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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1843 Passing of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, the disciple and self-proclaimed successor of Shaykh Ahmad, in Karbalá. Because Siyyid Kázim designated no successor, within a short period of time the Shaykhí school was split into several factions. The two largest were grouped around Siyyid `Alí Muhammad and Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání. The first faction moved away from the outward practice of Islám towards a development of inner realities and ultimately a new revelation. The second emphasized the continuing role of the Prophets and the Imáms and sought acceptance from the Shí'í majority which had formerly excommunicated Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim. [BBD126–7; MH26; SBBH1; TB6]
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing.
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing.
  • See MH28 for a picture.
  • BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership.
  • The latter, Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání, became an enemy of the Báb. [SDH165]
  • BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership.
  • See MH28 for a picture.
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing.
  • Bahá'u'lláh condemns him in both the Kitáb-i-Íqán (p.184-186) and the Lawh-i-Qiná.
Karbalá; Iraq Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykhi school; Siyyid `Ali Muhammad; Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani; Shaykh Ahmad; Islam
1850. 19 or 20 Feb Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís are executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]

  • See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
  • Three of the victims are so eager to be martyrs that they ask the executioner if they can be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
  • Their bodies are left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
  • See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
  • The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
  • See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia seven; Martyr; seven goats; Islam; Qá'im; Bábí; Grand Vizier; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil
1853. 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245] Nayríz; Shíráz; Iran; Persia Bábí; prisoner; martyr; Islam; prophecy; Qá'im
1861. c. 1861 ‘Abdu'l-Bahá writes the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14]

Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266]

Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, meets Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and becomes a follower. [BKG18]

Baghdad; Iraq; Mashhad; Iran Writings and talks of Abdul-Baha; Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan (Commentary on the tradition of the Hidden Treasure); Commentaries; Islam; Hidden Treasure; Ali Shawkat Pasha; Haji Akhund; Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Hands of the Cause; Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurasani; Ismulahul-Asdaq; Ibn Asdaq; Life of Bahaullah
1942 – early The publication in Iran of The Political Confessions or Memoirs of Prince Dolgoruki (or, simply, Dolgorukov's Memoirs). The book contends that the Bábí Faith was simply a plot to destabilize Iran and Islam. [22 February, 2009 Iran Press Watch]
  • See Religious Contentions in Modern Iran, 1881-1941 by Dr Mina Yazdani where she posits that "The process of Othering the Bahā’īs had at least three components; 1) religious, carried on by the traditionalist theologians; 2) institutional and formal, sanctioned by the state; and 3) political, the result of a joint and gradual process in which Azalīs, former Bahā’īs and reformist theologians all played a role. This process reached its culmination with the widespread publication of The Confessions of Dolgoruki which resulted in a fundamental paradigm shift in the anti-Bahā’ī discourse. With the widespread impression of Bahā’īs as spies of foreign powers, what up to that point constituted a sporadic theme in some anti-Bahā’ī polemics now became the dominant narrative of them all, including those authored by traditionalist clerics. Consequently, as Iran entered the 1940s, the process that would transform Islamic piety to political ideology was well under way."
Iran; Persia Political; Confession; Memoir; Prince Dolgoruki; Dolgorukov; Babi; Islam
1999 19 Apr The Islamic Revolutionary Court in Isfahan sentenced Sina Hakiman (10 yrs), Farzad Khajeh Sharifabadi (7 yrs), Havivullhh Ferdosian Najafabadi (7 yrs) and Ziaullah Mirzapanah (3yrs) for crimes against national security. All four were among the thirty-six who were arrested in late September and in early October, 1998 in a concerted government crackdown against Bahá’í education in fourteen cities in Iran.
  • It is reported that over 500 homes were raided in an attempt to crack down on the Bahá’í Open University. Files, equipment and other property used by the University were seized. From report by Human Rights Watch Academic Freedom Committee.
