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Search for tag "Islam"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1850. 19 or 20 Feb Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís are executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]

  • See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
  • Three of the victims are so eager to be martyrs that they ask the executioner if they can be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
  • Their bodies are left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
  • See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
  • The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
  • See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
Tihran; Iran Seven martyrs; Seven goats; Islam; Qaim; Grand Viziers; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil
1853. 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245] Nayriz; Shiraz; Iran; Persia Babi; prisoner; martyr; Islam; Prophecies; Qaim
1861. c. 1861 ‘Abdu'l-Bahá writes the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14]

Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266]

Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, meets Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and becomes a follower. [BKG18]

Baghdad; Iraq; Mashhad; Iran Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan (Commentary on the tradition of the Hidden Treasure); Commentaries; Hadith; Islam; Hidden Treasure (Hadith); Ali Shawkat Pasha; Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Bahaullah, Life of
1999 19 Apr The Islamic Revolutionary Court in Isfahan sentenced Sina Hakiman (10 yrs), Farzad Khajeh Sharifabadi (7 yrs), Havivullhh Ferdosian Najafabadi (7 yrs) and Ziaullah Mirzapanah (3yrs) for crimes against national security. All four were among the thirty-six who were arrested in late September and in early October, 1998 in a concerted government crackdown against Bahá’í education in fourteen cities in Iran.
  • It is reported that over 500 homes were raided in an attempt to crack down on the Bahá’í Open University. Files, equipment and other property used by the University were seized. From report by Human Rights Watch Academic Freedom Committee.
Isfahan; Iran Islamic Revolutionary Court; Persecution Find ref
2000 17 - 21 Dec The first International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Bábí-Bahá’í Faiths was held in Jerusalem with about 90 persons in attendance. [BWNS84] Jerusalem; Israel Conferences, Interfaith; Interfaith dialogue; Judaism; Christianity; Islam; Firsts, Other

from the main catalogue

  1. A Tablet from 'Abduʼl-Bahá regarding the Twelfth Imám, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2016). On apparently-conflicting hadiths (sayings ascribed to the prophet Muhammad) regarding the Hidden Imam and the Qa'im. [about]
  2. 'Abdu'l-Baha's commentary on the Islamic tradition 'God doth give victory to this religion by means of a wicked man': Provisional translation and notes, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Background and translation of a Turkish tablet by Abdu'l-Baha commenting on a hadith. [about]
  3. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Commentary on the Qur'ánic Verses Concerning the Overthrow of the Byzantines: The Stages of the Soul, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). [about]
  4. Absolute Poverty and Utter Nothingness, by Rodney H. Clarken, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). Bahá’u’lláh’s ideas of poverty as detachment, and nothingness as selflessness. Cites some commonalities in concepts of detachment and nothingness from Buddha, Confucius, Jesus, Muhammad and Socrates as five of the greatest philosophers or prophets. [about]
  5. Ahmadiya Movement, The, by H. A. Walter (1918). [about]
  6. Andalusí Theosophy: A Recontextualization, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
  7. Answered Questions, Some: A Philosophical Perspective, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). Philosophical foundations of the Bahá’í teachings, including ontology, theology, epistemology, philosophical anthropology and psychology, and personal and social ethics. [about]
  8. Archeology of the Kingdom of God, The, by Jean-Marc Lepain (2015). Analysis of the spiritual worlds as depicted in philosophical and religious texts, from ancient the Greek to Jewish, Christian and Muslim thought, contrasted with the theosophy, metaphysics, anthropology, and hermeneutics of Baha'u'llah and 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
  9. Aspects of Isrá'íliyyát and the Emergence of the Bábí-Bahá'í Interpretation of the Bible, Some, by Stephen Lambden (2002). Islamic "Israelitica" literary traditions, the Bible, and their relationship to the Babi and Baha'i religions. Includes discussion of the Greatest Name, Ism Alláh al-A'zam. [about]
  10. Báb's Epistle on the Spiritual Journey towards God, The, by Todd Lawson, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
  11. Babi Concept of Holy War, The, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 12:2 (1982). An influential and controversial article, one of the first academic examinations of Babi history. Discusses Islamic jihad, Babi jihad, martyrdom, and political struggles. [about]
  12. Background and Centrality of Apophatic Theology in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions vol. 8 (1997). History of the theological position of the incomprehensibility-unknowability of God in past major Abrahamic religions and its importance and significance for contemporary Bahá'ís. [about]
  13. Bahá'í Proselytization in Malwa, India, by William Garlington, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (2001). [about]
