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1828 10 Feb Defeat of the Persians at the hands of the Russians. The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran. The war ended following the occupation of Tabriz and had even more disastrous results for Persia than the 1804-1813 war. The ensuing Treaty of Turkmenchay, signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran, stripped Persia of its last remaining territories in the Caucasus, which comprised all of modern Armenia, the southern remainder of modern Azerbaijan, and modern Igdir in Turkey. Through the Gulistan and Turkmenchay treaties Persia had lost all of its territories in the Caucasus to Russia making them the unquestioned dominant power in the region. [BBRSM55] Tabriz; Turkmenchay; Iran Russo-Persian War; Wars; History (general); Iran, General history
1830 Jan c. Birth of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Taqí Afnán (Vakílu'd-Dawlih), maternal uncle of the Báb, who supervised and largely paid for the building of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád. Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Vakilud-Dawlih; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Births and deaths
1847. Feb - Mar The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [B116; DB213–14]
  • Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informs the Sháh that the Báb is in Isfahán and has been sheltering with Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh orders that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, sets out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [B116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
Tihran; Isfahan; Iran Manuchihr Khan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bab, Life of; Gurgin Khan; Nusayri horsemen; Horses
1847 Jul to 1848 Apr The people of Máh-Kú show marked hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they are won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregate at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]

At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán keeps the Báb strictly confined and allows no visitors. He has a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He becomes humble and permits the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]

The winter the Báb spends in Máh-Kú is exceptionally cold. [DB252]

Many of the Báb's writings are revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]

  • It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
  • He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [GPB24]
  • He revealed the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5]
  • The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
  • He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
  • In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
  • The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
Mah-Ku; Iran; Najaf; Karbala; Iraq Bab, Life of; Ali Khan; Commentaries; Quran; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bayan; Dalail-i-Sabih (Seven Proofs); Bab, Writings of; Tablet to Muhammad Shah; Muhammad Shah; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul The Conference of Badasht

Bahá'u'lláh, who hosts and directs the event, rents three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]

The conference coincides with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July.

It is held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]

  • `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
  • B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb. It is attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
  • Each day Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet, and on each believer He confers a new name. Each day an Islamic law is abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
  • See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
  • Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Veils; Women; Womens rights; Gender; Equality; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Letters of the Living
1848 19 - 20 Jul The Women's Rights Convention was held in the Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls, NY. The principle organizer was Lucretia Mott, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its driving intellect. A significant role was played by an African-American man, an abolitionist and a recently freed slave, Frederick Douglass. The convention adopted a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments that consisted of 11 resolutions including the right for women to vote. The signatories were the 68 women and 32 men in attendance. The right for women to vote became part of the United States Constitution in 1920. [The Calling: Tahirih of Persia and her American Contemporaries p114-160, "Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation" by Bradford W. Miller (Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8.3, 1998)]
  • This conference has been compared to the Conference of Badasht with respect to the emancipation of women and entrenched prejudices.
Seneca Falls; New York; United States; Badasht; Iran Womens rights; Human rights; African Americans; Women; Gender; Equality; Conference of Badasht; Tahirih
1850. 19 May The Governor sends a mob against Hujjat, which is dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sends to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján is split into two camps. [BW18:381]

  • See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
Tihran; Zanjan; Iran Governors; Hujjat; Mir Salah; Zaynab; Gender; Women; Equality; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
1852 16 – 27 Aug The martyrdom of Táhirih in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
  • She is martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she has provided for the purpose. Her body is lowered into a well which is then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
Tihran; Iran Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Women; Gender; Equality; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1852 27 Oct The Bábí Faith is first mentioned in the 27 October 1852 volume of Magyar Hírlap (The Hungarian Newspaper), under the title „Persia műveltségi történetéhez” („To the History of Education in Persia”) where Captain Von Goumoens, a captain of the Austrian army based in Tehran reports on the terrible events related to the persecution of Bahá’ís in Iran.[www.bahai.hu] Budapest; Hungary Mentions; Firsts, Other
1853. 12 Jan Bahá'u'lláh and His family depart for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh is accompanied by His wife Navváb, (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate and so was left behind with the grandmother of Àsíyih Khánum. They are escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108]
  • CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
  • ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
  • This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
  • See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's black servant, Isfandíyár, who had managed to evade capture during this dark period, after he had paid all the debts to various merchants, went to Mazandaran where he was engaged by the Governor. Years later when his master made a pilgrimage to Iraq Isfandíyár met Bahá'u'lláh and stated his preference to return to His service. Bahá'u'lláh said that he owed his master a debt of gratitude and could not leave his employ without his permission. It was not granted and Isfandíyár returned to Mazandaran and stayed with the Governor until his passing. [PUP428; SoW IX 28 April, 1918 p38-39]
  • Also see A Gift of Love Offered to the Greatest Holy Leaf (compiled and edited by Gloria Faizi, 1982), by Hand of the Cause Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, which includes a brief summary of the character of Isfandiyar and his services to the Holy Family on pages 14-16.
Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Mirza Musa; Mirza Mihdi; Mirza Muhammad-Quli; Isfandiyar; Russian officials; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1853. 21 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrive in Khániqayn, just across the Iraqi border, where they rest in a beautiful orchard to observe Naw-Rúz. [BKG105]
  • The Governor of Tehran had sent soldiers with the party of exiles to the frontier where they were met by Turkish soldiers who escorted them to Baghdád. [Ch47]
Khaniqayn; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Naw-Ruz
1857 approx The revelation of Sahíiy-i-Shattíyyih (Book of the River or Book of the Tigris) by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See Tablet of the River [Tigris] by Bahá'u'lláh translated by Juan Cole, 1997 for the background to the Tablet and a translation. Cole contends, by his translation, that at this time Bahá'u'lláh, had no thought of advancing any claim to Revelation.
  • See Concealment and Revelation in Bahá'u'lláh's Book of the River by Nader Saiedi published in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:3, 1999 where Saiedi postulates, based on his translation that Bahá'u'lláh was fully aware of His mission from at least the time of his imprisonment in the Siyah-Chal and rejects any suggestion that Bahá'u'lláh's consciousness evolved in this regard.
  • See Messianic Concealment and Theophanic Disclosure by Moojan Momen published in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 Association for Baha'i Studies of New Zealand, 2007, where Momen contends that the controversy is an illusory one caused by the specific nature of the meaning of the word "amr" and that the phrase that is the subject of dispute proves neither side's case, however it is translated. He explains it by say there is a theological schematic of the stages of the evolution of the mission of the Manifestations of God, the phenomenon of a period of messianic concealment followed by a theophanic disclosure. He then imposes this schematic upon the dispensation of the Báb creating a new interpretation of His ministry and further suggests it could be applied to the Revelation of Muhammad and Jesus.
Baghdad; Iraq Sahiiy-i-Shattiyyih; Book of the River; Book of the Tigris; Cole; Saiedi; Momen; Baha'u'llah, Tablets of; Z****
1861. c. 1861 ‘Abdu'l-Bahá writes the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14] Baghdad; Iraq Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan (Commentary on the tradition of the Hidden Treasure); Commentaries; Hadith; Islam; Hidden Treasure (Hadith); Ali Shawkat Pasha; Bahaullah, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1862 10 May The Persian ambassador requests that the Ottomans move the Bábís farther from Persia. Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
1863. c. Jan 1863 The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, receives the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order is ignored by the governor, who is sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders will be received and similarly ignored before the governor is compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131] Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Grand Viziers; Ali Pasha
1863. 26 Mar Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. [BKG154; GPB147; RB1:228; SA163]

  • The Tablet is recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
  • See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
  • See RB1:228–44 and SA163–5 for descriptions of the Tablet and analyses of its content.
  • Immediately after it is chanted Bahá'u'lláh orders the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. [GBP147; RB1:228–9; SA163]
  • The party has not yet left when a messenger arrives from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the invitation to go to Constantinople. [RB1:229; SA163]
Mazraiy-i-Vashshash; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Lawh-i-Mallahul-Quds (Tablet of the Holy Mariner); Naw-Ruz; Mirza Áqa Jan; Namiq Pasha; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1863. 27 Mar Bahá'u'lláh meets the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news. At first he summons Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]

  • See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
  • See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
  • See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
  • Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Baghdád, the Persian Consul had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68]
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Ottoman citizenship
    1863. 9 May Bahá'u'lláh and His party leave Firayját for Istanbul although at this point the destination is unknown to the exiles. [CH57, GPB156; SA235]

    • The journey takes 110 days. [GPB156]
    • For the details of the journey see BKG176–96; GPB1567; SW13:277.
    • See BKG180 for a map of the journey.
    • They pass through the following:

      • Judaydih
      • Dilí-'Abbás
      • Qarih-Tapih
      • Saláhíyyih (stay two nights)
      • Dúst-Khurmátú
      • Táwuq
      • Karkúk (stay two days)
      • Irbíl
      • By the River Záb
      • Bartallih
      • Mosul (stay three days)
      • khú
      • Jazírih
      • Nisíbín
      • Hasan-Áqá
      • Márdiín
      • Díyár-Bakr (stay two days)
      • Ma'dan-Mis
      • Khárpút (stay two or three days)
      • Ma'dan-Nuqrih
      • Dilik-Tásh
      • Sívás
      • Túqát
      • Amasia (stay two days)
      • Iláhíyyih (the last day of the overland journey)
      • Sámsún on the Black Sea. (110 days after departure)
      [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    • For the number of people on the journey see BKG179 (72), GPB156 (26 plus members of His family plus guards), RB2:5–6 (54) and SW13:277 (72).
    • As the party draws close to Sámsún on the Black Sea Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Hawdaj. [BKG195; RB2:6]
    • The party remains in Sámsún for seven days. [GPB157]
    Firayjat; Samsun; Istanbul; Judaydih; Dili-Abbas; Qarih-Tapih; Salahiyyih; Dust-Khurmatu; Tawuq; Karkuk; Irbil; Bartallih; Mosul; Zakhu; Jazirih; Nisibin; Hasan-Aqa; Mardiin; Diyar-Bakr; Madan-Mis; Kharput; Madan-Nuqrih; Dilik-Tash; Sivas; Tuqat; Amasia; Ilahiyyih Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Journeys; Black Sea; Suriy-i-Hawdaj
    1863. 13 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party depart from Sámsún by steamer for Istanbul. [BKG196; GPB157]
    • They touch in Sinope, a port of call on 14 August and in Anyábulí on the 15 August. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    Samsun; Sinope; Anyabuli; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1863. 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrive at Constantinople at noon. [BKG197; GPB157; RB2:1]
    • The band of exiles had been augmented along the journey and new numbered about 70. At first the Governor allotted them space in an inn that was inadequate for their numbers and then 'Abdu'l-Bahá asked the governor that the family have a house apart. Mírzá Yáhyá and his family were invited to share the house. [CH59]
    • See The Baha’i Faith in Turkey or Essays and Notes on Babi and Baha’i History Chapter 4 by John Walbridge
    Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Constantinople

    Bahá'u'lláh resides in Constantinople [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61]

    • See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
    • His arrival in Constantinople and stay of about 5 years marks the first time in history that a Manifestation of God had set foot in the European continent. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 2 June, 1982 addressed To the Friends gathered at the International Conference in Dublin.]
    • Among the works Bahá'u'lláh reveals in Constantinople is Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]
    • News is brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He will be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]
    • Bahá'u'lláh refuses to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yahyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuade Him to go. [BKG201–3]
    • Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz issues an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. [GPB159–60; RB2:57]
    • See BBIC:34, note 68, BKG201 and GPB159 for reasons for the edict. On the same day Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá, a Tablet addressed to the Sultán. When the Grand Vizier peruses it he turns pale. The text of this Tablet is lost. [BKG206; GPB160]
    Istanbul; Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mathnaviyi-i Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala; Grand Viziers; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1863. 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Istanbul for Adrianople. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427]

    • The journey takes twelve days and they pass through the following villages en route: [BKG204; GPB161; The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
      • chik-Chakmachih
      • Buyúk-Chakmachih
      • Salvarí
      • Birkás
      • Bábás
      • Bábá-Iskí

    • See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter is extremely cold and the travellers are not clad for freezing weather.
    Istanbul; Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Winter; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1863. 12 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople

    Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrive in Adrianople. [BKG206; GPB161; RB2:62]

    • This is the furthest point from His native land that Bahá'u'lláh reaches and the first time in known history that a Manifestation of God had lived on the European continent. [BKG217]
    • See BKG218–19, 221–2; GPB161–2 and MRHK179–96 for a description of the houses Bahá'u'lláh lives in during this period.
    • See BKG219–20 for the hardships of the first winter.
    Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey; Europe Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1866. c. Mar 1866 The Most Great Separation

    Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) for Mírzá Yahyá. [CH60, 83, CB84; GBP166]

    • This is the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
    • Bahá'u'lláh directs his amanuensis to take the Tablet to Mírzá Yáhyá. He becomes very angry and a "jealous fire consumed him". He responds by claiming that he is the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [CH60, BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]
    • The announcement that Bahá'u'lláh was the Promised One spread quickly to Iraq and to Persia. The followers were happy for the clarification and glad to be rid of Yáhyá. Only the express command of Bahá'u'lláh prevented them from ridding the world of such nefarious traitor. [CH61]
    • It is believed that Yáhyá's conduct and accusations precipitated the next exile. [CH61]
    Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation; Firsts, other; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1866. 10 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His family withdraw from the house of Amru'lláh, the residence shared with the exiles, and go to the house of Ridá Big. [BKG230; GPB167; RB2:162]

    • He stays in this house for about one year. [GPB168]
    • See BKG235 for a description of the house of Ridá Big.

    Bahá'u'lláh goes into isolation for two months. He orders that all of the family's goods should be divided. The companions are to choose between Himself and Azal. This has become known as the ‘Most Great Separation'. [BBRSM67; BKG230–2; GPB167–8; RB2:162]

    • See BKG231–2, GPB167 and RB2:163 for the effect of this.
    • See BBRSM59–60 for a description of Azal's leadership.
    Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; House of Amrullah; Rida Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation
    1867 16 March An appeal by 53 Bahá’ís is sent from Shushtar, Iran addressed to the US Congress. Shushtar; Iran; United States Petitions; United States government; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution 1867 Petition
    1867. Apr An appeal by 53 Bahá'ís "in Baghdád" addressed to the United States Congress arrives at the American Consulate in Beirut. [BBR265, Petition from the Persian Reformers] Baghdad; Shushtar Petitions; United States government; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution 1867 Petition
    1867. c. Aug Bahá'u'lláh refuses to draw the allowance granted Him by the Ottoman government. [RB2:327]

    • Mírzá Yahyá twice petitions the government to convince it that he ought to be the recipient of the allowance. [RB2:327]
    • Bahá'u'lláh sells some of His belongings to provide the necessities for Himself and His dependents. [RB2:327]
    Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Ottoman government; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1868. c. May Bahá'u'lláh sends Nabíl-i-A`zam to Cairo to enquire after Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí. He was instructed by Bahá'u'lláh to appeal to the officials for the release of several Bahá'ís who had been imprisoned in Cairo at the instigation of their enemies. He was thrown into prison in Cairo for two months and then in the Alexandria jail for a few more months. While there he befriended a Christian cellmate, Fáris Effendi, who soon becomes a Bahá'í. [BKG248, 265–6; EB268; GPB178]
    • Fáris Effendi was probably the first Christian to become a Bahá'í. [RB3:10, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
    • See BKG265–8 for an account of Nabíl's arrest and imprisonment.
    • After his release he travelled to Cyprus and Beirut and then joined the Bahá'u'lláh's exiled community in Akka in late October of 1969. He spent the last two decades of his life in that area. [“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
    Cairo; Egypt Nabil-i-Azam; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Faris Effendi; Imprisonments; First believers by background; Christianity; Conversion; Interfaith dialogue
    1868. 26 Jul Bahá'u'lláh banished to 'Akká

    Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz issues a firmán condemning Bahá'u'lláh to perpetual banishment. [BKG283–4; GPB179, 186; RB2:401–2]

