|1997 4 Jul
||Masha'llah Enayati, a 63-year-old man, died in custody while in prison in Isfahan after being severely beaten. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2]
||Masha'llah Enayati; Iranian persecution
|1997 6 Jul
||Shahram Reza'i, a conscript in the army, was shot in the head by his superior officer at a military base near Rasht, Iran. The officer, who said the bullets were fired in error, was released a few days after a court excused him from paying the blood money normally required in such cases because the dead soldier was a Bahá'í.
[One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2]
||Shahram Reza'I; Iranian persecution
||The Bahá’í Open University resumed activities after the seizure of much of their assets four months earlier by the Iranian government.
||Baha’i Open University; Iranian persecution
|1998 21 Jul
||Mr. Ruhu'llah Rawhani, a 52-year-old medical supplies salesman was hanged in Mashhad solely for religious reasons. Later that morning, Mr. Rawhani's family was summoned to collect his body and required, despite their protests, to complete the burial within one hour, under the supervision of Government intelligence agents.
- In 1984, Mr. Rawhani was arrested and imprisoned for more than a year. According to an account given by Mr. Rawhani's relatives in the Australian Bahá'í News, Mr. Rawhani was tortured during his first imprisonment. He was arrested a second time about four years ago. The charge was apparently related to his work in the conduct of purely religious activities, such as prayer meetings and children's classes. He was released after 24 hours.
- Mr. Rawhani was arrested for a third time in September 1997 and placed in solitary confinement in Mashhad. He had been accused of "converting" a woman from Islam to the Bahá'í Faith. The woman, however, denied that she had converted; she explained that her mother was a Bahá'í and that she herself had been raised as a Bahá'í. She was not arrested.
- The killing of Mr. Rawhani was the first government execution of a Bahá'í in Iran in six years, and, coupled with the widespread arrest of some 32 Bahá'í educators in fourteen different cities throughout Iran in late September and early October. From the Daily Telegraph, August 2nd 1998.
[One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2,
One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
||Ruhu'llah Rawhani; Iranian persecution
|1998 29 Sep
||Starting this date until October 2nd, in Iran, government raids on 500 private homes and the arrest of some 30 faculty members in efforts to close the Bahá’í Institute for Higher Education, a decentralized university that aimed to give Bahá’í students access to the education they have been otherwise denied.
- The Institute offered Bachelor's degrees in ten subject areas: applied chemistry, biology, dental science, pharmacological science, civil engineering, computer science, psychology, law, literature and accounting. Within these subject areas, which were administered by five "departments," the Institute was able to offer more than 200 distinct courses each term.
- In the beginning, courses were based on correspondence lessons developed by Indiana University, which was one of the first institutions in the West to recognize the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education. Later on, course offerings were developed internally.
- Teaching was done principally via correspondence, or, for specialized scientific and technical courses and in other special cases, in small-group classes that were usually held in private homes. Over time, however, the Institute was able to establish a few laboratories, operated in privately owned commercial buildings in and around Teheran, for computer science, physics, dental science, pharmacology, applied chemistry and language study. The operations of these laboratories were kept prudently quiet, with students cautioned not to come and go in large groups that might give the authorities a reason to object.
- Among other significant human rights conventions, Iran is a party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966. Parties to this Covenant "recognize the right of everyone to education" and more specifically that "higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means." [“The New York Times” article dated 29 October, 1998,
One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
||Baha’i Institute for Higher Education; Iranian persecution; International Covenant on Economic; Social and Cultural Rights; UN General Assembly
||In Babul, Iran, the destruction of the gravesite of Quddús, a house-like structure that marked the resting place of Mullá Muhammad-'Ali Barfurushi, was began and halted temporarily after local Bahá'ís demanded to see a legal permit for the demolition work. Later it was discovered that the dismantling of the gravesite had continued surreptitiously over a period of days until the structure was entirely demolished despite protests from Bahá'ís at the local, national, and international levels.
- This measure came soon after the international community failed to offer a resolution on the human rights situation in Iran at the United Nations. [One Country Vol.15 Issue 4]
||Quddus; Iranian persecution
|2004 7 Feb
||The release of Mr. Bihnam Mithaqi and Mr. Kayvan Khalajabadi who had been imprisoned on April 29, 1989, for "association with Baha'i institutions."
- They were both originally sentenced to eight years' imprisonment, but upon appeal, their sentences were commuted to three years' imprisonment plus 50 lashes. Both prisoners appealed this decision, and on April 30, 1991, the Islamic Revolutionary Court sentenced them to death. On February 18, 1996, the Supreme Court of Iran rejected numerous appeals and confirmed the death sentences. In February 2001, after further judicial reviews, the chief of the judicial branch reduced their sentences to 15 years in prison and set February 2004 for their release. [Referenced web site has ceased operation. Human Rights Watch (some dates differ from this source)]
||Bihnam Mithaqi; Kayvan Khalajabadi; Iranian persecution