  14. Bahá'í Approach to the Claim of Finality in Islam, A, by Seena Fazel and Khazeh Fananapazir, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:3 (1993). Survey of the terms "prophet" and "seal," and a Baha'i reconciliation of these terms with progressive revelation. [about]
  15. Bahá'í Approaches to Christianity and Islam: Further Thoughts on Developing an Inter-Religious Dialogue, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007). [about]
  16. Bahá'í Faith and Islam (2013). Overview of connections and contrasts between the Baha'i Faith and its parent religion. [about]
  17. Bahá'í Faith and its relationship to Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, The: A brief history, by Adam Berry, in International Social Science Review (2004). [about]
  18. Bahá'í Faith in India, The: A Developmental Stage Approach, by William Garlington, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2 (1997). [about]
  19. Bahá'í Faith in Malwa, The: A Study of a Contemporary Religious Movement, by William Garlington (1975). A broad overview of Baha'i history in general and in India in particular. Examination of present-day activities, sociological frameworks of village life, and development of local Baha'i administrative orders. [about]
  20. Bahá'í Influence on the Reform Movements of the Islamic World in the 1860s and 1870s, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 2:2 (1983). [about]
  21. Baha'i Principle of Religious Unity and the Challenge of Radical Pluralism, by Dann J. May, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions (1993). A shorter version of this thesis is published in Revisioning the Sacred as "The Bahá'í Principle of Religious Unity: A Dynamic Perspectivism." [about]
  22. Bahá'í Reception of the Qur'an, The, by Todd Lawson (2016). Quranic themes inform much of the Baha'i proclamation. One theme is unity: there is one god, one humanity, and one religion. Another is the importance of Revelation through God's recurring messengers, and Apocalypse as but the dawn of a new message. [about]
  23. Bahá'í Tradition, The: The Return of Joseph and the Peaceable Imagination, by Todd Lawson, in Fighting Words: Religion, Violence, and the Interpretation of Sacred Texts, ed. John Renard (2012). Overview of the status of violence in the Baha'i tradition, and the historical/social conditions in which these doctrines were articulated. [about]
  24. Bahá'í Understanding of Reincarnation in Relation to the World's Faiths, A, by Sateh Bayat and Vafa Bayat, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). [about]
  25. Bahá'ísm: Some Uncertainties about its Role as a Globalizing Religion, by Denis MacEoin, in Bahá'í and Globalisation, ed. Margit Warburg (2005). On Baha'i self-understanding as the religion to unite all faiths in the culmination of globalisation, vs. the challenges which secular values present to a religion that, rooted in Islamic thinking, aims to fuse the spheres of religion and society. [about]
  26. Baha'u'llah: The Great Announcement of the Qur'an, by Muhammad Mustafa. [about]
  27. Baha'u'llah as 'World Reformer', by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3.4 (1991). This article places Baha'u'llah in the context of Islamic reform by comparing him to several contemporary Iranian reformers. Baha'u'llah prosecuted his proposed reforms in three stages: (1) Babi reform; (2) Persian reform; and (3) world reform. [about]
  28. Bahá'u'lláh's "Most Sublime Vision", by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
  29. Baha'u'llah's prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
  30. Behold the Man: Baha'u'llah on the Life of Jesus, by Juan Cole, in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 65:1 (1997). Baha'u'llah's lessons from the Judeo-Christian experience for founding a new, post-Islamic religion; invoking Christ to illuminate contemporary situations within Babi-Bahá'í history; implications for his relations with Middle Eastern Christians. [about]
  31. Behold the Man: Baha'u'llah on the Life of Jesus, by Juan Cole: Review, by Christopher Buck (1997). [about]
  32. Beyond the "Seal of the Prophets": Bahá'u'lláh's Book of Certitude, by Christopher Buck, in Religious Texts in Iranian Languages, ed. Fereydoun Vahman and and Claus V. Pedersen (2007). [about]
  33. Body, Mind, Soul and Spirit, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). The Baha'i view of human nature involves an interaction between spirit, soul and body — these three elements exist both in the Semitic religions and in the Far Eastern ones; Western dualist and Eastern monist traditions are in fact all tripartite. [about]
  34. "By the Fig and the Olive": `Abdu'l-Bahá's Commentary in Ottoman Turkish on the Qur'ánic Sura 95, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). [about]
  35. Camphor and the Camphor Fountain, by Frank Lewis (1999). What is the meaning of the camphor fount — a symbol common in the writings of Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and the Qur'an — what is its context, and what is the cup tempered there? [about]
  36. Catastrophe, Armageddon and Millennium: Some aspects of the Bábí-Bahá'í exegesis of apocalyptic symbolism, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). [about]
  37. Catastrophe, Armageddon and Millennium: Some Aspects of the Bábí-Bahá'í Exegesis of Apocalyptic Symbolism, by Stephen Lambden: Commentary, "The Apocalyptic Upheaval Completed?", by William P. Collins, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). Commentary on earlier article by Stephen Lambden. [about]
