Search for tag "Life"
||Shaykh Ahmad travels to Persia and visits Shíráz and Tihrán. He is in Tihrán when Bahá'u'lláh is born. [DB13]
||Shiraz; Tihran; Iran
||Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Bahaullah, Birth of; Bahaullah, Life of
|1817. 12 Nov
||Birth of Mírzá Husayn `Alíy-i-Núrí (Bahá'u'lláh).
- He is of royal Persian blood, a descendant of Zoroaster and the Sásáníyán kings of Persia through Yazdigird III, the last king of that dynasty. Through His mother He is a descendant of Abraham through Katurah and Jesse. [BW8:874; GPB94; RB1:305]
- He is born in Tihrán. His father is Mírzá `Abbás whose ancestral home is Tákur in the province of Núr. His father is also known as Mírzá Buzurg in royal circles. [BKG13; RB1:7]
- His mother is Khadíjih Khánum. [BBD127; BBRSM57–8]
- He is born at dawn. [LOG353]
- For biblical reference see LOG378.
- RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
- BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
- See GPB93-99 for the significance of Bahá'u'lláh's station.
|Tehran; Nur; Iran
||Bahaullah, Birth of; Bahaullah, Life of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Mirza Buzurg; Khadijih Khanum; - Basic timeline; Births and deaths
||BIC Statement on Bahá'u'lláh; Bahá'u'lláh: The Word Made Flesh|
|1819. 20 Oct
||Birth of Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad (The Báb), before dawn, in Shíráz. [B32; GH13; DB72]
- The Primal Point (Nuqtiy-i-Úlá). [BBD185]
- The Promised One of Islam, the Qá'im. [BBD188]
- Siyyid-i-dhikr (Lord of Remembrance). [BBD212]
- His mother is Fátimih-Bagum (Zajra Bagum). [B33, 46; KB20; RB2:382]
- His father is Mírzá Muhammad Ridá. [BW4:234–5; LOG351; SE206; TN4]
- He is a direct heir of the House of Háshim and descended thus from Muhammad and through Him from Abraham. [BW8:874]
- Designations of the Báb include `Abdu'dh-dhikr (Servant of the Remembrance), Bábu'lláh (the Gate of God) and Hadrat-i-A`lá (His Holiness the Most Exalted One). [BBD1, 30, 93]
- For biblical reference see LOG378. See RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
- See BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
- See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
- See DB28–30. See DB75 for the extent of His schooling. See DB75 n1 for his education.
- See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Familhy of; Fatimih Bagum; Zajra Bagum; Mirza Muhammad Rida; House of Hashim; - Basic timeline
||Marriage of Mírzá Husayn-`Alí to Ásíyih Khánum. [BKG23; RB1:382]
- She was the daughter of a nobleman Mirza Isma’il-l-Vazie from Yalrud. [CoB117, BKG23, RoB1p382, BPP44, SoG6]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Wives of; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum)
||Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) goes to Najaf and Karbalá where He attends the lectures of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, Shaykh Ahmad's successor. He remains here for about a year. [B42–4; MH25; RB3:254; SBBH15]
- The followers of Shaykh Ahmad number about 100,000 in Iraq alone. [MH25, HotD25]
- BBRSM13 says the Báb went to Najaf and Karbalá in 1839/40.
|Najaf; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism
|1844. 22 May
||Declaration of the Báb's Mission
Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad makes His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í.
- See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
- See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
- See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
- See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
- Nabíl-i-A`zam relates that Mullá Husayn was welcomed at the Báb's mansion by Mubárak, His Ethiopian servant. [DB53]
- He reveals the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text will later be translated by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
- Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
- See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
- This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
- This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. ZK320
- The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
- See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
- Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
- He chooses the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn is given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
- In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He takes the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gives the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn is called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
- At His public declaration the Báb declares Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
||Siyyid Ali-Muhammad; Bab, Declaration; Holy days; Mulla Husayn-i-Bushrui; Qayyumul-Asma; Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Bab, Life of; Cycles; Ages (time); Qaim; Promised One; - Basic timeline; Mubarak
|1844. 23 May
||The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá in a rented house near the Shimrán Gate in Tihrán. He was born at midnight. [AB9, SoG3-4]
- He is known as `Abbás Effendi outside the Bahá'í community.
- Bahá'u'lláh gives Him the titles Ghusn-i-A`zam (the Most Great Branch), Sirru'lláh (Mystery of God) and Áqá (the Master). [BBD2, 19, 87, 89]
- Sarkár-i-Áqá (the Honourable Master) is a title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD201]
- He Himself chose the title `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá) after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD2]
||Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Declaration of
|1844 Jul - Aug
||The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructe them to spread out and heach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36, DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
- To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
- Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
- Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
- See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
- From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja`far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
- See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
- On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
- Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
- See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after The Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
|Iran; Persia; Turkey; Kashan; Isfahan; Tihran; Tehran; Mazindaran; Khurasan; Qum
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Baha'u'llah; Shah; Mulla Ja`far; sifter of wheat; Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdu'l-Majid
|1844. 11 Aug
||The Báb sends Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivers a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
- The Shaykh's rejection of the claim leads to violent debate. Mullá `Alí is taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he is sent to Istanbul. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
|Constantinople; Istanbul; Iraq; Baghdad; Najaf; Karbala
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Aliy-i-Bastami; Mulla Ali; Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafi; Ulama; Martyrs; Martyrdom; Mulla Hasan Gawhar
|1844 30 Sep
||The Báb, Quddús (Hájí Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Barfurúshí) and the Báb's Ethiopian servant, Mubarak, leave Shíráz for Búshihr en route to Mecca. The journey takes ten days. [B57; DB129; MH119]
- DB129 says He left Shíráz during the month of Shavvál, 1260 (14October to 11 November, 1844).
- SBBH1 xxviii shows the departure date as 12 November, 1844.
- Balyuzi, B57 says "in the month of September.
|Iran; Saudi Arabia; Shiraz; Bushihr; Mecca
||Bab, Life of; Quddus; Haji Mulla Muhammad-Aliy-i-Barfurushi; Servants; Mubarak
|1844 2 or 3 Oct
||The Báb departs from Búshihr on His pilgrimage. [B57; MH119, 121, GPB9]
- He instructs His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
- He has been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
- The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah is probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [B69]
- He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
|Karbala; Iraq; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Husayn; Futuh-ar-Rasul
|1845. Jul and months following
||The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
- He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
- see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
- Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
- After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
- This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
- The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
- Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
- Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
|Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Hidden Imam; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat (Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zanjani); Qayyumul-Asma; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi
||The birth of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, eldest daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb, and sister of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Tihrán. She is later designated by Shoghi Effendi `the outstanding heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation'. [BBD42; GPB108]
Many Bábís go to Shíráz and meet the Báb. [B 103]
- For a description of her nature see BK42–3.
Táhirih is sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She is lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád. During her time in Iraq she enlists a considerable number of followers and makes a number of enemies among the clergy [B162; DB271]
|Tihran; Tehran; Shiraz; Iran; Baghdad; Karbala; Iraq
||Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Tahirih; Shaykh Muhammad Shibl; Mufti Baghdad
|1846. c. Feb - Mar 1846
||The Sháh had already instructed Manúchihr Khán to send the Báb to Tihrán. The governor, fearing for the safety of the Báb, devises a scheme to have the Báb escorted from Isfahán but returned secretly to his own residence. The Báb remains there for four months with only three of His followers apprised of His whereabouts. These four months are described as having been the calmest in His Ministry. [B113–16; DB209–11, 213; TN9–11]
The governor offers all of his resources to try to win the Sháh over to His Cause but the Báb declines his offer saying that the Cause will triumph through the `poor and lowly'. [B115–16; DB212–13]
|Tihran; Isfahan; Iran
||Shah; Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of
|1846. 23 Sep
||The governor, Husayn Khán, threatened by the Báb's rising popularity, orders His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, takes the Báb into custody and escorts Him to the governor's home but finds it abandoned. He takes the Báb to his own home and learns that a cholera epidemic has swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cures the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He has washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigns his post and begs the governor to release the Báb. He agrees on condition the Báb leaves Shíráz. The incident proves to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismisses him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; GPB13; TN9]
- See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán.
- DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son.
|Shiraz; Iran; Persia
||Husayn Khan; Governors; Bab, Life of; Abdul-Hamid Khan; Epidemics; Muhammad Shah; Shahs
|1847. Feb - Mar
||The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [B116; DB213–14]
- Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informs the Sháh that the Báb is in Isfahán and has been sheltering with Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh orders that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, sets out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [B116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
|Tihran; Tehran; Isfahan; Iran
||Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of; Gurgin Khan; Nusayri horsemen; Horses
|1847 Spring - Summer
||Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitate against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr writes to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replies praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
- Among those Táhirih meets in Baghdád is Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
- Táhirih is sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She is accompanied by a number of Bábís; they make a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
- Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
- In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
- B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
- In Kirmánsháh she is respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
- Táhirih arrives in Hamadán. Her father has sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agrees on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
- MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
- In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
|Kazimayn; Baghdad; Iraq; Persia; Iran; Hamadan; Kirmanshah
||Tahirih; Siyyid Ali Bishr; Bab, Life of; Mah-Ku; Hakim Masih; Jews; doctor; Najib Pasha
|1847 Jul to 1848 Apr
||The people of Máh-Kú show marked hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they are won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregate at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]
At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán keeps the Báb strictly confined and allows no visitors. He has a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He becomes humble and permits the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]
The winter the Báb spends in Máh-Kú is exceptionally cold. [DB252]
Many of the Báb's writings are revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]
- It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
- He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [GPB24]
- He revealed the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5]
- The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
- He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
- In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
- The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
|Mah-Ku; Iran; Persia; Najaf; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Ali Khan; Commentaries; Quran; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bayan; Dalail-i-Sabih (Seven Proofs); Bab, Writings of; Tablet to Muhammad Shah; Muhammad Shah
|1848. 10 Apr
||The Báb is transferred to the fortress of Chihríq, `Jabal-i-Shadíd' (the Grievous Mountain) into the custody of Yahyá Khán, a brother-in-law of Muhammad Sháh. [BR72; BBRSM216; GPB19]
- He remains here for two years. [BBD55; BBR73; GPB27]
- He is subjected to a more rigorous confinement than He had been at Máh-Kú and the warden is harsh and unpredictable. [B135; DB302]
||Bab, Life of; Fortresses; Chihriq; Yahya Khan; Muhammad Shah; Mah-Ku
||The presence of the Báb in Chihríq attracts much notice. Eventually Yahyá Khán softens his attitude to the Báb. [B135; DB303]
- Excitement among local people eclipses that of Máh-Kú. [GPB20]
- Many priests and government officials become followers, among them Mírzá Asadu'lláh of Khuy, surnamed Dayyán. [B136; DB303; GPB20]
- So many Bábís come to Chihríq that they cannot all be housed. [B135]
- See B136 for story of the inferior honey.
- A dervish, a former navváb, arrives from India after having seen the Báb in a vision. [B137; DB305; GPB20]
- The Báb reveals the Lawh-i-Hurúfát (Tablet of the Letters) in honour of Dayyán. [DB304; GPB27]
|Chihriq; Iran; Persia; India
||Bab, Life; Yahya Khan; Mah-Ku; Mirza Asadullah; Dayyan; Honey; Dervishes; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Lawh-i-Hurufat (Tablet of the Letters)
|1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul
||The Conference of Badasht
Bahá'u'lláh, who hosts and directs the event, rents three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]
The conference coincides with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July.
