Bahá'í Library Online
. . . .
.

Search for tag "Israel"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1819–1831 `Abdu'lláh Páshá becomes the governor of `Akká in 1819. In 1832 when the Egyptians take `Akká he surrenders and is taken to Egypt. He is freed in 1840 when the area reverts to Turkish rule. [BBD5] Akka; Israel; Egypt Abdullah Pasha; Governors
1831 – 40 Egyptian occupation of `Akká. [BBR202; DH128]
  • 'Abdu'lláh Páshá is the governor of 'Akká from 1919 to 1831. In 1832 when the Egyptians took the city he surrenders and is taken to Egypt. He is freed in 1840 when the area reverted to Turkish rule. [BBD5]
Akka; Israel; Egypt; Turkey History (general); Abdullah Pasha
1840 The British fleet take `Akká from the Egyptians. [BBR202] Akka; Israel; Egypt; United Kingdom History (general)
1844 Edict of Toleration The relaxation of the order for the exclusion of the Jews from the Holy Land. GPB iv Luke 21:24 Israel Edict of Toleration; Jews; Judaism; Bible; History (general)
1868. 29 Aug In the morning the ship arrives in Port Said. At nightfall it travels on to Jaffa. [BKG268] Port Said; Jaffa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
1868. 30 Aug The ship arrives at Jaffa at sunset. At midnight the ship leaves for Haifa. [BKG168] Jaffa; Haifa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
1868. 31 Aug The ship arrives in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembark and are taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
  • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, throws himself into the sea when he learns he is to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party is put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
  • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
The exiles land in `Akká to begin a confinement in the citadel that is to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
  • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
  • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
  • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
  • DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
  • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
  • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
  • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • The first night the exiles are refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
  • Afterwards each prisoner is allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
  • Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
  • Three of the exiles die soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
  • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
  • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
  • At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'bdu'l-Ahad ahead some time before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
  • The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
  • After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letter to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Petro. Dr; Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile; Firsts, Other
1868. 3 Sep The firmán of the Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz condemning Bahá'u'lláh to life imprisonment is read out in the Mosque of Al-Jazzár. [BKG284–5; GPB186; RB3:18]
  • See CH64, BKG283–4, 286; GBP186, RB2:402 and RB3:18 for the terms of the edict. They were labelled as malefactors, sowerw of sedition, hardened criminals, enemies of the pure religion of God and of man. The faithful were commanded to shun these outcasts. All of those that did a disservice to the captives might flatter themselves that they "did service to God".
  • See RB3:18–19 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's response.
  • See BKG283–8, RB3:19-20 for conditions of life in the barracks.
  • The local authorities and the clerics did their part to stir up the populus against the exiles. See DH197 and CH239-242 for the story of a man who made an attempt on the life of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • From this time forward Bahá'u'lláh met only with His
Akka; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firmans; Mosque of Al-Jazzar
1917. 2 Nov The Balfour Declaration was a letter sent to Lord Walter Rothschild by British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour declaring support for the establishment of a ‘national home for the Jewish people’ in what was to become the British Mandate of Palestine. It was the first official declaration of political support for Jewish independence and is viewed by some as paving the way for the legal foundations of the modern State of Israel as evidenced by the level of international diplomacy that went into securing the letter. In the context of WWI which was still raging at the time, it offered Britain the opportunity for a stake in the Middle East in the expected wake of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. It also marked one of the first major successes of the political Zionist movement which had officially been established with the First Zionist Congress in 1897.

Given that the Balfour Declaration was not a unilateral document on behalf of the British but rather something which had been agreed upon privately by allied diplomats before it was issued, it is viewed as the beginning of a legal process, which involved the San Remo conference of 1920 where the Declaration was officially adopted by the allied powers and latter, the creation of the British Mandate for Palestine in 1922.

The implementation of the Declaration was not without its failings. It provided for the safeguarding of the rights of the residents of Palestine saying ‘nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine’. In the run up to WWII that the British wanted to placate the Arab leadership in the Mandate. They issued a White Paper limiting Jewish immigration to the Mandate to fifteen thousand every year for five years, ultimately refusing entry to thousands of Jewish refugees from Europe, many of whom would tragically die in the Holocaust.