    • See RB2:402 for a list of those included in the edict.
    • BKG261, GPB181 and RB2:403 indicate that it was not until the party reached Gallipoli that they were informed that their ultimate destination was `Akká.
    • BBD40 says that it was because of the disloyal Mírzá Yahyá's plotting against Bahá`u`lláh that the Turkish authorities condemned Him to perpetual imprisonment in `Akká.
    Edirne; Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq; Gallipoli; Akka Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Khurshid Pasha; Firmans; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868. Aug One morning without warning Bahá'u'lláh's house is surrounded by soldiers. The inhabitants are rounded up and taken to government headquarters. They are told to make ready for their departure for Gallipoli. [BKG255; GPB179; RB2:403]
    • The party was given three days to prepare for the journey. It it had been rumoured that they were to be separated, Bahá'u'lláh to one place, 'Abdu'l-Bahá to another and the friends to still another place. [CH62]
    • One of the companions, Karilá'í Ja'far was so grieved by the threatened separation that he attempted to kill himself. He was prevented from do so but was too ill to travel. Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave until the Governor in Adrianople made a promise to care for him until he was well enough to travel. He joined the friends in 'Akká forty days after their arrival. [CH62, RoB1p97-98]
    • The Consuls of European powers offer assistance to Bahá'u'lláh and are prepared to ask the intervention of their governments. Bahá'u'lláh refuses these offers. [BKG255, 257–8]
    • Western accounts of this incident suggest that Bahá`u`lláh asked for such assistance. [BBR187–91]
    • The next day the goods of the Bahá'ís are sold or auctioned for very low prices. [BKG255, 258]
    • Group and individual photographs are taken of the Bahá'í and Azalí exiles in Adrianople, including one of Bahá'u'lláh.
    Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868. 12 Aug Bahá'u'lláh, His family and companions, escorted by soldiers, set out for Gallipoli. [BKG260; GPB180; RB2:409]
    • En route they pass through the villages of Uzún-Kuprí and Káshánih. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p44]
    Edirne; Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 15 Aug The Bahá'ís imprisoned in Constantinople arrive in Gallipoli to be exiled with Bahá'u'lláh's party. [BKG260] Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 16 Aug They arrive in Gallipoli on the fifth day. [BKG260]
    • GPB180 says it was a four-day journey. CH62 says it took three days of travel by cart and wagon.
    • They remain there for three nights. CH62 says they remained there for a week awaiting replies to telegrams that had been sent to Constantinople. [BKG263; GPB181]
    • BKG261 says they were there for `a few days'.
    Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 21 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Gallipoli on an Austrian-Lloyd steamer. CH62 says it was a Turkish boat. [BKG263; GPB182; RB2:411]
    • There were 72 exiles, 10 soldiers and 2 officers. The journey took 11 days. [CH63]
    • See BKG270 for map of the journey.
    • Towards sunset the same day the steamer touches on Madellí and stops for a few hours. It continues on to Smyrna the same night. [BKG264]
    • Mírzá Yahyá and the four Bahá'ís arrested at Constantinople, including Mishkín-Qalam, are sent to Famagusta in Cyprus. [BKG268; GPB179]
    Gallipoli; Madelli; Smyrna; Famagusta; Turkey; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships; Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile; Cyprus exiles; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868. 22 Aug Soon after sunrise the ship arrives at Smyrna. [BKG264]
    • It stays for two days. [BKG264; GPB182]
    • The illness of Mírzá Áqáy-i-Káshání (Jináb-i-Muníb) necessitates his removal to the hospital. He dies before 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Musá can return to the ship. 'Abdu'l-Bahá makes arrangements with the local funeral director. They hold a simple funeral and burial takes place in Izmír. [CH65, BKG264–5; GPB182]
    • This young and vibrant man arrived in Baghdad before the exile and travelled with the party holding the bridle of the horse of Bahá'u'lláh the whole route, often with 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the other side. When the party reached Constantinople he was instructed to go on teaching trip to Persia and to Iraq, a long and an arduous tour. He rejoined the group in Adrianople just prior to the exile and he was in precarious condition but begged Bahá'u'lláh for permission to be included. It is reported in FAA21 that he died two or three days after the departure of the ship.
    Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Aqay-i-Kashani
    1868. 23 Aug The steamer leaves Smyrna at night for Alexandria, which she gains on a morning two days later. [BKG265] Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey; Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868 26 - 27 Aug The steamer carrying Bahá'u'lláh docks at Alexandria, early in the morning. [BKG265; RB3:6]
    • The exiles change ships, again onto an Austrian-Lloyd ship. [BKG265]
    • Several exiles go ashore to make purchases. One passes by the prison house where Nabíl is detained. Nabíl, watching from the roof of his prison cell, recognizes him. [CH65, BKG265, 267; RB3:6]
    • Nabíl and Fáris Effendi write letters to Bahá'u'lláh which are delivered by a Christian youth. The youth returns with a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh and gifts from `Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Mihdí. [BKG267–8; RB3:6–7]
    • The ship bearing Bahá'u'lláh and the exiles leaves Alexandria for Port Said. [BKG268]
    Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Nabil-i-Azam; Faris Effendi; Gifts; Ships
    1868. 29 Aug In the morning the ship arrives in Port Said. At nightfall it travels on to Jaffa. [BKG268] Port Said; Jaffa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868. 30 Aug The ship arrives at Jaffa at sunset. At midnight the ship leaves for Haifa. [BKG168] Jaffa; Haifa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868. 31 Aug The ship arrives in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
    • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembark and are taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
    • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, throws himself into the sea when he learns he is to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
    A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party is put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
    • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
    The exiles land in `Akká to begin a confinement in the citadel that is to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
    • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
    • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
    • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
    • DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
    • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
    • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
    • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
    • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
    • The first night the exiles are refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
    • Afterwards each prisoner is allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
    • Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
    • Three of the exiles die soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
    • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
    • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
    • At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'bdu'l-Ahad ahead some time before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
    • The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
    • After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letter to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
    Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1868. 3 Sep The firmán of the Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz condemning Bahá'u'lláh to life imprisonment is read out in the Mosque of Al-Jazzár. [BKG284–5; GPB186; RB3:18]
    • See CH64, BKG283–4, 286; GBP186, RB2:402 and RB3:18 for the terms of the edict. They were labelled as malefactors, sowerw of sedition, hardened criminals, enemies of the pure religion of God and of man. The faithful were commanded to shun these outcasts. All of those that did a disservice to the captives might flatter themselves that they "did service to God".
    • See RB3:18–19 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's response.
    • See BKG283–8, RB3:19-20 for conditions of life in the barracks.
    • The local authorities and the clerics did their part to stir up the populus against the exiles. See DH197 and CH239-242 for the story of a man who made an attempt on the life of Bahá'u'lláh.
    • From this time forward Bahá'u'lláh met only with His
    Akka; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firmans; Mosque of Al-Jazzar
    1871. Sep Bahá'u'lláh is transferred to the house of `Údí Khammár in `Akká. [BBD109; BKG317; DH39, 203; GPB189]
    • The house is so small that 13 people of both sexes occupy one room. The remainder of Bahá'u'lláh's companions take up residence in other houses and the Khán-i-`Avámíd. [GBP189]
    • Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasts two years. [BKG319]
    • See BKG317 for the initial response of His neighbour, Ilyás `Abbúd.
    • See DH201–3 for a biography of `Údí Khammár.
    Akka Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Udi Khammar; Udi Khammar; House of Abbud; Ilyas Abbud; Khan-i-Avamid; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1873. Early part Bahá'u'lláh completes the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248]
    • There is evidence to suggest that at least some of the work was written earlier as confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and there is further evidence to suggest that parts of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17, 248]
    • For the significance of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
    • For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
    • The Law of the Huqúqu'lláh that had first been ordained by the Báb in the Persian Bayán, chapter 19 of unit 5, was reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, verses 227-233 and in the Questions and Answers.
    • At first Bahá'u'lláh declined to accept the Huqúq from the believers stating that the funds were not needed. [Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God p9]
    • "After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas had been revealed in response to the pleas of the friends, Bahá’u’lláh withheld it from publication for some time and even then, when a number of devoted Bahá’ís, having learned of the law, endeavored to offer the Ḥuqúqu’lláh, the payment was not accepted. The Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh show His acute consciousness of the way in which material wealth has been permitted to degrade religion in the past, and He preferred the Faith to sacrifice all material benefits rather than to soil to the slightest degree its dignity and purity. Herein is a lesson for all Bahá’í institutions for all time." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987]
    Akka Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Laws; House of Udi Khammar; Charters; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Dating of Writings; Tablets to kings and rulers; Napoleon III; Huququllah; Funds; Gradual implementation of laws
    1873 Late in the year Bahá'u'lláh acquires the house of `Abbúd. It is joined to the house of `Údí Khammár to make one residence and Bahá'u'lláh moves to the side of the house previously occupied by `Abbúd. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
    • He lives here for four years. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
    • See BBD1 for information on Ilyás `Abbúd.
    Akka Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; Bahaullah, Houses of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1877. c. 1877 `Abdu'l-Bahá rents the house of Mazra`ih for Bahá'u'lláh's use. [BKG357; DH87; RB3:416] Akka Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1877. Jun Possibly the first visit of Bahá'u'lláh to the Ridván Garden outside `Akká. [BBD196–7; DH95; GPB193]
    • See DH95–101 for a description of the garden and Bahá'u'lláh's use of it.
    • See CH96–8 for Túbá Khánum's description of the garden.
    Akka Ridvan Garden; Bahaullah, Life of; Gardens; Firsts, Other; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1877. 3–10 Jun Bahá'u'lláh takes up residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD154]
    • It takes the repeated pleadings of Shaykh `Alíy-i-Mírí, the Muftí of `Akká, to persuade Him to go. [BBD 154; BKG358–9; GPB192–3]
    • See BKG359 and DH89 for a description.
    • Bahá'u'lláh resides here for two years with some members of His family while `Abdu'l-Bahá, the Greatest Holy Leaf and Navváb continue to live in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD13, 106; DH89–90]
    • See CH136 for the reason why `Abdu'l-Bahá did not live at Mazra`ih.
    • Also see DH8994.
    Akka House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Shaykh Aliy-i-Miri (Mufti of Akka); Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1879. Sep Bahá'u'lláh moves to the empty mansion at Bahjí after two years' residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD42; BKG362]
    • See BBD42 and GPB216 for a list of Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh during His occupation of the mansion of Bahjí.
    Mazraih; Bahji House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1881 The Ridván Garden and the Firdaws Garden are purchased in the name of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD84, 196; DH95, 103]
    • Most of the flowering plants in the Ridván Garden are brought by pilgrims from Iran. [CH96]
    BWC; Akka Ridvan Garden; Firdaws Garden; Gardens; Pilgrims; Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1887. 13 Apr The first mention of the concept of `Hand of the Cause' in Bahá'u'lláh's writings is within a Tablet revealed in honour of Ibn-i-Asdaq. [BBD115; EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Appointed arm
    1889. 8 Sep Hájí Muhammad Ridáy-i-Isfahání is martyred in `Ishqábád. [BBRXXIX, 296–7; GPB202]
    • Czar Alexander III sends a military commission from St Petersburg to conduct the trial of those accused of the murder. [AB109; GPB202]
    • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl serves as chief Bahá'í spokesman at the trial. [AB109]
    • Two are found guilty and sentenced to death, six others are ordered to be transported to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
    • Bahá'u'lláh attaches importance to the action as being the first time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for an attack on Bahá'ís. [BBRSM91]
    • The Bahá'í community intercedes on behalf of the culprits and has the death sentences commuted to transportation to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
    • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR296–300.
    Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Haji Muhammad Riday-i-Isfahani; Czar Alexander III; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Turkmenistan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Persecution; Human rights
    1890 By 1890 about a thousand Bahá'ís have settled in `Ishqábád. [BBRSM91, SDOH99] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Statistics
    1891 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Kitáb-i-`Ahd. [BBD32; CB142; GPB236–40, BKG420–5; RB4:419–20]
    • It was probably written at least one year before His Ascension. CB142]
    • Bahá'u'lláh alludes to it in Epistle to the Son of the Wolf as the `Crimson Book'. [DG16; ESW32; GPB238]
    • In it Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appoints `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
    Akka Kitab-i-Ahd (Book of the Covenant); Bahaullah, Will and Testament of; Crimson Book; Covenant (general); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahji; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1891 Apr c. Two believers were arrested during the same period. Hájí Amín was sent to the prison of Qazvín, and Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Abhar was consigned for four years in Tíhran, in which he bore the same chains as Bahá'u'lláh did, during the Latter's imprisonment in 1852.[Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Qazvin; Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Hands of the Cause; Chains; Imprisonments
    1891. 27 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visits Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
    • He stays three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
    • He lives in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby on the foot of Mount Carmel on HaGefen Street. [BKG374; DH186]
    • Bahá'u'lláh instructs to the Master to arrange the transportation of the remains of the Báb from Persia to the Holy Land and their interment in a mausoleum below the clump of cypress trees at a spot which He indicated with His hand. It is stated that there were 15 tiny cypress trees at that time, each one the size of a finger. See Rob4p363 for a photo of the site indicated. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
    • For a story of the difficulties in obtaining land for access to the site of the Shrine of the Báb see SES79-80.
    • One day He pitches His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visits the monastery. [DH186]
    • Bahá'u'lláh visits the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
    • He reveals the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH109, 174; MBW63; RB4:352]
    • For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
    • For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
    BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Carmelite monastery; Cave of Elijah; Elijah; Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel); Charters; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; House of Ilyas Abyad; Templer colony; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1892 `Abdu'l-Bahá rented the house now known as the Pilgrim House (or the "Tea House") at Bahjí from its Christian owner Iskandar Hawwá', the husband of `Údí Khammár's daughter Haní. [DH114, 226] Bahji Abdul-Baha, Life of; Pilgrim Houses; Tea House; Udi Khammar; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1892. 7 Jun On the ninth day after Bahá'u'lláh's passing the Will and Testament of Bahá'u'lláh, the Kitáb-i-`Ahd, is read at Bahjí before a large assembly in His Most Holy Tomb. [AB51–2; BBD132; CB150; DH113; GPB238; RB4:419–20, BKG420-425]
    • In it Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appoints `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
    • See CB150, 164 for the effect this has on the believers.
    Bahji Kitab-i-Ahd (Book of the Covenant); Bahaullah, Will and Testament of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bahaullah, Ascension of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1893. 23 Sep First public reference in North America to the Bahá'í Faith.
    • Reference was made to it in a paper entitled `The Religious Mission of the English Speaking Nations' by Rev. Henry H. Jessup, a retired missionary from north Syria, read by Rev George A. Ford at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago. [AB63–4; BBD2412; BBR57; BFA1:323; BW2:230; GPB256; SBBH1:76, 88, 202]
    • See AB63–4, BW2:169 for text.
    Chicago; United States Henry H. Jessup; World Parliament of Religions; Interfaith dialogue
    1894 In the year Green Acre is founded by Sarah J. Farmer in the aftermath of the World Parliament of Religions. [BBRSM:104; BFA2:142–7; BW5:29; GPB261; SBBH1:125]

    Two Bahá'ís are arrested and bastinadoed in Níshápúr. One dies seven days later, the other two years later. [BW18:384]

    Hájí Yárí, a Bahá'í of Jewish background, is arrested and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384]

    A Bahá'í in Dastjirdán, Khurásán, Áqá `Abdu'l-Vahháb Mukhtárí, is beaten and expelled from the village. [BW18:384]

    Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, are beaten and Bahá'í homes are looted. [BW18:384]

    Green Acre; Eliot; Maine; United States; Nishapur; Hamadan; Dastjirdan; Khurasan; Faran; Khurasan Sarah Farmer; Green Acre; Haji Yari; Aqa Abdul-Vahhab Mukhtari; World Parliament of Religions; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia)
    1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by, Hajib’ud-Dawleh, one of the Qajar courtiers, in fact the Chief Steward, in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
  • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22 and World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p29-44.
  • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
  • He was posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
  • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Yazd; Tihran; Iran Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Varqa, Ruhullah; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Varqa
    1899 The Consulting Assembly of Tihrán, a forerunner of the National Spiritual Assembly, is established. [EB175–6]
    • Four Hands of the Cause are permanent members; nine others are elected by special electors appointed by the Hands. [EB175–6]
    Tihran; Iran NSA; Spiritual Assemblies; Hands of the Cause; Appointments
    1901 29 May The Bahá'í women of Chicago elect their own Board and hold the first business meeting of the `Women's Auxiliary Board'. [BFA2:XV, 49–50] Chicago; United States Women
    1901 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá writes His Will and Testament over this seven-year period. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
    • It is written in three parts. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
    • It `may be regarded as the offspring resulting from that mystic intercourse between Him Who had generated the forces of a God-given Faith and the One Who had been made its sole Interpreter and was recognized as its perfect Exemplar'. [GPB325]
    • For an analysis of its content and its import see AB484–93 and GPB325–8.
    Akka Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Charters; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1902 Shanghai is re-opened to the Bahá'í Faith by the arrival of two Bahá'ís from`Ishqábád, Áqá Mírzá Mihdí Rashtí and Áqá Mírz `Abdu'l-Baqí Yazdí, who open a branch of the Ummi'd company, an import-export firm. [PH25] Shanghai; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Aqa Mirza Mihdi Rashti; Aqa Mirza Abdul-Baqi Yazdi
    1902 28 Nov Construction begins on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of `Ishqábád with the laying of its cornerstone. [BFA2:116-17]
    • BBRXXX says this was 12 December. The discrepancy may lie in the use of two different calendars.< /li>
    • The foundation stone is laid in the presence of General Subotich, governor-general of Turkistan. [BFA2:116–17; GPB300; see discussion of Krupatkin vs Subotich in whitmore_city_love] Also see BBR442-443 for the account of a Russian official, A D Kalmykov who says it was General Subotich.
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá commissions Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the Vakílu'd-Dawlih, son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán, to be in charge of the project. [AB109]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineates the general design and a Russian architect, Volkov, plans and executes the details of the construction. [AB109–10]
    • A meeting hall and some of its dependencies had been built before 1900.
    • Its dependencies include two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds. [BBD122; BBR442; BBRSM:91]
    • For a Western account of this see BBR442–3.
    • See jacket of BBR for a photograph of work on the Temple.
    • See the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 for more on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád.
    Quick Facts
    Location: In the heart of the city of `Ishqábád
    Foundation Stone: Late 1902 by General Subotich, the governor-general of Turkistan who had been delegated by the Czar to represent him.
    Construction Period: Initial step had been undertaken during the lifetime of Bahá’u’lláh. Superstructure: 1902 – 1907. External Ornamentation: 1919
    Site Dedication: No record of a dedication ceremony on completion of the building can be found although the external ornamentation was completed in 1919 it is probable that the building had been in use for some years by this time.
    Architects: `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design. More specific design was by Usád ‘Ali]í-Akbar Ranná and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction under the supervision of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán. [AB109]
    Seating:
    Dimensions:
    Cost:
    Dependencies: two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds
    Expropriation: 1928
    Lease period: 1928 – 1938
    Seizure; 1938 the building was turned into an art gallery
    Earthquake: 1948
    Demolition: 25 August 1963 the Universal House of Justice announced that it had been demolished by the authorities and the site cleared.
    References: AB109, BW14p479-481, GPB300-301, CEBF236, EB266-268, MF126-128
    Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; General Subotich; Krupatkin; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Haji Siyyid Muhammad; Volkov; Haziratul-Quds; Bahai schools; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1903 7 Mar Inspired by the news of the `Ishqábád Temple project, the Chicago House of Spirituality asks `Abdu'l-Bahá for permission to construct a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BFA2:XVI, 118; BW10:179; GPB348] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1907 `Abdu'l-Bahá starts to move His family to the house that He has designed and built in the German colony at the foot of Mount Carmel in Haifa. [BBD107; DH145]
    • Laura Clifford Barney helped to purchase the land for the house and to pay for its construction. [DH145]
    • Some members of the family occupy it as early as February 1907, if not before. [DH145; GBF56]
    Haifa House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Laura Clifford Barney; Purchases and exchanges; Architecture; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1908 The outer structure of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád is completed and the dome is in place. [AB110, EB267]
    • The outer decoration will not be completed until 1919.
    • For a description of the Temple, its gardens and environs see BW1:79–81, GPB300–1 and PUP71.
    Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
    1908 25 Apr Charles Mason Remey and Sidney Sprague sail from New York for Iran and Russia. [BFA2:289]
    • For details of their journey see BFA2:289–95.
    • In Tihrán Tá`irih Khánum, a Bahá'í woman with advanced ideas, hosts them at a meeting at which the women remove their veils. [BFA2:292–4]
    • They give Tá`irih Khánum the address of Isabella Brittingham and the two women begin a correspondence. [BFA2:294]
    New York; Tihran Charles Mason Remey; Sidney Sprague; Tairih Khanum; Isabella Brittingham; Women; Gender; Equality
    1909 Jan c. Isabella Brittingham organizes 12 Bahá'í women into a `Unity Band' to write monthly to the 12 Bahá'í women's clubs formed in Iran. [BFA2:294] New Jersey; United States; Iran Isabella Brittingham; Women; Writing
    1909 21 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá lays the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
    • See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
    • The Shrine is a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
    • The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb is a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
    • For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
    BWC; Mount Carmel; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma); Chicago; United States Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Marble; Gifts; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1909 months following Mar Construction of the Eastern Pilgrim House in Haifa begins. [BBD178]
    • Mírzá Ja`far Rahmání, (also know as Áqá Mírzá Ja’far Shírází) a believer from `Ishqábád, is given permission by `Abdu'l-Bahá to build it. [DH177, SES25-26]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá composes an inscription that it place above the entrance that reads, "This is a spiritual Hostel for Pilgrims, and its founder is Mírzá Ja'far Rahmani. AH 1327."
    • This is the first property to be granted tax exemption by the civil authorities. [GPB307, SES43-47]
    Haifa Eastern Pilgrim House; Pilgrim houses; Mirza Jafar Rahmani; Aqa Mirza Jafar Shirazi; Pilgrimage; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1909 27 Apr `Abdu'l-Hamid II is deposed. [BBR486]

    Sultan 'Abdu'l-Hamid II lived from 1842 to 1918) and reigned from 1876 to 1909. During his reign large portions of the Ottoman Empire were lost. Following his defeat in the war with Russia in 1878, Tunisia was occupied by France (1881), and Egypt was controlled by Britain (1882). In 1897, the Empire was forced by the Europeans to recognize the autonomy of Crete. The Sultán ruled as a despot, and brutally repressed the Armenians between 1894-6. In 1908, due to the lack of support among the army and the rise of the Young Turks, 'Abdu'l-Hamid was forced re-enact the Constitution of 1876 which he had earlier suspended, and which, for the first time in an Islámic state, defined the rights of both the ruler and his subjects. He was ultimately deposed when he attempted to plot a counterrevolution against the Young Turks and was exiled to Salonika, where he died in disgrace.

    See AY189-191 for a description of his riches and his last years. He died in January of 1918.

    Accession of Muhammad (-Rishád) V [BBR486]

    The last Ottoman Sultán, Muhammad VI, was deposed and was succeeded briefly by a cousin, but in 1924, the caliphate was abolished by Ataturk.

    Istanbul; Turkey Abdul-Hamid II; Sultans; Muhammad-Rishad VI; Armenian genocide; Caliphate; Ottoman Empire; History (general)
    1909 25 Nov Dr Susan Moody, a famed American homeopathist, arrived in Tihrán. She and four Persian Bahá'í doctors start the Sehat Hospital. Because the hospital was only accessible to the wealthy she established a private practice that was open to all women regardless of their ability to pay. [BFA2:359-360]
    • She spent two days in 'Akká en route to Persia and 'Abdu'l-Bahá conferred upon her the title Amatu'l-'Alí (Handmaid of the Most High). [BFA2:358]
    • Dr Sarah A. Clock arrives from Seattle in 1911 to assist her followed by Miss Elizabeth Stewart (nurse). [BFA2:361]
    Tihran; Iran Susan Moody; Sehat Hospital; Sarah A. Clock; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Social and economic development; Homeopathy; Names and titles
    1910 Within a year of her arrival Dr. Susan Moody opens the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán. [BBD221–2; BFA2:360–1]

    Those serving at the school were:

    • Miss Lillian Kappes of Hoboken, New Jersey arrived in December of 1911 to serve as a teacher. She died on the 1st of December, 1920 of typhus and was buried there.
    • She was replaced by Genevieve Coy, a qualified psychologist, a Ph.D. in 1922 who was followed by Adelaide Sharp in 1929. Her mother, Clara Sharp joined her in 1931. [BFA2p361, AY233]
    • Elizabeth Stewart who served as a nurse at the school accompanied Lillian Kappes on her arrival. Miss Stewart served until 1924 when she returned to Philadelphia where she died in 1926. [ABF43]
    • Munírih Khánum Ayádí, the mother of Dr Karím Ayádí (later famed as the Shah much-trusted doctor) was Persia’s first official Director of the Tarbíyat School for Girls. She was widely recognized as exceptional, at a time when Persia’s Bahá’í women were only gradually emerging from their earlier state under Islam. Much respected by the men, her attitude toward them was one of total equality. Her greatness was in herself, her devotion to the Faith absolute, and she was made a member of such advanced committees as the Bahá’í Women’s Committee. Her views were moderated by her sense of humour, which included self-deprecation, so that she never subjected you to her piety. One day during the Bahá’í Fast ,she asked Marzieh Gall: ‘Do you think God would notice if I ducked into that room and sneaked a few puffs of tobacco?’ [AY333]
    Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Genevieve Coy; Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Equality; Gender; Social and economic development; Munirih Khanum; Karim Ayadi
    1910 Aug Having moved all His family to Haifa, `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself moves from the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá to His new home at 7 Haparsim (Persian) Street, Haifa. [BBD13, 107; DH145] BWC; Haifa; Akka Abdul-Baha, House of; House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1912 10 May `Abdu'l-Bahá's sits for sketches by Mr Theadore Spicer-Simon. See Medallions for pictures of his work.

    In the morning Agnes Parsons takes 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the Capitol then to the Washington Monument where they take the elevator to the top.

    He speaks to a small group in the Parsons' home in the afternoon and at the Studio Hall in the evening. [APD63-66]

    In The Diary of Juliet Thompson p285 it is reported that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had been horrified by the prejudice He observed against Black people in Washington.

    Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places; Capitol; Washington Monument; Studio Hall; Agnes Parsons; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Racism
    1912 25 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves San Francisco for Sacramento, arriving at noon the same day. [239D:171]

    Talk at Hotel Sacramento, Sacramento, California. [PUP370]

    San Francisco; Sacramento; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 26 Oct Talk at Assembly Hall, Hotel Sacramento, Sacramento, California. [PUP376]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Sacramento for Denver. [239D:172; AB316]

    Sacramento; California; Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1913 7 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Bad Mergentheim by automobile to visit the hotel and mineral bath owned by Consul Schwarz, (Later named Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi). [AB383]
    • Later, in 1916 the local Bahá'í community commemorated the visit with the dedication of a monument, a life-sized likeness of the head of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on a granite stone about two metres in height. The Nazis removed it in 1937 but it was replaced in 2007. [BWNS524]
    Bad Mergentheim; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Cars; Consul Schwarz; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Monuments; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; World War II; BWNS
    1914 Mr Husayn Uskuli and two Bahá'ís friends arrive in Shanghai from 'Ishqábád. His family joins him. [PH28-29, BW13p871-872] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Shanghai; China Husayn Uskuli
    1916 16 May The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented. The agreement allocated to Britain control of areas roughly comprising the coastal strip between the Mediterranean Sea and the River Jordan, Jordan, southern Iraq, and an additional small area that included the ports of Haifa and Acre, to allow access to the Mediterranean. France got control of southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. Russia was to get Istanbul, the Turkish Straits and Armenia. The controlling powers were left free to determine state boundaries within their areas. Further negotiation was expected to determine international administration in the "brown area" (an area including Jerusalem, similar to and smaller than Mandate Palestine), the form of which was to be decided upon after consultation with Russia, and subsequently in consultation with the other Allies, and the representatives of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca. [Wikipedia] Sykes–Picot Agreement; Asia Minor Agreement; Z****
    1917 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Abharí (Ibn-i-Abhar). He was born in 1853/4 in Abhar.
    • For four years he suffered in Síyáh-Chál wearing the very same chains as Bahá’u’lláh had worn in 1852.
    • His services during the time of the Master included teaching journeys through Persia, the Caucasus and India. He also made some eleven journeys to the Holy Land with the permission of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
    • A special service rendered by Ibn-i-Abhar was the promotion of the education of women. He and his wife played an important part in the advancement of women in Persian society.
    • In 1886 Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause. He died in 1917. [LoF13-16, BBD114, EB268]
    Abhar; Tihran; Iran; Caucasus; India Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Women; Gender; Equality
    1917 The Nownahalan (literally `saplings') Company is founded as a thrift club for Bahá'í children in Iran. [BI13]
    • See BI13 for its non-profit and charitable activities.
    Iran Nownahalan Company; Children; Social and economic development
    1919 19 Aug The Anglo-Persian agreement was signed whereby Persia would get advisors for every department and give every concession to England. It effectively made Persia a British protectorate and eliminated the Russian influence that had been established by the earlier Anglo-Russian pact. The United States Government was much displeased, for this represented a breach of ‘open covenants openly arrived at’, one of Wilson’s Fourteen Points, and represented a continuation of the secret diplomacy of former times. The price of this agreement, according to one official, was £500,000 paid out to one prominent official, and £300,000 to another.

    When the Persians discovered by what dubious means this Agreement was contrived, they arose in fury, there was a coup d’état with the backing of the Cossack Brigade, Siyyid Zia-ed-Din came to power (1921) and abrogated the Agreement. Then he himself would be overthrown, and replaced by Reza Khan of the Cossack Brigade as Minister of War and Commander in Chief. Thus an illiterate one-time army private, once a sentry at a hospital gate, would eventually (1925) become a powerful Shah. [AY172, 210]

    Iran; United Kingdom Anglo-Persian agreement; British history; History (general); Iran, General history
    1919 2 Sep The passing of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, entitled Adíbu'l-'Ulamá, know as Adíb in Tihrán. He was born in Talaqán in 1848 and became a Bahá’í around 1889.
  • Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God. [SDH138-140]
  • He was one of the founders of the Tarbíyat Schools in Tihrán. He died in Tihrán. [LoF17-18]
  • Tihran; Talaqan; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Tarbiyat School
    1921 Following `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí publishes far and wide that he is the successor to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB277]
    • The Egyptian Bahá'ís respond to this by publishing a refutation of his claims. [CB276; SW12, 19:294-5]
    Egypt Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Succession; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of
    1921 29 Dec Shoghi Effendi arrives in the Holy Land from England by train from Egypt. [GBF14; PP42]
    • An envelope addressed to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá is waiting for him. It contained the Will and Testament. [Ruhi8.2p2]
    • He is so worn and grief-stricken that he has to be assisted up the stairs and is confined to bed for a number of days. [CB285]
    United Kingdom; Egypt; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of
    1922 3 Jan The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá is read aloud for the first time, to a group of nine men, mainly senior members of `Abdu'l-Bahá's family. [BBRSM115; CB286; ER194; GBF14; PP45]
    • Shoghi Effendi is not present at the reading. [CB286; ER194]
    • Shoghi Effendi is appointed Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. [WT11]
    • Shoghi Effendi had no fore-knowledge of the institution of the Guardianship nor that he would be appointed Guardian. [CB285; PP423]
    Bahji Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1922 7 Jan The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá is read publicly at his house to an assembled gathering of Bahá'ís from many countries. [ER199-200]
    • Shoghi Effendi is again absent. [ER200]
    The Greatest Holy Leaf sends two cables to Persia, informing the Bahá'ís that Shoghi Effendi has been appointed Guardian and instructing them to hold memorial services for `Abdu'l-Bahá. [PP47]
    Haifa Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Guardianship; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Abdul-Baha, House of
    1922 25 Feb The Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was written entirely in ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s own hand and it was Shoghi Effendi's first translation for the believers in the West. It was sent to New York and addressed to "The beloved of God and the handmaids of the Merciful throughout the United states of America and Canada". The "Will" delineated the Bahá’í World Order, already founded in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, and of which 'Abdul'-Bahá was the architect. [AY304] Haifa; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Translation; Shoghi Effendi, Translations of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Firsts, Other
    1925 22 Nov John Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away in Haifa. [BW3p84-85, BBD81, SETPE1p108-110]
    • For letters of Shoghi Effendi announcing his death and giving details of his life and funeral see BA97–8 and UD40–3.
    • For an obituary see BW1:133–6 and BW8:929–35.
    • He is buried next to the grave of Vakílu’d-Dawlih, the chief builder of the House of Worship at ‘Ishqábád. [DJEE37]
    • Shoghi Effendi elevates him to the station of Hand of the Cause of God on his death. The announcement is made on November 30th. [BA7-98; BWT3:333; DJEE40; PP92; UD403, MoCxxii
    • See also Moojan Momen, Dr John E. Esslemont (BPT UK 1975) and BW8p929-935 for "John Ebenezer Esslemont: His Life and Service" by Jesse E. Revell.
    Haifa Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Vakilud-Dawlih; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Cemeteries and graves
    1925 Dec The Guardian express his "heartfelt and abiding gratitude" to Milly Collins and seven others who had donated the necessary funds to complete the Western Pilgrim House construction project. It had been started in 1919 with a donation from Ruth and Harry Randal but had come to a halt when the funds ran out. [Millyp7] Haifa Western Pilgrim House; Pilgrim Houses; Amelia Collins; Donations; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1926 Apr c. Lidia Zamenhof, a daughter of the founder of Esperanto Ludwik Zamenhof, becomes a Bahá’í, the first Pole to accept the Faith. [L71] Lidia Zamenhof; Ludwik Zamenhof
    1928 Apr The Soviet authorities abrogate the constitution of the Spiritual Assembly of ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) and the assembly is dissolved. [BW3:37, BW8p88, SETPE1p154]
    • Bahá’í schools and libraries are closed. [BBRSM173]
    • Not long after, the government orders that all religious buildings in the Soviet Union are the property of the government and the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár is expropriated and leased back to the Bahá’ís. [BBD122; BBR473; BBRSM161; BW3:37]
    • For the history of the persecution of the Bahá’ís in the Soviet Union see BBR473 and BW3:34–43.
    • PP364–5 says it was 1929.
    Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union Persecution, Soviet Union; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
    1928 27 May Hájí Amín, Abu’l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, Hand of the Cause of God and Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD7; EB263]
    • For his biography see EB263.
    • He is named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously by Shoghi Effendi. [BBD7; EB263]
    • See BBD7 for a picture and an account of his life.
    Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1928 31 Dec Ruth White, who had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York in 1912 and who had been on pilgrimage in 1922, writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine with a charge that the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá is a forgery. [SETPE1p157]
    • See AY103 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's reaction to Ruth White in New York in 1912.
    Palestine; New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1930 7 Oct Ruth White writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she has sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requests she sends that same evidence to him and he forwards it to the Governor of Haifa who requests to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declares the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157] Haifa; Israel; United Kingdom Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of; Authenticity; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; High Commisioners
    1930 Dec The first Asian Women’s Conference is held in India. [BW17:180] India Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; First conferences; Asia
    1931 May Lilian Barron McNeill, an English Bahá’í, and her husband, a retired British army officer, rented the house at Mazra‘ih. [DH92]
    • They restored the house, which has deteriorated, preserving those parts unchanged from the time of Bahá’u’lláh. [DH92–3, BW19P779-782]
    Mazraih; Akka Lilian Barron McNeill; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Restoration; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1932 15 Jul The Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahíyyih Khánum, ‘outstanding heroine of the Bahá’í Dispensation’ passes away in Haifa about one hour after midnight. [BW5:169; GPB108]
    • Her passing marks the end of the Heroic Age of the Faith. [BBD102; WOB98]
    • She is comparable in rank to Sarah, Ásíyih, the Virgin Mary, Fátimih and Táhirih. [GPB347]
    • Shoghi Effendi is in Switzerland and immediately goes to Italy to commission a memorial for her grave. [DH156]
    • For Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá revealed in her honour see BW5:171–3.
    • See The Fiftieth Anniversary of the passing of Bahíyyih Khánum, The Greatest Holy Leaf, BW18p41-74.
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see BW5:174–9.
    • For Marjory Morten’s obituary of her see BW5:181–5.
    • The design of the monument for the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf is a symbol of the Bahá’í administrative order. [CB298]
    • See also Bahíyyih Khánum and Gail, Khánum, The Greatest Holy Leaf; BBD42; CB121–2, 305; DH156–61; GBF65–8; PP144–8.
    BWC; Mount Carmel Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Heroic Age; Marjory Morten; In Memoriam; Monument Gardens; Architecture; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1935 Oct Shoghi Effendi wrote to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada stating that the laws of fasting, obligatory prayer, the consent of parents before marriage, the avoidance of alcoholic drinks and monogamy should be regarded as universally applicable and binding. [CB313] United States; Canada Laws; Gradual implementation of laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1936 The first woman is elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of India, Shirin Fozdar. India Shirin Fozdar; Women; NSA; Firsts, Other
    1938 to 1955 The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]

    He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]

    Tubingen; Germany; Tabriz; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon; Akka Varqa, Valiyullah; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; American University at Beirut; Varqa
    1938 5 Feb Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union are persecuted by the authorities. [BBR473, BW8p87-90, 179-81, BW14p479-481, SETPE1p155]
    • Five hundred Bahá'í men are imprisoned in Turkistán. [Bw8p89]
    • Many Persian Bahá'ís living in various cities of the Soviet Union are arrested, some are sent to Siberia, others to Pavladar in northern Kazakhstan and yet others to Iran. [BW8p87, 179, 184]
    • Six hundred Bahá'í refugees-women, girls, children and a few old men, go to Iran, most to Mashhad. [BW8p89]
    • The Bahá'í Temple in Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) is confiscated and turned into an art gallery. [BDD122, BW8p89]
    • The Bahá'í schools are ordered closed. [BW8p89]
    • Spiritual Assemblies and all other administrative institutions in the Caucasus are ordered dissolved. [BW8p89]
    Soviet Union; Caucasus; Turkistan; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Kazakhstan; Iran; Mashhad Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Persecution, Soviet Union; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai schools; LSA
    1938 30 Apr Munírih Khánum, the Holy Mother, wife of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away. [BBD166; BW8:260; CB358; DH161]
    • Note: UD119 records this was 28 April.
    • Shoghi Effendi inters her body just west of the Shrine of Bahíyyih Khánum and erects a simple monument over her grave. [DH161]
    • For excerpts from her autobiography see BW8:259–63.
    • For tributes to her see BW8:263–7.
    BWC; Mount Carmel Munirih Khanum; In Memoriam; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Monument Gardens; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1939 Shoghi Effendi orders from Italy twin monuments similar in style to that of the Greatest Holy Leaf and seeks permission from the British authorities to reinter the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch on Mount Carmel near those of Bahíyyih Khánum and the Holy Mother. [DH162; PP259] BWC; Mount Carmel Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mount Carmel; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Monument Gardens; World Centre; Marble; Cemeteries and graves; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1939 3 Dec Shoghi Effendi obtains permission from the British authorities in Palestine to reinter the bodies of Navváb and the Purest Branch on Mount Carmel. [DH162; PP260]
    • For the report of the Haifa District Commissioner see BBR460–1.
    Mount Carmel; BWC Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mount Carmel; Monument Gardens; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1939 5 Dec Shoghi Effendi disinters the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch. [DH162; PP260]
    • He goes at daybreak to ‘Akká cemetery and removes the remains of Navváb to a new coffin. [DH162; PP260]
    • He then goes to the Nabí Sálib cemetery and transfers the remains of the Purest Branch to a second new coffin. [DH162; PP260]
    • He transports them to Mount Carmel, near the grave of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [DH162; PP260]
    • For his cable announcing this to the Bahá’í world see BW8:245 and DH162 and PP261.
    Akka; Mount Carmel Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Monument Gardens; Cemeteries and graves; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1939 24 Dec Shoghi Effendi reinters the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch. [DH162; GBF116; GPB347–8]
    • Two vaults are cut into the solid rock in the garden area near the monument of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [DH162]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s cable announcing this see DH162 and PP262.
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s letters and cables concerning this see BW8:245–53.
    • For a description of the reinterment see BW8:253–8.
    • For the prayer of visitation to the resting place of Navváb see BW8:251 and DH166.
    Mount Carmel; BWC Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Tablets of Visitation; Monument Gardens; World Centre; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1940 9 Feb The monuments of Navváb and the Purest Branch are dedicated at a ceremony in Haifa. [ZK293]
    • For details of the ceremony, see ZK293–6.
    • Marble for the Monument Gardens came from Chiampo, Italy as did marble for the Archives Building, the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the Terraces Project, and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. [BWNS1223]
    Mount Carmel; BWC; Chiampo; Italy Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Monument Gardens; Marble; BWNS; Shoghi Effendi, Life Of
    1940 25 May Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum leave for England via Menton and Marseilles after having obtained a visa for Britain in Rome. A few days later the Italians enter the war against the Allies. [PP179] Rome; Italy; Menton; Marseilles; France; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
    1942 Lidia Zamenhof is killed in the gas chambers at Treblinka.
    • For her obituary see BW10:533–8.
    • See also Heller, Lidia.
    Treblinka; Poland Lidia Zamenhof; World War II
    1942 25 May ‘Abdu’l-Jalíl Bey Sa‘ad passes away and is named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously. [BW9:597]
    • For his obituary see BW9:597–9.
    • On the day of his passing Shoghi Effendi announced his appointment to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. [MoCxxii]
    Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam
    1943 The publication of A Commentary on the Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá written by David Hofman by a new publisher, George Ronald. They went on to publish books on business ethics, comparative religion, studies of sacred texts, Islam, poetry, music, novels, biography and philosophy as well as a number of other subjects. George Ronald is primarily a publisher of books related to the history, teachings, doctrines and personalities of the Bahá’í Faith. See the reference for a list of Bahá'í books published up to 2013. [George Ronald A Bibliographic History by Jan Jasion]
    • A current catalogue can be found at their website.
    United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; George Ronald; Firsts, Other; Publishing; Publications
    1945 The World Forestry Charter Gathering is founded in Britain by Richard St Barbe Baker. [VV106; WH75] United Kingdom Richard St Barbe Baker; Environment
    1945 1 Aug Initially founded as a hostel for Bahá'í children with sixteen children, what is now the New Era High School and Senior Secondary has grown to become a leading international co-educational institution with many hundreds of students.
    • Founded as a separate institution in 1987, the New Era Development Institute had its beginnings as a service project for students in the 1970s and 1980s when the school set up programmes to assist the poor and underdeveloped villages in the region. [New Era High School and Senior Secondary website, Wikipedia, BBD171; BBRSM153]
    • For the history of the school see BW16:320–6.
    Panchgani; Maharashtra; India New Era High School; Bahai schools; New Era Development Institute; Social and economic development
    1946 Oct 11 The Bahá'ís of Iran launched a Forty-five Month Plan ( 11 October, 1946 to 9 July, 1950, The Centenary of the Martyrdom of the Báb). Every province had specific assignments. [BBRSM158; CB316] The objectives of the plan included;

    1. Consolidation of all local Bahá'í communities.

    2. Reestablishment of 62 dissolved Assemblies. (93 LSAs formed)

    3. Formation of 22 groups.(37 established)

    4. Creation of 13 new centres. (24 localities established)

    5. Development of Assemblies from groups in three adjoining countries, namely in Kabul, Afghanistan, Mecca, Arabia and Bahrein Island, Persian Gulf.

    6. The formation of groups in four localities on the Arabian Peniinsula.

    7. The sending pioneers to India and 'Iráq to assist in the formation of new groups.

    The Bahá'ís of Tehran were called upon to send out 50 families into the pioneer field. (160 arose) Every individual Bahá'í was included in the operation of the Plan-as a volunteer, by deputizing a pioneer, by contributing funds, by circuit teaching or by providing hospitality to students whose parents had become pioneers. [Baháʾí World 11, pp. 34-36]

    Concurrent with the Forty-Five Month Plan the Bahá'ís of Iran made a concerted effort to remove Bahá'í women from the traditional shackles of a lack of education an an inability to participate in public affairs. Women's conferences were held, educational opportunities were created, equality of opportunity , right and privilege was declared to be a an essential. [BW11p36].