  38. Christians, Muhammadans, and Jews, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1940). An address delivered at Temple Emmanu-El, San Francisco, October 12, 1912. [about]
  39. Church and State: A Postmodern Theology, Book One, by Sen McGlinn, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 19 (2005). Review of Bahá'í literature and of the scriptures of Christianity and Islam show that the separation of state from religion is a universal ideal. Excerpt from a lengthy book; includes Contents, Foreword, and Introduction. [about]
  40. Coherent Chaos and Chaotic Cosmos: The Qur'ān and the Symmetry of Truth, by Todd Lawson, in Weltkonstruktionen: Religiöse Weltdeutung zwischen Chaos und Kosmos vom Alten Orient bis zum Islam (2010). While at first glance the Qur'an appears to be chaotic in form and structure, on closer examination it reveals an interconnected logic of content, performance, imagery, grammar, and poetics. Article does not mention the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  41. Commentary on a Passage in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Short biography of the Son of the Wolf, Aqa Najafi; summary of persecutions from 1874-1903; and the Epistle's references to Qayyumu’l-Asma and the Muslim dawn prayer for Ramadan. [about]
  42. Commentary on the Surah of the Sun, by Bahá'u'lláh (1994). Baha'u'llah's explanation of a passage from the Qur'an. [about]
  43. Compare: Bahá'í Faith, Islam, Christianity, Judaism (2009). Comparison charts of statistics, basic beliefs, origins, and history. [about]
  44. Comparison of Islamic Religious Modes with the Four Valleys of Bahá'u'lláh, by Dianne Bradford (1998). Comparison of stages in The Four Valleys with three approaches from Islam: Theologians, Muslim Philosophers, and Mystics. [about]
  45. Comparison of the concepts of Prophet and Messenger in Islam and Manifestation in the Baha'i Faith, by Richard Ater (1997). Analytical overview of the theology of prophethood in both religions. [about]
  46. Continuities and Discontinuities in Islamic Perspectives on Cultural Diversity, by Sulayman S. Nyang (1999). Contains only brief mention of Baha'is, but discusses the Iranian Revolution and related topics. [about]
  47. Covenant of Baha'u'llah, The: A Compilation (1963). Lengthy compilation published as a book, first put together in 1950, of quotations from Scripture — Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Bábí, and Bahá’í — about the Covenant of God, the Eternal Covenant, and the Greater and Lesser Covenants. [about]
  48. Covenant, The: Brit Olam, by Peter Terry (1997). The concept of covenant is found in the Bible, the Qur'an, and Baha'i writings. Using the form of an inter-religious dialogue, this paper correlates references to covenant in four religions, demonstrating the distinctive characteristics of each. [about]
  49. Dangers of Reading, The: Inlibration Communion and Transference in the Qur'an Commentary of The Bab, by Todd Lawson, in Scripture and Revelation (1997). Tafsír (traditional Qur'an commentary) and the writings of the Bab. [about]
  50. Day of God (Yawmu'llah) and the Days of God (Ayyamu'llah), by Khazeh Fananapazir, in Scripture and Revelation: Papers presented at the First Irfan Colloquium (1997). Comparison of Biblical and Islamic antecedents of the symbol of the "Day of God." [about]
  51. Disconnected Letters of the Qur'an and the Significance of the Number Nineteen, by Robert T. Cameron (1997). Critique of Rashad Khalifa's (disputed) study purporting to find a "deep structure" of 19 in the Qur'an. [about]
  52. Dreams and their Interpretation in the Bahá'í Religion: Some Preliminary Remarks, by Necati Alkan, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Outline of the importance of dreams and their interpretation in the Bahá'í Religion; dream interpretation in Islam; statements on dreams by Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá; a dream interpretation by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Ottoman Turkish. [about]
  53. Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Shii and Babi Religions, by Jonah Winters (1997). Religious and cultural meanings of martyrdom/witnessing, and their role in Babi history. [about]
  54. Exegesis (tafsír), by Todd Lawson, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 9 (1999). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  55. Five Pillars of Islam, The, by Diane Robinson Kerr (2014). Summary of the essential precepts of Islam — belief, prayer, zakat, fasting, and pilgrimage — with some reflections from a Baha'i perspective. [about]
  56. From Adam to Bahá'u'lláh: The Idea of a Chain of Prophecy, by Zaid Lundberg, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
  57. From Moorish Cordova to the Bahá'ís of Iran: Islamic Tolerance and Intolerance, by Boris Handal Morales, in IDEA: A Journal of Social Issues, 12:1 (2007). Though Baha'is are persecuted in Iran, Muhammad taught understanding and respect towards religious minorities. Cordova, Spain is an example of historical tolerance where Muslims, Christians and Jews co-existed harmoniously under Islamic rule. [about]
  58. Further Comments on a Passage of the Lawh-i-Hikmat, by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). A study of Pre-Islamic sources on the relation of Greek Philosophers and Jewish sages. [about]
  59. Gnostic Apocalypse and Islam, by Todd Lawson: Review, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 18 (2012). [about]
  60. Hagiography: The Art of Setting Inspirational Examples for a Religious Community, by Iscander Micael Tinto, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). The life of Jesus was the example against which saints were measured, and the lives of saints were the examples against which the general population measured itself. Comparison of Attar's "Muslim Saints and Mystics" with Abdu'l-Baha's "Memorials." [about]
