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Search for tag "Iranian persecution"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1897 In the year Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, the first Bahá'í to have settled China, dies in Bombay on his way back to Shíráz. [PH24]

The Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh are instructed by `Abdu'l-Bahá to gather to begin the consultations regarding the future organization of the Bahá'í community in Tihrán.

  • This gathering leads to the formation of the Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán in 1899. [BBD98, 114, 115; EB268]
Fifteen Bahá'ís are arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They are taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]

Three Bahá'ís are arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]

The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán are looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]

China; Bombay; Tihrán; Saysán; Ádharbáyján; Tabríz; Nayríz; Hamadán Haji Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihran; Áqa Najafi; Iranian persecution
1901 The Junaynih Garden northwest of Mazra`ih, owned by several Bahá'ís, is registered under the name of `Abdu'l-Bahá and a brother. [BBD 124]

William Hoar, one of the first Bahá'ís in America, is asked by `Abdu'l-Bahá to meet with the Persian ambassador in Washington to request justice for the Bahá'ís of Iran, thus marking the beginning of the efforts of the American Bahá'í community to alleviate the persecution of their brethren. [BFA2:51]

Junaynih Garden Junaynih Garden; William Hoar; Iranian persecution
1901 May Ghulám-Ridá is killed in Najafábád. [BW18:385] Najafábád Ghulam-Ri?a; Iranian persecution
1902 18 Mar Áqá Muhammad-Zamá-i-Sabbágh and Siyyid Ja`far are executed in Isfandábád and Abarqú, Fárs. Several Bahá'ís are expelled from the town and another Bahá'í killed. [BW18:385] Isfandabad and Abarqu; Fars; Aqa Muhammad-Zama-i-Sabbagh; Siyyid Ja`far; Iranian persecution
1903 May Upheaval at Rasht. [BBRXXX, 373; BW18:385]
  • See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events.
Upheaval at Isfahán. [BW18:385]
  • See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events.
  • The Bahá'ís take sanctuary at the Russian Consulate. [BBR376]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR377–85.
Rasht; Isfahan Iranian persecution
1903 28 May A large mob gather outside the Russian Consulate in Isfahán and beat the Bahá'ís as they leave. One Bahá'í dies. [BW18:385] Isfahan Iranian persecution
1903 8 Jun Bahá'ís in Maláyir, Hamadán, are attacked, beaten and imprisoned. Two are killed. [BW18:385] Malayir; Hamadan Iranian persecution
1903 Jun-Jul The Yazd Upheaval. [BBRXXX]
  • See BW18:385–6 for a chronicle of events.
  • This is said to be one of the bloodiest events to take place during the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • For Western responses see BBR385–98 and SBBH1:67.
  • For details of the martyrdom of Hájí Mírzáy-i-Halabí-Sáz during the upheaval see RB2:358–66.
  • For the effect on Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background see SBBH2:80.
Yazd Iranian persecution; Haji Mirzay-i-Halabi-Saz
1905 c. 30 Mar Hájí Kalb-`Alí is shot and killed in Najafábád. [BW18:386] Najafabad Haji Kalb-`Ali; Iranian persecution
1906 summer Bahá'ís in Sangsar, Khurásán, are persecuted such that they take to the hills. [BW18:386] Sangsar; Khurásán Iranian persecution
1906 Oct-Nov Several Bahá'ís in Sangsar and Shahmírzád are killed or injured by bullets; six Bahá'ís are arrested. [BW18:386] Sangsar and Shahmírzád Iranian persecution
1907 25 Apr Karbalá'í Sádiq is martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:386] Tabriz Karbala'i Sadiq; Iranian persecution
1909 Mar Eighteen or 19 Bahá'ís are brutally assassinated in Nayríz when the Constitutionalists take control of the city. [BBR369; BW18:386; DH71, 138; GPB298; RB1:268] Nayríz Constitutionalists; Iranian persecution
1909 Mar–Apr Bahá'ís of Námiq, Khurásán, are attacked and Kad-khudá Ismá'íl is killed. [BW18:386] Námiq; Khurásán; Kad-khudá Kad-khuda Isma'il; Iranian persecution
1909 22 Apr Three Bahá'ís are killed in Hisár, Khurásán, and their wives seriously injured. [BW18:386] Hisar; Khurasan Iranian persecution
1909 28 Jul Bahá'ís in Námiq, Khurásán, are killed. [BW18:386] Namiq; Khurasan Iranian persecution
1909 8 Nov Hájí Haydar, a leading Bahá'í of Najafábád, is shot and killed at Isfahán. [BBR432]
  • BRXXX and BW18:387 say this occurred on 5 November.
  • For Western accounts of the incident see BRR432–4.
Isfahán Haji Haydar; Iranian persecution
1910 20 Sep Muhammad-Ja`far-i-Sabbágh is martyred at Najafábád. [BW18:387] Najafabad Muhammad-Ja`far-i-Sabbagh; Iranian persecution
1912 By this year at least 70 Bahá'í books and pamphlets have been produced in English. [BBRSM:103–4]