It is held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]
- `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
- B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb. It is attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
- Each day Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet, and on each believer He confers a new name. Each day an Islamic law is abrogated. [DB293; GPB32]
- See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
- Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
|Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran; Persia
||Conference at Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Quddus; Tahirih; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline
||After three months in Chihríq, the Báb is taken under escort to Tabríz for trial. [B137; BW18:380; TN14]
- En route He stops in Urúmíyyih where the governor tests the Báb by offering Him an unruly horse to ride. The local people take away His bath water. [B138; BBR74; DB309–11]
- A sketch of the Báb is made there and later two copies of the portrait are made in water colour. The sketch and one of the water colours are now in the International Archives. [B138–9, Juhúrú'l-Haqq by Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázindarání p.48 quoted in World Order Winter 1974-95 p41]
- See Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image by Denis MacEoin.
|Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Iran; Persia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Portraits; Bab, Portrait of; Horses
|1848. c. 17 Jul
||The Bábís leave Badasht for Mázindarán. They are attacked by a mob of more than 500 outside the village of Níyálá. [B170–1; BKG46–7; BW18:380; DB298; GPB68]
- Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr with Táhirih. He entrusts her into the care of Shaykh Abú-Turáb-i-Ishtahárdí, to be taken to a place of safety. [BKG48; DB299]
- Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr `in easy stages'. By September He is in Bandar-Jaz. [BKG48]
|Badasht; Mazindaran; Niyala; Nur; Bandar-Jaz; Iran
||Badasht; Attacks; Bahaullah, Life of; Tahirih; Shaykh Abu-Turab-i-Ishtahardi
|1848. last week
|The Báb arrives in Tabríz and is brought before a panel of which the 17-year-old Crown Prince Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá is the president. The Báb publicly makes His claim that He is the Qá'im. This claim has also been announced to those gathered at Badasht. [B140–7; BBR157; BBRSM23, 216; BW18:380; DB314–20; GPB21–2; TN14]
- This constitutes the formal declaration of His mission. [GPB22]
- The purpose of the public forum is to force the Báb to recant His views; instead He takes control of the hearing and embarrasses the clergy. After considerable argument and discussion, they decide He is devoid of reason. [GPB22]
- The Báb is bastinadoed. [B145; BBD44; DB320; GPB22; TN14–15] This is the first formal punishment He receives. [BBRSM20]
- He is first attended by an Irish physician, Dr William Cormick, to ascertain His sanity and later to treat Him for a blow to the face that occurred during the bastinado. Cormick is the only Westerner to meet and converse with Him. [B145; BBR74–5, 497–8 DBXXXIL–XXXIII]
- The clergy issue a fatwa or legal pronouncement against the Báb condemning Him to death for heresy, but to no purpose as the civil authorities are unwilling to take action against Him. [BBRSM19–20]
- For an account of the life of Dr. William Cormick see Connections by Brendan McNamara.
|Tabriz; Badasht; Iran; Persia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Nasirid-Din Shah; Qaim; Bastinado; William Cormick; Fatwa
||Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (first entry dated June 21 1848)|
||The Báb is taken back to Chihríq, where He remains until June/July 1850. [B147; DB322; TN15]
- B147 says He must have arrived in the first days of August.
- On His return the Báb writes a denunciatory letter to Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. He sends it to Hujjat in Tihrán, who delivers it personally. [B147; DB323; GPB27]
- The Báb completes the Arabic Bayán. [BBR45; GBP25]
|Chihriq; Iran; Persia
||Bab, Life of; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Hujjat; Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan)
||Bahá'u'lláh is in Bandar-Jaz. An edict comes from Muhammad Sháh ordering His arrest.
- The Russian agent at Bandar-Jaz offers Him passage on a Russian ship at anchor there but He refuses. [BKG50] Birth of Hájí Mírzá Hasan, Adíb, Hand of the Cause and Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Táliqán.
|Bandar-Jaz; Taliqan; Iran
||Bahaullah, Life of; Muhammad Shah; Russian agent; Russia; Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Births and deaths
||Bahá'u'lláh marries his second wife, Fátimih Khánum Mahd-i-‘Ulyá (1828–1904), His cousin, the daughter of Malik-Nisá Khánum (Mírzá Buzurg's sister) and Mírzá Karím-i-Namadsáb.
- Note: According to one source, she was married to the famous cleric Mírzá Muhammad Taqí ‘Allámi-yi-Núrí and widowed before Bahá'u'lláh married her.
||Bahaullah, Life of ; Bahaullah, Wives of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Malik-Nisa Khanum; Mirza Buzurg; Mirza Karim-i-Namadsab
|1849. c. Jun - Jul
||The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learns of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He is so overcome with grief that He is unable to write or dictate for a period of six months. [DB411, 430]
||Chihriq; Iran; Persia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Prison; Shaykh Tabarsi; Martyrs; Quddus; Tablets of Visitation
|1849. 26 Nov
||The Báb sends Mullá Ádí-Guzal to the graves of Quddús and Mullá Husayn to make a pilgrimage on His behalf [DB431]
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Adi-Guzal; Cemeteries and graves; Quddus; Mulla Husayn; Pilgrimage
|1850. Jun c.
||Mírzá Taqí Khán determines to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb is taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [B152; BBR76–7; GPB51]
- His guard takes Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence is noted by American missionaries. [B152; BBR73, 76]
- Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals and His agate rings, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. The secretary is instructed to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to ‘Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
- When the box is opened they find a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word ‘Bahá'. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
|Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Tihran; Iran
||Mirza Taqi Khan; Bab, Life of; Missionaries; Mulla Baqir; Letters of the Living; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Relics; Greatest Name
|1850. 8 Jul
||The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, is taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, throws himself at the feet of the Báb and asks to go with Him. [B153; DB507]
- That night the Báb asks that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offers to do this but is restrained by the others. The Báb promises that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
||Bab, Life of; Bab; Martyrdom of; Turbans; Barracks; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Martyrs
|1850. 9 Jul
||Martyrdom of the Báb
In the morning the Báb is taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]
At noon the Báb and Anís are suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz in Sarbazkhaneh Square. They are shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men. [B157; DB512]
- The warrants are already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
- Anís's stepfather tries to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son is also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remains unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]
The Báb and Anís are suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, has been found to undertake the execution. After the volley, the bodies of the Báb and Anís are shattered. [B158; DB514]
- When the smoke clears the Báb is gone and Anís is standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, is found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
- See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.
At night, the bodies are thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. [B159; TN27]
- See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
- The face of the Báb is untouched. [B158]
- At the moment the shots are fired a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remains dark from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
- See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.
||Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Life of; Holy days; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Sam Khan; - Basic timeline
|1851 Jun c.
||Mírzá Taqí Khán meets with Bahá'u'lláh and tells Him that it would be advisable for Bahá'u'lláh to leave Tihrán temporarily. [BKG66; DB591]
A few days later, Bahá'u'lláh leaves Tihrán for Karbalá on pilgrimage. [BKG66; DB587]
|Tihran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Mirza Taqi Khan; Bahaullah, Life of
|1852. 15 Aug
||Attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]
- See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
- See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
- See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
- Ja‘far-Qulí Khán writes immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh is denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the ‘would-be murderer'. Ja‘far-Qulí Khán offers to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
||Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; Shahs; History (general); Jafar-Quli Khan; Bahaullah, Life of
|1852. 16 Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh rides out towards the headquarters of the imperial army. He stops at Zargandih at the home of Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, secretary to the Russian legation. [BKG77; DB603]
- Bahá'u'lláh is invited to remain in this home. [DB603]
- The Sháh is informed of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival and sends an officer to the legation to demand the delivery of Bahá'u'lláh into his hands. The Russian minister, Prince Dolgorukov, refuses and suggests that Bahá'u'lláh be sent to the home of the Grand Vizier. [BKG77; DB603]
- Bahá'u'lláh is arrested. [BKG77; DB603]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Mirza Majid Khan-i-Ahi; Russian; Shahs; Prince Dolgorukov; Grand Vizier; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on
|1852 days following
|For a few days after His arrest, Bahá'u'lláh is interrogated. [TN31]
He is then taken ‘on foot and in chains, with bared head and bare feet' to Tihrán where He is cast into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77; DB606–7; ESW20; GPB71; TN31]
- See BKG77–8 and DB606–8 for a description of Bahá'u'lláh's journey.
- See CH40–1 for the effect on Bahá'u'lláh's family.
||Bahallah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on
||Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál.
Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá flees to Tákur and goes into hiding. He eventually goes to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
- See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
- No food or drink is given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
- Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
- See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
- ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, is attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
- See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
- Bahá'u'lláh's properties are plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
- See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
- See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
- Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
- An attempt was made to poison Him. The attempt failed but His health was impaired for years following. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100, GPB72]
|Tihran; Takur; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Attempts on; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Prison; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; Martyrs; Poison; Chains; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); - Basic timeline
||Bahá'u'lláh has a vision of the Maiden, who announces to Him that He is the Manifestation of God for this Age. [BBD142–3, 212; BKG823 ESW11–12, 21 GPB101–2; KAN62]
- This experience compares to the episode of Moses and the Burning Bush, Zoroaster and the Seven Visions, Buddha under the Bodhi tree, the descent of the Dove upon Jesus and the voice of Gabriel commanding Muhammad to ‘cry in the name of thy Lord'. [GPB93, 101]
- The Báb repeatedly gave the year nine as the date of the appearance of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. The Declaration of the Báb took place in AH 1260; year nine was therefore AH 1269, which began in the middle of October when Bahá'u'lláh had been in prison for about two months. [CB46–7]
- Subsequently in His Writings Bahá’u’lláh declared that He was the "Promised One" of all religions, fulfilling the messianic prophecies found in world religions. He stated that being several messiahs converging one person were the spiritual, rather than material, fulfilment of the messianic and eschatological prophecies found in the literature of the major religions. His eschatological claims constitute six distinctive messianic identifications: from Judaism, the incarnation of the "Everlasting Father" from the Yuletide prophecy of Isaiah 9:6, the "Lord of Hosts"; from Christianity, the "Spirit of Truth" or Comforter predicted by Jesus in His farewell discourse of John 14-17 and the return of Christ "in the glory of the Father"; from Zoroastrianism, the return of Shah Bahram Varjavand, a Zoroastrian messiah predicted in various late Pahlavi texts; from Shi'a Islam the return of the Third Imam, Imam Husayn; from Sunni Islam, the return of Jesus, Isa; and from the Bábí religion, He whom God shall make manifest.
While Bahá’u’lláh did not explicitly state Himself to be either the Hindu or Buddhist messiah, He did so in principle through His writings. Later, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá stated that Bahá’u’lláh was the Kalki avatar, who in the classical Hindu Vaishnavas tradition, is the tenth and final avatar (great incarnation) of Vishnu who will come to end The Age of Darkness and Destruction. Bahá’ís also believe that Bahá’u’lláh is the fulfilment of the prophecy of appearance of the Maitreya Buddha, who is a future Buddha who will eventually appear on Earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure Dharma. Bahá’ís believe that the prophecy that Maitreya will usher in a new society of tolerance and love has been fulfilled by Bahá’u’lláh's teachings on world peace. [Bahaikipedia]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Visions; Maid of Heaven; Angels; Year nine; - Basic timeline
||Bahá'u'lláh is released from the Síyáh-Chál.
- This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
- See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release. He invoking his full power as an envoy of Russia, called out the Sháh and his court for their barbaric behaviour.
- See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh on release.
- See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán on His release.
- The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but Bahá'u'lláh chose instead to go to Iraq. It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would have been misrepresented as having political implications. [BBIC:8; DB650]
|Iran; Persia; Iraq
||Bahaullah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Russia; Minister; Prince Dolgorukov; Mirza Áqa Khan
|1853. 12 Jan
||Bahá'u'lláh and His family depart for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh is accompanied by His wife Navváb, (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate was left behind with the grandmother of Àsíyih Khánum. They are escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108]
- CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
- ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
- This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
- See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
|Íran; Persia; Baghdad; Iraq
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Mirza Musa; Mirza Muhammad-Quli; Russia
|1853. 21 Mar
||Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrive in Khániqayn, just across the Iraqi border, where they rest in a beautiful orchard to observe Naw-Rúz. [BKG105]
- The Governor of Tehran had sent soldiers with the party of exiles to the frontier where they were met by Turkish soldiers who escorted them to Baghdád. [Ch47]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Naw-Ruz
|1853. 8 Apr
||Bahá'u'lláh and His family arrive in Baghdád. [BBR177; BKG106; GPB109; TN38]
- See BBR177–83 for conditions in Baghdád during this period.