  61. He who knoweth his self hath known his Lord: Commentary, by Bahá'u'lláh (1996). Translation by Shoghi Effendi, completed by Cole. Themes include Islamic mysticism and the meaning of detachment, the meaning of the hadith about knowing one's self, the meaning of Return, and the hadith "The believer is alive in both worlds." [about]
  62. Heaven, Hell and the Afterlife, by Lynette Thomas, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). Judeo-Christian and Muslim views of life after death are often seen literally as bodily resurrection and a judgement day, vs. the Baha'i perspective of the nature of the soul and its existence after the death of the body, heaven/hell, and the afterlife. [about]
  63. Hermes Trismegistus and Apollonius of Tyana in the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, by Keven Brown, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 8 (1997). History of alchemy, magic, and the hermetic arts, and their reflection in the later teachings of Baha'u'llah. [about]
  64. History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, by John William Draper (1864). A selection of excerpts from the book. Contains no mention of the Baha'i Faith, but is of interest partly because Abdu'l-Baha referred to this book in Secret of Divine Civilization. [about]
  65. Ibn 'Arabi's Joseph: Imagination as Holy Communion, by Todd Lawson (2010). [about]
  66. In the Presence of the Beloved: Bahá'u'lláh's Lawh-i-Liqá': A Revised Provisional Translation and Notes, by Nima Rafiei, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). In Arabic, liqá’ indicates the promise of meeting the Lord. Bahá’u’lláh has transformed the concept of attainment unto the divine presence. Comparison of Shí'ih and Bábí-Bahá’í interpretations of liqá', including the practice of service. [about]
  67. India: A Modern History, by Percival Spear (1961). 1-sentence excerpt from Chapter 8, "Islam in India." [about]
  68. Infallible Institutions?, by Udo Schaefer, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, 13 (2002). Historical and Bahá'í interpretations of infallibility. [about]
  69. Introduction to a Study of the Qur'án: With Additional References from Several Bahá'í Texts, by Study Outline Committee of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1941). A study guide to the Qur'an, consisting of lists of topics and verses. [about]
  70. Introduction to Shi'i Islam, An: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism, by Moojan Momen (1985). The most lengthy and authoritative contemporary overview of Shi'ism; a commonly-assigned college textbook. Includes biographies of prominent historical figures. Not yet formatted. [about]
  71. Introduction to Shi'i Islam, An, by Moojan Momen (1985). Summary of Shi'i history and doctrines, excerpted from the book Introduction to Shí'í Islam. [about]
  72. Introduction to the Lawh-i Haqqu'n-Nas, An, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Summary of the tablet Lawh-i Haqqu’n-Nas, Tablet of the "Right of the People," on the metaphorical character of this world. [about]
  73. Is It Unethical to Evade Taxes in an Evil or Corrupt State?: A Look at Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Mormon and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Robert W. McGee, in Journal of Accounting, Ethics & Public Policy, 2:1 (1999). The ethics of tax evasion has been a neglected topic in both the accounting and ethical literature. This article reviews the recent literature, focusing on the question of whether tax evasion is ethical in a corrupt country. [about]
  74. Islam and the Bahá'í Faith: A Brief Guide, by Duane Troxel, in Deepen, 3:2:2 (1994). An overview of some facts and resources about Islam Baha'is should know when conversing with Muslims. Includes chronology of Islam. [about]
  75. Islam and the Bahá'í Faith: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2002). [about]
  76. Islam and the Bahá'í Faith, by Abir Majid (2004). Comprehensive overview of the relationship between the Baha'i Faith and Islam, and background on Islam for Baha'is. Includes outline of Baha'i principles and history, "An Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith." [about]
  77. Islam and the Bahá'í Faith, by Diane Robinson Kerr (2014). Overview of the core tenets of Islam — belief, prayer, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage — with some reflections from a Baha'i perspective. [about]
  78. Islam and the Baha'i Faith: A comparative study of Muhammad ‘Abduh and ‘Abdul-Baha ‘Abbas: Review, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 40 (2010). [about]
  79. Islam and the Life of the Mind, by Todd Lawson (2005). History of Islamic philosophy and how it connects to individual Muslims. [about]
  80. Islam in Persia, by W. St. Clair Tisdall, in The Mohammedan World of To-Day (1906). Passing discussions of Babis and Baha'is in Iran at the start of the 20th century (pages 115-118, 121, 129-130). [about]
  81. Islam, Muhammad, and the Qur'an: Some Introductory Notes, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 1:1 (1991). Islamic contributions to Western culture and science and discusses the place of Islamic Studies in the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  82. Islam, the Baha'i Faith and the Eternal Covenant of Alast, by Susan Maneck (2009). [about]
  83. Islamic Contributions to Civilization, by Stanwood Cobb (1963). Overview of the many inventions and sciences which were developed by or transmitted by Islamic people and nations. [about]