Isfahan; Iran Islamic Revolutionary Court; Persecution Find ref
2000 17 - 21 Dec The first International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Bábí-Bahá’í Faiths was held in Jerusalem with about 90 persons in attendance. [BWNS84] Jerusalem; Israel; International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Babi-Baha’i Faiths

from the main catalogue

  1. A Tablet from 'Abduʼl-Bahá regarding the Twelfth Imám, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2016). On apparently-conflicting hadiths (sayings ascribed to the prophet Muhammad) regarding the Hidden Imam and the Qa'im. [about]
  2. 'Abdu'l-Baha's commentary on the Islamic tradition 'God doth give victory to this religion by means of a wicked man': Provisional translation and notes, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Background and translation of a Turkish tablet by Abdu'l-Baha commenting on a hadith. [about]
  3. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Commentary on the Qur'ánic Verses Concerning the Overthrow of the Byzantines: The Stages of the Soul, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). [about]
  4. Absolute Poverty and Utter Nothingness, by Rodney H. Clarken, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). Bahá’u’lláh’s ideas of poverty as detachment, and nothingness as selflessness. Cites some commonalities in concepts of detachment and nothingness from Buddha, Confucius, Jesus, Muhammad and Socrates as five of the greatest philosophers or prophets. [about]
  5. Ahmadiya Movement, The, by H. A. Walter (1918). [about]
  6. Andalusí Theosophy: A Recontextualization, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
  7. Báb's Epistle on the Spiritual Journey towards God, The, by Todd Lawson, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
  8. Bahá'í Proselytization in Malwa, India, by William Garlington, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (2001). [about]
  9. Bahá'í Approach to the Claim of Finality in Islam, A, by Seena Fazel and Khazeh Fananapazir, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:3 (1993). Survey of the terms "prophet" and "seal," and a Baha'i reconciliation of these terms with progressive revelation. [about]
  10. Bahá'í Approaches to Christianity and Islam: Further Thoughts on Developing an Inter-Religious Dialogue, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007). [about]
  11. Bahá'í Faith and Islam (2013). Overview of connections and contrasts between the Baha'i Faith and its parent religion. [about]
  12. Bahá'í Faith and its relationship to Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, The: A brief history, by Adam Berry, in International Social Science Review (2004). [about]
  13. Bahá'í Faith in India, The: A Developmental Stage Approach, by William Garlington, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2 (1997). [about]
  14. Bahá'í Faith in Malwa, The: A Study of a Contemporary Religious Movement, by William Garlington (1975). A broad overview of Baha'i history in general and in India in particular. Examination of present-day activities, sociological frameworks of village life, and development of local Baha'i administrative orders. [about]
  15. Bahá'í Reception of the Qur'an, The, by Todd Lawson (2016). Quranic themes inform much of the Baha'i proclamation. One theme is unity: there is one god, one humanity, and one religion. Another is the importance of Revelation through God's recurring messengers, and Apocalypse as but the dawn of a new message. [about]
  16. Bahá'í Tradition, The: The Return of Joseph and the Peaceable Imagination, by Todd Lawson, in Fighting Words: Religion, Violence, and the Interpretation of Sacred Texts, ed. John Renard (2012). Overview of the status of violence in the Baha'i tradition, and the historical/social conditions in which these doctrines were articulated. [about]
  17. Bahá'u'lláh's "Most Sublime Vision", by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
  18. Behold the Man: Baha'u'llah on the Life of Jesus, by Juan Cole, in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 65:1 (1997). Baha'u'llah's lessons from the Judeo-Christian experience for founding a new, post-Islamic religion; invoking Christ to illuminate contemporary situations within Babi-Bahá'í history; implications for his relations with Middle Eastern Christians. [about]
  19. Behold the Man: Baha'u'llah on the Life of Jesus, by Juan Cole: Review, by Christopher Buck (1997). [about]
  20. "By the Fig and the Olive": `Abdu'l-Bahá's Commentary in Ottoman Turkish on the Qur'ánic Sura 95, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). [about]
  21. Camphor and the Camphor Fountain, by Frank Lewis (1999). What is the meaning of the camphor fount — a symbol common in the writings of Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and the Qur'an — what is its context, and what is the cup tempered there? [about]