Palistine; Israel Balfour Declaration; Jews; Judaism; History (general); United Kingdom
1918 Sep 23 The 1st Battle of Haifa: The battle was won due to a courageous uphill assault by the Jodhpur Lancers of the Indian Army which took the German and Turkish artillery and machine gun emplacements on top of Mount Carmel by surprise. This attack is believed to have been one of the last cavalry charge in modern military history. Each year, on this date, the Indian Army commemorates this victory as Haifa Day.

"During the early years of World War I, though no longer imprisoned, ‘Abdu’l-Baha faced repeated threats against His life by authorities that were antagonistic toward Him and the Baha’is. The Commander of the Ottoman fourth army corps had even threatened to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Baha if the Turkish army were ever to be displaced out of Haifa." Lady Blomfield in London had learned of this threat and through her contacts in Cabinet the British Army were instructed to protect Him and His family. [BWNS69, BWNS1202]

Mount Carmel; Israel Wars; Jodhpur Lancers; Indian Army; Germany; Turkey; Haifa Day; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to
1930 7 Oct Ruth White writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she has sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requests she sends that same evidence to him and he forwards it to the Governor of Haifa who requests to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declares the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157] Haifa; Israel; United Kingdom Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of; Authenticity; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; High Commisioners
1948 20 Mar The marriage of Gladys Andersen to Ben Weeden takes place in Jerusalem under the auspices of the Spiritual Assembly of Amman. They make efforts to have their marriage recognized at the American Consulate and at the offices of the British Mandate but are unable to do so considering the shifting situation. After the end of the British Mandate they take the matter up with the new state of Israel and it is handled expeditiously thus obtaining full recognition of the Faith and its right to perform marriages. [SETPE1p341] Israel; Amman
1948 14 May The British Mandate in Palestine ends and the state of Israel is proclaimed. Israel Britain; History, General
1949 21 Jan Shoghi Effendi has a private interview with Prime Minister Ben Gurion of Israel. [GBF136; PP174–5, 289] Israel Shoghi Effendi; Ben Gurion
1950 16 Dec The Guardian appeals directly to Israel’s Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to recognize the interest of the Bahá’í community in the property known as Mazra‘ih as a holy place. After a protracted struggle to obtain ownership of the property, then a Moslem religious endowment, he leases the site from the Department of Moslem and Druze affairs in the Ministry of Religions. [DH93, GBF137, PP290, CB331, MBW7, Bahá'í News, no. 244, June 1951, p. 4] Israel Mazraih; David Ben-Gurion
1952 18 May The case brought against Shoghi Effendi by the Covenant-breakers in connection with the demolition of a house adjoining the Shrine and Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí is removed from the civil courts by the government of Israel. [CB330; GBF138–9; PP233–4, 290]
  • For the history of this case and the outcome see BW12:384–7.
Israel Shrine and Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí; Covenant-breakers
1952 12 Nov The government of Israel exchanges 145,000 square metres of land surrounding Bahjí for property at Ein Gev on the eastern side of the Sea of Galilee belonging to the descendants of Bahá’u’lláh’s brother Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí and given to the Faith for this purpose. [DH118, 208; PP233, SETPE1p134-125, MBW454-46]
  • Bahá’í holdings at Bahjí up to now amount to only 4,000 square metres.
Israel Bahji; Mirza Muhammad-Quli
1953 20 Nov The formation of the Israel Branch of the Bahá'ís of Canada. Canada; Israel Israel Branch of the Baha'is of Canada find reference
1953 13 Dec A separate department for the Bahá’í Faith is established by the Israeli Ministry of Religious Affairs. [GBF137; PP 291; PP320] Israel laws of personal status
1954 26 May Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Leroy Ioas return the visit of President Ben Zvi by visiting him in Jerusalem. [GBF140; PP293–4] Jerusalem; Israel Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; ; Leroy Ioas; Ben Zvi; Presidents
1954 1 Oct The title of the a parcel of land on Mount Carmel is transferred to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, Israel Branch. The title deed is for Parcel No. 304, Block 10811 Mount Carmel, Haifa. Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel. BWC; title find reference
1963 23 Apr Two Hands of the Cause and two members of the Universal House of Justice attend, on behalf of the House of Justice, the State funeral of Izhak Ben Zvi, second President of Israel. [BW14:92–3]
  • This is the first official act of the Universal House of Justice. [BW14:92–3]
Israel Izhak Ben Zvi