  84. Islamische Grundlagen des Kitáb-i Aqdas: Mit neuen Erkenntnissen zu seiner Datierung, by Kamran Ekbal, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Entstehung der Bahá'í Religion, eds. Johann Christoph Bürgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). [about]
  85. Kaleidoscope: Some Aspects of Angelology, Light, the Divine Throne and Color Mysticism in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, by Stephen Lambden, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
  86. Keys to the Proper Understanding of Islam in The Dispensation of Baha'u'llah, by Brian Wittman, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). [about]
  87. Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): Notes on the Style of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Suheil Badi Bushrui (1995). [about]
  88. Kitáb-i-Íqán and the Qur'an: Quotations from the Iqan Compared with their Counterparts in Rodwell's Translation of the Qur'an (2001). Includes table of Qur'anic quotations from the Íqán compared with their counterparts in the Qur'an, and an index to surihs and verses in the Kitáb-i-Íqán arranged chronologically by surih. [about]
  89. Law of the Land and the State of the Soul, The: Analyzing Theoretical Frameworks of Bahá'í and Islamic Law Within and Beyond the Nation-State, by Moussa Z. Traore (2012). Details, laws, and constitution of the Baha'i system which, analogous to the United Nations or a Supreme Court, presents a legal framework for a non-State governance structure at the international level. [about]
  90. Lawh-i-Hikmat: The Two Agents and the Two Patients, by Vahid Rafati, in Andalib, 5:19 (2002). Discussion of the two terms fa`ilayn (the active force / "the generating influence") and munfa`ilayn (its recipient / "such as receive its impact") in Islamic philosophy, and their later use in Shaykhi and Baha'i texts. [about]
  91. Le Coran et l'imaginaire apocalyptique, by Todd Lawson, in Religions et Histoire, 34 (2010). [about]
  92. Letter to Mrs. A. Schwarz, Stuttgart, by Josephina Fallscheer (1910). Philosophic conversations of the Master with a French consular official. The nineteenth letter from Dr. Fallscheer to Schwarz. [about]
  93. Letters and Essays, 1886-1913, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1985). Treatises of "the greatest and most learned of all Bahá'í scholars" about Alexander Tumansky; on meeting Abdu'l-Baha; and on the meaning of angels, resurrection, civilization, tests, angels, holy spirit, and the saying "Knowledge is twenty-seven letters." [about]
  94. Letters of the Quranic Dispensation and Letters of the Living (huruf), by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). Some meanings of the term huruf ("letters") in Baha'i texts, including Letters of the Bayan, Letters of the Living, and Letters of the Quranic Dispensation. [about]
  95. Medieval Islam: The Influence of Islam on Judaism and Christianity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). Prior to the Renaissance, Islam inspired revivals in the cultural traditions of Christianity and Judaism, indicating a harmony between the three religions. The reforms inspired by Islam were a prelude to the modern scientific revolution. [about]
  96. Memorials of the Faithful: The Democratization of Sainthood, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). Hagiography in Judaism, Christianity and Islam; the precedent of Faridu'd-Din's "Memorials of the Saints"; Abdu'l-Baha innovations in this traditional literary format. [about]
  97. Messianic Expectations in Nineteenth Century Christian and Islamic Communities, by Ahang Rabbani (2006). The phenomenon of messianism and its manifestations in early-modern American Christianity and in Iranian Islam. [about]
  98. Messianic Roots of Babi-Bahá'í Globalism, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). Contrast of the continuity between the globalism of the Bab’s Qayyum al-asma’ and Baha’u’llah’s globalism, verses breaks between the two, e.g. the abandoning of jihad as a means of promoting a globalisation process. [about]
  99. Mid-East History during the Islamic Period: Chronology and Commentary, by Brian A. Miller (2000). Brief overview of Islamic history. [about]
  100. Miracles and Metaphors, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1981). Collection of essays on metaphysical topics and Bahá'í answers to old religious controversies: are the Scriptures to be taken literally? Do miracles occur? What is an angel? Are the stories of the Old Testament to be believed? [about]
  101. Miracles in Religion: A Study of the miraculous in religion in context of the Baha'i Faith, by Anil Sarwal (1996). [about]
  102. Miscellaneous philosophy topics, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Islamic vs. Baha'i philosophy; Greek philosophers and the Jews; other topics of philosophy. [about]
  103. Muhammad `Abduh and Rashid Rida: A Dialogue on the Bahá'í Faith, by Juan Cole, in World Order, 15:3-4 (1981). Translation of a dialogue between two influential Sunni thinkers of the early Twentieth Century; contains much of historical interest. [about]
  104. Mysteries of Alast: The Realm of Subtle Entities and the Primordial Covenant in the Babi-Bahá'í Writings, by Farshid Kazemi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 15 (2009). One of the more esoteric concepts in Shi'i and Shaykhi thought is the "realm of subtle entities," 'ālam-i dharr, a sort of pre-existence for the archetype of humanity, which is relevant to free will and the seven stages of creation. [about]
  105. Notes on Bahá'í Proofs Based on the Qur'an, Some (2000). [about]