  22. Christians, Muhammadans, and Jews, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1940). An address delivered at Temple Emmanu-El, San Francisco, October 12, 1912. [about]
  23. Church and State: A Postmodern Theology, Book One, by Sen McGlinn, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 19 (2005). Review of Bahá'í literature and of the scriptures of Christianity and Islam show that the separation of state from religion is a universal ideal. Excerpt from a lengthy book; includes Contents, Foreword, and Introduction. [about]
  24. Coherent Chaos and Chaotic Cosmos: The Qur'ān and the Symmetry of Truth, by Todd Lawson, in Weltkonstruktionen: Religiöse Weltdeutung zwischen Chaos und Kosmos vom Alten Orient bis zum Islam (2010). While at first glance the Qur'an appears to be chaotic in form and structure, on closer examination it reveals an interconnected logic of content, performance, imagery, grammar, and poetics. Article does not mention the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  25. Commentary on a Passage in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Short biography of the Son of the Wolf, Aqa Najafi; summary of persecutions from 1874-1903; and the Epistle's references to Qayyumu’l-Asma and the Muslim dawn prayer for Ramadan. [about]
  26. Compare: Bahá'í Faith, Islam, Christianity, Judaism (2009). Comparison charts of statistics, basic beliefs, origins, and history. [about]
  27. Comparison of Islamic Religious Modes with the Four Valleys of Bahá'u'lláh, by Dianne Bradford (1998). Comparison of stages in The Four Valleys with three approaches from Islam: Theologians, Muslim Philosophers, and Mystics. [about]
  28. Comparison of the concepts of Prophet and Messenger in Islam and Manifestation in the Baha'i Faith, by Richard Ater (1997). Analytical overview of the theology of prophethood in both religions. [about]
  29. Continuities and Discontinuities in Islamic Perspectives on Cultural Diversity, by Sulayman S. Nyang (1999). Contains only brief mention of Baha'is, but discusses the Iranian Revolution and related topics. [about]
  30. Covenant of Baha'u'llah, The: A Compilation (1963). Lengthy compilation published as a book, first put together in 1950, of quotations from Scripture — Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Bábí, and Bahá’í — about the Covenant of God, the Eternal Covenant, and the Greater and Lesser Covenants. [about]
  31. Dangers of Reading, The: Inlibration Communion and Transference in the Qur'an Commentary of The Bab, by Todd Lawson, in Scripture and Revelation (1997). Tafsír (traditional Qur'an commentary) and the writings of the Bab. [about]
  32. Day of God (Yawmu'llah) and the Days of God (Ayyamu'llah), by Khazeh Fananapazir, in Scripture and Revelation: Papers presented at the First Irfan Colloquium (1997). Comparison of Biblical and Islamic antecedents of the symbol of the "Day of God." [about]
  33. Disconnected Letters of the Qur'an and the Significance of the Number Nineteen, by Robert T. Cameron (1997). Critique of Rashad Khalifa's (disputed) study purporting to find a "deep structure" of 19 in the Qur'an. [about]
  34. Dreams and their Interpretation in the Bahá'í Religion: Some Preliminary Remarks, by Necati Alkan, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Outline of the importance of dreams and their interpretation in the Bahá'í Religion; dream interpretation in Islam; statements on dreams by Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá; a dream interpretation by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Ottoman Turkish. [about]
  35. Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Shii and Babi Religions, by Jonah Winters (1997). Religious and cultural meanings of martyrdom/witnessing, and their role in Babi history. [about]
  36. Exegesis (tafsír), by Todd Lawson, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 9 (1999). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  37. Five Pillars of Islam, The, by Diane Robinson Kerr (2014). Summary of the essential precepts of Islam — belief, prayer, zakat, fasting, and pilgrimage — with some reflections from a Baha'i perspective. [about]
  38. From Adam to Bahá'u'lláh: The Idea of a Chain of Prophecy, by Zaid Lundberg, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
  39. From Moorish Cordova to the Bahá'ís of Iran: Islamic Tolerance and Intolerance, by Boris Handal Morales, in IDEA: A Journal of Social Issues, 12:1 (2007). Though Baha'is are persecuted in Iran, Muhammad taught understanding and respect towards religious minorities. Cordova, Spain is an example of historical tolerance where Muslims, Christians and Jews co-existed harmoniously under Islamic rule. [about]
  40. Gnostic Apocalypse and Islam, by Todd Lawson: Review, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 18 (2012). [about]