- Shoghi Effendi describes this as being the lowest period of the faith of the Báb. [DB651, GPB113-114]
- Shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád Navváb gives birth to a son. [CB71; CH51–2]
||Life of Bahaullah; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum)
|1854 10 Apr - 1856 19 Mar
||Bahá'u'lláh suddenly leaves Baghdád and goes to Kurdistán. [BKG115; DB585; GPB120]
Bahá'u'lláh lives for some time as a dervish in a cave on the mountain of Sar-Galú. He takes the name Darvísh Muhammad-i-Írání to conceal His true identity. [BBD214–15; BBRSM:60–1; BKG116–19; GPB120–1; TN38–9]
- Before He left, Bahá'u'lláh asked His family to look after Mírzá Yahyá during His absence. [CB70–1; CH50–1]
- This action compares to Moses' going out to the desert of Sinai, to Buddha's retreat to the wilds of India, to Christ's walk in the wilderness and to Muhammad's withdrawal to the hills of Arabia. [BKG114]
- Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Hamadání was His only companion. Áqá Abu'l-Qásim was killed on a journey to collect money and provisions. [BKG116–17]
- "It was this period of voluntary seclusion, following shortly after the execution of the Báb in 1850, which bequeathed to history irrevocable proof that Bahá'u'lláh and not His half-brother, Subhi-Ezel, was in reality the one celebrated by the Báb and for whom the Bábí Movement was the spiritual preparation. Tor by this act of voluntary retirement, Bahá'u'lláh gave Sebhi-Ezel unhampered opportunity to exercise the spiritual leadhership over the Bábís which the latter claimed as his right. The result, however, demonstrated Subhi-Ezel's utter incapacity to maintain unity among the Bábís, inspire them with faith and confidence sufficient to meet their many difficulties and guide them along lines of true future progress. Nother but the return of Bahá'u'lláh could re-quicken the flames of their ardour or supply them with the more universal principles of conduct and faith required to transform the Bábí Movement into a world religion." [BW2Surveyp33]
- It was during this time that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the poem Qasídiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqá'íyyih. It was composed of 2,000 couplets but Bahá'u'lláh allowed only 127 to be preserved. [BBD215; BKG118; GPB123]
- See BKG114, GPB117–19 and K1250 for reasons for Bahá'u'lláh's retirement.
- Before and during His absence no fewer than 25 people claimed to be the One promised by the Báb. [BBRSM29, 59; EB269; GPB125]
- See BKG115–19 and GPB120 for Bahá'u'lláh's activities while in Kurdistán.
- See KI248–51 for Bahá'u'lláh's own account of the episode.
- See BKG119–22 and GPB124–6 for the condition of the Bábí community in Baghdád during this period.
- The son born to Navváb shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád became ill and died during Bahá'u'lláh's absence. [CB71; CH51–2]
- See SBBR2:1–28 for Bahá'u'lláh's contact with Súfís.
- BW16:528 for an account of Daoud Toeg, who visited the caves of Sar-Galú and photographed them.
||Bahaullah, Life of; Dervishes; Sulaymaniyyih; Sar-Galu; Aqa Abul-Qasim-i-Hamadani; Poetry; Qasidiyi-i-Izz-i-Varqaiyyih (Ode of the Dove); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sufism; Daoud Toeg; Caves
|1856 19 Mar
||Bahá'u'lláh returns from Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán.
"He Himself has described the situation which then confronted Him:
We found no more than a handful of souls, faint and dispirited, nay utterly lost and dead. The Cause of God had ceased to be on any one's lips, nor was any heart receptive to its message. [GPB125]
- From this time Bahá'u'lláh started to educate the believers in the principles of the Faith. [GPB127–8; TN39]
|Baghdad; Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih; Kurdistan
||Bahaullah, Life of; Sulaymaniyyih
||During His absence Mírzá Musá rents a house in the Karkh district in the west of the city. The house is large, two or three stories, and is made of simple mud brick with a surrounding central courtyard. At some point before His departure on the 22nd of April, 1863, the house is purchased. He later names it "The Most Great House" and designates it a place of pilgrimage. It is also referred to as the "Throne of His Glory", and the "Lamp of Salvation between earth and heaven". [CEBF66]
- After His departure the House was held in the names of various custodians and allowed to fall into disrepair. [CEBF66]
||House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Life of Bahaullah
|1861. c. 1861
||‘Abdu'l-Bahá writes the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14]
Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266]
Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, meets Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and becomes a follower. [BKG18]
|Baghdad; Iraq; Mashhad; Iran
||Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan (Commentary on the tradition of the Hidden Treasure); Commentaries; Hadith Islam; Hidden Treasure (Hadith); Ali Shawkat Pasha; Haji Akhund; Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Hands of the Cause; Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurasani; Ismulahul-Asdaq; Ibn Asdaq; Life of Bahaullah
|1862. c. 1862
||Bahá'u'lláh sends a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refuses to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3]
||Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq
||Bahaullah, Life of; Rings; Shawls; Shahr-Banu; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1863. c. Jan 1863
||The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, receives the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order is ignored by the governor, who is sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders will be received and similarly ignored before the governor is compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131]
||Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Grand Viziers; Ali Pasha
|1863. 26 Mar
||Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. [BKG154; GPB147; RB1:228; SA163]
- The Tablet is recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
- See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
- See RB1:228–44 and SA163–5 for descriptions of the Tablet and analyses of its content.
- Immediately after it is chanted Bahá'u'lláh orders the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. [GBP147; RB1:228–9; SA163]
- The party has not yet left when a messenger arrives from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the invitation to go to Constantinople. [RB1:229; SA163]
|Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshash; Iraq; Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Lawh-i-Mallahul-Quds (Tablet of the Holy Mariner); Naw-Ruz; Mirza Áqa Jan; Namiq Pasha
|1863. 27 Mar
||Bahá'u'lláh meets the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news. At first he summons Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]
See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Baghdád, the Persian Consul had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68]
||Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Ottoman citizenship
|1863. 22 Apr - 3 May
||Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh in the Garden of Ridván.
The garden was located in a large agricultural area immediately north of the walls of the city of Baghdad, about 450 metres (1,480 ft) from the city's northern Mu'azzam gate. Located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River in what is now the Bab al-Mu'azzam neighbourhood of Baghdad's Rusafa District, it was directly opposite the district in which Bahá'u'lláh lived during his stay in the city, on the river's western bank. [Wiki]
|Garden of Ridvan; Najibiyyih Garden; Iraq
||Declaration Bahaullah; Holy days; Life of Bahaullah; - Basic timeline
|1863 22 Apr
||Thirty–one days after Naw-Rúz, which in this year falls on 22 March, Bahá'u'lláh leaves His house for the last time and walks to the Najíbíyyih Garden, afterwards known as the Garden of Ridván (Paradise).
On this day Bahá'u'lláh declares His mission to a few of His disciples. [RB1:260, 262]
- ‘Of the exact circumstances … we, alas, are but scantily informed.' [BKG173; GPB153]
- For such details as are known, see BKG173–5 and GPB153.
- For the import of the event, see BKG169–73; G27–35; GBP153–5.
- This initiates the holy day of the First Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 21 April. [BBD196]
- This marks the end of the dispensation of the Báb and of the first epoch of the Heroic or Apostolic Age of the Bahá'í dispensation. [BBD72, 79]
On the same day Bahá'u'lláh makes three important statements to His followers:
- He forbids the use of the sword.
- He states that no other Manifestations will appear before one thousand years. This is later reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Badí‘ and in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
- He states that, as from this moment, all the names and attributes of God are manifested within all created things, implying the advent of a new Day. [RB1:278–80]
On the afternoon of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival at the Garden He reveals the Lawh-i-Ayyúb for Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí. [SA239]
During the 12 days in the Ridván Garden Bahá'u'lláh confides to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá that He is ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. [CH82]
- See CH82–3 for the effect of this announcement on ‘Abdu'l-Bahá.
||Naw-Ruz; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Garden of Ridvan; Ages (time); Lawh-i-Ayyub; Haji Muhammad-i-Taqiy-i-Nayrizi; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline; Firsts, Other
|1863. 3 May
||Bahá'u'lláh leaves the Garden of Ridván.
- This initiates the holy day the Twelfth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 2 May. [BBD196]
- As He is about to leave He reveals a Tablet addressed to Áqá Mírzá Áqá in Shíráz. It brings relief and happiness to those who receive it. [EB222]
- His leaving is accompanied by symbolic signs of His station: He rides a horse rather than a donkey and wears a tall táj. [BBD221; BKG176]
- See BKG175–6, GPB155 and RB1:281–2 for descriptions of the scenes that accompanied His departure.
Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrive at Firayját, about three miles away on the banks of the Tigris. [BKG176]
- They remain here for seven days. [BKG176]
- See BKG for a description of activities during this period.
|Najibiyyih Garden; Firayjat; Iraq; Shiraz; Iran; Persia
||Life of Bahaullah; Ridvan Festival; Aqa Mirza Aqa; Horses; Donkeys; Taj; Tigris; Rivers; Garden of Ridvan
|1863. 9 May
||Bahá'u'lláh and His party leave Firayját for Istanbul although at this point the destination is unknown to the exiles. [CH57, GPB156; SA235]
||Firayjat; Samsun; Istanbul; Judaydih; Dili-'Abbas; Qarih-Tapih; Salahiyyih; Dust-Khurmatu; Tawuq; Karkuk; Irbil; Bartallih; Mosul; Zakhu; Jazirih; Nisibin; Hasan-Áqa; Mardiin; Diyar-Bakr; Ma'dan-Mis; Kharput; Ma'dan-Nuqrih; Dilik-Tash; Sivas; Tuqat; Amasia; Ilahiyyih
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Journeys; Black Sea; Suriy-i-Hawdaj
|1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec
||Bahá'u'lláh resides in Constantinople. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61]
- See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
- Among the works Bahá'u'lláh reveals in Constantinople is Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]
News is brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He will be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]
Bahá'u'lláh refuses to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yahyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuade Him to go. [BKG201–3]
Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz issues an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. [GPB159–60; RB2:57]
|Istanbul; Edirne; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mathnavi-i-Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala; Grand Viziers
|1863. 1 Dec
||Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Istanbul for Adrianople. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427]
- The journey takes twelve days and they pass through the following villages en route. [BKG204; GPB161,The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter is extremely cold and the travellers are not clad for freezing weather.
|Istanbul; Edirne; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Winter
||Death of Governor Sulaymán Páshá of Adrianople. He is succeeded by ‘Árif Páshá, who is not well-disposed to Bahá'u'lláh and His followers. [BBR487]
||Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey
||Governors; Sulayman Pasha; Arif Pasha; Life of Bahaullah
|1866. c. Mar 1866
||The Most Great Separation. Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) for Mírzá Yahyá. [CH60, 83, CB84; GBP166]
- This is the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
- Bahá'u'lláh directs his amanuensis to take the Tablet to Mírzá Yáhyá. He becomes very angry and a "jealous fire consumed him". He responds by claiming that he is the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [CH60, BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]
- The announcement that Bahá'u'lláh was the Promised One spread quickly to Iraq and to Persia. The followers were happy for the clarification and glad to be rid of Yáhyá. Only the express command of Bahá'u'lláh prevented them from ridding the world of such nefarious traitor. [CH61]
- It is believed that Yáhyá's conduct and accusations precipitated the next exile. [CH61]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Lawh-i-Baha; Khatun Jan; Tahirih; Rida Big; People of Baha; people of the Bayan; Most Great Separation; Firsts, other
|1866. 10 Mar
||Bahá'u'lláh and His family withdraw from the house of Amru'lláh, the residence shared with the exiles, and go to the house of Ridá Big. [BKG230; GPB167; RB2:162]
- He stays in this house for about one year. [GPB168]
- See BKG235 for a description of the house of Ridá Big.
Bahá'u'lláh goes into isolation for two months. He orders that all of the family's goods should be divided. The companions are to choose between Himself and Azal. This has become known as the ‘Most Great Separation'. [BBRSM67; BKG230–2; GPB167–8; RB2:162]
- See BKG231–2, GPB167 and RB2:163 for the effect of this.
- See BBRSM59–60 for a description of Azal's leadership.
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; House of Amrullah; Rida Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation
|1867. c. Mar
||Bahá'u'lláh moves back to the now empty house of Amru'lláh. [GPB168]
- He stays for about three months. [GPB168]
- BKG239 says that within six months of Bahá'u'lláh's return to the house the owner sold it.
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Amrullah
|1867. c. Jun
||Bahá'u'lláh rents the house of ‘Izzat Áqá. [BKG239; GPB168]
- See BKG241 for a description of this house.
||Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; House of Izzat Aqa; Houses
|1867. c. Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh refuses to draw the allowance granted Him by the Ottoman government. [RB2:327]
- Mírzá Yahyá twice petitions the government to convince it that he ought to be the recipient of the allowance. [RB2:327]
- Bahá'u'lláh sells some of His belongings to provide the necessities for Himself and His dependents. [RB2:327]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Ottoman government; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
|1867 Sep - Aug 1868
||Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]
- See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí‘.
Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station is foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177]
- See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Kitab-i-Badi (Wondrous Book); Munajathay-i-Siyam (Prayers for Fasting); Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III) ; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Rais; Suriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Firsts, Other
||Mírzá Yahyá, prodded on by Mír Muhammad, challenges Bahá'u'lláh to a public confrontation in the mosque of Sultán Salím, thinking that He will not accept. In the end, it is Mírzá Yahyá who does not appear. [BKG239–41; GPB168–9; RB2:291–300, SDH22]
- The incident gains Bahá'u'lláh respect in the eyes of the people. [RB2:289]
- See [RB2:304] for a picture of the mosque.
||Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Mir Muhammad; Bahaullah, Life of; Confrontation; Mosques; Challenges
|1868. 26 Jul
||Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz issues a firmán condemning Bahá'u'lláh to perpetual banishment. [BKG283–4; GPB179, 186; RB2:401–2]
- See RB2:402 for a list of those included in the edict.
- BKG261, GPB181 and RB2:403 indicate that it was not until the party reached Gallipoli that they were informed that their ultimate destination was `Akká.
- BBD40 says that it was because of the disloyal Mírzá Yahyá's plotting against Bahá`u`lláh that the Turkish authorities condemned Him to perpetual imprisonment in `Akká.
|Edirne; Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq; Gallipoli; Akka
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Khurshid Pasha; Firmans; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
||One morning without warning Bahá'u'lláh's house is surrounded by soldiers. The inhabitants are rounded up and taken to government headquarters. They are told to make ready for their departure for Gallipoli. [BKG255; GPB179; RB2:403]
- The party was given three days to prepare for the journey. It it had been rumoured that they were to be separated, Bahá'u'lláh to one place, 'Abdu'l-Bahá to another and the friends to still another place. [CH62]
- One of the companions, Karilá'í Ja'far was so grieved by the threatened separation that he attempted to kill himself. He was prevented from do so but was too ill to travel. Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave until the Governor in Adrianople made a promise to care for him until he was well enough to travel. He joined the friends in 'Akká forty days after their arrival. [CH62]
- The Consuls of European powers offer assistance to Bahá'u'lláh and are prepared to ask the intervention of their governments. Bahá'u'lláh refuses these offers. [BKG255, 257–8]
- Western accounts of this incident suggest that Bahá`u`lláh asked for such assistance. [BBR187–91]
- The next day the goods of the Bahá'ís are sold or auctioned for very low prices. [BKG255, 258]
- Group and individual photographs are taken of the Bahá'í and Azalí exiles in Adrianople, including one of Bahá'u'lláh.
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
|1868. 12 Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh, His family and companions, escorted by soldiers, set out for Gallipoli. [BKG260; GPB180; RB2:409]
- En route they pass through the villages of Uzún-Kuprí and Káshánih. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p44]
|Edirne; Gallipoli; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
|1868. 15 Aug
||The Bahá'ís imprisoned in Constantinople arrive in Gallipoli to be exiled with Bahá'u'lláh's party. [BKG260]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
|1868. 16 Aug
||They arrive in Gallipoli on the fifth day. [BKG260]
- GPB180 says it was a four-day journey. CH62 says it took three days of travel by cart and wagon.
- They remain there for three nights. CH62 says they remained there for a week awaiting replies to telegrams that had been sent to Constantinople. [BKG263; GPB181]
- BKG261 says they were there for `a few days'.
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
|1868. 21 Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Gallipoli on an Austrian-Lloyd steamer. CH62 says it was a Turkish boat. [BKG263; GPB182; RB2:411]
- There were 72 exiles, 10 soldiers and 2 officers. The journey took 11 days. [CH63]
- See BKG270 for map of the journey.
- Towards sunset the same day the steamer touches on Madellí and stops for a few hours. It continues on to Smyrna the same night. [BKG264]
- Mírzá Yahyá and the four Bahá'ís arrested at Constantinople, including Mishkín-Qalam, are sent to Famagusta in Cyprus. [BKG268; GPB179]
|Gallipoli; Madelli; Smyrna; Famagusta; Turkey; Cyprus
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships; Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile; Cyprus exiles
|1868. 22 Aug
||Soon after sunrise the ship arrives at Smyrna. [BKG264]
- It stays for two days. [BKG264; GPB182]
- The illness of Mírzá Áqáy-i-Káshání (Jináb-i-Muníb) necessitates his removal to the hospital. He dies before 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Musá can return to the ship. 'Abdu'l-Bahá makes arrangements with the local funeral director. They hold a simple funeral and burial takes place in Izmír. [CH65, BKG264–5; GPB182]
- This young and vibrant man arrived in Baghdad before the exile and travelled with the party holding the bridle of the horse of Bahá'u'lláh the whole route, often with 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the other side. When the party reached Constantinople he was instructed to go on teaching trip to Persia and to Iraq, a long and an arduous tour. He rejoined the group in Adrianople just prior to the exile and he was in precarious condition but begged Bahá'u'lláh for permission to be included. It is reported in FAA21 that he died two or three days after the departure of the ship.
|Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Aqay-i-Kashani
|1868. 23 Aug
||The steamer leaves Smyrna at night for Alexandria, which she gains on a morning two days later. [BKG265]
||Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey; Alexandria; Egypt
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
|1868 26 - 27 Aug
||The steamer carrying Bahá'u'lláh docks at Alexandria, early in the morning. [BKG265; RB3:6]
- The exiles change ships, again onto an Austrian-Lloyd ship. [BKG265]
Several exiles go ashore to make purchases. One passes by the prison house where Nabíl is detained. Nabíl, watching from the roof of his prison cell, recognizes him. [CH65, BKG265, 267; RB3:6]
Nabíl and Fáris Effendi write letters to Bahá'u'lláh which are delivered by a Christian youth. The youth returns with a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh and gifts from `Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Mihdí. [BKG267–8; RB3:6–7]
The ship bearing Bahá'u'lláh and the exiles leaves Alexandria for Port Said. [BKG268]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Nabil-i-Azam; Faris Effendi
|1868. 29 Aug
||In the morning the ship arrives in Port Said. At nightfall it travels on to Jaffa. [BKG268]
||Port Said; Jaffa; Israel
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
|1868. 30 Aug
||The ship arrives at Jaffa at sunset. At midnight the ship leaves for Haifa. [BKG168]
||Jaffa; Haifa; Israel
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
|1868. 31 Aug
||The ship arrives in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party is put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
- Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembark and are taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
- One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, throws himself into the sea when he learns he is to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
The exiles land in `Akká to begin a confinement in the citadel that is to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
- See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
- See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
- See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
- See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
- DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
- See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
- See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
- See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
- See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
- The first night the exiles are refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
- Afterwards each prisoner is allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
- Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
- Three of the exiles die soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
- See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
- See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
- At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'bdu'l-Ahad ahead some time before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
- The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
- After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letter to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
|Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Rais; Petro. Dr; Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile; Firsts, Other
|1868. 3 Sep
||The firmán of the Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz condemning Bahá'u'lláh to life imprisonment is read out in the Mosque of Al-Jazzár. [BKG284–5; GPB186; RB3:18]
- See CH64, BKG283–4, 286; GBP186, RB2:402 and RB3:18 for the terms of the edict. They were labelled as malefactors, sowerw of sedition, hardened criminals, enemies of the pure religion of God and of man. The faithful were commanded to shun these outcasts. All of those that did a disservice to the captives might flatter themselves that they "did service to God".
- See RB3:18–19 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's response.
- See BKG283–8, RB3:19-20 for conditions of life in the barracks.
- The local authorities and the clerics did their part to stir up the populus against the exiles. See DH197 and CH239-242 for the story of a man who made an attempt on the life of Bahá'u'lláh.
- From this time forward Bahá'u'lláh met only with His
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firmans; Mosque of Al-Jazzar
|1873. c. Mar
||Ilyás `Abbúd offers to provide a room in his house for `Abdu'l-Bahá and Munírih Khánum after their marriage. He furnishes a room, opens a doorway into it through the dividing wall and presents it to Bahá'u'lláh for `Abdu'l-Bahá's use. [BKG348; DH45]
||Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Munirih Khanum
|1873 8 Mar
||Marriage of `Abdu'l-Bahá to Munírih Khánum in the House of `Abbúd.
DH45 says the marriage took place in late August or September 1872.
- See CH87–90, SES25-26, DH45–6 and RB2:208–9 for details of the wedding.
- For the story of Munírih Khánum's life see RB2:204–9.
- She was the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Nahrí by his second wife. [BBD165; GPB130; RB2:204]
- See BBD 166, BKG340–1, DB208–9 and RB2:203–4 for the story of her conception.
- See BKG344, MA112–13 and RB2:206–7 for the story of her first marriage.
- The marriage resulted in nine children, five of whom died in childhood: Husayn Effendi (died 1887, aged two), Mihdí (died aged two-and-a-half), Túbá, Fu'ádiyyih and Rúhangíz. Four daughters grew to adulthood. The oldest of these was Díyá'iyyih, who married Mírzá Hádí Shírází in 1895. Shoghi Effendi was their eldest child. The second daughter, Túbá Khánum, married Mírzá Muhsin Afnán. The third daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Rúhá, married Mírzá Jalál, the son of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, the King of Martyrs. The fourth daughter, Munavvar, married Mírzá Ahmad. [ABMM]
||Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Munirih Khanum; Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Nahri; Diyaiyyih Khanum; Mirza Hadi Shirazi; Tuba Khanum; Mirza Muhsin Afnan; Ruha Khanum; Mirza Jalal; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan; Munavvar Khanum; Mirza Ahmad; Genealogy
|1892. 29 May
||The Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh passes away at Bahjí in His seventy–fifth year. [AB47; BBRXXIX, 233; BKG420; CB148; GPB221; RB4:411]
- For an account by Túbá Khánum see CH105–9.
- Bahá'u'lláh has spent 23 years, 8 months and 29 (or 30) days in the Holy Land. [DH12]
- He passes away eight hours after sunset. [GPB221; UD170]
- The news of His passing is immediately communicated to Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd by `Abdu'l-Bahá: `the Sun of Bahá has set'. [AB47; BKG420 GPB222]
- Shortly after sunset, on the very day of His passing, Bahá'u'lláh is buried beneath the floor of a room in the house adjacent to the mansion of Bahjí, the Qiblih of the Bahá'í Faith. [AB47; BBD211; BKG427; GPB222]
- See CB149 and RB4:149 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's ascension on `Abdu'l-Bahá.
- See ARG71-72 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His attempt to convince Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí to be faithful to the Covenant.
- See AB52–3, CB148–9 and RB4:148–9 for the theft of Bahá'u'lláh's cases containing His seals, papers and other items.
- See AB52–61, CB148–51 and RB4:148–54 for the Covenant-breaking activities of Bahá'u'lláh's family immediately following His death.
- See GPB222–3 for the mourning following the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh.
- At this time the Faith has spread to 15 countries. [MBW61]
- See BBR234–6 for a list of Europeans who met Bahá'u'lláh.
||Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bahaullah, Life of; Holy days; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Covenant-breakers; Covenant (general); Qiblih; - Basic timeline
|1892 After the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh
||`Abdu'l-Bahá asks Nabíl to choose a number of passages from the writings of Bahá'u'lláh to be used as a Tablet of Visitation. This Tablet is also used at observances commemorating the Martyrdom of the Báb. [BBD234; BKG427; GPB222; RB4:419]
`Abdu'l-Bahá rents the house now known as the Pilgrim House at Bahjí from its Christian owner Iskandar Hawwá', the husband of `Údí Khammár's daughter Haní. [DH114, 226]
- For an analysis of this Tablet, see SA121–2.
|Pilgrim House at Bahji
||Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bahaullah, Life of; Holy days; Nabil-i-Akbar; Tablets of Visitation; Iskandar Hawwa; Nabil-i-Akbar
|1896 c. Oct
||`Abdu'l-Bahá rents the former Governorate of `Abdu'lláh Páshá in the northwest corner of the city of `Akká at the inner moat. [BBD13, 108; DH60]
- He establishes it as His residence and as the home for His daughters, their husbands and families. [DH60-4, BW16:104]
- See also BW16:104–6, DH60–4.
||Abdullah Pasha; House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Family of
|1897. 1 Mar
||The birth of Shoghi Effendi, in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD208; BKG359; DH60, 214; GBF2]
- He is descended from both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: his mother is the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá; his father is an Afnán, a grandson of Hájí Mírzá `Abu'l-Qásim, a cousin of the mother of the Báb and a brother of His wife. [CB280; GBF2]
- He is the Ghusn-i-Mumtáz, the Chosen Branch. [BBD87]
- `Shoghi' means `one who longs'. [CB281]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá commands everyone, even Shoghi Effendi's father, to add the title `Effendi' after his name. [CB281; GBF2]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá gives him the surname Rabbání in the early years of his study in Haifa so that he will not be confused with his cousins, who are all called Afnán. Rabbání is also used by Shoghi Effendi's brothers and sister. [BBD191–2; DH60–1]
- See GBF6 for the schools he attends.