  106. Notes on Islam from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Robert Stockman (1998). Overview of Islamic history and teachings and brief notes on Islam and the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  107. Number 19 in the Qur'an, The, by Abdulrahman Lomax (1995). Discussion of a study by a Muslim which purports to demonstrate that the Qur'an is comprised of mystical units of 19. No mention of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  108. Oath of the Prophet Mohammed to the Followers of the Nazarene, The, by Muhammad and Ali ibn 'Abu-Talib (1902). Promise of fair-treatment from Muhammad to the Christians, with commentary by Imam Ali, given in the year A.H. 2 (623 A.D.), published by the Baha'is as a 7-page booklet. [about]
  109. One Who Related the Existence of the Qáʼim, The, by Bahá'u'lláh (2015). One-paragraph passage related to the coming of the Mahdi. [about]
  110. Origin of the Bahá'í Principle of the Harmony between Science and Religion, The, by Keven Brown (2001). On the origin of the principle of scientific/religious harmony in Islamic and Bahá’í Writings, and discussion of a letter by Abdu'l-Bahá on the topic. [about]
  111. Origins of the Bahá'í Concept of Unity and Causality: A Brief Survey of Greek, Neoplatonic, and Islamic Underpinnings, by Babak Rod Khadem, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
  112. Out of Jewish Roots: Studies of Prayer Patterns in Jewish, Christian, Muslim and Bahá'í Worship, by Ted Brownstein, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
  113. Parallels Between Islamic and Baha'i laws and Constitutional Principles, by Afshin A. Khavari (1998). The roles of Sunnah, Hadith, and Ijtihad in Islamic constitutional law, and the development of the Baha'i legal order and its unique approach to law-making. [about]
  114. Personal Interpretation of the term 'Seal of the Prophets', by Kamran Hakim (1997). A lengthy examination of the terms khatam, "seal," and Nabi, "Prophet," and their meanings in Islam. [about]
  115. Prince of Martyrs, The: A brief account of the Imam Husayn, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi (1977). The story of the Third Imam, whose death in the year 680 became a pivotal event for Shi'i Islam. [about]
  116. Proofs from the Holy Qur'án Regarding the Advent of Bahá'u'lláh, by Sabir Áfaqi (1993). Collection of prophecies and symbols from the Qur'án that foretell Baha'u'llah. Prepared for the deepening of Baha'is and to aid in introducing the Faith to Muslims. [about]
  117. Prophecy in the Johannine Farewell Discourse: The Advents of the Paraclete, Ahmad and Comforter, by Stephen Lambden, in Scripture and Revelation: Papers presented at the First Irfan Colloquium (1997). [about]
  118. Prophets and Mountains, by Moshe Sharon, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
  119. Qur'an and the Apocalyptic Imagination, The, by Todd Lawson (2010). [about]
  120. Qur'an and Violence against Non-believers, The, by Ted Brownstein (2017). An examination of two sections of The Qur'an that supposedly authorize the slaughter of innocent non-Muslims. [about]
  121. Qur'an Commentary as Sacred Performance: The Bab's tafsirs of Qur'an 103 and 108, the Declining Day and the Abundance, by Todd Lawson, in Der Iran um 19 Jahrhundert und die Enstehung der Bahá'í Religion (1998). Quranic commentary played a major role in the formation of the Babi movement. Early Babis were impressed by the Bab's innovative interpretation of scripture. As the Bab's claims became more widely known, his language became less esoteric. [about]
  122. Qur'an Commentary of Sayyid 'Alí Muhammad, the Báb, The: Doctoral dissertation, by Todd Lawson (1987). A study of the Báb's two earliest works, partial commentaries on the Qur'an entitled "Tafsír súrat al-baqara" and "Tafsír súrat Yúsuf" (aka The Qayyum al-Asma), in an attempt to appreciate the Bab's attitude towards the Qur'an. [about]
  123. Qur'án, The: Renderings by Rodwell & Sale and Multilinear Qur'án with Bahá'í References by Verse. [about]
  124. Qur'án, The: The Meanings of the Holy Qur'an, by Muhammad. [about]
  125. Quranic Roots of Some Legal and Theological Terms of the Kitáb-i Aqdas Regarding Women and Homosexual Relations, The, by Kamran Ekbal (1995). Interpretations and etymologies of Arabic terms for prostitution, virginity, dowry, menstruation, sodomy, pederasty, uncleanliness, and adultery. [about]
  126. Quranic Witness to Biblical Authority, The, by Sam Shamoun (1999). Written for a Muslim audience, this article expounds on the Muslim view that the Bible is authentically the Word of God. The article does not mention the Baha'i Faith, but its topic is relevant to Baha'i studies. [about]
  127. Rashid Rida on the Bahá'í Faith: A Utilitarian Theory of the Spread of Religions, by Juan Cole, in Arab Studies Quarterly, 5:3 (1983). Rida developed a theory of missionary work characterized by both modern pragmatic and traditionalist Islamic aspects: a sociology of the spread of religion in terms of organizational efficiency avoids talk of intrinsic "truth" or supernatural agency. [about]
  128. Reconciling the Other: The Bahá'í Faith in America as a Successful Synthesis of Christianity and Islam, by Anthony Lee (1995). [about]
  129. Reflections on Some Messianic Prophecies in Shaykhi Works, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
  130. Regarding Jaʻfar-i-Kadhdháb ('Jaʻfar the Liar'), by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). One-paragraph passage about the mystical cities Jabulqa and Jabulsa and the truthfulness of a figure, Jaʻfar (connected with the history of the Twelfth Imam). [about]
  131. Relativism: A Basis For Bahá'í Metaphysics, by Moojan Momen, in Studies in Honor of the Late Husayn M. Balyuzi, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 5, ed. Moojan Momen (1988). "Relativism" as a means of reconciling the often widely-divergent theologies of the world's religions. [about]