  41. History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, by John William Draper (1864). A selection of excerpts from the book. Contains no mention of the Baha'i Faith, but is of interest partly because Abdu'l-Baha referred to this book in Secret of Divine Civilization. [about]
  42. Ibn 'Arabi's Joseph: Imagination as Holy Communion, by Todd Lawson (2010). [about]
  43. India: A Modern History, by Percival Spear (1961). 1-sentence excerpt from Chapter 8, "Islam in India." [about]
  44. Infallible Institutions?, by Udo Schaefer, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, 13 (2002). Historical and Bahá'í interpretations of infallibility. [about]
  45. Introduction to Shi'i Islam, An: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism, by Moojan Momen (1985). The most lengthy and authoritative contemporary overview of Shi'ism; a commonly-assigned college textbook. Includes biographies of prominent historical figures. Not yet formatted. [about]
  46. Introduction to Shi'i Islam, An, by Moojan Momen (1985). Summary of Shi'i history and doctrines, excerpted from the book Introduction to Shí'í Islam. [about]
  47. Is It Unethical to Evade Taxes in an Evil or Corrupt State?: A Look at Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Mormon and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Robert W. McGee, in Journal of Accounting, Ethics & Public Policy, 2:1 (1999). The ethics of tax evasion has been a neglected topic in both the accounting and ethical literature. This article reviews the recent literature, focusing on the question of whether tax evasion is ethical in a corrupt country. [about]
  48. Islam and the Bahá'í Faith: A Brief Guide, by Duane Troxel, in Deepen, 3:2:2 (1994). An overview of some facts and resources about Islam Baha'is should know when conversing with Muslims. Includes chronology of Islam. [about]
  49. Islam and the Bahá'í Faith: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2002). [about]
  50. Islam and the Bahá'í Faith, by Abir Majid (2004). Comprehensive overview of the relationship between the Baha'i Faith and Islam, and background on Islam for Baha'is. Includes outline of Baha'i principles and history, "An Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith." [about]
  51. Islam and the Bahá'í Faith, by Diane Robinson Kerr (2014). Overview of the core tenets of Islam — belief, prayer, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage — with some reflections from a Baha'i perspective. [about]
  52. Islam and the Baha'i Faith: A comparative study of Muhammad ‘Abduh and ‘Abdul-Baha ‘Abbas: Review, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 40 (2010). [about]
  53. Islam and the Life of the Mind, by Todd Lawson (2005). History of Islamic philosophy and how it connects to individual Muslims. [about]
  54. Islam in Persia, by W. St. Clair Tisdall, in The Mohammedan World of To-Day (1906). Passing discussions of Babis and Baha'is in Iran at the start of the 20th century (pages 115-118, 121, 129-130). [about]
  55. Islam, Muhammad, and the Qur'an: Some Introductory Notes, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 1:1 (1991). Islamic contributions to Western culture and science and discusses the place of Islamic Studies in the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  56. Islamic Contributions to Civilization, by Stanwood Cobb (1963). Overview of the many inventions and sciences which were developed by or transmitted by Islamic people and nations. [about]
  57. Islamische Grundlagen des Kitáb-i Aqdas: Mit neuen Erkenntnissen zu seiner Datierung, by Kamran Ekbal, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Entstehung der Bahá'í Religion, eds. Johann Christoph Bürgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). [about]
  58. Keys to the Proper Understanding of Islam in The Dispensation of Baha'u'llah, by Brian Wittman, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). [about]
  59. Kitáb-i-Íqán and the Qur'an: Quotations from the Iqan Compared with their Counterparts in Rodwell's Translation of the Qur'an (2001). Includes table of Qur'anic quotations from the Íqán compared with their counterparts in the Qur'an, and an index to surihs and verses in the Kitáb-i-Íqán arranged chronologically by surih. [about]
  60. Law of the Land and the State of the Soul, The: Analyzing Theoretical Frameworks of Bahá'í and Islamic Law Within and Beyond the Nation-State, by Moussa Z. Traore (2012). Details, laws, and constitution of the Baha'i system which, analogous to the United Nations or a Supreme Court, presents a legal framework for a non-State governance structure at the international level. [about]
  61. Lawh-i-Hikmat: The Two Agents and the Two Patients, by Vahid Rafati, in Andalib, 5:19 (2002). Discussion of the two terms fa`ilayn (the active force / "the generating influence") and munfa`ilayn (its recipient / "such as receive its impact") in Islamic philosophy, and their later use in Shaykhi and Baha'i texts. [about]