- See also Rabbani, The Priceless Pearl;
Rabbani, The Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith;
Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections.
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; House of Abdullah Pasha; Bahaullah; Family of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Afnan; Aghsan; Haji Mirza Abul-Qasim; Rabbani (name)
|1899 c. Feb - Mar
||`Abdu'l-Bahá, accompanied by Kheiralla, lays the foundation stone for the Shrine of the Báb. [BFA1:XXVIII, 142; BBD209; GPB275; SBBH2:112]
||Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bab, Shrine of; Foundation stones; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
||The publication of The Oriental Rose, or, The teachings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá which trace the chart of "The Shining Pathway" by Mary Hanford Finney Ford.
- See page 158-159 for her pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
|New York; United States
||Mary Hanford Ford; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Introductory; Abdul-Baha, Pen portraits; Pen portraits
|1912 29 Mar
||The S.S. Cedric stops at Naples.
- Shoghi Effendi is taken off the ship owing to an eye infection. [AB171–2]
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; S.S. Cedric; Ships
|1912 23 May
||The Bahá'ís of Cambridge, Massachusetts, celebrate `Abdu'l-Bahá's birthday with a cake bearing 68 candles. `Abdu'l-Bahá addresses the group on the importance of the Báb at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Francis W. Breed,
367 Harvard Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [239D:72; AB199, PUP138]
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Bab, Life of; Francis Breed
|1915 (in the year)
||Jamál Páshá, Commander of the 4th Army Corps of the Turkish army, is put in military control of Syria, including the Holy Land. [AB412]
- For an account of his relationship with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá see AB412–14.
- He threatens to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and to destroy the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [AB414; GPB304, 317]
||Jamal Pasha; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to
|1918 (in the year)
||Shoghi Effendi finishes his education in Arts and Sciences at the American University at Beirut. [DH148; GBF9]
- He receives a Bachelor of Arts degree. [GBF:9]
- He serves as `Abdu'l-Bahá's secretary for two years before resuming his education in England. [DH148; GBF9; PP26-7]
- For a picture of Shoghi Effendi at this time see BW13:131, GBF50-1 and PP88-9.
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; American University at Beirut
|1921 28 Nov
||The Ascension of `Abdu'l-Bahá: `Abdu'l-Bahá passes away at about 1:00 a.m., in Haifa. [AB452; BBD4; BBR347; GPB311; UD170]
- For details of His passing see AB452, BW1:19-23; BW15:113-15 and GPB310-11.
- This marks the end of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age of the Bahá'í Faith and the beginning of the Transitional Formative or Iron Age. [BBD35-6]
- For a photograph of the cable sent announcing His passing see SW12, 15:245.
- See The Passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi and Lady Blomfield.
- For a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá see The Oriental Rose by Mary Hanford Ford pg 158-159
- Also see AB452-83; HLS93-100.
||Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Ages (time); Heroic Age; Formative Age; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline
|1921 4 Dec
||On the seventh day after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá, corn is distributed in His name to about a thousand of the poor.
- Up to this day 50 to 100 poor are fed daily at the Master's House. [BW15:122]
||Abdul-Baha, Life of; House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa)
|1921 29 Dec
||Shoghi Effendi arrives in the Holy Land from England by train from Egypt. [GBF14; PP42]
- An envelope addressed to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá is waiting for him. It contained the Will and Testament. [Ruhi8.2p2]
- He is so worn and grief-stricken that he has to be assisted up the stairs and is confined to bed for a number of days. [CB285]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
|1922 16 Jan
||The Greatest Holy Leaf cables the United States that Shoghi Effendi has been appointed Guardian. [PP48]
||Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
||Shoghi Effendi sends verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56]
To the United States and Canada he sends a message to transform the `Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]
|Germany; United Kingdom; United States; Canada
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board
|1922 Apr c.
||Shoghi Effendi appoints a body of nine people to act tentatively as an assembly in the Holy Land while he is away and entrusts the affairs of the Faith to the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GBF19; PP57, 276]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Spiritual Assemblies
||Shoghi Effendi calls for the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity to become an elected legislative body. It had been functioning since 1909 concerned mostly with the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship. He addresses his first letter to this body as the "National Spiritual Assembly of the United States" on December 23rd however in God Passes By pg333 he states that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was not formed until 1925. [SETPE1p107, CT160, CoB293]
||Chicago; United States
||Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Chicago; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1922 5 Apr
||Shoghi Effendi leaves the affairs of the Faith in the hands of the Greatest Holy Leaf and departs the Holy Land for Europe, accompanied by his eldest cousin. [PP57]
- See BA25 for his reasons for his departure.
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
|1922 25 Apr
||A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
- The difference between this body and its forerunner is little more than a change in name. [DP122]
- The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
- The election procedure followed that used in the United States: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
|Chicago; United States
||National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
||The Greatest Holy Leaf sends Shoghi Effendi's mother and other family members to Switzerland to ask him to return to the Holy Land. [PP63]
||Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1922 15 Dec
||Shoghi Effendi returns to the Holy Land to take up his duties as Guardian. [PP63-4]
- He sends cablegrams to a number of national communities announcing his return and his eagerness to resume the work. [PP64-5]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Guardianship
||The Guardian sends `Abdu'l-Husayn, Ávárih, to Europe to deepen the believers. [CB335, SBR68]
- For his life and eventual Covenant-breaking see CB334-42 and PP120.
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Covenant-breakers
||Shoghi Effendi sends his early translation of The Hidden Words to America. [PP205]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words)
|1924 21 Nov
||Dr John E. Esslemont arrives in Haifa to help Shoghi Effendi with his work. [DJEE31; SBR233]
||Esslemont; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
||Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, a 19-year-old student who had attended the Tarbiyát School in Tehran but now enrolled at the American University at Beirut visits Haifa to meet Shoghi Effendi. Like Hasan Balyuzi before him, he is immediately possessed by a great desire to serve him. [SETPE1p146-7]
||Haifa; Tihran; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon
||Abul-Qasim Faizi; Tarbiyat School; American University at Beirut; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
||Shoghi Effendi retranslates the Hidden Words.|
- He is assisted by George Townshend and Ethel Rosenberg, the ‘English friends’ mentioned on the title page. [ER246–7, 253–6; GT109, SETPE1p126]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); George Townshend; Ethel Rosenberg
||Shoghi Effendi completes his translation of The Book of Certitude, the first of his major translations of the writings of Bahá’u’lláh. [BBRSM63–4; GT60; PP214]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude)
|1930 7 Oct
||Ruth White writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she has sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requests she sends that same evidence to him and he forwards it to the Governor of Haifa who requests to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declares the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157]
||Haifa; Israel; United Kingdom
||Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of; Authenticity; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; High Commisioners
|1936 3–16 Jul
||The World Congress of Faiths is held in London under the auspices of the World Fellowship of Faiths. [GPB342; GT123]
- Shoghi Effendi is asked in a personal letter from the chairman of the Congress, Sir Francis Younghusband, to contribute a paper, a task Shoghi Effendi delegates to George Townshend. [GT123; UD104]
- George Townshend reads the paper ‘Bahá’u’lláh’s Ground Plan of World Fellowship’, which has been approved by Shoghi Effendi. [BW7:635; GT132–3]
- For text of the paper see BW6:614–19.
- For the conference programme see BW7:634–45.
|London; United Kingdom
||World Congress of Faiths; Francis Younghusband; George Townshend; Interfaith dialogue; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1937 25 Mar
||Shoghi Effendi marries Mary Maxwell, Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum. [PP151; UD115]
- For a description of the simple wedding see GBF68–9 and PP151–2.
- Shoghi Effendi stresses that the marriage draws the Occident and the Orient closer together. [GBF69–70; PP153]
- The American Bahá’í community sends $19 from each of its 71 Assemblies as a wedding gift. [GBF70; PP153]
- An extension is built onto Shoghi Effendi’s apartment on the roof of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s house in Haifa to accommodate the couple. [BBD107; DH152]
- See also MA89.
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
|1940 15 May
||Shoghi Effendi determines to go to England; Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum leave Haifa for Italy en route to London. [PP 178]
- For the difficulties and dangers of this journey see PP178–80.
- A few days after their arrival Rúhíyyih Khánum travels to Genoa to meet her father, Sutherland Maxwell who had arrived on the S.S. Rex from Montreal. After the passing of his wife Mr. Maxwell had been invited by Shoghi Effendi to come and live in Haifa.[PP178]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
|1940 25 May
||Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum leave for England via Menton and Marseilles after having obtained a visa for Britain in Rome. A few days later the Italians enter the war against the Allies. [PP179]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
|1940 2 Jun
||Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum leave St Malo, France, for England one day before the city is occupied by the Nazis. Shoghi Effendi seems acutely aware of the danger to himself and to the Faith should he fall into the hands of the Nazis because the Cause had already been banned in Germany and his inveterate enemy, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, was allied with them. [PP 179–80]
||St Malo; France
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
|1940 28 Jul
||Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Sutherland Maxwell leave England for South Africa. [PP180]
- This is the only route open back to Palestine, as Italy’s entrance into the war has closed the Mediterranean to Allied ships. [PP180]
- The trip across Africa takes them to Stanleyville, Congo; Juba in the Sudan; down the Nile to Khartoum and back to Palestine through Cairo. [PP180–1, TG159]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Sutherland Maxwell
|1940 27 Dec
||Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum are back in Haifa. [PP181]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
|1954 26 May
||Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Leroy Ioas return the visit of President Ben Zvi by visiting him in Jerusalem. [GBF140; PP293–4]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; ; Leroy Ioas; Ben Zvi; Presidents
|1957 4 Nov
||Shoghi Effendi passes away in London of coronary thrombosis after a bout of Asian influenza. [CB377; PP446]
- He was in London to purchase some furniture to complete the interior of the International Archives Building. [PP445]
- For a tribute to Shoghi Effendi written by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW13:58–226.]