  132. Religion in the Middle East: Three Religions in Concord and Conflict: Volume 2, Islam, by Arthur J. Arberry (1969). Five mentions of the Babis, Baha'is, and Ahmadiyya. [about]
  133. Religion of Islam, by Ahang Rabbani (2007). Overview of Islam: law and doctrine, The Qur'an, Hadith, the Five Pillars, Quranic interpretation. [about]
  134. Religious Authority and Apocalypse: 
Tafsír as Experience in an Early Work by The Báb, by Todd Lawson, in Unity in Diverity: Mysticism, Messianism and the Construction of Religious Authority in Islam, ed. Orkhan Mir-Kasimov (2013). Analysis of the Báb's commentary on the Qur'an's longest chapter, Surat al-baqara, regarded as his first significant work, which includes themes such as divine self-manifestation, the hierarchy of existence, eschatology, and religious authority. [about]
  135. Revelation of Islam and the Power of the Messenger, The, by Kamran Ekbal. [article in Persian] [about]
  136. Scripture as Literature: Sifting through the layers of the text, by Frank Lewis, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Literary and religious antecedents to some of the styles and genres of Baha'i scripture. [about]
  137. Secret of Divine Civilization translation, capital punishment, and other quesions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On the capitalization of pronouns, reference to "we Muslims," works of Abdu'l-Baha revealed during the time of Baha'u'llah, the first person to recognize Baha'u'llah, and designer of the temple in Ishqabad. Includes a compilation on capital punishment. [about]
  138. Seeing Double: The Covenant and the Tablet of Ahmad, by Todd Lawson, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). The Tablet of Ahmad is believed to have special potency. "Seeing double" means both looking at the words of Scripture, and looking in the direction beyond the words, as indicated by the context. This paper also discusses the meaning of Covenant in Islam. [about]
  139. Seeing With the Eye of God: Relationships Between Theology and Interpretation, by Michael W. Sours, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 1:1 (1991). Various spheres of interpretation and how their hierarchies reflect theological truth. [about]
  140. Sermon of Glorification, by Imam Ali ibn 'Abu-Talib (2001). A sermon by the first Imam of Shi'i Islam, alluded to by Baha'u'llah in the Kitab-i-Iqan. [about]
  141. Sermon of Recognition with Luminousness, by Imam Ali ibn 'Abu-Talib (2001). A sermon by Imam Ali, of interest to Baha'is because (1) it was often quoted by Shaykh Ahmad Ahsa'i­ and Siyyid Kázim Rashtí; (2) it concerns the true station of the Imáms; and (3) Bahá'u'lláh quotes it in the Kitáb-i-I­qán. [about]
  142. Sermon of the Gulf, by Imam Ali ibn 'Abu-Talib, in Mashariq Anwar al-Yaqín fi Asrár Amir Mu'minín (2000). The source of Bahá'u'lláh's quotation "Anticipate ye the Revelation of Him Who conversed with Moses from the Burning Bush on Sinai." [about]
  143. Sermon of the Gulf (Khutbih Tutunjiyyih): Introduction, by Khazeh Fananapazir (2000). Essay on Imám `Alí's sermon, which is also the source of Bahá'u'lláh's quote in Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, "Anticipate ye the Revelation of Him Who conversed with Moses from the Burning Bush on Sinai." [about]
  144. Shi`i Islam, by Moojan Momen (1995). Overview of Shi'a Islam, including a section on its relations to the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  145. Shoghi Effendi: An approach to his artistic contribution to style in English literature and to standards in translation, by Nobel Perdu and Ismael Velasco, in Traducción, cultura e inmigración. Reflexiones interdisciplinares, ed. García Marcos et al. (2004). [about]
  146. Signs of Prophet-Hood, The: An Exposition on a Tablet by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). [about]
  147. Sin-covering Gaze, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Brief explanation of a possible source for a story of Christ told by Abdu'l-Baha about encountering a dead dog and commenting on the beauty of its teeth; i.e., having a "sin-covering gaze." [about]
  148. Six Lessons on Islam, by Marzieh Gail (1953). A brief overview of Islam, particularly Shi'a Islam, and its relevance to the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  149. Spiritual Footprints in the Sands of Time, by Kevin Brogan, in Solas, 3 (2003). The covenantal relationship between God and humankind; the lives of the founders of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism; the societies in which these religions developed; and some of their common features. [about]
  150. Story of Joseph in Five Religious Traditions, by Jim Stokes, in World Order, 28:3 (1997). The parable of Joseph in the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament, and Islam. Prefaced by comments by Moojan Momen. [about]
  151. Striving Together: A Way Forward in Christian-Muslim Relations, by Charles Kimball: A Jihad for All Seasons: Review, by Seena Fazel, in World Order, 26:2 (1994). [about]
  152. Study of the Meaning of the Word "Al-Amr" in the Qur'án and in the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, A, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). [about]
  153. Stylistic Analysis of the Báb's Writings, A: Abridged Translation of Vahid Behmardi's Muqaddamih-yi dar bárih-yi sabk va siyáq-i áthár-i mubárakih-yi ḥaḍrat-i rabb a`lá, by Vahid Behmardi and William F. McCants, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). English translation by McCants of Behmardi's Persian article "Stylistic Analysis of the Báb’s Writings". [about]
