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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1920 After Jul The first Argentineans to become Bahá'ís, Hermann Grossman and his sister Elsa Grossman, accept the Faith in Leipzig in 1920.
  • They were born in Argentina and emigrated to Germany in 1909.
  • Dr Grossman hears of the Faith at a public meeting given by Harlan and Grace Ober at the Theosophical Society. [BW13:869]
Leipzig Hermann Grossman; Elsa Grossman; Harlan and Grace Ober; Theosophical Society
1921 1 Feb Leonora Holsapple Armstrong, the first Bahá'í pioneer in Latin America, arrives in Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro. Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Leonora Armstrong
1925 Jan The Spiritual Assembly of Alexandria is established, the second assembly to be formed in Africa. Alexandria; Africa LSA
1925 There are 43 local spiritual assemblies in North America by this date. [BBRSM121] North America LSA
1927 9 Sep-2 Dec Leonora Holsapple (later Armstrong) makes a teaching trip through Latin America and the Caribbean, becoming the first Bahá’í to visit Venezuela, Colombia, Haiti, Curaçao, Trinidad (2–12 Oct), the Guianas (29 Oct), Barbados (Dec) and several islands in the Antilles group. Latin America; Caribbean Leonora Holsapple; Leonora Armstrong
1928 The first local assembly of Shanghai is formed. [PH28] Shanghai LSA
1928 In this year there are 579 localities in the world in which Bahá’ís live, 102 local spiritual assemblies, nine national spiritual assemblies, and about eight languages into which Bahá’í literature is translated. [BBRSM160–1] NSA; LSA; statistics
1930 Leonora Holsapple Armstrong visits Gibraltar, the first Bahá’í to do so. Gibraltar Leonora Holsapple; Leonora Armstrong
1932 17 Feb The Chicago Bahá’í Assembly incorporates, the first local spiritual assembly in the world to do so. This set the pattern for other Assemblies. [GPB336, Century of LIght p57] Chicago LSA; incorporation
1932 21 Mar The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Tokyo, consisting of journalists and other professional people, is formed.
  • Owing to the situation in Japan, it is disbanded two years later.
Tokyo LSA find reference
1933 25 Nov The first Spiritual Assembly of Addis Ababa is formed. [BW6:70]
  • The community is established by Sabri Elias, a pioneer from Egypt. [BW6:70]
  • Ethiopia is the only independent Kingdom in Africa at this date. [BW6:70]
Addis Ababa LSA; Sabri Elias
1934 The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Sofia, Bulgaria, is elected. Sofia; Bulgaria LSA; Bulgaria
1935 The persecution against the Bahá’ís in Iran continues. [BW18:389]
  • Meetings in the Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán are banned.
  • A number of Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh are arrested and imprisoned.
  • The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák is arrested.
  • Bahá’ís in Qazvín are arrested and harassed.
  • A Bahá’í in Záhidán is arrested.
Iran; Tihrán; Bandar Sháh; Arák; Qazví; Záhidán; religious persecution; LSA
1937 The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran continues throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Many Bahá’ís employed in the police force, army and government departments are dismissed.
  • Six members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Ahváz are arrested.
  • Bahá’ís closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days in Bandar Sháh are arrested.
  • All Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Bírjand, Arák and other towns are prohibited by police order.
  • Five Bahá’í families are attacked in their homes in Cham-tang, near Hindíyán. They are severely beaten and forced to leave the village.
Iran; Ahváz; Bandar Sháh; Kirmánsháh; Bírjand; Arák; Cham-tang religious persecution; LSA; holy days
1937 Ridván The First Seven Year Plan is launched in North America. [BBD180; BBRSM158; BW7:17–18; MA9]
  • For the role of individuals, local spiritual assemblies and the National Spiritual Assembly see MA11–12.
  • The Plan calls for:
  • the completion of the exterior of the Wilmette Temple. BW7:17–18; PP385]
  • the establishment of a local spiritual assembly in each state and province of the United States and Canada. [PP385]
  • the establishment of a centre in each of the republics of Latin America. [PP385]
America First Seven Year Plan; NSA; LSA; Wilmette Temple; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; Teaching Plans
1938 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in the whole of Latin America is formed in Mexico City. Mexico City LSA
1940 The first local spiritual assembly in Brazil is established in Bahia, with the assistance of Leonora Holsapple Armstrong. Bahia; Brazil Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Leonora Armstrong
1942 21 Apr The first local assembly in El Salvador is established in San Salvador. San Salvador LSA
1942 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Cuba is established in Havana.