1968 26 – 31 Aug The centenary of the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh in the Holy Land is commemorated at the World Centre. [BW15:81–4]
  • For details of the commemoration, the pilgrimage to follow and pictures see BW15:81–6.
Haifa; BWC; Israel Centenaries; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Banishment of
1985 18 Oct The remains of Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí and 11 members of his family are re-interred in a new Bahá’í cemetery near the original grave site. The cemetery is located on a hillside looking across Lake Kinneret and the hills of Galilee towards the Qiblih of the Faith. [BW19:56] Israel Mirza Muhammad-Quli
1987 22 Apr A ceremony is held to sign a ‘status agreement’ between the Bahá’í International Community and the Government of Israel defining the relationship of the Bahá’í World Centre with the State of Israel. [LETTER OF THE UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE, 30 APR 87]
  • Shimon Peres, Vice-President and Foreign Minister, represents the Government of Israel while Donald Barrett signs the agreement in his capacity as Secretary-General of the Bahá’í International Community. [LETTER OF THE UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE, 30 APR 87]
Israel; Haifa; BWC; status agreement; BIC; Shimon Peres; Donald Barrett
1989 6 May The Bahá’í World Centre receives one of six awards given by the Council for a Beautiful Israel in a ceremony in Jerusalem. [BINS199:2] Jerusalem; BWC; Council for a Beautiful Israel
1990 Mar The Haifa District Town Planning Commission approves the plan submitted by the World Centre for the building projects on Mount Carmel. [AWH76] Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel. BWC Arc project
1990 23 May The work started on the project to reinforce and extend the main terrace of the Shrine of the Báb. This was the initial step in the work to have the Terraces extend from the foot of the ridge of the mountain. [Ridván Message 1992, AWH83, 102] World Centre; Akka; Haifa; Israel; BWC Terraces; Arc project; Bab, Shrine of
1992 28 May Ibsen Valls Pinheiro, President of the Federal Chamber of Deputies, opens a special session of the Chamber called to observe the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh, attended by 45 federal deputies. [BINS271:2; BW92–3:121]
  • For picture see BW92–3:122.
Note: VV133 says this was 29 May.
Israel Ibsen Valls Pinheiro; President of the Federal Chamber of Deputies
1993 16 Feb A stamp featuring the Seat of the Universal House of Justice is issued by the Philatelic Service of the Israel Postal Authority. [BW92–3:142]
  • For picture see BW92–3:143.
Israel Stamps; Universal House of Justice, Seat of
1994 Jun 13 The Prime Minister of Israel, Yitzhak Rabin, visits the Bahá'í World Centre to view the Terraces Project. [BW94–5:77] Israel; Haifa; BWC Yitzzhak Rabin; Prime Ministers; Prominent visitors
1994 Aug 4 Shimon Peres, Israel's Minister of Foreign Affairs, makes an official visit to the Bahá'í World Centre. [BW94–5:77] Israel; Haifa; BWC; Shimon Peres
1999 June The dedication of the first academic chair in Bahá'í studies in Israel at Hebrew University of Jerusalem with the appointment of Prof. Moshe Sharon. The position was made possible because of an anonymous donation. [Jerusalem Post, June 7, 1999, BWNS84] Jerusalem; Israel Chair in Bahai Studies; Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Universities; Moshe Sharon; Firsts, Other; Donations
2000 17 - 21 Dec The first International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Bábí-Bahá’í Faiths was held in Jerusalem with about 90 persons in attendance. [BWNS84] Jerusalem; Israel Conferences, Interfaith; Interfaith dialogue; Judaism; Christianity; Islam; Firsts, Other
2004 19 Apr The passing of Mr Aziz Ismayn Yazdi in Vancouver, Canada at the age of 94. Aziz Yazdi lived in Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Great Britain, Uganda, Kenya, Israel, and finally Canada. In 1968 he was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors in Central and East Africa and was an inaugural member of the International Teaching Centre in Haifa. [BWNS297, BW'03-‘04pg239] Vancouver; Canada; Egypt; Syria; Iran; Iraq; United Kingdom; Uganda; Kenya; Israel Aziz Ismayn Yazdi; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In memoriam; Births and deaths
2008 8 Jul The Shrine of the Báb and the Resting Place of Baháu'lláh chosen as UNESCO World Heritage sites. [BWNS642, BWNS643] Haifa; Israel; Akka; BWC UNESCO; World Heritage Sites; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of
2012 21 Apr Plans are announced that the Universal House of Justice is entering into consultations with respective National Spiritual Assemblies regarding the erection of the first local Houses of Worship in each of the following clusters: Battambang, Cambodia; Bihar Sharif, India; Matunda Soy, Kenya; Norte del Cauca, Colombia; and Tanna, Vanuatu. [Riḍván 2012 To the Bahá’ís of the World] Haifa; Israel; Battambang; Cambodia; Bihar Sharif; India; Matunda Soy; Kenya; Norte del Cauca; Colombia; and Tanna; Vanuatu. Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local