  62. Letter to Mrs. A. Schwarz, Stuttgart, by Josephina Fallscheer (1910). Philosophic conversations of the Master with a French consular official. The nineteenth letter from Dr. Fallscheer to Schwarz. [about]
  63. Letters and Essays, 1886-1913, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1985). Treatises of "the greatest and most learned of all Bahá'í scholars" about Alexander Tumansky; on meeting Abdu'l-Baha; and on the meaning of angels, resurrection, civilization, tests, angels, holy spirit, and the saying "Knowledge is twenty-seven letters." [about]
  64. Letters of the Quranic Dispensation and Letters of the Living (huruf), by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). Some meanings of the term huruf ("letters") in Baha'i texts, including Letters of the Bayan, Letters of the Living, and Letters of the Quranic Dispensation. [about]
  65. Memorials of the Faithful: The Democratization of Sainthood, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). Hagiography in Judaism, Christianity and Islam; the precedent of Faridu'd-Din's "Memorials of the Saints"; Abdu'l-Baha innovations in this traditional literary format. [about]
  66. Messianic Expectations in Nineteenth Century Christian and Islamic Communities, by Ahang Rabbani (2006). The phenomenon of messianism and its manifestations in early-modern American Christianity and in Iranian Islam. [about]
  67. Mid-East History during the Islamic Period: Chronology and Commentary, by Brian A. Miller (2000). Brief overview of Islamic history. [about]
  68. Miracles and Metaphors, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1981). Collection of essays on metaphysical topics and Bahá'í answers to old religious controversies: are the Scriptures to be taken literally? Do miracles occur? What is an angel? Are the stories of the Old Testament to be believed? [about]
  69. Notes on Bahá'í Proofs Based on the Qur'an, Some (2000). [about]
  70. Notes on Islam from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Robert Stockman (1998). Overview of Islamic history and teachings and brief notes on Islam and the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  71. Number 19 in the Qur'an, The, by Abdulrahman Lomax (1995). Discussion of a study by a Muslim which purports to demonstrate that the Qur'an is comprised of mystical units of 19. No mention of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  72. Origin of the Bahá'í Principle of the Harmony between Science and Religion, The, by Keven Brown (2001). On the origin of the principle of scientific/religious harmony in Islamic and Bahá’í Writings, and discussion of a letter by Abdu'l-Bahá on the topic. [about]
  73. Origins of the Bahá'í Concept of Unity and Causality: A Brief Survey of Greek, Neoplatonic, and Islamic Underpinnings, by Babak Rod Khadem, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
  74. Out of Jewish Roots: Studies of Prayer Patterns in Jewish, Christian, Muslim and Bahá'í Worship, by Ted Brownstein, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
  75. Prince of Martyrs, The: A brief account of the Imam Husayn, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi (1977). The story of the Third Imam, whose death in the year 680 became a pivotal event for Shi'i Islam. [about]
  76. Proofs from the Holy Qur'án Regarding the Advent of Bahá'u'lláh, by Sabir Áfaqi (1993). Collection of prophecies and symbols from the Qur'án that foretell Baha'u'llah. Prepared for the deepening of Baha'is and to aid in introducing the Faith to Muslims. [about]
  77. Prophecy in the Johannine Farewell Discourse: The Advents of the Paraclete, Ahmad and Comforter, by Stephen Lambden, in Scripture and Revelation: Papers presented at the First Irfan Colloquium (1997). [about]
  78. Prophets and Mountains, by Moshe Sharon, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
  79. Qur'án, The: Renderings by Rodwell & Sale and Multilinear Qur'án with Bahá'í References by Verse. [about]
  80. Qur'án, The: The Meanings of the Holy Qur'an, by Muhammad. [about]
  81. Rashid Rida on the Bahá'í Faith: A Utilitarian Theory of the Spread of Religions, by Juan Cole, in Arab Studies Quarterly, 5:3 (1983). Rida developed a theory of missionary work characterized by both modern pragmatic and traditionalist Islamic aspects: a sociology of the spread of religion in terms of organizational efficiency avoids talk of intrinsic "truth" or supernatural agency. [about]
  82. Reconciling the Other: The Bahá'í Faith in America as a Successful Synthesis of Christianity and Islam, by Anthony Lee (1995). [about]
  83. Reflections on Some Messianic Prophecies in Shaykhi Works, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
  84. Regarding Jaʻfar-i-Kadhdháb ('Jaʻfar the Liar'), by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). One-paragraph passage about the mystical cities Jabulqa and Jabulsa and the truthfulness of a figure, Jaʻfar (connected with the history of the Twelfth Imam). [about]