    Iran Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; Social and economic development; Women
    1946 22 Nov Amelia Collins is appointed a Hand of the Cause of God by Shoghi Effendi. [PP258; PSBW878]
    • He does not make this appointment public until 24 December, 1951 when he announces the first contingent of the Hands. [MoCxxiii]
    Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1946 13 Dec The passing of Muhamman Taqí Isfahání. He had been born in Persia and was horrified by the behaviour of Mullá Huhammad Báqir (The Wolf) and Imám-Jum'íh who had killed the two brothers Muhammad Husayn and Muhammad Hasan so he left for Egypt and encountered many believers on his way. He passed through Akka and met both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'-Bahá.
    • His name is closely associated with the early progress of the Faith in Egypt. His house was the centre of activity and was were both Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl and Lua Getsinger spent their last days. He received 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit to Egypt. He was the chief member of the Publishing Committee and helped to translate many books into Arabic such as the Iqán and Some Answered Questions.
    • The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God two days after his passing and donated a sum of money to be used for his tomb. He is buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery. [MoCxxii, BW11p500-502]
    Egypt Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; In Memoriam; Muhamman Taqi Isfahani; Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Translation
    1947 9 Jul Shoghi Effendi receives a letter from the chairman of the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine requesting a statement on the relationship the Bahá’í Faith has to Palestine and the Bahá’í attitude to any future changes in the status of the country. [BW11:43, Text]
    • Shoghi Effendi replies on 14 July setting out the non-political character of the Bahá’í Faith and explaining that Palestine is both the administrative and the spiritual headquarters of the religion. [BW11:43–4]
    • He also includes a statement of the history, aims and significance of the Bahá’í Faith, later published by the American National Spiritual Assembly in pamphlet form. [BW11:44; PP351]
    • For the text of this latter statement see GTT1–10.
    Haifa; Palestine United Nations; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Statements; Publications
    1948 The Bahá’í Temple in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) is damaged by an earthquake. [BBD 122; BW14:480] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1951 2 Mar Shoghi Effendi announces the completion of the restoration of the House of ‘Abbúd. [MBW8] Akka House of Abbud; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1951 24 Dec Shoghi Effendi appoints 12 Hands of the Cause of God, the first contingent of Hands to be appointed. BBRSM127; BW12:38–40, 374–5; BW13:333–4; MBW20]
    • They are Sutherland Maxwell, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins (she had been appointed in 1946, but her appointment had not been made public), Valíyu’lláh Varqá, Tarázu’lláh Samandarí, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Horace Holley, Dorothy Baker, Leroy Ioas, George Townshend, Herman Grossmann and Ugo Giachery [GBF110–11; MBW20; PP253–4]
    Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Sutherland Maxwell; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Varqa, Valiyullah; Varqa; Tarazullah Samandari; Ali Akbar Furutan; Horace Holley; Dorothy Baker; Leroy Ioas; George Townshend; Herman Grossmann; Ugo Giachery
    1952 29 Feb Shoghi Effendi appoints the second contingent of Hands of the Cause of God. [BW12:375–6; CT202–3 MBW20–1; PP254; ZK47]
    • They are Fred Schopflocher, Corinne True, Dhikru’lláh Khádem, Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Músá Banání and Clara Dunn. [BW12:375–6; MWB19–20]
    • Shoghi Effendi describes their two-fold function: propagation of the Faith and preservation of its unity. [BW12:376; MBW21]
    Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent; Fred Schopflocher; Corinne True; Dhikrullah Khadem; Shuaullah Alai; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Musa Banani; Clara Dunn
    1952 26 Mar Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum is appointed Hand of the Cause of God to replace her father. [GBF111; MBW132–3] Haifa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1953 Grant Mensah, a Ghanaian, becomes a Bahá’í in Ruanda-Urundi, the first person to accept the Faith in that country. Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) Grant Mensah find reference
    1953 Oct The superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb is completed. [BBD210; CB324–5; PP235; ZK85–6]
    • Marble for the Shrine of the Báb came from Chiampo, Italy as did marble for the Archives Building, the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the Terraces Project, the Monument Gardens and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. [BWNS1223]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá described the Shrine of the Báb as the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár. [ABF18]
    BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel; Chiampo; Italy Bab, Shrine of; Marble; BWNS; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1953 Dec Adíb Baghdádí arrives in Hadhramaut and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Hadhramaut; Yemen Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 7 Dec Jalál Kházeh is appointed a Hand of the Cause of God after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. [GBF111–12; MBW55] Jalal Khazeh; Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1954 Feb Rahmatu’lláh and Írán Muhájir arrive in Mentawai Islands and are named Knights of Bahá’u‘lláh. [BW13:454]
    • For the story of their pioneering activity see Muhájir, Dr Muhajir, Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh.
    Mentawai Islands; Indonesia Rahmatullah Muhajir; Iran Muhajir; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Feb Husayn Halabi arrives in Hadhramaut and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Hadhramaut; Yemen Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 19 Mar Paul Haney is appointed Hand of the Cause of God following the death of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker. [GBF111; MBW57] Paul Haney; Dorothy Baker; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1954 Ridván Adelaide Sharp, who had been in Iran since 1929, is elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, the first woman elected to that body. [BFA2:361] Iran Adelaide Sharp; NSA; Firsts, Other; Women
    1954 27 Nov Shoghi Effendi describes the significance of the world administrative centre of the Faith and the ‘structures, which will serve as the administrative seats of such divinely appointed institutions as the Guardianship, the Hands of the Cause, and the Universal House of Justice’ to be ranged along a ‘far-flung arc’. [MBW74] BWC Guardianship; Hands of the Cause; Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Arc (World Centre); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1955 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces the acquisition of 36,000 square metres of land for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the Holy Land. [DH175; MBW78–9]
    • The entire sum for the purchase was donated by Amelia Collins. [MBW79]
    BWC; Haifa Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; Purchases and exchanges; Amelia Collins; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1955 15 Nov ‘Alí Muhammad Varqá is appointed a Hand of the Cause to succeed his father. [GBF111; MBW91] Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Varqa
    1956 25 Feb Husayn Uskuli, (b. 1875) long-time pioneer to Shanghai from ‘Ishqábád, passes away in Shanghai at the age of 82 and is buried in the Kiangwan Cemetery in Shanghai. [PH29, BW13p871-873]
    • He heard about the Faith at the age of 18 from Mírzá Haydar-'Alí. After his marriage he moved to 'Ishqábád where he was very active in the community. After his move to Shanghai his home was the centre of activity and hospitality for all those passing through. He was the only foreign-born Bahá'í to remain in China after the regime change. The xenophobic attitude of the government precluded any meaningful contact with the local citizenry.
    • He was survived by four daughters and a son.
    Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Shanghai; China Husayn Uskuli; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1957 27 Mar Agnes Alexander is appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the passing of Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend. [GBF112; MBW174; PP255] Agnes Alexander; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; George Townshend
    1957 Ridván The International Bahá’í Archives is completed. [DH169; GBF63–4; PP264–5]
    • For details of its construction and photographs see BW13:403–33.
    BWC; Mount Carmel International Bahai Archives; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1957 Oct The third contingent of Hands of the Cause of God is appointed: Enoch Olinga, William Sears, John Robarts, Hasan Balyuzi, John Ferraby, Collis Featherstone, Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí. [GBF111; MBW127; PP254, 442; SS47]
    • See TG160 for the story of how Enoch Olinga reacted to the news of being appointed a Hand of the Cause of God
    Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; Enoch Olinga; William Sears; John Robarts; Hasan Balyuzi; John Ferraby; Collis Featherstone; Rahmatullah Muhajir; Abul-Qasim Faizi
    1959 The mansion at Mazra‘ih is renovated. [MC219] Akka House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1959 The House of ‘Abbúd is renovated and restored. [MC219] Akka House of Abbud; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1959 10 Apr Representatives of the Bahá’í International Community present to the President of the Human Rights Commission, Ambassador Gunewardene of Ceylon, a statement endorsing the Genocide Convention. [BW13:791–4] New York; United States BIC; Human Rights; United Nations; Genocide; BIC statements
    1960 The first Maya-Quiche to become a Bahá’í in Guatemala, Filomena Cajas de Velasquez, a tourist guide, enrols.
    • She is later the first Guatemalan woman to serve on the national spiritual assembly.
    Guatemala Filomena Cajas de Velasquez
    1963 25 Aug The Universal House of Justice announces the demolition by the Soviet authorities of the House of Worship in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) owing to earthquake damage. [BBD122; BW14:479–81]
    • For a picture of the damaged Temple see BW14:481.
    Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1968 Ernest Ndouba (G Beadoumadji Moadoumgar) of the Sara ethnic group and the first Chadian to become a Bahá’í, enrols in Ndjamena. Ndjamena; Chad Ernest Ndouba
    1968 26 – 31 Aug The centenary of the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh in the Holy Land is commemorated at the World Centre. [BW15:81–4]
    • For details of the commemoration, the pilgrimage to follow and pictures see BW15:81–6.
    Haifa; BWC; Israel Centenaries; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1970 23 Jun The centenary of the death of Mírzá Mihdí is commemorated with a day of prayer by Bahá’ís around the world and in the Holy Land with a pilgrimage to the barracks in ‘Akká, Bahjí and to his monument. [BW15:162–3] Akka; Bahji; Haifa Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Centenaries; Monument gardens
    1971 1 Jan The passing of Agnes Baldwin Alexander, Hand of the Cause; “the daughter of the Kingdom”, and “the beloved maid-servant of the Blessed Perfection” (‘Abdu’l-Baha); the only Hand of the Cause mentioned in the Tablets of the Divine Plan; The first Baha’i to set foot on Hawaiian soil; the first Baha’i to settle in Japan; and the first Baha’i to teach the Faith in Korea passes away in Honolulu. (b. 21 July 1875) [BW15:423; VV8]
    • She was appointed a Hand of the Cause on the 27th of March, 1957 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend. [MoCxxiv]
    • For her obituary see BW15:423–30.
    • See Life of Agnes Alexander by Duane Troxel.
    Honolulu; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Firsts, Other
    1971 Aug The Universal House of Justice erects an obelisk on the site of the future House of Worship of the Holy Land on land that was purchased in 1953 with a gift of $50,000 from Milly Collins. [MBW63, 78-79, BBD 172; BW15:177–8; DH175; MUHJ83–4, SES18-20] BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; Obelisks; Gifts; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1973 13 Mar The mansion at Mazra‘ih is purchased. [BW15:169; BW16:136; BW19-779-782, DH94; VV14]

    From the Ridván message of the Universal House of Justice ...

    “The Mansion of Mazra`ih, often referred to by the beloved Guardian as one of the "twin mansions" in which the Blessed Beauty resided after nine years within the walled prison-city of `Akká, and dear to the hearts of the believers by reason of its associations with their Lord, has at last been purchased together with 24,000 square metres of land extending into the plain on its eastward side.” [MUHJ68-73p112]

    Mazraih; Akka House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1973 5 Jun The Universal House of Justice asks the Bahá’ís to commemorate on the Feast of Núr the one hundredth anniversary of Bahá’u’lláh’s departure from ‘Akká and move to Mazra‘ih. [VV21] Centenaries; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1975 14 Jan The house of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá is purchased after lengthy and delicate negotiations. [BBD108; BW16:103, 133; BW17:82; DH73; VV39]
    • For a history of the house see BW16:103–6.
    Akka; BWC House of Abdullah Pasha; Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1975 Feb The first Bahá’í Women’s Conference of the Solomon Islands takes place at Auki, Malaita Island, attended by more than 90 women. [BW16:282] Solomon Islands; Oceania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences
    1975 Oct The New Era Rural Development Project, the first project of its kind in the world, begins in the villages around Panchgani, India. [BW17:227–8] Panchgani; Maharashtra; India New Era Development Institute; Social and economic development; Firsts, Other
    1977 24 Mar In a cabled message, the Universal House of Justice calls upon Bahá’í women around the world to arise and play an active role in the service of the Faith. [BW17:202]
    • For the report of the response to this call see BW17:202–14.
    Women
    1977 11 Jun The centenary of the termination of Bahá’u’lláh’s confinement in ‘Akká is commemorated at the World Centre. [BW17:64] Haifa; BWC Centenaries; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1977 13 – 16 Oct The Asian Bahá’í Women’s Conference is held in New Delhi, attended by more than a thousand women from across Asia. 1,200 women from 36 countries were in attendance. [BW17:180]
    • For picture see BW17:212.
    New Delhi; India; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women
    1977 17 Oct At the end of the Asian Bahá’í Women’s Conference Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum lays the foundation stone of the Mother Temple of the Indian Subcontinent. [BW17:85, 180, 368–70; VV35] New Delhi; India; Asia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women
    1977 Dec The first International Conference of Bahá’í Women in South America is held in Lima, Peru, attended by 200 women from 12 countries. [BW17:172]
    • For picture see BW17:211.
    Lima; Peru Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences
    1978 15 Jan The first National Bahá’í Women’s Conference of Niger takes place. Niger Women; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, National; First conferences
    1978 28 – 30 Dec The West African Bahá’í Women’s Conference is held in Monrovia, Liberia. [BW17:154] Monrovia; Liberia; Africa Women; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, International
    1980 24 Sep Universal House of Justice announces that additional land has been acquired in the south-western area of the Haram-i-Aqdas in exchange for some land near Nazareth. The acquisition of this new land permits the completion of the fourth quadrant. In addition, it is announced that nearly 50,000 square meters of agricultural land adjacent to and north of the Mazra'ih property has been acquired as a protection for the Mansion because this area is being developed rapidly. [BW18:99; DH122, Message from the Universal House of Justice 24 September, 1980] BWC; Akka; Bahji Haram-i-Aqdas; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1981 The Comunicación Intercambio y Radiodifusión Bahá’í para America Latina y el Caribe (CIRBAL) is established by the Universal House of Justice to promote the development of Bahá’í radio and mass media activities in Latin America. [BW19:59] Latin America Bahai radio; Social and economic development; Universal House of Justice
    1982 The Canadian Bahá’í International Development Service is established. [BBRSM154] Canada Development
    1982 25 May The Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the United States House of Representatives hears the testimony of six witnesses concerning the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran. [BW18:172] Washington; United States; Iran Human Rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; United States government
    1982 9 Jun The passing of Richard Edward St. Barbe Baker (b. 9 October, 1889 West End, Hampshire, England d. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) He was one of the foremost world famous environmentalists of the twentieth century, an ecologist, conservationist, forester, vegetarian, horseman, apiarist, author of some thirty books and numerous articles and a committed Bahá’í who rendered service to the Bahá’í Faith for more than fifty years.

    He formally founded the Men of the Trees organization in England in 1924 and it soon spread to many other countries. (Shoghi Effendi enrolled as the first life member of the Men of the Trees.) Now known in many countries as the International Tree Foundation, it has a large membership of women and men from all walks of life. In 1978 Charles, Prince of Wales, became the society’s patron. [Baha'i Chronicles, BW18p802-805]

    Hampshire; United Kingdom; Saskatoon; Saskatchewan; Canada Richard St Barbe Baker; Men of the Trees; International Tree Foundation; Environment; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves
    1982 3 Dec Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, dies in Haifa in an automobile accident. [BW18:617; VV52]
    • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 19th of March,1954 following the death of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker. [MoCxxiv}
    • For his obituary see BW18:613–18.
    Haifa Paul Haney; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1983 Jan - Feb c. The Seat of the Universal House of Justice is completed; the Universal House of Justice formally occupies it. [BBD204; BW19:23; VV62]
    • For a description and history of the building see BW19:24–6.
    • Marble for the Seat of the Universal House of Justice quarried from Mount Pentelikon, just north of Athens and was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
    • For pictures see BW18:466–72 and Construction.
    • See video called Ark of Destiny.
    BWC; Mount Carmel Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Marble; Architecture; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1983. 24 Feb The inauguration of the Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women at Indore, India. It offers rural women residential courses on literacy, health care and income generating skills. The success of this school was recognized when it won one of the Global 500 Environmental Action awards that was presented at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 [The Baha'is magazine]. Indore; India Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Sustainable development; Bahai schools; Earth Summit
    1983 Ridván The renovation of the House of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá in ‘Akká is completed. [BW18:77]
    • Delegates attending the fifth International Convention are the first pilgrims to visit it. [BW18:77]
    • For pictures see BW18:78–80.
    Akka; BWC House of Abdullah Pasha; Restoration; Conventions, International; Firsts, Other; Pilgrimage; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1983 Jul The Office of Social and Economic Development is opened at the Bahá’í World Centre. [AWH8; BBD70; BBRSM154; BW19:58; VV78]
    • See BW19:351–5 for a survey of Bahá’í social and economic projects.
    BWC Office of Social and Economic Development; Social and economic development; Social action
    1983 20 Oct The Universal House of Justice calls on individuals and Bahá'í communities to apply the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh systematically to the problems of their societies. This seminal statement points to the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh as a source of order in the world, asserts the coherence of the spiritual and the material dimensions of human life, praises the social and economic progress achieved by the Bahá'í community of Iran, announces the establishment of the Office of Social and Economic Development at the World Centre and defines the role of various Bahá'í agencies in fostering development. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 20 October, 1983, Mess63-86p602-603,AWH6–10; BW19:153, BW92-93pg229-245]
    • For the response of the Bahá’í world to the letter see BW19:112–13.
    • See also Vick, Social and Economic Development: A Bahá’í Approach.
    BWC Social and economic development; Social action; Office of Social and Economic Development; UHJ
    1983 21 - 23 Nov A brief entitled The Future of Canada: A Bahá’í Perspective is presented to The Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects of Canada on behalf of the Canadian Bahá’í Community through the National Spiritual Assembly in Saskatoon. [The Future of Canada: A Bahá’í Perspective] Saskatoon; Canada Social action; Ethics; Economics; Consultation; Agriculture; Women; Native Americans; Elderly; Education
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Yemen (North) is formed. [BW19:524] Yemen; NSA
    1984 Ridván Delegates at the United States National Convention petition the Universal House of Justice requesting that the law of Huqúqu’lláh be made binding on the American Bahá’ís. [AWH30; ZK146–77]
    • The Universal House of Justice replies that it is not yet the time to take this step. [AWH30, Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 6 August, 1984]
    United States Conventions national; UHJ; Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws
    1985 A regional office of the Bahá’í International Community affiliated with the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) is established in Bangkok. [BW19:161–2] Bangkok; Thailand Bahai International Community; Social and economic development
    1985 Jul Three Bahá’í youths in Mentawai are imprisoned for having married according to Bahá’í law. [BW19:42] Mentawai; Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    1985 15 – 26 Jul Ten representatives of the Bahá’í International Community attend the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women and Forum ‘85 in Nairobi. [BW19:147–8, 412; VV28–9]
    • For a report of the Bahá’í participation see BW19:4.12–15.
    • For pictures see BW19:413, 415.
    Nairobi; Kenya Bahai International Community; United Nations; Women
    1985 24 Oct On the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations and in anticipation of the United Nations International Year of Peace, the Universal House of Justice addresses a statement to the peoples of the world, The Promise of World Peace, on the theme of universal peace. [BBD174, 187–8; BW19:139, 155; VV59, 86–8]
    • Within six months national spiritual assemblies present copies to 167 world leaders, including 140 to leaders of independent countries. [BW19:139, 334–6]
    • For pictures see BW19:337–44.
    • For text see BW19:324–33.
    BWC; Worldwide United Nations; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Promise of World Peace (statement); Statements; Publications; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages
    1985 22 Nov The Promise of World Peace is presented to the Secretary-General of the United Nations Javier Perez de Cuellar by Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and representatives of the Bahá’í International Community. [BW19:33, 382; VV87] United Nations; Javier Perez de Cuellar; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Promise of World Peace (statement); Bahai International Community
    1986. 1 Jan The publication of the compilation entitled "Women" by the Universal House of Justice. [Messages63-86p704, Compilation of CompilationsVol 2 p355]
    • Also see a message to an individual from the Universal House of Justice entitled "Women-Their Role in Society and the Establishment of Peace; Membership on the Universal House of Justice". [Messages63-86p707-709]
    BWC Women; Peace; Compilations; Publications; Universal House of Justice, Membership on
    1987 22 Apr A ceremony is held to sign a ‘status agreement’ between the Bahá’í International Community and the Government of Israel defining the relationship of the Bahá’í World Centre with the State of Israel. [LETTER OF THE UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE, 30 APR 87]
    • Shimon Peres, Vice-President and Foreign Minister, represents the Government of Israel while Donald Barrett signs the agreement in his capacity as Secretary-General of the Bahá’í International Community. [LETTER OF THE UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE, 30 APR 87]
    Israel; Haifa; BWC; status agreement; BIC; Shimon Peres; Donald Barrett
    1987 31 Aug The Universal House of Justice calls for the erection of the remaining three buildings along the arc at the Bahá’í World Centre—the Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts, the Seat of the International Teaching Centre and the International Bahá’í Library—as well as an expansion of the International Archives building and the creation of 19 monumental terraces from the foot of Mount Carmel to its crest. [AWH50–4, 90; BBD21; VV96] Mount Carmel; BWC Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; International Teaching Centre, Seat; International Bahai Library; International Bahai Archives; Terraces; Arc project; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1987 3 Oct The Bahá’í International Community joins the Network on Conservation and Religion of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the sixth major religion to do so. [AWH56; BBD38; VV106] Bahai International Community; World Wide Fund for Nature; Nature; Environment
    1988 The first Caribbean Bahá’í Women’s conference takes place in Antigua. Antigua Caribbean; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; First conferences
    1988 ‘Arts for Nature’, a fund-raising programme held to benefit the work of the World Wide Fund for Nature, is held in London with the collaboration of the Bahá’í International Community. [AWH61; VV106] London; United Kingdom Bahai International Community; Arts; Nature; World Wide Fund for Nature; Environment
    1988 The Bahá’í International Community becomes a founding member of ‘Advocates for African Food Security: Lessening the Burden for Women’, a coalition of agencies and organizations formed to act on behalf of farm women in Africa, and is convener for 1988–92. Africa Bahai International Community; Rural development; Social and economic development; Women
    1988 8 Mar Shirin Fozdar, ardent champion of women’s rights and influential women’s leader, is honoured for her work for equality and women’s advancement at a ceremony organized by the Singapore Council of Women, which she founded in 1952. [BINS176:7] Singapore Shirin Fozdar; Women; Awards
    1988 Ridván The Universal House of Justice is elected for the sixth time at the International Convention held in Haifa. Delegates from 148 National/Regional Assemblies participated. [BINS176; VV97]
    • David Hofman and H. Borrah Kavelin announced their retirement. [VV97]
    • A gift of a large bowl of 120 roses was received from the Bahá'í of Iran.
    • Mr. Hooper Dunbar, born in the United States, was a film actor in Hollywood before moving to Central and South America where he taught arts and English. He is an accomplished painter. He was first elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Nicaragua in 1961. He later served as a Continental Counsellor before being appointed to the International Teaching Centre in 1973. [BWNS208]
    BWC; Iran Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; David Hofman; H. Borrah Kavelin; Retirements; Hooper Dunbar; Gifts; Roses; BWNS
    1988 15 Jul The first International Women’s Conference of Paraguay opens, attended by 130 women from seven countries. [BINS180:5] Paraguay; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women
    1988 30 Nov The Bahá’í International Community is elected Secretary of the Board of the ‘Conference on Non-Governmental Organizations in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations’ (CONGO) for the period 1988–91. [BINS189:2] New York Bahai International Community; United Nations; Social and economic development
    1989 The establishment of the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment in New York. Ridván Message 1992 [AWH75; VV54 106] New York; United States Bahai International Community; Environment
    1989. 9 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Right to Development”, to the forty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva; Switzerland Human rights; BIC statements; BIC; United Nations
    1989. 15 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Creating a Universal Culture of Human Rights”, to the fourty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Human Rights; United Nations
    1989 23 – 26 Mar The First National Women’s Conference of Spain is held in Madrid. [BINS201:6] Madrid; Spain Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, National; Women; First conferences
    1989 Apr The re-creation of the Local Spiritual Assembly of 'Ishqábád. [AWH73; VV111] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan LSA
    1989 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) is re-formed after a lapse of 61 years, the first local assembly to be formed in the Soviet Union. [AWH73; VV111] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union First Local Spiritual Assemblies
    1989 1 – 2 Jul The first European Bahá’í Women’s Conference is held at De Poort Conference Centre, the Netherlands. [BINS203:2] Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, International; De Poort; First conferences
    1989 Sep The Bahá’í Office of the Environment is established as part of the Bahá’í International Community in New York. [AWH75; VV54, 106] New York; United States Bahai Office of the Environment; Environment; Bahai International Community
    1989 21 – 22 Oct The Southern African Bahá’í Association for the Advancement of Women is formed in Johannesburg. [BINS210:8] Johannesburg; South Africa Women
    1989 26 Oct The Universal House of Justice issued statement on the environment. [AWH144] UHJ; Environment; Statements; Nature
    1989 15 Dec A World Forestry Charter Gathering organized by the Offices of Public Information in London and New York takes place in London. [AWH75; BINS214:1–2]
    • It commemorates the centenary of the birth of Richard St Barbe Baker, the Bahá’í environmentalist who founded the Gatherings in 1945.
    London; United Kingdom Richard St Barbe Baker; Environment
    1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan West Berlin Bahá’í communities are joined by 26 Bahá’ís from six European countries and the United States in proclamation and teaching activities among East Germans. [BINS215:2]
    • More than 50,000 copies of a shortened version of the Peace Statement and other Bahá’í materials are distributed at four major border check-points in West Berlin and at the Brandenburg Gate. [BINS215:2]
    Berlin; Germany Promise of World Peace (statement); Teaching
    1990 The Council of Agriculture of the Executive Yuan (Senate) of Taiwan co-sponsors with the National Spiritual Assembly a Bahá'í educational programme on environmental protection. [BINS218:5]
    • This is the first formal joint effort between the Bahá'ís of Taiwan and the government authorities.
    Taiwan Agriculture; Environment
    1990 The National Spiritual Assembly of Taiwan opens a permanent Bahá'í Office of the Environment for Taiwan in Taipei. [BINS221:5] Taipei; Taiwan Environment
    1990 The Bahá'í International Community, through the Office of the Environment in collaboration with other environmental organizations, re-instituted the annual World Forestry Charter Gathering that had be founded in 1945 by Richard St. Barbe Baker. [AWH75] [VV106] Bahai International Community; Environment; Richard St Barbe Baker
    1990 22 Feb Jalál Kházeh, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Toronto. (b.1897) [BINS219:90]

    Note: VV123 says it was 20 February.

    • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 6th of December, 1953 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. [MoCxxiv]
    Toronto; Canada Jalal Khazeh; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1990 Ridván Maureen Nakekea and Marao Teem are elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Kiribati, the first indigenous women to be elected to the institution. [BINS224:7] Kiribati; Oceania NSA; Indigenous people; Women; Islands; Firsts, Other
    1990 18 - 20 May The first of seven European women's conferences sponsored by the Continental Board of Counsellors is held in Iskenderun, Turkey. [BINS230:1] Iskenderun; Turkey Conferences, Women; Conferences, Bahai; Counsellors
    1990 22 May The nations of Northern Yemen and Marxist Southern Yemen unite to become the Republic of Yemen with Ali Abdullah Saleh, a former a conservative military leader, as President. Saleh had served as President of North Yemen for 12 years until then.

    Ali Salim al-Beidh, a Soviet-trained southern army commander, was chosen as Vice President. Mr. Bidh, had ruled Southern Yemen when it was a Marxist state. A unification of the two countries' political and economic systems was to take place over 30 months. In that time, a unified parliament was formed and a unity constitution was agreed upon. Tensions between North and South continued with sporadic fighting.

    Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1991 The first major public statement of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, The Vision of Race Unity: America's Most challenging Issue, is published and disseminated widely throughout the country. United States Vision of Race Unity (statement); Race (general); Unity; Publications; Statements Find ref
    1991 In Iran, a secret government memorandum (known as the Golpaygani Memorandum) was drawn up by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council and signed by Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Khamenei, which provided a blueprint of the policies and actions to which the Bahá'í community of Iran was to be subjugated. The memorandum demanded a shift in Iran's stance towards Bahá'ís from overt persecution to a more covert policy aimed at depleting the Iranian Bahá'í community's economic and cultural resources. This was a change in the policy for the Islamic regime which had openly persecuted and killed Bahá'ís during its first decade in power and had accused them of being spies for various foreign powers. The document also called for “countering and destroying their [Baha’is’] cultural roots abroad.” [ iranpresswatch.org/post/1407/ ]

    The memorandum can be found here and here.
    • This document might have remained secret had it not been divulged to Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, the Salvadoran diplomat who served as the United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran between 1986 and 1995. Professor Pohl disclosed the document in 1993 during a session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (now replaced by the Human Rights Council).
    Iran; United States Ayatollah Khamenei; Ayatollahs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations
    1991 25 Jan Mottahedeh Development Services was established by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States as a non-profit agency to promote social and economic development to benefit individuals of any race, creed, or nationality. The agency name honours more than fifty years of dedicated service by Mildred and Rafi Mottahedeh, two pioneers in social and economic development.
    • Mottahedeh Development Services was organized as a charitable organization under US law. [MDS]
    United States NSA USA; Social and economic development; Mildred Mottahedeh; Rafi Mottahedeh
    1991 25 Feb In Irán, a secret Government memorandum, drawn up by the Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council which was obtained and made public in 1993 by United Nations' Special Representative Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, who was then charged with investigating the human rights situation in Iran. Signed by Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the memorandum established a subtle government policy aimed at essentially grinding the community into nonexistence by
    • forcing Bahá'í children to have a strong Islamic education,
    • pushing Bahá'í adults into the economic periphery and forcing them from all positions of power or influence, and
    • requiring that Bahá'í youth "be expelled from universities, either in the admission process or during the course of their studies, once it becomes known that they are Bahá'ís."
    [One Country, Iran Press Watch]
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Hashemi Rafsanjani; Ali Khamenei; Galindo Pohl; Human rights; United Nations; Iran Memorandum
    1991 Ridván The Universal House of Justice announces that the law of Huqúqu'lláh will become universally applicable at Ridván 1992. [AWH91–2, 174, Ridván 1991] Worldwide Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws
    1991 14 May The first local spiritual assembly in Armenia is formed at Yerevan. Yerevan; Armenia LSA Find ref
    1991 Dec 20 A Bahá'í Monument for Peace is inaugurated in a ceremony held in Florianopolis, Brazil. [BINS266:1] Florianopolis; Brazil Bahai Monument for Peace
    1992 The publication of the statement entitled "Bahá'u'lláh”, prepared by the Office of Public Information at the Bahá'í World Centre. The statement was formally release at a press conference in Bombay, India by Hassan Sabri. [VV126] Mumbai (Bombay); India Office of Public Information; Hassan Sabri; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of (documents); Statements; Publications
    1992 20 Apr By the end of the Six Year Plan:
    • The Faith was represented in every country. 1.5 million enrolled. [Ridván Message 1992]
    • With more that 5 million people enrolled, Bahá'ís lived in 217 independent countries, territories and islands representing 2,112 tribes, minorities and ethnic groups. [Ridván Message 1992] [VV126]
    • Literature was translated into 802 languages and tribal tongues. [Ridván Message 1992] [VV126]
    • The proclamation of the Faith entered a new phase from the proclamation of 1967 in commemoration of Bahá'u'lláh's proclamation to the kings to the opportunities offered by the Iránian revolution in 1979 to the distribution of The Promise of World Peace.
    • The dedication of the House of Worship in New Delhi.
    • The emergence of the Faith from obscurity.
    • The increase in the number of projects of social and economic development.
    • The involvement of youth in the service to the Faith. The concept of the "year of service" was initiated.
    • The advances in the consolidation of the Bahá'í administrative system as marked by the improvement in internal development and the collaborative efforts of its two arms.
    • The inauguration of the great building projects on Mount Carmel.
    Worldwide Six Year Plan (1986-1992); Promise of World Peace (statement); Plans; Goals; Emergence from obscurity
    1992 Ridván The announcement by the Universal House of Justice that the Law of Ḥuqúqu’lláh is to be in effect for the members of our entire world community. [Ridván Message, AWH106, 175, BW92–3:28, CBN Jan91 p2] BWC; Worldwide Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws; Laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1992 Ridván The former Spiritual Assembly of the USSR with its seat in Moscow became the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Russia, Georgia and Armenia. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Russia; Georgia; Armenia NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
    1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) is formed with its seat in Ashkhabad. [BINS270:4-5; BW92–3:119; BW94–5:29; CBN Jan92 p2, VV121] Kazakhstan; Kirgizia; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Ashkhabad NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
    1992 May The Bahá'í International Community issues a statement on Bahá'u'lláh at the request of the Universal House of Justice. [BW92–3:47]
    • For the text see BW92–3:47–94.
    Bahaullah (statement); Bahaullah, Life of Statement on Bahá'u'lláh
    1992 1 - 14 Jun Bahá'ís from many countries participate in the United Nations Conference on the Environment (UNCED), known as the Earth Summit, and the Global Forum for non-governmental organizations in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [BINS272:1–3; BW92–3:124; VV110]
    • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement at the Earth Summit see BW92–3:177–89.
    • For the text of the statement of' the Bahá'í International Community read at the plenary session see BW92–3:191–2.
    • For pictures see BW92–3:179, 183, 186.
    Rio de Janeiro; Brazil Earth Summit; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; United Nations; Environment
    1992 5 Jun The Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women, a non-profit education project based in Indore, India, is one of 74 individuals and institutions presented with the United Nations Environment Programme ‘Global 500' award in Rio de Janeiro. [BINS272:5; BW92–3:125; VV110]
    • For picture see BW92–3:183.
    Rio de Janeiro; Brazil; Indore; India Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Sustainable development; United Nations; Environment; Awards
    1992 Dec The Universal House of Justice announced its decision to establish an Office for the Advancement of Women at the headquarters of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. Support for UN efforts to improve the status of women, which had been carried out for twenty years by the United Nations Office, continued uninterrupted under the auspices of this new office. At annual sessions of the UN Commission on the Status of Women, statements addressed appropriate topics on the agenda, such as partnership between women and men, the status of girl children, the participation of women in decision making, partnership for development, and the human rights of women. [VV29; 54; BIC Document #: 95-0228; BW92–3:136]
    • The Office for the Advancement of Women officially opened its doors on the 26th of May, 1993. [BINS296:2; BW93–4:83–9; VV29] For pictures see BW93–4:83, 86.
    New York; United States Bahai International Community; Women; Office for the Advancement of Women
    1993 Vice President Ali Salim Al-Beidh quits Saleh’s government and returns to Aden in southern Yemen and said he would not return to the government until his grievances were addressed. These included northern violence against his Yemeni Socialist Party, as well as the economic marginalization of the south. Negotiations to end the political deadlock dragged on into 1994. The government of Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr Al-Attas, the former PDRY Prime Minister, became ineffective due to political infighting. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1993 In the year The establishment of the Labranza Training Institute to complement the work of all the socio-economic development projects owned and operated by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Chile.
    • Located about 680 kms. south of Santiago, in the heart of the agricultural belt of the country, its main purpose is to serve the needs of the rural Mapuche population.
    • The operational costs are covered by a mix of contributions from individual Bahá'ís and Bahá'í institutions as well as the rental of its facilities for academic and vocational training to government agencies and Non Government Organizations (NGOs). Its staff are Bahá'í volunteers offering their services for determined periods of time.
    • The Bahá'í programs are focused on capacity building of the Mapuche population in order to allow for self-administration at the grass roots level, which includes practical as well as spiritual content. It has often been used for government training programs in the areas of health, drug prevention, agriculture and rural education.
    Chile Labranza Training Institute; Social and economic development; NSA
    1993 29 – 31 Jan The first Latin American Bahá'í Social and Economic Development Seminar takes place in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. [BINS308:2; BW92–3:139] Santa Cruz; Bolivia; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Social and economic development; First conferences
    1993 22 Feb At the 49th session of the UN Commission on Human Rights, the United Nations in Geneva released a report providing evidence that the Iránian Government has established a secret plan approved by Irán's highest ranking officials including both President Hashemi Rafsanjani and Ayatollah Khomeini's successor, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Irán and abroad. Galindo Pohl, special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, highlights the contents of the secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council. [BW92–3:139; BW94–5:134] [from Bahá'í Community of Canada Department of Public Affairs press release dated 25 February, 1993] Iran; Geneva; Switzerland Persecution; Hashemi Rafsanjani; Ali Khamenei; Galindo Pohl; Human rights; United Nations; Iran Memorandum
    1993 16 Sep The document Bahá’í Social and Economic Development: Prospects for the Future, prepared at the World Centre, is approved for publication by the Universal House of Justice for use by the Office of Social and Economic Development (OSED) in orienting and guiding the work in this area. Most central to this vision was the question of capacity building. That activities should start on a modest scale and only grow in complexity in keeping with available human resources was a concept that gradually came to influence development thought and practice. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 2012] BWC; Haifa Social and economic development; Capacity building; Publications; Growth; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Social action
    1993 8 Dec In Iran, death sentences are pronounced against two Bahá'ís on the grounds of their membership in the Bahá'í community. [BW93–4:141–2] Iran capital punishment
    1994 May An accord between northern and southern leaders was signed in Amman but this could not stop the civil war. During these tensions, both the northern and southern armies–which had never integrated–gathered on their respective frontiers Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1994 27 Apr Civil war (The War of Secession of 1994, May to early July) erupts in Yemen and ends in a victory for Saleh within three months. A major tank battle erupted in Amran, near San'a. Both sides accused the other of starting it.

    On 4 May, the southern air force bombed San'a and other areas in the north; the northern air force responded by bombing Aden.

    President Saleh declared a 30-day state of emergency, and foreign nationals began evacuating the country.

    Vice President al-Beidh was officially dismissed.

    South Yemen fired Scud missiles into San'a, killing dozens of civilians.

    Prime Minister Haidar Abu Bakr al-Attas was dismissed on May 10 after appealing for outside forces to help end the war.

    Southern leaders seceded and declared the Democratic Republic of Yemen (DRY) on 21 May 1994. No international government recognized the DRY.

    In mid-May, northern forces began a push toward Aden. The key city of Ataq, which allowed access to the country's oil fields, was seized on May 24.

    The United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 924 calling for an end to the fighting and a cease-fire. A cease-fire was called on 6 June, but lasted only six hours; concurrent talks to end the fighting in Cairo collapsed as well.

    The north entered Aden on 4 July. Supporters of Ali Nasir Muhammad greatly assisted military operations against the secessionists and Aden was captured on 7 July 1994. Most resistance quickly collapsed and top southern military and political leaders fled into exile.

    Almost all of the actual fighting in the 1994 civil war occurred in the southern part of the country, despite air and missile attacks against cities and major installations in the north. Southerners sought support from neighbouring states and may have received military assistance from Saudi Arabia and Oman, which felt threatened by a united Yemen. The United States repeatedly called for a cease-fire and a return to the negotiating table. Various attempts, including by a UN special envoy and Russia, were unsuccessful to effect a cease-fire.

    President Saleh now had control over all of Yemen. A general amnesty was declared, except for 16 southern figures accused of misappropriation of official funds.

    YSP (Yemen Socialist Party) leaders within Yemen reorganized following the civil war and elected a new politburo in July 1994. However, much of its influence had been destroyed in the war.

    Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1994 May 19 The first National Bahá'í Conference of Armenia is held in Yerevan. [BINS318:5–6] Yerevan; Armenia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, National
    1994 Jul 28 The World Forestry Charter Gatherings, established by Richard St. Barbe Baker in 1945, are re-instituted by the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment at a luncheon at St James's Palace, London. [AWH75; BW94–5:112–13, 142–3; OC6,2:1; VV106]
  • For pictures see BW94–5:143 and OC6,2:1, 12.
    London; United Kingdom Environment; Richard St Barbe Baker
    1994 1 Oct President Ali Abdallah Saleh was elected by Parliament on 1 October 1994 to a 5-year term. However, he remained in office until 2012. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1995 23 Jan To respond to the increased attention given to the issues of social and economic development following the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992, the Universal House of Justice asked the Bahá'í International Community's Office of Public Information to prepare a statement on the concept of global prosperity in the context of the Bahá'í teachings. The statement is entitled The Prosperity of Humankind. [Mess86-01p417-8] BWC Prosperity of Humankind (statement); Social and economic development; Social action; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1995 Mar 3 – 12 The Bahá'í International Community and Bahá'ís from many countries participate in the United Nations World Summit for Social Development and the parallel Forum ‘95 for non-governmental organizations in Copenhagen. [BINS337:1–2]
    • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement in the Summit see BW94–5:37–6.
    • For the text of The Prosperity of Humankind the Bahá'í International Community statement released at the Summit, see BW94–5 273–96.
    • For pictures see BW94–5:39, 43, 45.
    Copenhagen; Denmark United Nations Summits; Bahai International Community; Social and economic development; Prosperity of Humankind (statement); BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Armenia is formed [BINS343:3] Armenia NSA
    1995 Aug 30 – Sep 8 The Bahá'í International Community and some 400 Bahá'í women and men from more than 50 countries around the world participate in the Fourth United Nations International Conference on Women and the parallel Non-Governmental Organization Forum, held in the resort city of Huairou some 50 kilometers north of Beijing, from 30 August to 8 September. [One Country Vol 7 Issue 2] Beijing; China BIC; United Nations; Women Find ref
    1995 Oct The publication of Turning Point For All Nations by the Bahá'í International Community, United Nations Office, in New York in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations. It was a call for world leaders to define a role for the UN. [Turning Point for all Nations, en français] New York; United States Turning Point For All Nations (statement); Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations
    1996 23 – 24 Mar The first National Women's Seminar of Bulgaria is held in Sofia, organized by the European Task Force for Women. [BINS365:8] Sofia; Bulgaria Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences
    1997 27 Apr In the second parliamentary election in Yemen the GPC won a majority of the seats, Iṣlāḥ finished second, and the YSP (Yemen Socialist Party) virtually committed political suicide by boycotting the elections. Given its sizable majority, the GPC chose to rule alone, thereby making Iṣlāḥ the major opposition party in parliament. In late 1994 the plural executive had been abolished and President Ṣāliḥ reelected to a five-year term by parliament. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1997 24-26 Oct The International Environment Forum was launched at the first International Bahá'í Environment Conference in de Poort, Netherlands, with participants from nine countries, who were joined electronically by people from 21 countries participating in the e-mail version of the conference.
    • A BAHÁ'Í PERSPECTIVE ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT was presented by Michael Richards of the Overseas Development Institute in London.
    • At the conference, the objectives, activities and structure of the Forum were agreed and statutes adopted, and a governing board of five people was elected.
    • It is a Bahá'í-inspired non-governmental organization that links together Bahá'ís and others interested in the fields of environment and sustainable development. Development of the Forum has been encouraged and guided by the Bahá'í International Community, although it has no formal link with the Bahá'í administration.
    Groesbeek; Netherlands International Environment Forum; Bahai International Community; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; First conferences; Environment; De Poort iefworld.org/conf1.htm
    1998 6 - 8 Nov The 2nd International Conference of the Environment Forum was held in the Netherlands with wide electronic participation on the themes of sustainable consumption and the Earth Charter. The first theme of the conference, sustainable consumption, was introduced by a keynote address on "Sustainable Consumption and True Prosperity" by Arthur Dahl. [ iefworld.org/conf2.htm ] Netherlands Arthur Dahl; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Environment; Conferences, International; Environment; International Environment Forum
    1999 19 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Russia formally received its re-registration documents under the new law on religious organizations that was passed by the Russian Parliament in the fall of 1997.
    • Formal recognition as a “centralized religious organization” entitled the community to full rights to teach and proclaim the Faith, publish and import literature, rent and own property, invite foreign nationals etc. [From “European Bulletin” Issue 60 February 1999]
    Russia NSA; Russian Parliament
    1999 5 May Firuz Kazemzadeh, Secretary for External Affairs for the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States, is appointed by President Clinton as a member of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. White House Press Release United States Firuz Kazemzadeh; NSA; United States government; United States Commissions; Religious freedom; Human rights Find ref
    1999 15 - 18 Aug The third conference was held Sidcot, Avon, United Kingdom, jointly with the Bahá'í Agency for Social and Economic Development - UK. It brought together 44 participants from 13 countries on 5 continents, as well as internet connection with an additional 70 "electronic" conference participants in 29 countries, for a total of 114 participants from 38 countries, including 8 in Africa. (From web site) United Kingdom Social and economic development; Bahai Agency for Social and Economic Development; Conferences, Bahai Find ref
    1999 Sep September 1999 President Ṣāliḥ was again returned to office, this time in the country’s first direct presidential elections and for a term lengthened to seven years. He had run virtually unopposed, as the YSP candidate was unable to secure the minimum number of votes necessary in the GPC-dominated parliament to stand in the election. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1999 28 Dec In a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 28 December, 1999 some laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which had not yet been universally applied are put into effect. Those are the laws which directly foster the devotional life of the individual and of the community which pertain to obligatory prayer, fasting and recitation of the Greatest Name ninety-five times a day.
    • Those laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which are not yet universally applicable are delineated in the message dated 8 February, 1999.
    BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws; Gradual implementation of laws; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2000 22 - 26 May The United Nations Millennium Forum was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York. It attracted 1,350 participants from more than 106 countries and many others participated remotely via Internet. The purpose was to give organizations of civil society an opportunity to formulate views and recommendations on global issues to be taken up at the subsequent Millennium Summit in September to be attended by heads of state and government. Convened by the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the Forum's overarching theme - "The United Nations for the 21st Century" - encompassed six main sub-themes in its declaration: 1) Peace, security and disarmament; 2) Eradication of poverty, including debt cancellation and social development; 3) Human rights; 4) Sustainable development and environment; 5) Facing the challenges of globalization: achieving equity, justice and diversity; and, 6) Strengthening and democratizing the United Nations and international organizations. The document was divided into three main areas: recommendations for governmental action; proposals for the United Nations; and actions to be undertaken by civil society itself. The Bahá’í International Community as an NGO representing a cross-section of humankind acted as a unifying agent in major discussions. Our principal representative at the United Nations, Techeste Ahderrom, was appointed to cochair a committee of non-governmental organizations. Lawrence Arturo and Diane 'Alá'í represented the Bahá'í International Community. [BW00-01p87-89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000] New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom; Lawrence Arturo; Diane Alai
    2000 6 - 8 Sep The General Assembly Millennium Summit was held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York and was attended by leaders of more than 150 nations. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan presented a report entitled, "We The Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century". In which was presented an overview of the challenges facing humankind and suggested practical solutions. Some of the key themes addressed include health, environment, human rights and other social issues, international law, peace and rejuvenating the United Nations. It is striking that called upon by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to address so historic a gathering was Mr. Techeste Ahderom, the principal representative of the Bahá’í International Community to the United Nations, addressed the gathering as the spokesman of civil society. He was accorded this honour because he had presided as cochair at the earlier United Nations Millennium Forum. After all the national leaders had spoken and before the Summit had adopted its declaration on 8 September, Mr. Ahderom made a speech in which he conveyed to that unprecedented assemblage a report of the Forum. The text of his speech is enclosed herewith. On the last day a declaration was unanimously adopted that began by asserting: “We, Heads of State and Government, have gathered at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 6 to 8 September 2000, at the dawn of a new Millennium, to reaffirm our faith in the Organization and its Charter as indispensable foundations of a more peaceful, prosperous and just world.” [BW00-01p91-93, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000]
    • The text of Ahderom's speech can be found on the BIC's website and at BW00-01p243-247.
    New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom
    2000 18 Sep The announcement of the opening of the new Pilgrim Reception Centre near the Shrine of the Báb to receive Bahá'í pilgrims and visitors to the Bahá'í holy places in Haifa and Acre. The Centre is housed in two historic buildings that formerly served as a clinic. Remodeling these two structures began in 1998. The larger one was built during the time of the British Mandate and the smaller structure has a more Middle Eastern appearance, with patterned ceramic floors and stone arches. The first Bahá'í Pilgrim House in Haifa was built near the Shrine of the Bab by a Persian believer in 1909 and continued to serve as the primary gathering place for pilgrims until the new facility was completed. [BWNS67] BWC; Haifa Pilgrim Reception Centre; Pilgrimage; Pilgrim Houses; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    2000 19 Sep In a ceremony, the final earth samples from 26 nations were deposited in the Peace Monument, which was built by the Bahá'í International Community and the Bahá'í Community of Brazil in 1992 for the 1992 Earth Summit. Designed by the renowned Brazilian sculptor Siron Franco, the five-meter concrete and ceramic monument is located near the entrance to the Santos Dumont Airport in Rio de Janeiro, just north of Flamengo Park and the site of the 1992 Global Forum, the parallel conference of non-governmental organizations held during the 1992 Earth Summit, which was formally known as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. [BWNS85] Rio de Janeiro; Brazil Earth Summit; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; United Nations; Environment; Peace Monument; Monuments; Earth; BWNS
    2000 29 Oct The commencement of a new five-year term of service for members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors for the Protection and Propagation of the Faith. The number of Counsellors remained at eighty-one. The appointments were:
    • AFRICA (19 Counsellors): Beth Allen, George Allen, Beatrice Asare, Asfaw Tessema, Niaz Bushrui, Mehraz Ehsani (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Clement-Thyrrel Feizoure, Kobina Fynn, Ibrahim Galadima, Kamaye Moussa, Eddy Lutchmaya, Enos Makhele, Maina Mkandawire, Rachel Ndegwa, Muhammad Otmani, Ahmad Parsa, Garth Pollock, Antoinette Ziehi, Tiati a Zock.
    • THE AMERICAS (19 ounsellors): Eugene Andrews, Eloy Anello, Stephen Birkland, Gustavo Correa, Irma Nelly de Dooki, Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, Angelica Huerta, Antonio Gabriel Marques, Herve Masrour, Catherine Monajjem, Rebequa Murphy, Carmen Elisa de Sadeghian, Arturo Serrano, Crystal Shoaie, David Smith, Marilyn Smith, Leticia de Solano, Rodrigo Tomas (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Dorothy Whyte.
    • ASIA (19 Counsellors): Fadel Ardakani, Baatar Uransaikhan, Nidavanur Baskaran, Irene Chung, Jabbar Eidelkhani, Bijan Farid, Elena Grouzkova, David Huang (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Humaida Jumalon, Lee Lee udher, Delafruz Nassimova, Lori Noguchi, Jaya Gopan Ramasamy, Lateef Rashid, Foad Reyhani, Payam Shoghi, Zena Sorabjee, George Soraya, Rosalie Tran.
    • AUSTRALASIA (11 Counsellors): Beatrice Benson, Donald Blanks, David Chittleborough (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Jalal Mills, Sirus Naraqi, Manijeh Reyhani, Heather Simpson, Henry Tamashiro, Erama Ugaia, Robin White, Fereidoun Yazdani.
    • EUROPE (13 Counsellors): Fevziye Baki, Alla Borets, Uta von Both, Firouzeh Moghbel, Paul Ojermark, Patrick O'Mara (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Shahriar Razavi, Ilhan Sezgin, Nosrat Tirandaz, Nicola Towfigh, Larissa Tsutskova, Sohrab Youssefian, Ivo Zerbes.
    • The following believers were relieved of the duties of membership on the Boards of Counsellors: Borhanoddin Afshin, Ben Ayala, Hooshidar Balazadeh, Patricia Coles, Parvine Djoneydi, Wilma Ellis, Tod Ewing, Shidan Fat'he-Aazam, Linda Gershuny, Louis Henuzet, Hizzaya Hissani, Nobuko Iwakura, Abbas Katirai, Zekrullah Kazemi, Kim Myungjung, Jacqueline Left Hand Bull, Betra Majmeto, Peter McLaren, Alejandra Miller, Perin Olyai, Nabil Perdu, Maija Pihlainen, Ruth Pringle, Polin Rafat, Daniel Ramoroesi, Shapour Rassekh, Cyrus Rohani, Vicente Samaniego, Isabel de Sanchez, Bruce Saunders, Errol Sealy, Edith Senoga, Farhad Shayani, Tiberiu Vajda, Lally Warren, Wingi Mabuku. [From a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 29th of October, 2000]
    BWC Counsellors; Counsellors, Appointments; Funds, Continental; Statistics
    2000 12 - 14 Dec The 4th Annual Conference of the International Environment Forum (IEF) was held in Orlando, Florida. The theme was Applying the Baha'i Teachings to the Environmental Challenges Facing the World. (IEF Web Site) Orlando; Florida; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; International Environment Forum; Environment
    2001 8 - 17 Jan The inauguration of the International Teaching Centre Building at the World Centre with the meeting of the Institution of the Counsellors. Board members from 172 countries attended. BWC; Mount Carmel International Teaching Centre, Seat; Arc project; BWNS; Counsellors; Counsellors conferences; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2001 30 Apr – 2 May The Bahá'í International Community today issued a statement, entitled Sustainable Development: the Spiritual Dimension, for the first session of the United Nations Preparatory Committee of the World Summit on Sustainable Development at the UN in New York. [BWNS93]