from the main catalogue

  1. `Abdu'l-Baha in Abu-Sinan: September 1914–May 1915, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The story of Abdu'l-Baha's relocating the Haifa/Akka Baha'i community of some 140 people to a nearby Druze village to keep them safe during World War I. [about]
  2. Advertisement for Israeli Tourism in the New Yorker magazine, in New Yorker (2000). Baha'i World Centre photograph in advertisement in prominent magazine, featuring the terraces. [about]
  3. Ambassador at the Court: The Life and Photography of Effie Baker, by Graham Hassall (1999). Extensive biography of Effie Baker, an early Australian Baha'i. [about]
  4. Bahá'í World Centre, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the spiritual center of the Bahá’í Faith, established in the twin cities of Acre and Haifa, the focal points of devotion for Bahá’ís around the world, and edifices of the administrative center. [about]
  5. Bridge over Troubled Waters: The City of Haifa in Lavie Tidhar's Stories, by Ehud Maimon, in Strange Horizons (2012). Brief mentions of the temple of the Bab and the terraces, and the place of Haifa and Mt. Carmel in some contemporary Israeli fiction. Includes photos. [about]
  6. Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East , by Kamran Ekbal (2014). Abdu'l-Baha was opposed to the cultural and political colonialism of foreign powers and their militaries. In spite of the Baha'i principle of abstaining from politics, exceptions can be made in the face of tyranny and injustice. [about]
  7. Conspiracies and Forgeries: The Attack upon the Bahá'í Community in Iran, by Moojan Momen, in Persian Heritage, 9:35 (2004). [about]
  8. Crucial Heart, The, by Barbara Jarvik, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Short story about religious tolerance in Israel. [about]
  9. Debunking the Myths: Conspiracy Theories on the Genesis and Mission of the Bahá'í Faith, by Adib Ma'sumian (2009). Response to Iranian conspiracy theories portraying the Baha'i Faith as a subversive political group, Zionist spies, affiliates of the secret police, British agents, etc. Available in English and Persian. Includes interview with author. [about]
  10. Historical Development of Genoa Square in Acre Israel from the Seventh Century to the Present Day, The, by Amy Suzanne Hollander (1995). A study of the structure, development, space, and historic preservation of a portion of Akka, including discussion of its place in Baha'i history. [about]
  11. Humanitarian Responses to Global Conflicts, by Universal House of Justice (2015). A letter to and response from the House about why Baha'is do not condemn the 2014 attacks on Gaza, and principles to consider when addressing conflicts. [about]
  12. Israel, Teaching the Faith in, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Short overview of the policies on discussing the Baha'i Faith in Israel; the prohibition of Baha'is from teaching the Baha'i Faith to Israelis extends to internet discussions. Includes US State Dept. overview of the laws regarding proselytizing in Israel. [about]
  13. Notes on Judaism from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Robert Stockman (1998). Overview of Judaism with many comments on Baha'i teachings on Jewish history and prophets; includes chronology of Judaism. [about]
  14. References to the Bahá'í Faith in the U.S. State Department's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, by United States Department of State (1991). Excerpts from the State Department's annual compilation of Country Reports on Human Rights Practices on discrimination against the Baha'i Faith and persecution of its adherents in twenty countries. [about]
  15. Tablet of [Mount] Carmel (Lawh-i-Karmil): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Peter Terry and Ted Brownstein (1999). [about]
  16. Young Turks and the Bahá'ís in Palestine, The, by Necati Alkan, in Late Ottoman Palestine: The Period of Young Turk Rule, ed. Eyal Ginio and Yuval Ben Bassat (2011). Reform movements in turn-of-the-century Palestine and the influence of Abdu'l-Baha on his political milieu. [about]
 
Tips:
Home Site Map Forum Links Copyright About Contact
.
. .