  • A loose organization had been formed in 1940.
Havana LSA
1942 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Haiti is established in Port-au-Prince. Port-au-Prince LSA
1942 Jun The Spiritual Assembly of San José, Costa Rica, is legally registered with the government, the first local assembly to be incorporated in Latin America. [BW11:46] San José; Costa Rica LSA
1943 4 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in Alaska is established at Anchorage. Anchorage; Alaska LSA
1944 21 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Jamaica is established in Kingston. Kingston LSA
1944 21 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Puerto Rico is established in San Juan. San Juan LSA
1944 21 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Colombia is established in Bogotá. Bogotá LSA
1944 21 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Honduras is established in Tegucigalpa. Tegucigalpa LSA
1944 21 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Peru is established in Lima. Lima LSA
1944 Nov The Local Spiritual Assembly of Bogotá, Colombia, is disbanded.
  • It is not reformed until April 1946.
Bogotá; Colombia LSA
1945 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Ecuador is established in Guayaquil. Guayaquil; Ecuador LSA
1945 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in the Dominican Republic is established in Santo Domingo.
  • There are nine indigenous believers in the city.
Santo Domingo LSA
1945 Apr The first local spiritual assembly of Bolivia is established in La Paz. La Paz LSA
1945 Apr The first local spiritual assembly of Venezuela is established in Caracas. Caracas LSA
1945 Jun The 20 Bahá’ís in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, are a sufficient number for the local spiritual assembly to gain legal recognition for the Bahá’í Faith as a religion.
  • It is registered as a cultural, religious and social organization on 5 August 1946.
Port-au-Prince; Haiti LSA
1946 21 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Panama is established Panama City. Panama City LSA
1946 21 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Brazil is established in Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro LSA
1947 Apr The Tokyo Spiritual Assembly, suspended during the war, is established. Tokyo LSA
1947 Ridván The formation of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Amsterdam, the first in the Netherlands. Amsterdam; Holland; the Netherlands; LSA find referenc]
1948 19 Apr The Havana Bahá’ís incorporate as an ‘assembly’, meaning ‘group’.
  • It is incorporated as a local spiritual assembly in 1949.
Havana LSA
1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of the Netherlands is established in Amsterdam. Amsterdam LSA
1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Belgium is established in Brussels. Brussels LSA
1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Afghanistan is established in Kabul. Kabul LSA
1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Ireland is established in Dublin. Dublin LSA
1948 Ridván The first All-Native Bahá’í Assembly is established in Macy, Nebraska. [BW13:837; CF72]
  • See BW11:536 for a picture.
  • For the role of Amelia Collins in establishing this Assembly see PSBW88.
Macy; Nebraska Amelia Collins; LSA
1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Sweden is established at Stockholm. [BW11:689]
  • For picture see BW11:689.
Stockholm LSA
1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Spain is established in Madrid. Madrid LSA
1949 20 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Portugal is established in Lisbon. Lisbon LSA
1949 21 Apr The first local spiritual assembly of Denmark is established in Copenhagen. Copenhagen LSA
1951 Bahá’í women in Egypt are extended the right of membership on local spiritual assemblies. [MBW12]
  • Shoghi Effendi calls this ‘a notable step in the progress of Bahá’í women of the Middle East’. [MBW12]
Egypt LSA
1952 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Uganda is established in Kampala.
  • Enoch Olinga is a member.