  154. Surih of the Sun (Súriy-i-Vash-Shams): Introduction and Commentary, by Juan Cole (1994). Overview of a tablet of Baha'u'llah touching on matters of interpretation and theology. [about]
  155. Symbol and Secret: Qur'an Commentary in Baha'u'llah's Kitab-i-Iqan, by Christopher Buck (1995). Comparative study of tafsir, exegesis, and theology in the Qur'an and the Kitab-i-Iqan. Includes Persian translation. [about]
  156. Symbol and Secret: Qur'an Commentary in Baha'u'llah's Kitab-i-Iqan, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Frank Lewis, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). [about]
  157. Symbol and Secret: Qur'an Commentary in Baha'u'llah's Kitab-i-Iqan, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Jonah Winters, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:3 (1999). [about]
  158. Tablet of All Food and the Nature of Reality, The, by Karl Weaver (2016). Review of the Tablet's historical background, antecedents for specific phrases, English literary commentaries, its color system as related to Babi and Islamic traditions, the meaning of 'food,' and a different way of looking at the five levels of reality. [about]
  159. Tablet of the 'Light Verse' (Lawh-i-Áyiy-i-Núr), also known as Commentary on the Disconnected Letters: What on earth is a disconnected letter? Baha'u'llah's commentary, by Alison Marshall (1999). The meaning of the Arabic letters alif, lam, mim, as explained in Baha'u'llah's tablet Tafsir hurufat al-maqatt’ah. Includes List of disconnected letters in the Qur'an and Abjad values of the Arabic letters. [about]
  160. Tablet of the Fig and the Olive, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). [about]
  161. Tablet of the Uncompounded Reality: Translation, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
  162. Tablet of the Uncompounded Reality: Introduction, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). The conflict in Islam between philosopher-mystics who adhere to the philosophy of existential oneness (wahdat al-wujud) and those who oppose this view as heresy. [about]
  163. Tablet of Visitation for Imám Husayn, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). Tablet in honor of Imam Husayn, the prince of martyrs, with whom Baha'u'llah identified in a mystical connection. [about]
  164. Tablet on Interpretation of Sacred Scripture (Ta'wíl), by Bahá'u'lláh, in Iqtidarat (n.d.). Tablet on "the legitimacy of figurative scripture interpretation." [about]
  165. Tablet on the Right of the People, by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). On some situations relating to a person’s private rights, in this case theft and debt, with a larger meditation on the spiritual rights a person earns through righteous deeds, and God’s promise to reward good deeds and punish the wrong. [about]
  166. Tablet on Understanding the Cause of Opposition to the Manifestations of God, by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). Summary of some themes from the Kitab-i-Iqan, concluding with a long prayer inviting the reader to see with his/her "own eyes." [about]
  167. Tablet to Hájí Mírzá Kamálu'd-Dín: Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). Brief comments by Bahá'u'lláh on the Isaac/Ishmael controversy. [about]
  168. Tablet to Hasan-i-Sháhábadí, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). A tablet from the Akka period, addressed to a certain Hasan living in Sháhábad of Arak in central Irán, in which Bahá'u'lláh comments on Muhammad as the "Seal of the Prophets." [about]
  169. Tafsir and the Meaning of the Qur'an: The Crucifixion in Muslim Thought, by Todd Lawson (2010). Using Qur'án 4:156-7 as an example, classical tafsīr, “scholastic" exegesis, has not always taken account of the way all Muslims understand the Quranic text. Other understandings may be found in poetry, philosophy, mysticism and even historical writing. [about]
  170. Textual Resurrection: Book, Imám, and Cosmos in the Qur'án Commentaries of the Báb, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
  171. Themes of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablets of The Divine Plan Illustrated by Scriptural References to the Bible and the Qur'án, by Lameh Fananapazir, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). The Tablets of the Divine Plan, as well as Abdu'l-Baha's Will and Testament and the Tablet of Carmel, are three “Charters” for promotion of the Cause of God, which can also heal the problems facing humanity in its crisis of faith. [about]
  172. Theological Responses to Modernity in the Nineteenth-century Middle East, by Oliver Scharbrodt, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
  173. Typological Figuration and the Meaning of "Spiritual": The Qurʾanic Story of Joseph, by Todd Lawson, in Journal of the American Oriental Society, 132:2 (2012). Meanings of the famous shirt (qamís) as a symbol of Joseph's spiritual journey and travails in the Qur'an and tafsír. Does not mention the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  174. Verse of Light, the Sadratu'l-Muntahá (Divine Lote Tree), and the Unfoldment of God's Plan, The, by Shirley Macias (1991). Relationship of a key mystical Quranic verse, Súrih 24:35, to Bahá'í theology; includes a brief compilation of Bahá'í Writings about the Lote Tree. [about]
  175. View on Islam, A, by Amin Banani (1969). This lecture gives "a few generalizations about Islam that are directly significant to Baha'is." [about]
  176. Woman and Islam, by Elihu Grant, in Life and Light for Woman, 42:1 (1912). One-paragraph sympathetic mention. [about]
 
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