- See also Rabbání, The Guardian Of The Bahá’í Faith and The Priceless Pearl.
|London; United Kingdom
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; International Archives Building; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; - Basic timeline
||The northeast and southeast quadrants of the gardens at Bahjí are completed and the southern gardens are extended to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s Tea House.
||Bahji; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Tea House
|1982. 18 Feb
||The publication of the compilation entitled "Family Life" by the Universal House of Justice. [Messages63-86p533, Compilation of CompilationsVol 1 p385]
|1982. 18 Nov
||Publication by the Universal House of Justice of the compilation on “Family Life”. [BW18p41; CoC1p385]
||The publication of the statement entitled "Bahá'u'lláh”, prepared by the Office of Public Information at the Bahá'í World Centre. The statement was formally release at a press conference in Bombay, India by Hassan Sabri. [VV126]
||Office of Public; Hassan Sabri; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of (documents)
|2007 7 Nov
||The launch of a new website by the Bahá'í International Community, The Life of Bahá'u'lláh to provide illustration of Baha'u'llah's life through photographs of places and artifacts and relics associated directly with Him. [BWNS586]
||Websites - Official; Internet; Bahaullah, Life of (documents); Bahaullah, Life of
|2017. 18 Oct
||The release of the film "Light to the World". The 51 minute film tells the story of Baha’u’llah’s remarkable life and the impact of His teachings on communities around the world.
||Light to the World; Film; Documentaries; Life of Bahaullah; - Institute process
|2017 22 Oct
||The bicentenary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh is commemorated around the world. A multi-lingual web page is implemented to track the celebrations. [BWNS1212]
||Bahaullah, Birth of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Bahaullah, Life of
from the main catalogue
- 1867 Petition from Bahá'ís in Shushtar, Iran, to the U.S. Congress, An, in World Order, 37:3 (2006). A petition sent by Bahá'ís in Persia in 1867 to the US Consulate general, seeking assistance in getting Baha'u'llah released from imposed exile. Includes introduction, prepared on behalf of the US NSA. [about]
- 1906 Pilgrim Notes of Ali Kuli Khan, by Ali-Kuli Khan (2010). Large volume in English of the words, stories and actions of 'Abdu'l-Baha on many topics recorded by the Baha'i translator Ali Kuli Khan in Persian in 1906 and partly corrected by 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Abbas Effendi: His personality, work, and followers, by E. S. (Ethel Stefana) Stevens, in Fortnightly Review, Volume 95 (1911). Overview of the Baha'i Faith, including a personal interview with 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
- Abdu'l-Baha, by Constance Elizabeth Maud, in Sparks among the Stubble (1924). Chapter on Abdu'l-Baha and Qurratu'l-Ayn, from a book of biographical studies. [about]
- Abdu'l-Bahá: The Center of the Covenant, by Juliet Thompson, in World Order, 7:12 (1948). [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Portrayals from East and West, by Ali-Kuli Khan and John Bosch, in World Order, 6:1 (1971). Recollections of Abdu'l-Baha, taken from papers of Ali-Kuli Khan and the conversations of John and Louise Bosch. [about]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá: Speaking in America, by Allan L. Ward, in World Order, 6:2 (1971). Overview of Abdu'l-Baha's travels through North America, newspaper coverage of his talks, and first-hand accounts of meeting him. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Life and Teachings, by Alessandro Bausani and Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 1:1 (1985). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Abdu'l-Bahá: The Mystery of God, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Overview of the life of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Moojan Momen (1995). On Abdu'l-Baha, eldest son of Baha'u'llah and successor to him as leader of the Bahá'í Faith, known as the authoritative expounder and perfect exemplar of the Bahá'í teachings and as the Center of Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant. [about]
- Abdu'l-Bahá: pour toujours le Centre de l'Alliance, by William S. Hatcher (2002). Fireside talk. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Baha, in Encyclopedia of World Biography (2004). [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá 'Abbás, by Firuz Kazemzadeh, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the eldest son and appointed successor of Bahá’u’lláh, the Center of His Covenant, and the Head of the Bahá’í Faith from 1892 to 1921, regarded, along with the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh, as one of the Central Figures of the Bahá’í Faith. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Ghaffár Zanúzí: ALM Nicolas's ‘Abdoul-Béha et la situation', 1912, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
- `Abdu'l-Baha in Abu-Sinan: September 1914–May 1915, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The story of Abdu'l-Baha's relocating the Haifa/Akka Baha'i community of some 140 people to a nearby Druze village to keep them safe during World War I. [about]
- Abdu'l-Bahá in America, by Robert H. Stockman, and Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey West: The Course of Human Solidarity, ed. Negar Mottahedeh: Reviews, by Firuz Kazemzadeh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 23:1-4 (2013). [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Baltimore, by Allison Vaccaro and Edward E. Bartlett, in Bahá'í News (1982). History of Abdu'l-Baha's visit to Baltimore, Maryland. [about]
- Abdu'l-Baha in Britain: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2011). Short overview of Abdu'l-Baha's travels to Britain. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Baha in Edinburgh: The Diary of Ahmad Sohrab, by Ahmad Sohrab (2008). Diary of Abdu'l-Baha's visit to Edinburgh by Ahmad Sohrab, January 6-10, 1913. [about]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt: September 1910, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Historical and political background of Abdu'l-Baha's various travels to Egypt, discussion of the people he met, and press coverage. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1982). [about]
- Abdu'l-Baha in Montreal, by Jack McLean (2007). Overview of Abdu'l-Baha's visit to Canada in 1912, written in commemoration of its Centenary. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York: The City of the Covenant, by Eliane Lacroix-Hopson and Abdu'l-Bahá (1999). [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Baha in New York, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman (2012). History of Abdu'l-Baha's visit, concepts and principles he spoke about, the social context of New York at the time, and personal stories of the lives of early American Baha'is. Includes video interview with the author, and Spanish translation. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West: A Biographical Guide of the People Associated with His Travels, by Jan Teofil Jasion: Review, by Anne Gordon Perry, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Description of His Father, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2006). [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Elucidation of the Concept of the Oneness of Humanity During His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Today the Baha'i teaching of oneness of humankind is widely accepted, but in the early 1900s it was a difficult concept to convey or put into practice. Abdu'l-Baha made this principle a centerpiece of his talks and actions in the West. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
- Abdu'l-Baha's horoscope, by Marc Edmund Jones, in The Guide to Horoscope Interpretation (1974). Abdu'l-Baha's Horoscope, as prepared by a non-Baha'i. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Baha's Meeting with Two Prominent Iranians, by Muhammad Qazvini, in World Order, 30:1 (1998). Muhammad Qazvini's and Siyyid Hasan Taqizadeh's descriptions of their 1911 meetings with `Abdu'l-Baha in Paris. Preceded by a brief biography of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Abdu'l-Baha's Travels, by Betty Hoff Conow (1970). [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Visit to North America, 1912: A Preliminary Analysis, by Robert Stockman, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview of the itinerary of this tour, the state of the Baha'i community and the general social context of the time, and some themes of Abdu'l-Baha's teachings. [about]
- Abdu'l-Bahá's Year in Egypt: A Compilation of Eyewitnesses, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 10 (2008). Annotated excerpts from Baha'i News. Includes 8-page overview of Abdu'l-Baha's visit to Egypt, his companion and diarist Ahmad Sohrab, and the trip's press coverage. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Ascension of (November 28), by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá, the Standard Bearer of a New Civilization, by Shapour Rassekh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 23:1-4 (2013). Abdu'l-Bahá's mission and objectives in visiting North American, bringing to the West his principles for a new global age. Includes French original, "‘Abdu’l-Bahá, le porte-drapeau d’une nouvelle civilisation." [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Baha: A Biblical Figure?, by Combiz Nuri (2009). Biblical prophecies that could relate to Abdu'l-Baha and the Seventh Angel of the Apocalypse, and the nature of the Covenant. [about]
- Abdu'l-Bahá: The Centre of the Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh, by H.M. Balyuzi: Review, by L. P. Elwell-Sutton, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1973). [about]
- 'Abdul Baha in Egypt, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (1929). A detailed record of three months of Abdu'l-Bahá's time and activities in Egypt, as recorded by his then-companion and secretary. Includes translations of his talks. [about]
- 'Abdul Baha Talks to Kate Carew of Things Spiritual and Mundane, by Kate Carew, in New York Tribune (1912). [about]
- Abdul Baha; Babism, in Winston's Cumulative Loose-Leaf Encyclopedia: A Comprehensive Reference Work (1922). Two short encyclopedia entries. [about]
- 'Abdul-Baha, by Moojan Momen, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
- Achievements and Victories of the Guardianship: Statistics, chronology, and bibliography (1982). List of books written, assemblies founded, Hands of the Cause appointed, and Plans for Expansion conceived. [about]
- Across Asia on a Bicycle: Through Persia to Samarkand, by Thomas Gaskell Allen and William Lewis Sachtleben, in The Century: a popular quarterly, 48:3 (1894). A travelogue through Tabreez, with a short but somewhat hostile history of the Bab. [about]
- Adventures in Biographical Research: John and William Cormick, by Vincent Flannery, in Solas, 4 (2004). Biographical details of the only European known to have met the Bab, William Cormick, and his father John Cormick. [about]
- Afnán Family, The: Some Biographical Notes, by Ahang Rabbani (2007). Genealogy of the Báb and biographies of his descendants; meaning of afnan. [about]
- Agriculture and Rural Life, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (1995). [about]
- Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Baha (1990). [about]
- Answered Questions, Some: A Philosophical Perspective, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). Philosophical foundations of the Bahá’í teachings, including ontology, theology, epistemology, philosophical anthropology and psychology, and personal and social ethics. [about]
- Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2014). New 2014 translation (with a version side-by-side with the original). [about]
- Aqa Husayn Ashchi's narrative, by Universal House of Justice and Ahang Rabbani (1996). A letter to the House requesting permission to translate and publish Aqa Husayn Ashchi's narrative and their response. [about]
- Archeology of the Kingdom of God, The, by Jean-Marc Lepain (2015). Analysis of the spiritual worlds as depicted in philosophical and religious texts, from ancient the Greek to Jewish, Christian and Muslim thought, contrasted with the theosophy, metaphysics, anthropology, and hermeneutics of Baha'u'llah and 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Arches of the Years, by Marzieh Gail (1991). Early days of the Bahá'í faith in America and of Abdu'l-Bahá's visit in 1912; Phoebe Hearst; Versailles Conference; and about Marzieh Gail herself. [about]
- Asking Questions: A Challenge to Fundamentalism and The Secret of our Century: Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani: Reviews, by Cybele Sohrab, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). [about]
- Autobibliography in the Writings of the Báb: Translation of the Khutba Dhikriyya, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). [about]
- Ayesha of the Bosphorus: A Romance of Constantinople, by Stanwood Cobb (1915). A novella combining fiction with scenes from the lives of Abdu'l-Baha and the Baha'is in Haifa in the early 1900s. Includes introduction by Bei Dawud. [about]
- Báb in Shiraz, The: An Account by Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 16 (2008). Recollections of the early years of the Bab and his family, and the times following his declaration; written by a relative. [about]
- Bab, The, by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
- Bahá'í and the Space Connection, by James A. Herrick, in Scientific Mythologies: How Science and Science Fiction Forge New Religious Beliefs (2008). Brief discussion of Baha'i interest in extraterrestrial life. [about]
- Bahá'í Community and Health Promotion, The: The Message and the Metaphor, by Robert Phillips, in dialogue magazine, 1:2 (1986). There may be a connection between spiritual development and physical health, which is not often recognized in contemporary medicine. Lifestyle changes which improve health can be promoted by religious principles. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in the Arabic Speaking Middle East, The: Part 1 (1753-1863), by Ramsey Zeine, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
- Baha'i Pontiff in the Making, A, by A. E. Suthers, in Moslem World, 25 (1935). [about]
- Bahá'í Understanding of Reincarnation in Relation to the World's Faiths, A, by Sateh Bayat and Vafa Bayat, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). [about]
- Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1990). A very brief introduction to the Person of Baha'u'llah and some of His teachings. [about]
- Baha'u'llah, by Anonymous, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
- Baha'u'llah and the New Era, by John E. Esslemont (1980). The classic introductory text on the Baha'i Faith focusing on Baha'i teachings and the lives of the Bab, Baha'u'llah, and Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh's Lawh-i Haqqu'n-Nas: Tablet of the Right of the People, Provisional Translation, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
- Baha'u'llah's passport, with translation, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 9 (1940-1944) (1945). Baha'u'llah's passport at the time of His exile from Iran, 1853, with translation of text. [about]
- Baha'u'llah's prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh, A Brief Life: The Word Made Flesh, by Hasan M. Balyuzi (1963). Two long essays on the life of Baha'u'llah, published in conjunction with the Baha'i Centennial (1963): "Baha'u'llah: A Brief Life," followed by an essay on the Manifestation, "The Word Made Flesh." [about]
- Baha'u'llah, the Messenger of God: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1990). Short biography of Baha'u'llah with scriptural excerpts. [about]
- Baha'u'llah, The Promised One: Warwick Leaflet, by Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Warwick (1990). [about]
- Bahai Movement, with Some Recollections of Meetings with Abdul Baha, The, by Maude M. Holbach, in The Nineteenth Century and After, 77 (1915). Overview of Babi and Baha'i history, and an account of a multi-day visit with Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Bicentenaire de Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahá'í International Community (1992). French translation of the Bahá'í International Community's 1992 Statement on Bahá'u'lláh, updated for the 2017 bicentennial of the Birth of Bahá’u’lláh. [about]
- Birth and Childhood of Baha'u'llah, by David Merrick (2008). Childhood and Early Life of Baha'u'llah, told in plain English and suitable for reading aloud. [about]
- Birth and Childhood of the Bab, by David Merrick (2007). Childhood and Early Life of the Bab, told in plain English and suitable for reading aloud. [about]
- Black Pearls: The African Household Slaves of a Nineteenth Century Iranian Merchant Family, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram (2003). The African slave trade to Iran in the 1800s, and the lives of household slaves of one specific merchant family from Shiraz, that of The Báb, as described in the narrative of Abu'l-Qasim Afnan. [about]
- Black Pearls: Notes on Slavery, by Anthony Lee and Abu'l-Qasim Afnan, in Black Pearls: Servants in the Households of the Bab and Bahá'u'lláh (1988). Editor's notes and introduction to two editions of Black Pearls; brief overview of the institution of slavery. [about]
- Brief Account of My Visit to Acca, A, by Mary L. Lucas (1905). Detailed notes of a visit to Haifa, January-February 1905, and Abdu'l-Baha's interpretations of several passages from the Bible. [about]
- Celestial Pavilion, Inmates of, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). [about]
- Challenge: Helping Our Children Find Meaning and Purpose, by Harlan Carl Scheffler (2006). Part one of the book The Quest. [about]
- Chaste and Holy Life, A, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). [about]
- Chihriq, by Juan Cole and Amir Hassanpour, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Chosen Highway, The, by Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield (Sitarih Khanum) (1940). [about]
- City of Dancing Dervishes, The: And other sketches and studies from the Near East, by Harry Charles Luke (1914). One-half page summary of the Mahdi and Baha'i history. [about]
- Comparison of God and Soul Concepts from a Bahá'í and Hindu Point of View: Conceptions and Experiences of the Afterlife, by Diane Robinson Kerr (2014). Common ground between Hinduism’s Brahman and the Baha'i conception of God, and the complex understanding they propose of the soul and Atman. [about]
- Concealment and Burial of the Báb, by Peter Terry, in A Most Noble Pattern: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb (2012). This chapter from A.-L.-M. Nicolas' seminal biography Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Bab (1905) tells the story of the death and burial of the Bab, compiled from the reports of several eye-witnesses consulted by the author.