Kampala LSA
1952 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Tanganyika is established in Dar-es-Salaam. Dar-es-Salaam LSA
1952 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Singapore City is established. [BW12:573; PH58, 67] Singapore City LSA
1953 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Finland is established in Helsinki. Helsinki LSA find reference
1953 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Kenya is established in Nairobi. Nairobi; Kenya LSA
1953 Sep Elsa Grossman arrives in the Frisian Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Frisian Islands Elsa Grossman; Knight of Baha’u’llah
1954 Apr Bahá’í women in Iran are accorded full rights to participate in membership of both national and local Bahá’í assemblies. [MBW65]
  • This removes the ‘last remaining obstacle to the enjoyment of complete equality of rights in the conduct of the administrative affairs of the Persian Bahá’í Community’. [MBW65]
Iran NSA; LSA
1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Malay Peninsula is established in Seremban. Seremban; Malay LSA
1954 Ridván The first all African local spiritual assembly in Tanganyika is formed in Bukoba. Bukoba; Tanganyika LSA
1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly is formed in British Cameroons. British Cameroons LSA
1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly is formed in Ruanda-Urundi. Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) LSA
1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Algeria is formed in Algiers. Algiers; Algeria LSA
1954 Jul 12 The arrival of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Dudley Moore Blakely and his wife Elsa (Judy) Blakeley in Tonga. They shared the honour with Dr. Stanley Bolton. [BWNS286] Tonga; Oceania Knight; Dudley Moore Blakely; Elsa (Judy) Blakeley; Stanley Bolton
1954 12 Jul Dudley Moore Blakely, an artist, sculptor and designer, and his wife, Elsa (‘Judy’), British citizens living in Maine, arrive on Tongatapu and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Tonga Islands. [BW13:456] Tonga Islands Dudley Moore Blakely; Elsa (‘Judy’) Blakely; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Zanzibar is formed. Zanzibar LSA
1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Réunion is formed. Réunion LSA
1955 Ridván The first five local assemblies in Bechuanaland (Lesotho) are formed in Seqonoka, Maseru, Mafeteng, Maphohloane and Sephapos’ Gate. Seqonoka; Maseru; Mafeteng; Maphohloane and Sephapos’ Gate; Lesotho LSA
1955 Ridván The first four local spiritual assemblies in The Gambia are formed in Bathurst (Banjul), Serrekunda, Lamin and Brikama. Bathurst (Banjul); Serrekunda; Lamin and Brikama; The Gambia LSA
1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) is formed in Salisbury (Harare). Salisbury (Harare); Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) LSA
1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of French Togoland (Togo) formed at Lomé. Lomé; French Togoland (Togo) LSA
1955 Ridván The first local spiritual in Mozambique is established in Lourenço Marques. [BW13:290] Lourenço Marques; Mozambique LSA
1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Italian Somalia is formed in Mogadishu. Mogadishu; Italian Somalia LSA
1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Madagascar is formed in Tananarive (Antananarivo). Tananarive (Antananarivo); Madagascar LSA
1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Seychelles is formed in Victoria. Victoria; Seychelles LSA
1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Bahamas is formed in Nassau. Nassau; Bahamas LSA
1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Vietnam is formed at Saigon-Cholon (Cholon is the Chinese section of Saigon).
  • This body is also the first local assembly to be formed in Indochina.
Saigon-Cholon; Vietnam LSA
1955 23 Apr Ramadán begins. Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí Falsafí makes an inflammatory speech against the Bahá’ís from a mosque in Tihrán. [BW18:390]
  • This is broadcast on national radio and stirs up the people against the Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
  • Beatings, killings, looting and raping go on for several weeks, usually incited by the local ‘ulamá. [BW18:390–1; MC16–17; ZK215–6]
  • The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and damaged by a mob led by Siyyid Núru’d-Dín, a mujtahid.