    For the complete text with footnotes see: Statement.

    New York; NY Bahai International Community; Sustainable Development; United Nations; United Nations Summits; BWNS
    2001 May The inauguration of the Centre for the Study of the Texts. The facility was completed and occupied in 1999. It consists of study rooms for resident and visiting scholars, meeting and conference rooms, a large reference library, a secretariat and ancillary spaces totalling 7750 sq. metres (83,420 sq. ft) Much of the building is located below ground. It has been integrated into the mountain with a portico that reflects the classical motifs of the other buildings on the Arc.. The offices of the building are provided with natural light directly or through light wells, patios and skylights. . Below ground it is connected to an extension to the Archives which provides secure, climate-controlled storage vaults for the original, hand written papers that constitute the Bahá'í Sacred Texts. The architect was Hossein Amanat. [amanatarchitect.com]

    “The Centre for the Study of the Texts . . . will be the seat of an institution of Bahá’í scholars, the efflorescence of the present Research Department of the World Centre, which will assist the Universal House of Justice in consulting the Sacred Writings, and will prepare translations of and commentaries on the authoritative texts of the Faith.” [AWH p52]

    “The building was completed and occupied in 1999. It now houses the Research Department, and is the temporary home of the International Bahá'í Library and other offices.” [Visiting Bahá’í Holy Places p. 35. ]

    BWC Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; Arc project; Hossein Amanat; Research Department; International Bahai Library; International Bahai Archives; Libraries; Archives; Translation; Architects; Architecture; Quick facts; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    2001 22 May At dusk, the opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb, a project begun ten years ago that has transformed the ancient barren face of the mountain into 19 majestic terraced gardens cascading down the length of the mountain.
    • See the message To the Believers Gathered for the Events Marking the Completion of the Projects on Mount Carmel.
    • The nineteen Canadian believers who had the extraordinary blessing of being present in the Holy Land for the official opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb are: Dr. Akouete Akakpo-Vida, Mr. Riel Aubichon, Mr. Garrett Brisdon, Mrs. Pearl Downie, Mrs. Nellie Ironeagle, Mrs. Aghdas Javid, Mr. Joseph Kowtow, Mrs. Joo Jong Kung, M. Fréderic Landry, Ms. Giselle Melanson, Mr. Borna Noureddin, Mr. James Patrick, Mrs. Valerie Pemberton-Piggott, Mlle. Cindy Poitras, Mrs. Janice Schlosser, Mlle. Caroline Simon, Mrs. Doris Toeg, Mrs. Linda Wilkinson and Mme. Elizabeth Wright. In addition, several students from the Maxwell International Bahá'í School were present as members of the delegations from their home countries.
    • The event was attended by some 4,500 people, 3,300 of them Bahá'ís, as representative of more than 200 countries and territories. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 1]
    • For the statement read at the official opening of the flight of terraces see Ruhi 8.3 page 93.
    • See video From Darkness to Light Recalling the Events at the Official Opening of the Terraces on Mount Carmel May 2001.
    BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Terraces; Dedications; Arc project; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2001 28 - 31 May Global Form on Fighting Corruption II was held in The Hague. [IAACA Web Site]
    • The paper entitled Overcoming Corruption and Safeguarding Integrity in Public Institutions: A Baha’i Perspective was prepared by the Bahá’í World Centre at the request of the United States government and for use of the Bahá’í representative to the forum. [Text]
    Hague, The; Netherlands Corruption; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    2001 4 Jun The public opening of the terraces surrounding the Shrine of the Báb on Mount Carmel. [BWNS134, BWNS221, BWNS123, BWNS122, BWNS121, BWNS120,]

    BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel; Chiampo; Italy Terraces; Dedications; Bab, Shrine of; Marble; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    2001 23 - 25 Nov International Consultative Conference on School Education in relation with Freedom of Religion and Belief, Tolerance and Non-discrimination, a United Nations conference was held in Madrid, Spain. The Bahá'í International Community presented a statement, entitled Belief and Tolerance: Lights Amidst the Darkness. For the text of the document see BWNS141 or on the BIC Site. Madrid; Spain United Nations conferences; Tolerance; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; BWNS
    2001 23 Dec National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States published a full-page advertisement in The New York Times, the statement, entitled The Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace," stated that Bahá'ís believe the American nation will evolve, through tests and trials to become a land of spiritual distinction and leadership, a champion of justice and unity among all peoples and nations, and a powerful servant of the cause of everlasting peace. The 645-word document identified six prerequisites for world peace: universal acceptance of the oneness of humanity; the eradication of racism; the full emancipation of women; the elimination of inordinate disparity between the rich and the poor; an end to unbridled nationalism; and harmony between religious leaders. [BWNS147, Includes text of the statement] New York; United States Promise of World Peace (statement); Statements; NSA of US; Peace; BWNS
    2002 26 Aug – 4 Sep World Summit on Sustainable Development, a United Nations conference in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Bahá'í International Community issues a statement, entitled Religion and Development at the Crossroads: Convergence or Divergence?. [BWNS169, BWNS170] Johannesburg; South Africa United Nations; Sustainable Development; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; BWNS
    2003 11 Mar Bani Dugal Gujral was appointed Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations.
    • Ms. Dugal Gujral had been serving as interim Principal Representative since the resignation of Techeste Ahderom in 2001.
    • Ms. Dugal Gujral came to the Bahá'í International Community in 1994 and served as Director of the Community's Office for the Advancement of Women. A native of India, where she practiced law before coming to the United States, Ms. Dugal Gujral holds a Master's degree in Environmental Law from Pace University School of Law in New York. [One Country Vol.14 Issue4]
    New York; United States Bani Dugal Gujral; Bahai International Community; Women; Techeste Ahderom; United Nations
    2003 28 Apr The retirement of Mr. Ali Nakhjavani and Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam from the Universal House of Justice. Both had served since the inception of the Universal House of Justice in 1963. They are replaced by Mr. Hartmut Grossmann and Dr. Firaydoun Javaheri. [BWNS208] BWC Ali Nakhjavani; Hushmand Fatheazam; Retirements; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Hartmut Grossmann; Firaydoun Javaheri; BWNS
    2003 29 Apr The election of the Universal House of Justice by postal ballot by 1,544 electors from 178 countries. Chosen were Hartmut Grossmann and Firaydoun Javaheri to replace retiring members Mr. Nakhjavani, 83, and Mr. Fatheazam, 79 and re-elected were Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Hooper Dunbar, Peter Khan, Douglas Martin, Glenford Mitchell and Ian Semple. [One Country Vol.15 Issue1, BWNS207]
    • Mr. Grossmann, born in Germany, had academic qualifications in the German and English languages. He served on the National Spiritual Assemblies of the Bahá'ís of Germany (1963 to 1969) and Finland (1977 to 1980). He was a university academic in Finland. Mr. Grossmann was appointed a Continental Counsellor in 1980, advising Baha'i communities throughout Europe in their growth and development. He had been serving in the International Teaching Centre prior to his election.
    • Dr. Javaheri, who was born in Iran, had a doctorate in agronomy. He lived for 27 years in Africa -- Gambia then Zambia -- where he was Chief Technical Adviser for the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. He served the Bahá'í communities there in the area of social and economic development. He was appointed a Continental Counsellor in 1995 after serving for 19 years as a member of its Auxiliary Board. He, like Mr Grossmann, had been serving in the International Teaching Centre prior to his election. [BWNS208]
    BWC Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Firsts, Other; Hartmut Grossmann; Firaydoun Javaheri; Farzam Arbab; Kiser Barnes; Hooper Dunbar; Peter Khan; Douglas Martin; Glenford Mitchell; Ian Semple; Retirements; Ali Nakhjavani; Hushmand Fatheazam; BWNS
    2003 Apr The publication of Building Momentum: A Coherent Approach to Growth by the International Teaching Centre at the request of the Universal House of Justice. Because of the cancellation of the 9th International Conference this publication had to be sent to all National Spiritual Assemblies rather than giving a copy to the delegates as had been planned. [BW03-04p35] See also TP367. BWC - Institute process; Training Institutes; Growth; International Teaching Centre; Publications; Building Momentum (document)
    2003 26 Nov The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furútan in Haifa at the age of 98. [BWNS261, BW'03-‘04pg227]
    • Born in Sabzivar, Iran, on 29 April 1905.
    • Moved with his family to Ashgabat in what was then Russian Turkestan (now part of Turkmenistan), and, through his years of school and university, he took an active part in the work of the Baha'i communities of Ashgabat, Baku, Moscow, and other parts of Russia.
    • In 1930 expelled from the Soviet Union during the Stalinist persecution of religion and from that time on played an ever more significant role in the work and administration of the Iranian Baha'i community. [BW03-04p227-230]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For a tribute from the Universal House of Justice see message of 27 November, 2003.
    Haifa; Sabzivar; Iran; Ashgabat; Turkmenistan; Baku; Moscow Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Ali Akbar Furutan; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; BWNS
    2003 16 Dec Shirin Ebadi, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, the first Muslim woman to win the coveted distinction.
    • For a long time she has fought for the rights of women and children in Iran and it is most fitting that she, a woman lawyer who dared to speak out against the sexist Iranian regime, be praised and recognised by the world.
    • She is an author and also the founder of the Association for Support of Children's Rights in Iran. [Nobel Peace Prize 2003]
    • In 2002 she founded the Defender of Human Rights Center and in 2009 she was forced to flee into exile.
    Iran Shirin Ebadi; Nobel Peace Prize; Human rights; Women; Firsts, Other
    2004 11 Feb A member of the British Baha'i community, Lois Hainsworth, received the award of Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) at Buckingham Palace.
    • The announcement of the award for services to three organizations that promote the rights of women was made in the United Kingdom's New Year's Honours List. The citation refers to Mrs. Hainsworth's services to the Women's National Commission, the Baha'i Office for the Advancement of Women, and UNIFEM UK. [BWNS273]
    Buckingham Palace; London; United Kingdom Lois Hainsworth; Order of the British Empire (MBE); Women; Awards; BWNS
    2004 Jun After 15 years of negotiations, research, and planning, the restoration work began on the cell used to imprison Bahá'u'lláh when He was first incarcerated in ‘Acre. Approved by government authorities keen to preserve the heritage of the site, the project was supervised and financed by the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS336] Akka; BWC Bahaullah, Prison cell of; Restoration; Pilgrimage; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; BWNS
    2004 24 Nov The announcement of the completion of the restoration of the prison citadel that was occupied by Bahá'u'lláh and His family upon arrival in Akka I on August 31st, 1868. [BWNS336] Akka; BWC Bahaullah, Prison cell of; Citadel; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Restoration
    2005 (In the year) The publication of One Common Faith by the Universal House of Justice.

    "The statement ‘One Common Faith’, prepared under the supervision of the Universal House of Justice, addresses the following fundamental question of the modern world: On one hand the facts of history show clearly that revealed (prophetic) religion has been the primary driving force of the rise of human civilization. On the other hand, the current forms of the respective communities derived from these same religions have now become one of the most divisive and destructive forces of the twenty-first century. How could such a thing have occurred?" [Précis Commentary on ‘One Common Faith’ by William S. Hatcher]

    Unlike the pamphlet written by George Townshend to all Christians under the title “The Old Churches and the New World Faith” in 1949 or the letter to the clergy in 2002, this statement is for "the thoughtful study of the friends". [One Common Faith p.iii-iv]