- Condition of non-Bahá'í Relatives after Death, The, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Four questions: Do the non-Bahá'í parents of believers become Bahá'ís in the next world? What is the definition of "kin"? What is the requisite spiritual state of the believer? What conditions are associated with the divine bounty? [about]
- Conversations with Shoghi Effendi, by May Maxwell (1924). A set of informal notes taken by Maxwell at Haifa in 1924, and "reproduced for the information of the Baha'i friends with the permission of the National Spiritual Assembly." [about]
- Conversion of the Great-Uncle of the Báb, The, by Ahang Rabbani, in World Order, 30:3 (1999). The history of Hájí Mírzá Sayyid Muhammad (1798-1876), maternal uncle of the Bab. [about]
- Crown of Glory: Memoirs of Jinab-i-Aziz'u'llah Azizi, by Aziz'u'llah Azizi (1991). Autobiography of Jináb-i-Azízí, "the Tailor," a companion of 'Abdu'l-Baha who travelled with the Master to London and Paris, and also met with Shoghi Effendi. Includes photographs, and provisional translations of several Tablets. [about]
- Daily Lessons Received at Akka: January 1908, by Helen S. Goodall and Ella Goodall Cooper (1979). Includes translations of three Tablets of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Dawn-Breakers: Nabil's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Nabil-i-A'zam (1932). The extensive and preeminent history of Babism and the early Baha'i Faith, by Nabil-i-A'zam [aka Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí, aka Nabíl-i-Zarandí]. [about]
- Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of The Bahá'í Revelation: Study Guide, by National Teaching Committee (1932). [about]
- Diary of Juliet Thompson, by Juliet Thompson and Marzieh Gail (1983). Experiences in the life of Juliet Thompson, a prominent early Baha'i and friend of Abdu'l-Baha. Includes preface by Marzieh Gail. [about]
- Divine Illumination, by W. W. Harmon (1915). [about]
- Dr. Cormick's Accounts of his Personal Impressions of Mirza 'Ali Muhammad, The Báb, by Dr. Cormick, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion. A Westerner's account of meeting the Bab and an account of separate incidents involving the persecution of Babis. [about]
- Early Pilgrimage, An, by May Maxwell (1917). Notes from an 1898 pilgrimage by the mother of Ruhiyyih Khanum, published in 1917 and reprinted in 1953. [about]
- Efforts to preserve the remains of the Bab: Four historical accounts, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Accounts by Mirza Hasan Adib Taliqani, Fadil Mazandarani, ‘Abdu’l-Husayn Avarih, and Aqa Husayn ‘Ali Nur. [about]
- Eight Years Near `Abdu'l-Bahá: The Diary of Dr. Habíb Mú'ayyad, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 3 (2007). Memoirs of an occasional pilgrim to the house of Abdu'l-Baha from 1907, and later member of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Iran. [about]
- Elements of Immortality: A Nexus of Proofs by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Some Answered Questions, by James B. Thomas. This paper approaches the mystery of immortality in four steps that are based on objective reasoning by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: the spirit of man; immortality of the spirit; proof with respect to progress after death; entrance into the Kingdom of God. [about]
- Enigmatic Questions Surrounding the Appearances of the Prophets, by John S. Hatcher (2011). [about]
- Enslaved African Women in Nineteenth-Century Iran: The Life of Fezzeh Khanom of Shiraz, by Anthony Lee, in Iranian Studies, 45:3 (2012). Through an examination of the life of this servant of The Bab, this paper addresses the enormous gap in our knowledge of the experience of enslaved women in Iran. [about]
- Episode in the Childhood of the Bab, An, by Stephen Lambden, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Parallels legends of the Bab's early childhood with those of Jesus. [about]
- Episodes in the Life of Munirih Khanum, by Munirih Khanum (1924). A short autobiography by the wife of 'Abdu'l-Baha; early draft of Munirih Khanum: Memoirs and Letters. [about]
- Extraterrestrial Life, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (1996). [about]
- Fiftieth Anniversary of The Master: Performance piece, by Jim Wood (1968). An artistic piece appropriate for play at the commemoration of the ascension of 'Abdu'l-Baha. Produced, performed, and narrated by Jim Wood; also read by Deborah Buttrey. [about]
- Fifty Three Years In Syria, by Henry H. Jessup (1910). Passing encounters between Baha'is and a Christian missionary in Iran, 1867-1901. [about]
- Five unpublished contemporary documents relating to The Bab's examination at Tabriz in 1848, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1848). [about]
- Fragility of Goodness, The: Hexis and Praxis in the Historical Figure of 'Abdu'l-Baha, by Shahbaz Fatheazam, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). How personal character and activity can survive negative pressures from the external world, and what can be learned from the example of Abdu'l-Baha's social action. [about]
- From Adrianople to Akka, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, in Conqueror of Hearts (1968). A talk to the Oceanic Conference, Palermo, Sicily, on the exile journeys of Baha'u'llah. [about]
- From Iran East and West, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 2 (1984). [about]
- Further extracts concerning the remains of the Bab in Tehran, by Fadl Mazandarani and Avarih. Two brief excerpts [about]
- Genealogy of Bab, The, by Mirza Abid, in The Dawn-Breakers. Genealogy of the family of the Bab and the family of Baha'u'llah in relation to the Bab. [about]
- Genealogy of Shoghi Effendi, by Grover Gonzales (1957). A hand-drawn chart of Shoghi Effendi's family history. [about]
- Genealogy of The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh, by Kay Zinky (1950). Chart showing the Semitic line of prophets, including source citations. [about]
- Glimpse of Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris, by Alice R. Beede, in Star of the West, 2:18 (1912). Short account of a brief meeting in Paris, and brief speech by Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Glimpse of Glory, A: Stories of the Life of Baha'u'llah, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Anecdotes about some early followers of Baha'u'llah, and the circumstances of his own life. [about]
- Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1988). An abridged and updated version of the author's biography Priceless Pearl. [about]
- Haifa Notes, by Ramona Brown (1954). Notes from a pilgrimage in 1954. [about]
- Half the Household Was African: Recovering the Histories of Two African Slaves in Iran, by Anthony Lee, in UCLA Historical Journal, 26:1 (2015). Biographies of two enslaved Africans in Iran, Haji Mubarak and Fezzeh Khanum, the servants of The Bab. A history of slavery in Iran can be written, not only at the level of statistics, laws, and politics, but also at the level of individual lives. [about]
- Heaven, by Robert Stockman (1995). [about]
- Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
- Human Soul, The, by Adib Taherzadeh. [about]
- I, Mary Magdalene, by Juliet Thompson (1940). Semi-autobiographical account of Thompson's contact with Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Identity of Man Who Asked "What is the object of life to a Bahá'í?", by Universal House of Justice (2004). On the identity of the individual to whom Shoghi Effendi said "The object of life to a Bahá’í is to promote the oneness of mankind." [about]
- In the Days of the Guardian, by Leroy Ioas (1958). Includes the well-known comments by Shoghi Effendi about his reactions to being appointed Guardian. [about]
- Intelligent Life in the Universe and Exotheology in Christianity and the Bahá'í Writings, by Duane Troxel (1996). Theological statements on extraterrestrial life in Christian and Baha'i texts, and in the work of Giordano Bruno and Galileo. [about]
- Introduction to the Lawh-i Haqqu'n-Nas, An, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Summary of the tablet Lawh-i Haqqu’n-Nas, Tablet of the "Right of the People," on the metaphorical character of this world. [about]
- Islam and the Baha'i Faith: A comparative study of Muhammad ‘Abduh and ‘Abdul-Baha ‘Abbas: Review, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 40 (2010). [about]
- Letters and Essays, 1886-1913, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1985). Treatises of "the greatest and most learned of all Bahá'í scholars" about Alexander Tumansky; on meeting Abdu'l-Baha; and on the meaning of angels, resurrection, civilization, tests, angels, holy spirit, and the saying "Knowledge is twenty-seven letters." [about]
- Life After Death from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Diane Robinson Kerr (2014). Quotations from the Writings with some explanations, to trace the journey of the soul, the purpose of life, description of the afterlife, and the nature of belief itself. [about]
- Life as Metaphor, by John S. Hatcher, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). [about]
- Lifetime with Bahá'u'lláh, A: Events in Baghdad, Istanbul, Edirne and ‘Akká while in the Company of Bahá'u'lláh, by Aqa Husayn Ashchi, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 14 (2007). One-third of a lengthy primary-source history, annotated by translator. [about]
- Light after Death: The Baha'i Faith and the Near-Death Experience, by Alan Bryson (1993). [about]
- List of Descendants of Mirza Buzurg of Nur, the Father of Baha'u'llah, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion. Brief genealogy of Baha'u'llah and His family. [about]
- Living Purposefully in a Time of Violence, by Holly Hanson (2001). Contemplation of Baha'i responses to the global issues raised by 9/11. [about]
- Living the Life, by Shoghi Effendi, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). [about]
- Mahmúd's Diary: The Diary of Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Zarqání Chronicling 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey to America, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani (1998). Extensive account of the 1912 travels of Abdu'l-Baha in the West. [about]
- Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer and Nicola Towfigh, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Two pages on a prophecy concerning the advent of Man Yuzhiruhu'llah. [about]
- Map of Stages in Baha'u'llah's Successive Exiles from Tihran to Akka, by Muhammad Labib (1968). Map of Stages in Baha'u'llah's Successive Exiles from Tihran to Akka, compiled and designed by Muhammad Labib in 1968, includes an extensive list of which tablets Baha'u'llah revealed and where. [about]
- Map of the Travels of Baha'u'llah (1991). The progressive exiles of Baha'u'llah through the Middle East. [about]
- Marking the Bicentenary of the Birth of Bahá'u'lláh, by Universal House of Justice (2017). Thoughts on the meaning of Baha'u'llah's life and current Baha'i activities, inspired by the 200th anniversary of his birth. [about]
- Marriage certificates of The Bab and Baha'u'llah, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 5 (1932-1934) (1934). Marriage certificates of The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Master Humorist, The, by Robert Ballenger, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Examples of the humor of Abdu'l-Baha, jokes he told, and how this aspect of the Master's personality has been downplayed in biographies and portrayals of him which cast him in a more serious light. [about]
- Memories of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Ali M. Yazdi, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). [about]
- Memories of Ashchi: Background, by Ahang Rabbani and Sen McGlinn (1999). Background information on and a start at translation of the narratives of Aqa Husayn Ashchi. [about]
- Memories of Nine Years in Akka, by Youness Afroukhteh (1952). Translation of Khatirát-i-Nuh-Saliy-i-‘Akká, the memoirs of Dr. Yúnis Afrukhtih, who served ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as secretary and interpreter from 1900-1909. Includes discussion of the history of Covenant-breaking. [about]
- Memories of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Memoirs of Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 4 (2005). Autobiography of a close confidant of the holy family. Includes appendices on Baha'i historical places in Shiraz, the Afnán family genealogy, and excerpts from Houshmand Fatheazam’s diary [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-86, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Midhat Pasha and 'Abdu'l-Baha in 'Akka: The Historical Background of the Tablet of the Land of Bá, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). Background of the tablet Lawh-i-Ard-i-Bá, revealed by Baha'u'llah on occasion of Abdu'l-Baha travelling to Beirut to meet the governor of Syria. Includes an account by Mirza Haydar Ali of the Pasha's visit. [about]