Tihrán; Shíráz; Iran Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí Falsafí; House of the Báb; Siyyid Núru’d-Dín; religious persecution
1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly is formed in Morocco (International Zone). Morocco LSA
1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Taiwan is formed in T’ainan. T’ainan; Taiwan LSA
1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Bermuda is formed. Bermuda LSA
1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assemblies in Korea are formed at Seoul and at Kwangju. Seoul and Kwangju Korea; LSA
1956 Ridván With the enrolment of the first Micronesian Bahá’í, the first local spiritual assembly of Guam is formed. Guam LSA
1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Hong Kong is formed. Hong Kong LSA
1956 Ridván The local spiritual assembly of Addis Ababa incorporates, the first one in Africa to do so. [BW13:287] Addis Ababa LSA
1956 Ridván Formation of the first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Tainan, Taiwan Tainan; Taiwan LSA
1956 Ridván Formation of the first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Guam. Guam; LSA find reference
1957 Nagoya, Japan, becomes the only spiritual assembly to be made up entirely of Japanese believers. Nagoya; Japan LSA
1957 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces that the Faith has been established in 251 countries, that there are more than a thousand local spiritual assemblies, that Bahá’ís live in more than 4,200 localities, and that every territory mentioned in the Tablets of the Divine Plan has been opened to the Faith. Bahá’í literature has been translated into 230 languages. [MBW105–6] LSA
1957 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Laos has already been formed in Vientiane. Vientiane; Laos LSA
1957 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Brunei has already been formed. [BW 13:302] Brunei LSA
1957 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Cape Verde is formed in Praia. Praia; Cape Verde LSA
1957 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Nyasaland is formed at Lilongwe. Lilongwe; Nyasaland LSA
1957 Ridván The formation of the first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canberra, the last capital city in Australia for form. Canberra; Australia LSA find reference
1958 The first local spiritual assembly of Nepal is formed in Kathmandu.

Prof. Anil Sarwal says it was 1960-1961

The first Local Spiritual Assembly was established in the capital city Kathmandu in 1961. [Yellow Place]

Kathmandu; Nepal LSA
1958 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Kingdom of Tonga is formed at Nuku’alofa. Nuku’alofa; Kingdom of Tonga LSA
1958 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Macau is formed. Macau LSA
1958 May The first local spiritual assembly in Papua New Guinea is formed in Madina Village, in New Ireland.
  • This is the first all-indigenous local spiritual assembly in the South Pacific.
Madina Village; New Ireland LSA
1959 Mar A number of Bahá’ís, members of the local spiritual assembly, are arrested in Ankara, Turkey. [MC306]
  • The incident receives wide coverage in the press and the Bahá’ís are eventually released from prison. [MC306]
  • A court case is subsequently brought against the Bahá’ís by the public prosecutor, who claims that the Faith is a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land, and lengthy litigation follows. [MC306–7]
Ankara; Turkey religious persecution; LSA
1959 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Grenada is formed in St George’s Parish. St George’s Parish; Grenada LSA
1959 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Cambodia is formed in Phnom Penh. Phnom Penh; Cambodia LSA
1960 The first local spiritual assembly in the Cocos Islands is formed on West Island.
  • For picture see BW13:1052.
West Island LSA
1962 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of the Loyalty Islands is formed in Nouméa. Nouméa; Loyalty Islands LSA
1965 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Iceland is formed in Reykjavik. Reykjavik LSA
1966 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Senegal is formed in Dakar. Dakar; Senegal LSA
1966 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Suriname is formed in Paramaribo. Paramaribo; Suriname LSA
1966 7 Nov The first local spiritual assembly in Niger is formed in Niamey. Niamey; LSA
1968 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in French Guiana is formed at Cayenne. Cayenne; French Guiana LSA
1968 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of the Cayman Islands is formed in George Town. George Town LSA
1968 Ridván The first local spiritual assemblies of Equatorial Guinea are formed in Bata and Santa Isabel. Bata; Equatorial Guinea; Santa Isabel; Equatorial Guinea LSA
1969 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Upper Volta is formed in Ouagadougou. Ouagadougou; Upper Volta LSA
1969 Aug The Bahá’í Faith is legally recognized in Lebanon when the Local Spiritual Assembly of Beirut is incorporated. [BW15:173]
  • This is the first time any Arab government has granted the Faith recognition. [BW15:173]
Beirut; Lebanon LSA
1970 Ridván The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Nouakchott, Mauritania is formed. Nouakchott; Mauritania LSA
1971 The first local spiritual assembly in Mali is formed in Bamako. LSA
1971. c. 1971 The first local spiritual assembly in Ciskei is formed in Mdantsane. Mdantsane; Ciskei LSA
1971 Ridván The first local spiritual assemblies in Guam are formed in Dededo, Inarajan, Mangilao and Tamuning. Guam LSA
1972 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Republic of San Marino is formed. Republic of San Marino LSA
1972 7 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in Malta is formed. Malta LSA
1972 Oct The first local spiritual assembly in the Falkland Islands is formed. [BW15:650] Falkland Islands LSA
1973 The first local spiritual assembly in St Helena is formed. St. Helena LSA
1973 The first local spiritual assembly in the Faroes is formed in Tórshavn. Tórshavn; Faroes LSA
1974 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Kotzebue, an Iñupiat Eskimo community situated north of the Arctic Circle, is formed. LSA
1974 Aug The first local spiritual assembly in Andorra is formed at Andorra la Vella. Andorra LSA
1975 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly to be elected among the Meo tribes, Laotian refugees in northern Thailand, is formed. [BW16:262] Thailand LSA
1976 10 Jan The most northerly-located local spiritual assembly in the world is formed in the Iñupiat community of Barrow, Alaska. Barrow; Alaska LSA
1976 27 Dec The first local spiritual assembly in Dominica is formed in St George. St George; Dominica LSA
1977 14 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in the Galapagos Islands is formed on Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz; Galapagos Islands LSA
1977 16 Sep In Uganda, 27 religious organizations are banned, including the Bahá’í Faith, and the Bahá’í House of Worship is closed. [BW17:81]
  • The national spiritual assembly and all 1,550 local assemblies are dissolved. [BW17:141]
Uganda religious persecution; House of Worship; NSA; LSA; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1978 The first local spiritual assembly in Bonaire is formed.