There are about two dozen Bahá'ís in Canada by this year. [BFA2:158]

Canada; Tihrán; Bárfurúsh; Mázandarán `Ali Muhammad Varqa; Hand of the Cause of God; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Mu`inu't-Tujjar; Iranian persecution
1912 3 Jan In Sárí, Mázandarán, a mob attacks houses of Bahá'ís and four Bahá'ís are killed; a few days later another Bahá'í is killed. [BW18:387] Sari; Mazandaran Iranian persecution
1912 4 Feb Two Bahá'ís are killed in Máhfurúzak, Mázandarán. [BW18:387] Mahfuruzak; Mazandaran Iranian persecution
1914 27 Aug Áqá Mírzá Yúsif-i-Qá'iní is killed in Mashhad. [BW18:387] Mashhad Aqa Mirza Yusif-i-Qa'ini; Iranian persecution
1915 14 Mar Shaykh ‘Alí Akbar-i-Qúchání is shot to death in Mashhad. Considerable anti-Bahá’í agitation follows and many Bahá’ís are forced to seek sanctuary. Three hundred people are arrested. [BBRXXX; BW18:387; GPB298–9] Mashhad Shaykh ‘Alí Akbar-i-Qúchání; Iranian persecution
1916 22 Feb In Sultánábád Mírzá `Alí-Akbar, his wife, his sister-in-law (aged 12) and their four children (aged from 46 days to 11 years) are killed by having their throats cut. [BW18:387; GPB299]
  • See DB610 for picture.
Sultanabad Mirza `Ali-Akbar; Iranian persecution
1916 28 Jul Mullá Nasru'lláh-i-Shahmírzádí is martyred at Sangsar, Khurásán. [BW18:387] Sangsar; Khurasan Mulla Nasru'llah-i-Shahmirzadi; Iranian persecution
1917 17 Feb A mob in Najafábád disinters the bodies from two Bahá'í graves. A general agitation against Bahá'ís follows. The Bahá'ís are boycotted in the bazaar and public baths and 32 are arrested. [BW18:387] Najafabad Iranian persecution
1917 2 May The martyrdom of Mírzá Muhammad-i-Bulúr-Furúsh in Yazd. [BBRXXX, BBR443] Yazd Mirza Muhammad-i-Bulur-Furush; Iranian persecution
1918 15 Mar Áqá Mírzá Javád, I`timádu't-Tujjár, is shot in Bandar Jaz and the houses of the Bahá'ís are looted, causing the death of Javád's 14-year-old nephew. [BW18:387] Bandar Jaz; Iran; Áqa Mirza Javad; I`timadu't-Tujjar; Iranian persecution
1920 21 May The execution at Sultánábád of Hájí `Arab by hanging. [BBRXXX, 444-6; BW18:387] Sultanabad Haji `Arab; Iranian persecution
1920 Sep The tombs of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in Isfahán are demolished by a mob. [BBR437]
  • For Western responses see BBR437-9.
Isfahán King of Martyrs; the Beloved of Martyrs; Iranian persecution
1921 23 Jan Mírzá Ya`qúb-i-Muttahidih is assassinated in Kirmánsháh. [BBRXXX, 446-50; BW18:387; GPB299]
  • He is the last to lay down his life in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá. GPB299]
Kirmánsháh Mirza Ya`qub-i-Muttahidih; Iranian persecution; `Abdu'l-Baha
1921 Jul-Aug Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background are harassed by the Zoroastrian agent in Qum. [BW18:388] Qum Iranian persecution
1921 20 Oct Áqá Siyyid Mustafá Tabátabá'í is poisoned in Sangsar. Continual agitation prevents the burial of the body for several days. [BW18:388] Sangsar; Iran; Áqa Siyyid Mustafa Tabataba'i; Iranian persecution
1924 9 Mar Two Bahá'ís are imprisoned for several months in Marághih, Iran, after two mullás stir up trouble against the Bahá'ís. [BW18:388] Maraghih; Iran Iranian persecution
1924 21-28 Mar Daily attacks on Bahá'ís and their shops in Mashhad culminate in the expulsion from the town of áqá Gulkání and other Bahá'ís. [BW13:388] Mashhad aqa Gulkani; Iranian persecution
1924 2 Apr Bahá'ís in Turbat-i-Haydarí, Iran, are attacked; some are arrested and imprisoned and others are forced to leave the town permanently. [BW18:388] Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Iranian persecution
1924 5 Apr Shaykh `Abdu'l-Majíd is beaten to death in Turshíz, Khurásán, Iran. [BW18:388] Turshiz; Khurasan; Iran Shaykh `Abdu'l-Majid; Iranian persecution