    BWC One Common Faith (commentary); Interfaith dialogue; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages
    2005 21 Mar The announcement of the retirement of Mr. Ian Semple and Mr. Douglas Martin from the Universal House of Justice. Mr. Semple served since 1963 and Mr. Martin was elected in 1993. [BWNS359]
    • Mr. Ian Semple, born in England, helds a Master of Arts degree in the German and French languages and literature from Oxford University. A chartered accountant, he served on the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles. He was an Auxiliary Board member in Europe and was elected to the International Baha'i Council in 1961. He was first elected to the Universal House of Justice in 1963.
    • Mr. Douglas Martin, born in Canada, helds degrees in business administration and in history, and was an author and editor. He was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, serving as its chief executive officer from 1965 to 1985 when he was appointed director-general of the Office of Public Information at the Baha'i World Centre. He was elected to the Universal House of Justice in 1993. [BWNS208]
    BWC Ian Semple; Douglas Martin; Retirements; Universal House of Justice, Members of; BWNS
    2006 16 Jun The Baha'i International Community's Office of Public Information announced the launch of a new website called "Baha'i Media Bank,". The site contained more than 2,500 high-quality photographs on Baha'i-related themes and the plan was to eventually include video and audio material. [BWNS455] BWC; Worldwide Bahai Media Bank; Websites; Visuals; BWC; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Monument gardens; Gardens; Pilgrim houses; Montreal Shrine; Junayn Gardens; Ridvan garden; Haziratul-Quds (general); Bahai history; Pilgrimage; Knights of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Bahaullah, Family of; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Relics; First Bahais by country or area; Activities (general); Core activities; - Institute process; Devotional gatherings; Prayer; Ruhi institute; Study Circles; Childrens classes; Social action; Social and economic development; Conferences; Regional conferences; World Congresses; Conventions, International; Conventions, National; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Counsellors; Bahai International Community; Symbolism; Greatest Name; Persecution, Iran; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    2007 7 Apr A memorial removed by the Nazis when the Bahá'í Faith was outlawed in 1937 has been restored by municipal authorities in the resort town of Bad Mergentheim in Germany. The stone commemorates the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on April 7-8, 1913. The new memorial was unveiled on 7 April, by Mayor Lothar Barth accompanied by Bahman Solouki, a representative of the Baha'i community of Germany. Please see the news story for pictures of both the original and the replacement monuments. [BWNS524] Bad Mergentheim; Germany Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Monuments; Opposition; BWNS
    2007 7 Nov The launch of a new website by the Bahá'í International Community, The Life of Bahá'u'lláh to provide illustration of Baha'u'llah's life through photographs of places and artifacts and relics associated directly with Him. [BWNS586] BWC Websites; Internet; Bahaullah, Life of (documents); Bahaullah, Life of; Relics; Publications; BWNS
    2008 14 Feb The publication of a new statement from the Bahá'í International Community entitled Eradicating Poverty: Moving Forward as One. In English [Moving Forward as One, In Farsi] New York; United States Poverty; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    2008 23 Apr The retirement of Universal House of Justice members Mr. Hartmut Grossmann and Mr. Glenford E. Mitchell. Mr. Grossmann served from 2003 and Mr. Mitchell was elected in 1982. [BWNS622] BWC Hartmut Grossmann; Glenford Mitchell; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Retirements; BWNS
    2008 Apr The publication of For the Betterment of the World: The Worldwide Bahá'í Community's Approach to Social and Economic Development by Office of Social and Economic Development. It contains essays, photographs, and overviews of local projects around the world illustrating how Bahá'í principles of social and economic development are being carried out in practice. BWC - Institute process; Social and economic development; Social action; For the Betterment of the World (document)
    2008 12 May After negotiations over several years, agreement has been reached with the Israeli government for the acquisition of a rectangular plot of land 90,000 square metres in area, located between Bahjí and the main road, which is currently being used by the government opening the way to further beautification of the environs of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, the Qiblih of the people of Bahá, described by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as the “luminous Shrine” and “the place around which circumambulate the Concourse on high”.
    The property in the possession of the Faith has been further augmented by the conclusion, after negotiations which extended over some twenty years, of a land exchange with the Israel Land Administration, by which a portion of the land bequeathed to the Faith in the Ein Sara neighbourhood of Nahariya, north of ‘Akká, has been exchanged for an additional 100,000 square metres to the east of the Mansion of Bahjí, an area of about 32,000 square metres adjoining the island at the Riḍván Garden and the caravanserai adjacent to the Mansion of Mazra‘ih. They reported that discussions were continuing with the authorities for a further exchange, using more of the Ein Sara land to acquire additional property in close proximity to the Bahá’í Holy Places in the ‘Akká area required to protect the sanctity and tranquillity of these places in the face of the rapid urbanization of the region.
    Work has also been completed on the restoration of the Junayn Gardens, a small farmhouse and orchard north of Bahjí visited occasionally by Bahá’u’lláh, which was subsequently donated to the Faith. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 12 May, 2008]
    BWC; Ein Sara; Nahariya; Akka; Mazraih; Bahji; Israel Junayn Gardens; Bahaullah, Shrine of; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Ridvan Garden; Purchases and exchanges; Caravanserai; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    2008 20 Jun The Bahá’is were also persecuted on account of their faith prior to the armed conflict under the regime of President Ali Abdullah Saleh. Four Bahá'ís were arrested in Sana'a on the accusation of proselytizing. The three Bahá’is of Iranian origin who were arrested are Mr. Zia'u'llah Pourahmari, Mr. Keyvan Qadari, and Mr. Mr. Behrooz Rohani . A fourth Bahá’i, Mr. Sayfi Ibrahim Sayfi, was also arrested and faces the possibility of deportation to Iraq. [BWNS651] Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; BWNS
    2008 8 Jul The Shrine of the Báb and the Resting Place of Baháu'lláh, together with their surrounding gardens, associated buildings and monuments, were chosen as UNESCO World Heritage sites. [BWNS642, BWNS643, UNESCO site] Haifa; Israel; Akka; BWC UNESCO; World Heritage Sites; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; BWNS
    2009 7 – 18 Dec The Copenhagen Climate Change Conference raised climate change policy to the highest political level. Close to 115 world leaders attended the high-level segment, making it one of the largest gatherings of world leaders ever outside UN headquarters in New York. More than 40,000 people, representing governments, nongovernmental organizations, intergovernmental organizations, faith-based organizations, media and UN agencies applied for accreditation. The delegation of the Bahá'í International Community, registered with the United Nations as an international nongovernmental organization, comprises some 20 people. [BWNS742] Copenhagen; Denmark Climate change; Environment; United Nations; United Nations conferences; BWNS
    2010 May The publication of Rethinking Prosperity: Forging Alternatives to a Culture of Consumerism," for the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. The statement can be read at BIC10-0503. [BWNS770] New York; United States Sustainable Development; Prosperity; Consumerism; Materialism; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations; BWNS
    2010 29 Oct After three years the restoration work is complete on the Ridván Garden some two kilometers southeast of the old city of Acre. [BWNS797] BWC; Akka Ridvan garden; Restoration; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    2011 Hundreds killed in crackdown on mass protests calling for fall of President Saleh, an end to corruption and repression and accountability for human rights violations. President Saleh forced to resign and sign power-transfer deal. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    2011 Apr After more than two years of extensive restoration work the Shrine of the Báb is complete. The project required the restoration and conservation of the interior and exterior of the original 1909 structure, as well as measures to strengthen the Shrine against seismic forces. An entirely new retrofit design – combining concrete, steel and carbon fibre wrap technology – was needed for the whole building, from its foundation and original masonry to its octagon, drum and dome. More than 120 rock anchors were fixed into the mountain behind newly fortified retaining walls. [BWNS816] BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Restoration; BWNS; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    2012 Abd Rabbu Mansour Hadi elected as president initiating a two-year transitional period. However, government forces continue to commit human rights violations, including unlawful killings and enforced disappearances, against supporters of secession in south and a conflict with the Huthi armed group in north is renewed. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    2012 24 Feb The inaugural screening of Iranian Taboo by Dutch-Iranian filmmaker Reza Allamehzadeh in Los Angeles. [Iranian Taboo, BWNS890] Los Angeles; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Documentaries; Iranian Taboo; Reza Allamehzadeh; BWNS
    2012 26 Nov The Universal House of Justice shares, in a message to all National Assemblies, a statement prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development at the Bahá’í World Centre, a statement on the subject of and with the title of, Social Action. The statement offers a brief overview of the involvement of the Bahá’í community in the area of social and economic development, placing it in the context of current activity at the level of the cluster. In this connection, the House of Justice has requested us to make clear that the distribution of the document should not be seen as a call for widespread action in this area; it is intended as an instrument to raise further consciousness about the nature of social action and some of the methods it employs. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 2012] BWC - Institute process; Social action; Social and economic development
    2013 20 Sep Deloria Bighorn, chairperson of the National Spiritual Bahá'ís of Canada, presented, on behalf of the Bahá'í Community of Canada, a submission to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission at the BC National Event held in Vancouver from September 18th to the 21st. The formal presentation followed a panel organized by the Canadian Baha’i Community and Reconciliation Canada. The previous week 250 people listened to Chief Doug White, Chief Dr. Robert Joseph, and Dr. Paulette Regan from the Commission discussing the challenge of reconciliation. [T&R website, CBN 24 September, CBN 9 February, 2018, BWNS1248] Vancouver; Canada Native Americans; Indigenous people; Reconciliation; Cultural diversity; Human rights; Documentaries; BWNS
    2013 1 Oct The Bahá'í International Community announced the appointment of Joshua Lincoln as its new Secretary-General. This announcement followed the announcement of the retirement of Mr. Albert Lincoln who had served as Secretary-General for 19 years. [BWNS968, BWNS969] Bahai International Community; Joshua Lincoln; Bahai International Community, Secretary-Generals; Albert Lincoln; Retirements; BWNS
    2013 Nov The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the retirement of Dr. Farzam Arbab and Mr. Kiser Barnes. Mr. Arbab was first elected in 1993 and Mr. Barnes was elected in 2000. [BWNS948] BWC Farzam Arbab; Kiser Barnes; Retirements; Universal House of Justice, Members of; BWNS
    2013 3 Dec Mr. Hamed Kamal Muhammad bin Haydara (sometimes referred to in the media as "Hamed Merza Kamali Serostani ") is arrested in al-Mukalla, capital of Hadramout province in eastern Yemen. It is suggested that he was arrested on the orders of Mr. Khaled al-Mawari, the Chief Prosecutor who was involved in the unwarranted arrest and detention of another member of the Yemeni Baha'i community. The family of Hamed bin Haydara had lived in Socotra since 1945, when his father arrived on the Yemeni island from Iran as a doctor under British colonial rule and was granted Yemeni citizenship. According to Baha'i estimates, there are about 2,000 Baha'is in Yemen [BIC website, Reuters] Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    2014 Sep In Yemen, Houthis call for mass protests after government slashes fuel subsidies. The group advances south and seizes Yemen’s capital, Sana’a overthrowing President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi's internationally-recognised government. By February 2015 the group dissolves parliament and announces plans for a transitional government. Sanaa; Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    2014 3 Oct Hamed bin Haydara had been held at an undisclosed location since his arrest by National Security Forces on the 3rd of December, 2013. During this time he was held in prolonged solitary confinement, severely tortured and electrocuted and forced to sign document while blindfolded. In September of 2014 NGOs discovered where he was detained and tortured and so the National Security was forced to relocate him to the Criminal Investigation Detention Centre in the Central Prison in Sana'a. [Defending Bahá'í Rights facebook page] Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Hamed bin Haydara
    2015 Clashes between pro and anti Huthis escalate. After President Hadi appeals to Gulf and Arab states to intervene militarily, Saudi Arabian-led military coalition launches air strikes against the Huthi armed group positions in Sana’a and Sa’da. President Hadi flees to Saudi Arabia. Over the next six months the conflict spreads across Yemen. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    2015 18 Jan The first trial hearing of Hamed bin Haydara was held. Legal and human rights NGOs witnessed tampering and interference on the part of the prosecution. The prosecutor, Rajeh Zayed, threatened to detain and execute Bahá'ís. More were arrested. [Defending Bahá'í Rights facebook page] Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Hamed bin Haydara
    2015 27 Feb The premiere of the film To Light a Candle by Iranian-Canadian filmmaker and journalist, Maziar Mahari. The gala in Los Angeles is part of a campaign called "Education is Not a Crime", started in 2014, to highlight the plight of Bahá'í' students in Iran and their recourse to the denial of education, the Bahá'í' Institute of Higher Education. The film is also screened in some 300 locations around the world. [BWNS1041, BWNS1025] Los Angeles; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Documentaries; Education is not a Crime; BWNS
    2015 Mar Southerners took to arms and formed resistance to further advance their cause for independence by fighting in order to defend their territory from northern control and a coup of the legitimate government.

    A Saudi-led coalition, backed by the United States, began a campaign against Houthi forces allied with ousted President Ali Abdullah Saleh in support of Hadi's government. The Houthis were dislodged from most of the south, but remained in control of Sanaa and much of the north.

    In the southern part of the country, the United Arab Emirates, which is part of the Saudi-led coalition, set up its own security forces, running virtually a state-within-a-state and fuelling the south's independence movement.

    Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    2015 21 Mar The implementation of the Badí' Calendar on the first day of the ten Váhid of the first Kull-i-Shay’ of the Bahá’í Era.

    "Báb introduced the calendar and its broad pattern of periods and cycles, months and days. Bahá’u’lláh provided essential clarifications and additions. Aspects were elucidated by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and arrangements for its adoption in the West were put in place at the direction of Shoghi Effendi, as described in the volumes of The Bahá’í World. Still, ambiguities surrounding some Islamic and Gregorian dates, as well as difficulties in the correlation of historical observances and astronomical events with explicit statements in the Text, left certain issues unresolved. When responding to questions concerning the calendar, both ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi left these matters to the Universal House of Justice. Of its many features, three require clarification for the calendar’s uniform application: the means for the determination of Naw-Rúz, the accommodation of the lunar character of the Twin Holy Birthdays within the solar year, and the fixing of the dates of the Holy Days within the Badí‘ calendar." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 10 July, 2014] (notes below extracted from the message)

    The Festival of Naw-Rúz: The birthplace of the Abhá Beauty, will be the spot on the earth that will serve as the standard for determining, by means of astronomical computations from reliable sources, the moment of the vernal equinox in the northern hemisphere and thereby the day of Naw-Rúz for the Bahá’í world.

    The Festivals of the Twin Birthdays: They will now be observed on the first and the second day following the occurrence of the eighth new moon after Naw-Rúz. This will result in the observance of the Twin Birthdays moving, year to year, within the months of Mashíyyat, ‘Ilm, and Qudrat of the Badí‘ calendar, or from mid-October to mid-November according to the Gregorian calendar.

    The dates of the Holy Days are: Naw-Rúz, 1 Bahá; the Festival of Riḍván, 13 Jalál to 5 Jamál; the Declaration of the Báb, 8 ‘Aẓamat; the Ascension of Bahá’u’lláh, 13 ‘Aẓamat; the Martyrdom of the Báb, 17 Raḥmat; the Day of the Covenant, 4 Qawl; and the Ascension of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 6 Qawl. These dates have been fixed within the solar calendar in accordance with explicit statements of Bahá’u’lláh, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 10 July, 2014]

    Badi calendar; Bahaullah, Birth of; Bab, Birth of; Naw-Ruz; Holy days; Twin Holy days; Gradual implementation of laws; Laws; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2016 The conflict continues to rage throughout the year. UN-sponsored peace talks begin in Kuwait in April but breakdown in early August. On 8 October, a Saudi Arabia-led coalition killed more than 100 people attending a funeral gathering in Sana’a and injured more than 500 others – one of the largest death tolls in any single incident since the start of the coalition’s bombing campaign. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    2016 25 Apr Mr. Hamed Bin Haydara, who has been imprisoned without trial since December 2013, was again brought to court for a hearing but the trial was again postponed, this time to 1 August 2017. Reports indicate that he has been sent to solitary confinement in the National Security Prison on the orders of Mr. Rajeh Zayed, the prosecutor who has caused the delays which have kept him in jail for more than three years and who has been mainly responsible for the arrest and persecution of Baha’is in Yemen. Mr. Rajeh Zayed also recently said he plans to delay Mr. Hamed Bin Haydara’s court hearings and treatment until he “dies in jail.” He is suffering from serious health conditions that require proper medical attention. He stands accused of ‘compromising the independence of the Republic of Yemen’, including spreading the Bahá’í faith in the Republic of Yemen as well as "apostasy" (He has been a Bahá'í from birth.) and “insulting Islam” . [BIC 30 Apr 2017] Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    2016 23 - 24 May The first World Humanitarian Summit is held in Istanbul, Turkey. The summit, organized by the United Nations, called on government leaders as well as those from business, aid agencies, civil society and faith-based organizations to consult on the question of disaster relief. A statement released by the Baha'i International Community (BIC) for the occasion, titled "Rising Together: Building the Capacity to Recover from Within" is available at their website. Istanbul; Turkey United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Disaster relief; Charity and relief work; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    2016 10 Aug Armed, officers masked in balaclavas from Yemen’s National Security Bureau (NSB) intelligence agency, which works hand in hand with the armed Houthi authorities, (also knowns as Ansar Allah) stormed a Bahá’í youth educational workshop in Sana’a. The event was part of a nine day, cross country moral and educational program for Bahá’í youth organized by the Baha’i-run Nida Foundation for Development. Sixty-five people were arrested including 14 women and six people under 18 without an arrest warrant. Half were Baha'is and, currently, it is believed some fourteen remain in prison, including young mothers. Further arrests were carried out later and within a week all but 10 of those who had been incarcerated had been released.
    Among those detained are Nadim Tawfiq Al-Sakkaf, (British Council’s country manager in Yemen), his brother Nader Tawfiq Al-Sakkaf and Kaiwan Mohamed Ali Qadri. [UN Human Rights 4 Oct 2016, BWNS1118, publicaffairs.bahai.us, UN Human Rights, Defending Bahá'í Rights facebook page]
    Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Youth; BWNS
    2016. 27 Nov Nadim al-Sakkaf and his brother Nader, who were detained from August 10th, are unexpectedly released from prison in Sana'a. Their release, it is believed, was in no small part due to the relentless advocacy of their wives Ruhiyeh al-Sakkaf and Nafheh al-Sakkaf. Their friend Kaiwan Mohamed Ali Qadri, who was arrested in the same raid, remains in custody. [Religion News Service 20161129]

    Photos of the four can be found on the same page.

    Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    2017 19 Apr Houthi-Saleh political security officers arrested Walid Ayyash, Mahmood Humaid, and Badi'u'llah Sanai, all members of the Baha’i community, at a check point near the city border of Hudiedah. Sanai was released one week later, but was rearrested in May. All three remain detained, their whereabouts unknown. [UN News Centre 22 May 2017]

    In total over 25 Baha’is, including many prominent members of the Baha’i community who assist with organization of community affairs at the national level were arrested around the time. In October it was reported that eight Baha’is were still detained but the place of detention was not known. [BWNS1215]

    Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; BWNS
    2017 25 Apr The formation of the human rights organization, "The Yemeni Initiative for Defending Baha’i Rights". [facebook page] Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2017 28 Apr Amnesty International sent a Joint Public Statement to the Huthi-Saleh authorities in Yemen calling for the immediate and unconditional release of Hamid Haydara. The document can be downloaded from the Amnesty International site. Yemen Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Amnesty International
    2017 5 May The film Changing the World, One Wall at a Time was premiered in Harlem on the 5th of May and in Los Angeles on the 5th of June. The film evolved from shorter videos that were posted from the "Education is not a Crime" campaign and was made by Iranian-Canadian filmmaker Maziar Baharie. [BWNS1173] Harlem; New York; Los Angeles; California; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Documentaries; Education is not a Crime; BWNS
    2017 15 May Hundreds of Yemenis gathered in front of the Criminal Prosecution building in the capital city of Sanaa. They were denouncing the arrest of Yemeni citizens of the Baha’i faith and calling for their release. The demonstrations were not led by the usual human rights crew but by tribal leaders of some of the most influential tribes in the country, prominently that of the Bani Mattar.

    What brought the tribes out was the arrest of Sheikh Walid Saleh Ayyash, who has the distinction of being both a prominent tribal figure and one of the 2,000 or so Yemenis who practice the Baha’i faith. It was Ayyash’s faith that led to his arrest on April 19, as he was driving from the city of Ibb to the port of Hudaydah. Along with another Baha’i who was in the car, Ayyash was arrested by Houthi forces and transferred to the Hudaydah prison. A statement by the tribal leaders calls Ayash “a distinguished personality among the Arab tribes … well-known for his integrity and wisdom, for his love, loyalty and devotion to his country, for his tolerance and respect for the government and the law.” The leaders had previously met with Khalid Al-Mawari, the Houthi government’s Chief of Special Criminal Prosecution. He had promised them that Ayyash would be transferred to Sanaa. When that failed to happen, they organized the demonstration. [TRACKPERSIA 25 Aug 2017]

    Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2017. 25 Aug The announcement of the opening of the new Pilgrim Reception Centre. The three-story stone structure, which is located immediately to the west of the Shrine of the Bab, was opened in time to receive the season’s first pilgrim group in October, on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the birth of Baha’u’llah. [BWNS1188] BWC; Haifa Pilgrimage; Pilgrim Reception Centre; Pilgrim Houses; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    2017 Sep Arrests of Baha’is in Yemen has drawn international censure which led to a United Nations resolution, Titled “Human Rights, Technical Assistance and Capacity-building in Yemen”. It was introduced by Egypt on behalf of the Arab Group and supported by the entire UN Human Rights Council—calling for the immediate release of all Baha’i detainees. The Council is the principal human rights body at the UN and is composed of 47 members who are elected by the General Assembly based on equitable geographic distribution.

    At the time of the resolution there were seven Baha’is in prison in Yemen, most of whom are held in undisclosed locations and one of which has been detained for nearly four years due to repeatedly postponed court-hearings. Arrest warrants had been issued for over a dozen others, while a number of families had been forced to leave their homes. Developments in Yemen indicated that the authorities’ prosecution of individuals had broadened in scope to be against the Baha’i community in general and that efforts were being made to turn public opinion against all of the Baha’is under the premise that they are secretly plotting to stir unrest in Yemen.

    The resolution establishes a Group of Eminent International and Regional Experts tasked with monitoring and reporting on the situation on human rights in Yemen. It is also mandated to carry out a comprehensive examination of all alleged violations and abuses of international human rights in the country. [BIC News 3 October 2017, UN Human Rights Council – 36th Session, Agenda Item 10]

    Geneva; Switzerland; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrest; Persecution; United Nations; Human Rights
    2017. 18 Oct The release of the film "Light to the World". The 51 minute film tells the story of Baha’u’llah’s remarkable life and the impact of His teachings on communities around the world. [BWNS1208] BWC Light to the World (film); Film; Documentaries; Bahaullah, Life of; - Institute process; BWNS; - Basics; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2017 22 Oct Yemeni security forces raided a Baha’i gathering in Sana’a opening fire on the small group of people assembled to commemorate the bicentenary of the birth of Baha’u’llah. The attack occurred in the family home of prominent tribal leader Walid Ayyash, who had been abducted in April and whose whereabouts were unknown. The attackers were reportedly in four cars and an armored vehicle which they used to break down the front door of the house. They arrested Mr. Ayyash’s brother, Akram Ayyash.
    This event proved unequivocally the extent of Iran’s role in the persecution of the Baha’is in Yemen, especially in Sana’a, which is under the control of Iranian-backed militias. Similar attacks occurred in Iran during the period of celebration of the bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'úlláh. [BWNS1215]
    Sanaa; Yemen; Iran Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahaullah, Birth of; BWNS
    2017 16 Nov Progress report on the construction of the local Bahá'í House of Worship in Norte del Cauca. [BWNS1222]
    • See BWNS1047 for information on the reforestation project in the vicinity of the Temple.
    Norte del Cauca; Colombia Mashriqul-Adhkar, Colombia; Environment; BWNS
    2017. 3 Dec Ali Abdullah Saleh, the ousted strongman who once governed Yemen and then conspired with Iranian-backed rebels to claw his way back to power, was killed after a bomb blew up his family’s compound in the capital, Sana'a. After fighting along side the Iran-backed Houthis for two years it appears that he had switched sides to join the Saudi-led coalition. [New York Times headline Monday, December 4, 2017 10:10 AM EST] Sanaa; Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    2018 2 Jan The Specialized Criminal Court of the Houthi militia in Yemen have sentenced detainee Hammed bin Haidara to death on the backdrop of his Bahá'í beliefs. The judgment issued by the Houthi-controlled Criminal Court in Sana'a also confiscated the funds of Hammed bin Haidara and shut all Bahá'í centres in the country. The persecution of Bahá'ís in the area controlled by the Iranian-backed Houthi militia reflected the pattern of persecution in Iran.
    The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) estimated that the number of Bahá'ís in Yemen was about 2,000 people in several Yemeni provinces. [Al Arabiya English 3 January, 2018, BIC 5 January, 2018, Amnesty International 28 April, 2017, Defending Bahá'í Rights facebook page]
    • "The Yemini Initiative for Defending Bahá'í Rights", a activist group launched in April of 2017, has gained tens of thousands of followers. Prominent media groups in the Arab world have publicized the case. In addition to Mr bin Haidara there were six other Bahá'ís in prison in Sana'a. [BWNS1232]
    Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Human rights; BWNS
    2018 12 Mar The Bahá'í International Community in New York released the statement "Beyond Mere Economics: A Moral Inquiry into the Roots of Empowerment" to the 62nd session of the Commission on the Status of Women (12 to 23 March 2018). [BWNS1243] New York; United States Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Women; Empowerment; Economics; United Nations; BWNS
    2018 22 Mar Sayyid Abdul-Malik Badreddin Al-Houthi, the Secretary-General of Yemen’s Shia political party Ansar Allah, accused Baha’is of seeking to create disunity among Muslims. It was reported that the Houthis have also launched a social media campaign against Baha’is. "The Yemeni Initiative for Defending Baha’i Rights", a human rights organization, said in a Facebook post that Al-Houthi’s incitement coincided with incitements against Ahmadis, Christians, intellectuals, scientists, and activists, as well as “a number of Islamic doctrines.” [Conatus News 28 March, 2018] Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2018 1 Apr The launch of a fierce campaign of hatred against members of the Bahá'í Faith, as well as other against peaceful religious minorities was proclaimed by Houthi activist Ahmad Ayed Ahmed in a public Tweet. The campaign coincided with the threats made by the leader of Ansaruallah, Abdul Malik al-Houthi, against the Baha’is, Ahmadis, Christians and a number of Islamic sects during his Friday speech on the occasion of Rajab Friday. This marks a clear call for a sectarian war against minorities and specifically the Bahá'í’s and parallels the already ongoing systematic attack against Bahá'ís including arbitrary arrests, persecution, and torture. This marks a new stage in Houthi persecution, until now they had exercised a degree of “political dissimulation” to conceal their direct involvement, however, since al-Houthi’s public speech, Houthis are now openly spearheading as well as escalating the systematic persecution of Baha’is. [Iran Press Watch 1 April, 2018] Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2018 12 Apr The premiere of the documentary film, An American Story: Race Amity and The Other Tradition in a television broadcast on station WBGH, channel 2 in Boston, MA. [Trailer]
    • From the film website...."The primary purpose of the documentary project, An American Story: Race Amity and The Other Tradition, is to impact the public discourse on race. To move the discourse from the “blame/grievance/rejection” cycle to a view from a different lens, the lens of “amity/collaboration/access and equity.”
    Boston; Massachusetts; United States Race (general); Unity; Race Amity; Race unity; Racism; Documentaries
    2018 15 Apr The design for the local Bahá'í House of Worship was unveiled at a gathering in Matunda Soy, Kenya attended by about 1,000 people. The temple will accommodate about 250 people and the design incorporates the diamond-shaped pattern, a motif commonly found in Kenyan culture. It will be built of construction materials found locally; the roof will be made of local state and the walls from from stone quarried nearby. The Temple’s architect, Neda Samimi, was the first woman to design a Baha’i House of Worship. [BWNS1252] Matunda Soy; Kenya Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Architecture; Architects; Women; Firsts, Other; BWNS
    2018 22 Apr The announcement of the retirement of Universal House of Justice members Mr. Gustavo Correa, 70, and Dr. Firaydoun Javaheri, 72. Mr. Correa is from Colombia. He was elected to the House of Justice in 2008. Dr. Javaheri was born in Iran and spent much of his life in Africa—first in The Gambia and subsequently in Zambia. He was elected to the Universal House of Justice in 2003. [BWNS1253] BWC Gustavo Correa; Firaydoun Javaheri; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Retirements; BWNS
    2018-04-27 The publication of the booklet entitled For the Betterment of the World by the Office of Social and Economic Development to be made available to the more than 1,300 delegates at the International Bahá'í Convention. As with the editions published in 2003 and 2008 it provides an illustration of the Baha’i community’s ongoing process of learning and action in the field of social and economic development. [BWNS1255] BWC - Institute process; Social and economic development; Social action; For the Betterment of the World (document); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2018 30 Apr The announcement of the election of the 12th Universal House of Justice. Those elected were Paul Lample, Chuungu Malitonga, Payman Mohajer, Shahriar Razavi, Stephen Hall, Ayman Rouhani, Stephen Birkland, Juan Francisco Mora, and Praveen Mallik. [BWNS1258]