  85. Relativism: A Basis For Bahá'í Metaphysics, by Moojan Momen, in Studies in Honor of the Late Husayn M. Balyuzi, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 5, ed. Moojan Momen (1988). "Relativism" as a means of reconciling the often widely-divergent theologies of the world's religions. [about]
  86. Religion in the Middle East: Three Religions in Concord and Conflict: Volume 2, Islam, by Arthur J. Arberry (1969). Five mentions of the Babis, Baha'is, and Ahmadiyya. [about]
  87. Religion of Islam, by Ahang Rabbani (2007). Overview of Islam: law and doctrine, The Qur'an, Hadith, the Five Pillars, Quranic interpretation. [about]
  88. Scripture as Literature: Sifting through the layers of the text, by Frank Lewis, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Literary and religious antecedents to some of the styles and genres of Baha'i scripture. [about]
  89. Seeing Double: The Covenant and the Tablet of Ahmad, by Todd Lawson, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). The Tablet of Ahmad is believed to have special potency. "Seeing double" means both looking at the words of Scripture, and looking in the direction beyond the words, as indicated by the context. This paper also discusses the meaning of Covenant in Islam. [about]
  90. Seeing With the Eye of God: Relationships Between Theology and Interpretation, by Michael W. Sours, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 1:1 (1991). Various spheres of interpretation and how their hierarchies reflect theological truth. [about]
  91. Shi`i Islam, by Moojan Momen (1995). Overview of Shi'a Islam, including a section on its relations to the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  92. Shoghi Effendi: An approach to his artistic contribution to style in English literature and to standards in translation, by Nobel Perdu and Ismael Velasco, in Traducción, cultura e inmigración. Reflexiones interdisciplinares, ed. García Marcos et al. (2004). [about]
  93. Story of Joseph in Five Religious Traditions, by Jim Stokes, in World Order, 28:3 (1997). The parable of Joseph in the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament, and Islam. Prefaced by comments by Moojan Momen. [about]
  94. Striving Together: A Way Forward in Christian-Muslim Relations, by Charles Kimball: A Jihad for All Seasons: Review, by Seena Fazel, in World Order, 26:2 (1994). [about]
  95. Study of the Meaning of the Word "Al-Amr" in the Qur'án and in the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, A, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). [about]
  96. Symbol and Secret: Qur'an Commentary in Baha'u'llah's Kitab-i-Iqan, by Christopher Buck (1995). Comparative study of tafsir, exegesis, and theology in the Qur'an and the Kitab-i-Iqan. Includes Persian translation. [about]
  97. Symbol and Secret: Qur'an Commentary in Baha'u'llah's Kitab-i-Iqan, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Frank Lewis, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). [about]
  98. Symbol and Secret: Qur'an Commentary in Baha'u'llah's Kitab-i-Iqan, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Jonah Winters, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:3 (1999). [about]
  99. Tablet of the Fig and the Olive, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). [about]
  100. Tablet of the Uncompounded Reality: Translation, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
  101. Tablet of the Uncompounded Reality: Introduction, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). The conflict in Islam between philosopher-mystics who adhere to the philosophy of existential oneness (wahdat al-wujud) and those who oppose this view as heresy. [about]
  102. Tablet of Visitation for Imám Husayn, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). Tablet in honor of Imam Husayn, the prince of martyrs, with whom Baha'u'llah identified in a mystical connection. [about]
  103. Tafsir and the Meaning of the Qur'an: The Crucifixion in Muslim Thought, by Todd Lawson (2010). Using Qur'án 4:156-7 as an example, classical tafsīr, “scholastic" exegesis, has not always taken account of the way all Muslims understand the Quranic text. Other understandings may be found in poetry, philosophy, mysticism and even historical writing. [about]
  104. Typological Figuration and the Meaning of "Spiritual": The Qurʾanic Story of Joseph, by Todd Lawson, in Journal of the American Oriental Society, 132:2 (2012). Meanings of the famous shirt (qamís) as a symbol of Joseph's spiritual journey and travails in the Qur'an and tafsír. Does not mention the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  105. View on Islam, A, by Amin Banani (1969). This lecture gives "a few generalizations about Islam that are directly significant to Baha'is." [about]
  106. Woman and Islam, by Elihu Grant, in Life and Light for Woman, 42:1 (1912). One-paragraph sympathetic mention. [about]
 
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