1924 22 Jun áqá Husayn-`Alí is martyred in Firúzábád, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388] Firuzabad; Fars; Iran aqa Husayn-`Ali; Iranian persecution
1991 25 Feb In Irán, a secret Government memorandum, drawn up by the Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council which was obtained and made public in 1993 by United Nations' Special Representative Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, who was then charged with investigating the human rights situation in Iran. Signed by Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the memorandum established a subtle government policy aimed at essentially grinding the community into nonexistence by
  • forcing Bahá'í children to have a strong Islamic education,
  • pushing Bahá'í adults into the economic periphery and forcing them from all positions of power or influence, and
  • requiring that Bahá'í youth "be expelled from universities, either in the admission process or during the course of their studies, once it becomes known that they are Bahá'ís."
[One Country, Iran Press Watch]
Irán Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council; United Nations' Special Representative; human rights; Ali Khamenei; Iranian persecution
1997 4 Jul Masha'llah Enayati, a 63-year-old man, died in custody while in prison in Isfahan after being severely beaten. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2] Isfahan Masha'llah Enayati; Iranian persecution
1997 6 Jul Shahram Reza'i, a conscript in the army, was shot in the head by his superior officer at a military base near Rasht, Iran. The officer, who said the bullets were fired in error, was released a few days after a court excused him from paying the blood money normally required in such cases because the dead soldier was a Bahá'í. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2] Rasht Shahram Reza'I; Iranian persecution
1998 Feb The Bahá’í Open University resumed activities after the seizure of much of their assets four months earlier by the Iranian government. Irán Baha’i Open University; Iranian persecution
1998 21 Jul Mr. Ruhu'llah Rawhani, a 52-year-old medical supplies salesman was hanged in Mashhad solely for religious reasons. Later that morning, Mr. Rawhani's family was summoned to collect his body and required, despite their protests, to complete the burial within one hour, under the supervision of Government intelligence agents.
  • In 1984, Mr. Rawhani was arrested and imprisoned for more than a year. According to an account given by Mr. Rawhani's relatives in the Australian Bahá'í News, Mr. Rawhani was tortured during his first imprisonment. He was arrested a second time about four years ago. The charge was apparently related to his work in the conduct of purely religious activities, such as prayer meetings and children's classes. He was released after 24 hours.
  • Mr. Rawhani was arrested for a third time in September 1997 and placed in solitary confinement in Mashhad. He had been accused of "converting" a woman from Islam to the Bahá'í Faith. The woman, however, denied that she had converted; she explained that her mother was a Bahá'í and that she herself had been raised as a Bahá'í. She was not arrested.
  • The killing of Mr. Rawhani was the first government execution of a Bahá'í in Iran in six years, and, coupled with the widespread arrest of some 32 Bahá'í educators in fourteen different cities throughout Iran in late September and early October. From the Daily Telegraph, August 2nd 1998. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
Mashhad Ruhu'llah Rawhani; Iranian persecution