- Mortensen, Fred, by Justin Penoyer (2007). Three biographies of an American who met Abdu'l-Baha, by his great-grandson. [about]
- Mother's Stories: Recollections of Abdu'l-Baha, by Muriel Ives Barrow Newhall (1998). [about]
- Mountain of God, The, by E. S. (Ethel Stefana) Stevens, in World Order, 4:3-4:4 (1911). Sympathetic portrayal by a non-Baha'i of Abdu'l-Baha and the small band of Bahá’ís who lived in Haifa and 'Akká early in 20th Century. [about]
- Munirih Khanum: Memoirs and Letters, by Munirih Khanum (1986). Autobiography of Khanum (1847-1938), the wife of Abdu'l-Baha. Includes the arrangements for her marriage, her travel to Akka, her time with the wife of the Bab, and memorial letters written on the anniversaries of the passing of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- My Memories of Baha'u'llah, by Ustad Muhammad-'Ali Salmani. [about]
- Near Death Experiences and the Bahá'í Faith (2012). Literature search and research notes on the Baha'i Faith and death, near death experiences (NDEs), and the afterlife. [about]
- Notes Taken in the Presence of Shoghi Effendi, by Agnes Baldwin Alexander (1937). Notes from a pilgrimage in spring, 1937. Two editions of the notes are presented in parallel. [about]
- Nuri, Mirza Abbas Buzurg: Complete Genealogy Report (2008). [about]
- Our Beloved Guardian: An Introduction to the Life and Work of Shoghi Effendi, by Lowell Johnson (1993). A comprehensive summary biography of Shoghi Effendi. Includes glossary of some antiquated English words and their contemporary or simplified English equivalents. Introduction by Marguerite Sears. [about]
- Passing of Shoghi Effendi, The: 1896-1957, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum and John Ferraby (1958). Detailed account of the final days of the life of the Guardian. [about]
- Pattern of Bahá'í life, The (1948). A compilation of Bahá'í Writings on personal character [about]
- Petition from the Persian Reformers (1867). A petition sent by Baha'is in Baghdad and Shushtar, Iran, in 1867 to the US Consulate general, seeking assistance in getting Baha'u'llah released from imposed exile. [about]
- Pilgrim's Notes, by Ben Levy (1953). Notes from a pilgrimage March 9-16, 1953. [about]
- Pilgrim's notes about Shoghi Effendi, by Ramona Brown, in Memories of 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Recollections of the Early Days of the Bahá'ís of California (1980). Notes from a pilgrimage in 1954. [about]
- Pioneering, Language, Arts, Example of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Pioneering; Serving parents; Serving where need is; Gardens; International Auxiliary Language; Arabic pronunciation; study of Persian; Some references in Writings of Baha'u'llah; Folk art; External affairs; Daily living; Abdu'l-Baha as divine exemplar. [about]
- Prescription for Living, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1950). Thoughts on how to weave a happy individual life and a happy, united, world life: on love and marriage, death, work, habits, sorrow and trial, and the Baha'i teachings. [about]
- Priceless Pearl, The, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1969). The classic biography of The Guardian, written by his wife. [about]
- Promise of All Ages, The, by George Townshend (1934). Overview of Baha'i teachings: a "sketch of the religious teaching of Bahá’u’lláh on the subject of the unity of mankind and the establishment in this century of a universal and permanent peace." [about]
- Psychology of Spirituality, The: From Divided Self to Integrated Self, by Hossain Danesh (2000). Explores what is the nature of human reality, the purpose of human life, transcendence, and whether we have free will, using case histories, in-depth analysis, and practical examples. First 3 chapters only. [about]
- Questions and Answers 1950-51, by Mirra Alfassa (1951). The Mother's recollections of Abdu'l-Baha speaking to her about sacrifice and suffering. [about]
- Rabindranath Tagore: Some Encounters with Bahá'ís, by Peter Terry (1992). 'Abdu'l-Baha is alleged to have met India's poet laureate Tagore in Chicago in 1912. This article examines the historical sources for that story.
- Recovering the Lives of Enslaved Africans in Nineteenth-Century Iran: A First Attempt, by Anthony Lee, in Changing Horizons in African History (2016). Reconstructing the lives of four slaves in the Middle East, including Haji Mubarak and Fezzeh Khanum, servants of The Bab. [about]
- Religions and Extraterrestrial Life: How Will We Deal With It?, by David A. Weintraub (2014). 2-page excerpt from a 5-page chapter on the Faith, in a book covering what world religions believe about alien life. [about]
- Remains of the Bab in Tehran, The, by Ahang Rabbani (1997). Brief bio of Aqa Husayn-'Ali Nur and an extract from Khatirat Muhajiri Az Isfahan, "Memoirs of a Refugee from Isfahan," discussing the history of these remains. Includes biographical notes. [about]
- Remember My Days: The Life-Story of Bahá'u'lláh, by Lowell Johnson (1980). Biography of the prophet-founder of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Sacred Pilgrimage: Visits with The Guardian, by Bill Washington, in Herald of the South (1957). Letter to the Australian newsletter, summarizing of nine days in the Holy Land and talks with Shoghi Effendi. [about]
- Salmani's My Memories of Baha'u'llah, Publication of, by Universal House of Justice (1982). Two letters, to a Baha'i publisher and an individual, regarding the 1982 publication of My Memories of Baha'u'llah, an autobiography of Baha'u'llah's barber, Ustad Salmani. [about]
- Seeds of Revelation and the Mystic Bond between The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: An Exposition on Excerpts from the Persian Bayán, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
- Servants in the Households of Baha'u'llah and the Bab, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Whether or not the servants of the Bab and Baha'u'llah were slaves, and a list of relevant sources for further research. [about]
- Sheltering Branch, The, by Marzieh Gail (1959). The life and teachings of 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Shoghi Effendi: Recollections, by Ugo Giachery (1973). Biography of Shoghi Effendi from the close standpoint of the author's personal experiences. Short excerpt from book; Part 1 only. [about]
- Shoghi Effendi: After a Hundred Years, in World Order, 29:1 (1997). Editorial for an issue dedicated to the centennial of the Guardian's birth, summarizing his life and his place in Baha'i history. [about]
- Silent Road: In the light of personal experience, by Wellesley Tudor Pole (1960). PDF of the entire book, followed by a short HTML-formatted excerpt about the "healing miracles" of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Sources for studying the life and writings of Abdu'l-Baha: A topical bibliography (1999). [about]
- Space: The Final Frontier?: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1997). [about]
- Statement on Bahá'u'lláh, A, by Bahá'í International Community (1992). Introduction to the life and work of Baha'u'llah, released in 1992 in honor of the centenary of his death, at the request of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
- Stories of Baha'u'llah and Some Notable Believers, by Adib Taherzadeh (2003). Extracts compiled from Adib Taherzadeh’s The Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh, Volumes 1-4. [about]
- Suffering of Bahá'u'lláh, The, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Deepening Portfolio Number 3 (1974). [about]
- Suffering of the Exalted Letters, by Bahá'u'lláh (2017). Tablet written in Baghdad about death and the development of the human soul. [about]
- Summon Up Remembrance, by Marzieh Gail (1987). Memoir left by Ali-Kuli Khan, one of the first translators of Baha'i Writings; writings of his wife Florence; other family papers and memories. [about]
- Tabla de la Medicina, by Bahá'u'lláh. Spanish translation of Lawh-i-Tibb. [about]
- Tablet of All Food, The: The Hierarchy of the Spiritual Worlds and the Metaphoric Nature of Physical Reality, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 16 (2010). [about]
- Tablet of Consolation, by Bahá'u'lláh (2017). Letter to an early believer following the death of his father, in which Baha'u'llah teaches that death should not be a cause of grief, but is a transition in the journey of drawing nearer to God, who is the true source of comfort and solace. [about]
- Tablet of Medicine, by Bahá'u'lláh. An anonymous translation of the Tablet to a Physician. [about]
- Tablet to a Physician, by Universal House of Justice (1989). Complete version of a letter which has been excerpted in various compilations. [about]
- Tablet to a Physician (Lawh-i-Tibb), by Universal House of Justice (2000). Translations of Baha'u'llah's "Tablet of Medicine/Tablet to the Physician"; includes a partial provisional translation. [about]
- Tablet to the Physician, or Tablet of Medicine (Lawh-i-Tibb): Notes, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 6:4-7:2 (1992). [about]
- Tablet to the Physician, or Tablet of Medicine (Lawh-i-Tibb): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Tahirih, Letter of the Living, and Khadijih Bagum, Wife of the Báb, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Life stories of two key heroines of Babi history. [about]
- Three Meditations on the Eve of November Fourth, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi (1970). Essays and poems written by Hand of the Cause A.Q. Faizi on the evening of Shoghi Effendi's death, November 4 1957. [about]
- Travels of `Abdu'l-Bahá and their Impact on the Press, The, by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The presence of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in Western countries aroused great interest in the general public and the media. The surveys the news reports of the events related to His visit and the impressions gained by His audiences. [about]
- Trial of the Báb: Answers given during the interrogation of the Báb (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial.
- Trial of the Báb: Alim-i Hashtrud's account (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial.
- Trial of the Bab: Mulla Muhammad Mamaqani's account (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial.
- Trial of the Báb: Questions, rebukes, statements made during the interrogation of the Bab (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial. [about]
- Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image, by Denis MacEoin, in Studies in Honor of Clifford Edmund Bosworth 2: The Sultan's Turret (2000). Overview of, and documents preserved from, the Bab's 1848 trial for heresy against Islam. [about]
- Two Shall Appear, by Olivia Kelsey, Revised Second Edition (1943). A play which attempts to depict in a brief form the background and some of the heroic events of Baha'i history. [about]
- What it is to be a Bahá'í?: A letter to the Bahá'í youth from Ruhiyyih Khanum, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1948). The object of life to a Bahá'í is to promote the oneness of mankind. [about]
- Whilst He Was in Suleymaniah: Extracts and poems from the memoirs of Nabil Zarandi, by Nabil-i-A'zam (2002). Handful of short extracts and poems from the memoirs of Nabíl-i-A`zam [aka Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí, aka Nabíl-i-Zarandí]. on the conduct of the Bábís in 'Iráq during Bahá'u'lláh's self-imposed exile. From Nabil's unpublished narrative. [about]
- Why Are We Here: Meaning of Life: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2003). [about]
- Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
- Wives of Baha'u'llah, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Information on Baha'u'llah's three wives, and a background to the Baha'i teaching that people should be monogamous in the modern age. [about]
- Word Portraits of Abdu'l-Baha (2012). Short descriptions of Abdu'l-Baha by Horace Holley, Louis Gregory, Howard Colby Ives, Wellesley Tudor Pole, E. G. Browne, Ali Yazdi, Florence Khan, Stanwood Cobb, and Albert Vail. [about]
- Words of Long Ago, by Mirra Alfassa (1912). Transcript of a talk The Mother delivered to some Baha'is in Paris in 1912 by request of Abdu'l-Baha; reflections inspired by the departure of Abdu'l-Baha from Paris in June 1913. [about]
- Writing on the Ground, by Wellesley Tudor Pole (1968). PDF of the entire book, followed by HTML-formatted excerpt of Part Three, "The Baha'i Faith." [about]