  • It never functions and is dissolved in 1989.
  • See also West, Letters From Bonaire.
Bonaire LSA
1978 Ridván The first local assembly in the British Virgin Islands is formed on Tortola. Tortola; British Virgin Islands LSA
1979 17 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Greenland is formed in Nuuk. Nuuk; Greenland LSA
1979 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Lapland is formed in Kemi, Finland. Kemi; Finland LSA
1980 The first local spiritual assemblies in Guinea are formed. Guinea LSA
1986 The first local spiritual assembly of San Salvador Island, mentioned in the Tablets of the Divine Plan as Watling Island, is formed. San Salvador Island LSA
1986 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritania and all ten local spiritual assemblies in the country are dissolved. Mauritania NSA; LSA
1987 The first Pygmy local spiritual assembly in the Central African Republic is formed. [BINS173:1] Central African Republic LSA
1987 Ridván A reorganization of the areas of jurisdiction of local spiritual assemblies in India results in the loss of 5,000 assemblies, substantially reducing the over-all number of local assemblies in the world. India LSA
1987 Oct The first local spiritual assembly on the island of São Tomé is formed at São Tomé. São Tomé LSA
1988 Jan A teaching campaign is launched in Chad, resulting in 1,340 new Bahá’ís and 33 new local spiritual assemblies. [BINS187:1] Chad LSA
1988 Oct In the State of Orissa, India, 2,600 people become Bahá’ís and 16 new local spiritual assemblies are formed in 15 days. State of Orissa; India LSA
1988 Nov More than 2,500 people enrol in Bangladesh. [BINS190:5]
  • A later report indicates that over 5,000 people have become Bahá’ís and 108 new local spiritual assemblies formed. [BINS192:1]
Bangladesh LSA
1989 7 Jan A week-long teaching project is launched in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands resulting in 43 enrolments and the re-formation of two local spiritual assemblies. [BINS191:7] Andaman and Nicobar Islands LSA
1989 Apr The re-creation of the Local Spiritual Assembly of 'Ishqábád. [AWH73; VV111] 'Ishqábád LSA
1989 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) is re-formed after a lapse of 61 years, the first local assembly to be formed in the Soviet Union. [AWH73; VV111] ‘Ishqábád LSA
1990 The highest legal authority in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, overturned the decisions of a number of lower courts that had refused to register the by-laws of a Local Spiritual Assembly on the grounds that the authority granted to the National Spiritual Assembly in the document violated the legal principle requiring the autonomy of all legally incorporated associations.
  • ruling affirmed Bahá'í community, by it’s right as a recognized religion, recognized by public knowledge and by the testimony of scholars of comparative religion, had the right to a legal identity. [AWH87]
Germany LSA; NSA; By-laws
1990 The election of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Cluj in Romania, the first new Assembly in the "East Bloc". [AWH73] Cluj; Romania LSA
1991 Ridván 342 Local Spiritual Assemblies in Canada. [CBNJun91p6] Canada LSA
 
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