1998 29 Sep Starting this date until October 2nd, in Iran, government raids on 500 private homes and the arrest of some 30 faculty members in efforts to close the Bahá’í Institute for Higher Education, a decentralized university that aimed to give Bahá’í students access to the education they have been otherwise denied.
  • The Institute offered Bachelor's degrees in ten subject areas: applied chemistry, biology, dental science, pharmacological science, civil engineering, computer science, psychology, law, literature and accounting. Within these subject areas, which were administered by five "departments," the Institute was able to offer more than 200 distinct courses each term.
  • In the beginning, courses were based on correspondence lessons developed by Indiana University, which was one of the first institutions in the West to recognize the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education. Later on, course offerings were developed internally.
  • Teaching was done principally via correspondence, or, for specialized scientific and technical courses and in other special cases, in small-group classes that were usually held in private homes. Over time, however, the Institute was able to establish a few laboratories, operated in privately owned commercial buildings in and around Teheran, for computer science, physics, dental science, pharmacology, applied chemistry and language study. The operations of these laboratories were kept prudently quiet, with students cautioned not to come and go in large groups that might give the authorities a reason to object.
  • Among other significant human rights conventions, Iran is a party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966. Parties to this Covenant "recognize the right of everyone to education" and more specifically that "higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means." [“The New York Times” article dated 29 October, 1998, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
Iran Baha’i Institute for Higher Education; Iranian persecution; International Covenant on Economic; Social and Cultural Rights; UN General Assembly
2004 Feb In Babul, Iran, the destruction of the gravesite of Quddús, a house-like structure that marked the resting place of Mullá Muhammad-'Ali Barfurushi, was began and halted temporarily after local Bahá'ís demanded to see a legal permit for the demolition work. Later it was discovered that the dismantling of the gravesite had continued surreptitiously over a period of days until the structure was entirely demolished despite protests from Bahá'ís at the local, national, and international levels.
  • This measure came soon after the international community failed to offer a resolution on the human rights situation in Iran at the United Nations. [One Country Vol.15 Issue 4]
Babul; Iran Quddus; Iranian persecution
2004 7 Feb The release of Mr. Bihnam Mithaqi and Mr. Kayvan Khalajabadi who had been imprisoned on April 29, 1989, for "association with Baha'i institutions."
  • They were both originally sentenced to eight years' imprisonment, but upon appeal, their sentences were commuted to three years' imprisonment plus 50 lashes. Both prisoners appealed this decision, and on April 30, 1991, the Islamic Revolutionary Court sentenced them to death. On February 18, 1996, the Supreme Court of Iran rejected numerous appeals and confirmed the death sentences. In February 2001, after further judicial reviews, the chief of the judicial branch reduced their sentences to 15 years in prison and set February 2004 for their release. [Referenced web site has ceased operation. Human Rights Watch (some dates differ from this source)]
Irán Bihnam Mithaqi; Kayvan Khalajabadi; Iranian persecution
 
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