    The Twelfth International Bahá'í Convention was held from the 29th of April until the 2nd of May. In the election of the Universal House of Justice over 1,300 ballots were cast by representatives of 160 national communities. [BWNS1256, BWNS1257, BWNS1259, BWNS1261]

    The film A Widening Embrace was screened at the Convention, enriching the consultations of the delegates. Many of the themes discussed over the days of the Convention were highlighted in the practical examples presented in the documentary. The 77-minute film, which was commissioned by the Universal House of Justice, was made available in English, Spanish, French, Russian, Arabic, and Persian. [BWNS1260]

    BWC Paul Lample; Chuungu Malitonga; Payman Mohajer; Shahriar Razavi; Stephen Hall; Ayman Rouhani; Stephen Birkland; Juan Francisco Mora; Praveen Mallik; Universal House of Justice, Election of; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; BWNS; Widening Embrace, A (film); Documentaries; - Institute process; Social action; Social and economic development

    from the main catalogue

    1. 世界和平的承诺 (The Promise of World Peace), by Universal House of Justice. [about]
    2. 1867 Petition from Bahá'ís in Shushtar, Iran, to the U.S. Congress, An, in World Order, 37:3 (2006). A petition sent by Bahá'ís in Persia in 1867 to the US Consulate general, seeking assistance in getting Baha'u'llah released from imposed exile. Includes introduction, prepared on behalf of the US NSA. [about]
    3. 1906 Pilgrim Notes of Ali Kuli Khan, by Ali-Kuli Khan (2010). Large volume in English of the words, stories and actions of 'Abdu'l-Baha on many topics recorded by the Baha'i translator Ali Kuli Khan in Persian in 1906 and partly corrected by 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    4. 20,000 Martyrs, Source of Statements about, by Universal House of Justice (1984). Two letters from the Research Department: one from 1984 identifies the source of the statement that 20,000 Bábís were martyred, and one from 2005 says that this source has not actually been found. [about]
    5. Abbas Effendi: His personality, work, and followers, by E. S. (Ethel Stefana) Stevens, in Fortnightly Review, Volume 95 (1911). Overview of the Baha'i Faith, including a personal interview with 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    6. Abdu'l-Baha, by Constance Elizabeth Maud, in Sparks among the Stubble (1924). Chapter on Abdu'l-Baha and Qurratu'l-Ayn, from a book of biographical studies. [about]
    7. Abdu'l-Bahá: The Center of the Covenant, by Juliet Thompson, in World Order, 7:12 (1948). [about]
    8. 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Portrayals from East and West, by Ali-Kuli Khan and John Bosch, in World Order, 6:1 (1971). Recollections of Abdu'l-Baha, taken from papers of Ali-Kuli Khan and the conversations of John and Louise Bosch. [about]
    9. `Abdu'l-Bahá: Speaking in America, by Allan L. Ward, in World Order, 6:2 (1971). Overview of Abdu'l-Baha's travels through North America, newspaper coverage of his talks, and first-hand accounts of meeting him. [about]
    10. 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Life and Teachings, by Alessandro Bausani and Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 1:1 (1985). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    11. Abdu'l-Bahá: The Mystery of God, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Overview of the life of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    12. 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Moojan Momen (1995). On Abdu'l-Baha, eldest son of Baha'u'llah and successor to him as leader of the Bahá'í Faith, known as the authoritative expounder and perfect exemplar of the Bahá'í teachings and as the Center of Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant. [about]
    13. Abdu'l-Bahá: pour toujours le Centre de l'Alliance, by William S. Hatcher (2002). Fireside talk. [about]
    14. 'Abdu'l-Baha, in Encyclopedia of World Biography (2004). [about]
    15. 'Abdu'l-Bahá 'Abbás, by Firuz Kazemzadeh, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the eldest son and appointed successor of Bahá’u’lláh, the Center of His Covenant, and the Head of the Bahá’í Faith from 1892 to 1921, regarded, along with the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh, as one of the Central Figures of the Bahá’í Faith. [about]
    16. 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Ghaffár Zanúzí: ALM Nicolas's ‘Abdoul-Béha et la situation', 1912, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
    17. `Abdu'l-Baha in Abu-Sinan: September 1914–May 1915, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The story of Abdu'l-Baha's relocating the Haifa/Akka Baha'i community of some 140 people to a nearby Druze village to keep them safe during World War I. [about]
    18. Abdu'l-Bahá in America, by Robert H. Stockman, and Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey West: The Course of Human Solidarity, ed. Negar Mottahedeh: Reviews, by Firuz Kazemzadeh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 23:1-4 (2013). [about]
    19. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Baltimore, by Allison Vaccaro and Edward E. Bartlett, in Bahá'í News (1982). History of Abdu'l-Baha's visit to Baltimore, Maryland. [about]
    20. Abdu'l-Baha in Britain: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2011). Short overview of Abdu'l-Baha's travels to Britain. [about]
    21. 'Abdu'l-Baha in Edinburgh: The Diary of Ahmad Sohrab, by Ahmad Sohrab (2008). Diary of Abdu'l-Baha's visit to Edinburgh by Ahmad Sohrab, January 6-10, 1913. [about]
    22. `Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt: September 1910, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Historical and political background of Abdu'l-Baha's various travels to Egypt, discussion of the people he met, and press coverage. [about]
    23. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1982). [about]
    24. Abdu'l-Baha in Montreal, by Jack McLean (2007). Overview of Abdu'l-Baha's visit to Canada in 1912, written in commemoration of its Centenary. [about]
    25. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York: The City of the Covenant, by Eliane Lacroix-Hopson and Abdu'l-Bahá (1999). [about]
    26. 'Abdu'l-Baha in New York, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman (2012). History of Abdu'l-Baha's visit, concepts and principles he spoke about, the social context of New York at the time, and personal stories of the lives of early American Baha'is. Includes video interview with the author, and Spanish translation. [about]
    27. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West: A Biographical Guide of the People Associated with His Travels, by Jan Teofil Jasion: Review, by Anne Gordon Perry, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). [about]
    28. 'Abdu'l-Baha's commentary on the Islamic tradition 'God doth give victory to this religion by means of a wicked man': Provisional translation and notes, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Background and translation of a Turkish tablet by Abdu'l-Baha commenting on a hadith. [about]
    29. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Description of His Father, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2006). [about]
    30. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Elucidation of the Concept of the Oneness of Humanity During His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Today the Baha'i teaching of oneness of humankind is widely accepted, but in the early 1900s it was a difficult concept to convey or put into practice. Abdu'l-Baha made this principle a centerpiece of his talks and actions in the West. [about]
    31. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
    32. Abdu'l-Baha's horoscope, by Marc Edmund Jones, in The Guide to Horoscope Interpretation (1974). Abdu'l-Baha's Horoscope, as prepared by a non-Baha'i. [about]
    33. 'Abdu'l-Baha's Meeting with Two Prominent Iranians, by Muhammad Qazvini, in World Order, 30:1 (1998). Muhammad Qazvini's and Siyyid Hasan Taqizadeh's descriptions of their 1911 meetings with `Abdu'l-Baha in Paris. Preceded by a brief biography of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    34. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Response to the Doctrine of the Unity of Existence, by Keven Brown, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 11:3-4 (2001). [about]
    35. Abdu'l-Baha's Travels, by Betty Hoff Conow (1970). [about]
    36. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Visit to North America, 1912: A Preliminary Analysis, by Robert Stockman, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview of the itinerary of this tour, the state of the Baha'i community and the general social context of the time, and some themes of Abdu'l-Baha's teachings. [about]
    37. Abdu'l-Bahá's Year in Egypt: A Compilation of Eyewitnesses, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 10 (2008). Annotated excerpts from Baha'i News. Includes 8-page overview of Abdu'l-Baha's visit to Egypt, his companion and diarist Ahmad Sohrab, and the trip's press coverage. [about]
    38. 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Ascension of (November 28), by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
    39. `Abdu'l-Bahá, the Standard Bearer of a New Civilization, by Shapour Rassekh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 23:1-4 (2013). Abdu'l-Bahá's mission and objectives in visiting North American, bringing to the West his principles for a new global age. Includes French original, "‘Abdu’l-Bahá, le porte-drapeau d’une nouvelle civilisation." [about]
    40. 'Abdu'l-Baha: A Biblical Figure?, by Combiz Nuri (2009). Biblical prophecies that could relate to Abdu'l-Baha and the Seventh Angel of the Apocalypse, and the nature of the Covenant. [about]
    41. Abdu'l-Bahá: The Centre of the Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh, by H.M. Balyuzi: Review, by L. P. Elwell-Sutton, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1973). [about]
    42. 'Abdul Baha in Egypt, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (1929). A detailed record of three months of Abdu'l-Bahá's time and activities in Egypt, as recorded by his then-companion and secretary. Includes translations of his talks. [about]
    43. 'Abdul Baha Talks to Kate Carew of Things Spiritual and Mundane, by Kate Carew, in New York Tribune (1912). [about]
    44. Abdul Baha; Babism, in Winston's Cumulative Loose-Leaf Encyclopedia: A Comprehensive Reference Work (1922). Two short encyclopedia entries. [about]
    45. 'Abdul-Baha, by Moojan Momen, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
    46. Absolute Poverty and Utter Nothingness, by Rodney H. Clarken, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). Bahá’u’lláh’s ideas of poverty as detachment, and nothingness as selflessness. Cites some commonalities in concepts of detachment and nothingness from Buddha, Confucius, Jesus, Muhammad and Socrates as five of the greatest philosophers or prophets. [about]
    47. Achievements and Victories of the Guardianship: Statistics, chronology, and bibliography (1982). List of books written, assemblies founded, Hands of the Cause appointed, and Plans for Expansion conceived. [about]
    48. Across Asia on a Bicycle: Through Persia to Samarkand, by Thomas Gaskell Allen and William Lewis Sachtleben, in The Century: a popular quarterly, 48:3 (1894). A travelogue through Tabreez, with a short but somewhat hostile history of the Bab. [about]
    49. Across Coveted Lands, by Henry Savage-Landor (1903). [about]
    50. Activities in the Bahá'í World Community to Improve the Status of Women during the United Nations Decade for Women, by Bahá’í International Community (1985). Report presented to the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace [about]
    51. Advancement of Women: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Janet and Peter Khan: Transforming the roles of women and men, a Review, by Veronica Shoffstall, in One Country, 10:3 (1999). [about]
    52. Advancing in Bahá'í-inspired Education, by Sona Farid-Arbab, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:4 (2016). A number of diverse educators labor in diverse cultural and ecological settings to identify educational needs, develop elements of a coherent pedagogy, and create a series of teaching-learning experience, in light of Baha'u'llah's vision for humanity. [about]
    53. Advent of Divine Justice, by Shoghi Effendi (1971). [about]
    54. Adventures in Biographical Research: John and William Cormick, by Vincent Flannery, in Solas, 4 (2004). Biographical details of the only European known to have met the Bab, William Cormick, and his father John Cormick. [about]
    55. Advocates for African Food Security: Lessening the Burden for Women, by Bahá'í International Community (1991). A joint statement to the 35th session of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, Agenda Item 4: Monitoring the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women [about]
    56. Affirmative Action and the Jurisprudence of Equitable Inclusion: Towards a New Consensus on Gender and Race Relations, by Steven Gonzales, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). [about]
    57. Afnán Family, The: Some Biographical Notes, by Ahang Rabbani (2007). Genealogy of the Báb and biographies of his descendants; meaning of afnan. [about]
    58. African Culture, Traditional, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Challenges and opportunities in the African continent; eliminating prejudices; dance and music; alcohol; hunting; initiation rites; the supernatural; tribal leadership; status of women. [about]
    59. African religions; miracles; strange phenomena, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Five questions: the religion of Santeria; relationship to Sabaeanism; Yoruba-based new world religions; visions and miracles of the Virgin Mary and Fatima; UFOs, aliens, and genetic engineering. [about]
    60. Año Internacional de la Mujer, El, by Bahá'í International Community. Exposición presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í en el 25° período de sesiones de la Comisión de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer. [about]
    61. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Baha (1990). [about]
    62. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2014). New 2014 translation (with a version side-by-side with the original). [about]
    63. Apostle Paul, a "False Teacher"?, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Whether Baha'i Writings state that Paul was a "false teacher," the relationship between apostles Paul and Peter, and some Baha'i teachings on Christianity. [about]
    64. Apparent Contradictions in the Bahá'í Writings, Reconciliation of, by Universal House of Justice (2002). On apparent contradictions, regarding Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl on Abraham and Zoroaster; 'Abdu'l-Bahá and a Baby Naming Ceremony; Minimum Age of Marriage; Smoking and Firmness in the Covenant; Corporal Punishment; Táhirih as "Woman Suffragette." [about]
    65. Applicability of the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Universal House of Justice (2001). List of laws and ordinances of the Aqdas not yet universally applied (as of 2001). [about]
    66. Aqa Husayn Ashchi's narrative, by Universal House of Justice and Ahang Rabbani (1996). A letter to the House requesting permission to translate and publish Aqa Husayn Ashchi's narrative and their response. [about]
    67. Arc Project: 1987 Open Letter, by Universal House of Justice (1987). Status of the Arc Project (Baha'i World Center), 1987. [about]
    68. Arc Project: 1991 Open Letter, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Status of the Arc Project (Baha'i World Center), 1991. [about]
    69. Arc Project: 1994 Open Letter, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Status of the Arc Project (Baha'i World Center), 1994. [about]
    70. Archeology of the Kingdom of God, The, by Jean-Marc Lepain (2015). Analysis of the spiritual worlds as depicted in philosophical and religious texts, from ancient the Greek to Jewish, Christian and Muslim thought, contrasted with the theosophy, metaphysics, anthropology, and hermeneutics of Baha'u'llah and 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    71. Arches of the Years, by Marzieh Gail (1991). Early days of the Bahá'í faith in America and of Abdu'l-Bahá's visit in 1912; Phoebe Hearst; Versailles Conference; and about Marzieh Gail herself. [about]
    72. Asking Questions: The Independent Investigation of Truth, by Edwin McCloughan, in Solas, 1 (2001). On understanding and applying this primary principle of the Faith. [about]
    73. Asking Questions: A Challenge to Fundamentalism and The Secret of our Century: Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani: Reviews, by Cybele Sohrab, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). [about]
    74. Aspects of the Bahá'í Teachings, Conditions for Membership, and Voting Rights: Seven various questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On Baha'i status and community membership, spiritual primacy, Most Great Spirit, studying the Covenant, revelation of the Bab, civil elections, and definition of a pioneer. Includes short compilation "Conditions for Membership in the Baha'i Community." [about]
    75. Australian Women and Religious Change: Margaret Dixson and the First Melbourne Baha'is, by Graham Hassall, in Proceedings of the Association for Bahá'í Studies (1988). [about]
    76. Authenticity of prayer "O God! Refresh and gladden my spirit", by Universal House of Justice (2006). Some details on the history of a popular prayer. Includes comments on the authenticity of published compilations of Abdu'l-Baha's talks Some Answered Questions, Paris Talks, and The Promulgation of Universal Peace. [about]
    77. Authority of the Feminine and Fatima's Place in an Early Work by the Bab, The, by Todd Lawson, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). While Tahirih inspired many in Europe and eventually America, she is very much a daughter of her own culture, history, mythology, and religion. She was a religious mystic who felt a new day arising in the world, and seen by some as the "return" of Fatima. [about]
    78. Authority of the Institutions According to the Will and Testament of Abdu'l-Bahá, The: A Text Analysis, by Gerald Keil (2017). Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament is the indispensable starting point for understanding the Baha'i Administrative Order, and the competencies and areas of responsibility of the various institutions. The text must be examined as a cohesive whole. [about]
    79. Autobibliography in the Writings of the Báb: Translation of the Khutba Dhikriyya, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). [about]
    80. Avoidance of Politics and Controversial Matters, by Universal House of Justice (2003). A short explanation that the aim of Baha'is is to reconcile viewpoints and heal divisions, but not become involved with disputes of the many conflicting elements of society around them. Includes introductory letter from the US NSA, and a compilation. [about]
    81. Ayesha of the Bosphorus: A Romance of Constantinople, by Stanwood Cobb (1915). A novella combining fiction with scenes from the lives of Abdu'l-Baha and the Baha'is in Haifa in the early 1900s. Includes introduction by Bei Dawud. [about]
    82. Báb in Shiraz, The: An Account by Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 16 (2008). Recollections of the early years of the Bab and his family, and the times following his declaration; written by a relative. [about]
    83. Bab, The, by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
    84. Badasht, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    85. Bahá'í: History, Beliefs, Practices, Theological Exchanges, and Current Issues, by Christopher Buck, in Handbook of Religion: A Christian Engagement with Traditions, Teachings, and Practices (2014). Brief overviews of Baha'i history and thought. [about]
    86. Baha'i Approach, The: Moderation in Civilization, by Arthur Lyon Dahl (1995). Baha'i approach to nature and ecology. [about]
    87. Bahá'í Consultation and Freireian Dialogue in Development: A Comparative Perspective, by Adel Salmanzadeh, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
    88. Baha'i Faith and Social Action, by Christopher Buck, in Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice, ed. Gary L. Anderson and Kathryn Herr (2007). [about]
    89. Baha'i Faith and the Environment, The, by Richard Landau, in Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change volume 5: Social and Economic Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, ed. Peter Timmerman (2002). Participation of the Baha'i International Community in UN-sponsored development and environmental initiatives for resolving the difficult challenges before humanity. [about]
    90. Bahá'í Health Initiatives in Iran: A preliminary survey, by Seena B. Fazel and Minou Foadi, in The Bahá'ís of Iran: Socio-historical Studies, ed. Dominic Parviz Brookshaw & Seena B. Fazel (2008). Baha'i-related initiatives in Iran in the 19th-20th centuries: Baha'is made important contributions to public health such as introducing showers in public baths, school vaccinations, women's health, and privately-financed clinics open to all Iranians. [about]
    91. Bahá'í Hermeneutics: An Academic and Primary Source Inquiry, by Peter Terry (2009). An exploration of the practice of scriptural interpretation by contrasting the "normative" approaches of the Central Figures with contemporary scholastic approaches by Juan Cole, Christopher Buck, Dann May, Michael Sours, Jack McLean, and Sen McGlinn. [about]
    92. Bahá'í Perspective on the Origin of Matter, A, by Keven Brown, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:3 (1990). The origin of matter is spiritual. Science sees that, at its most fundamental level, reality is not particular materials or structures, but probabilities and transformation. The four elements, three-fold structure of being, and balance are also examined. [about]
    93. Bahá'í Perspective on Water, The, by Arthur Lyon Dahl (1997). Water in the Baha'i Faith and Baha'i Writings. [about]
    94. Baha'i Pontiff in the Making, A, by A. E. Suthers, in Moslem World, 25 (1935). [about]
    95. Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
    96. Bahá'í Statement on Nature, The, by Bahá'í International Community (1987). Prepared as official statement by the BIC Office of Public Information for the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). [about]
    97. Bahá'í Teachings, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Authenticity of Statements; Mathnavi; Quranic quotations; Marriage Prayer; 'Sun' and 'Moon'; Hands of the Cause; Night of Power; Khatt-i-Badi; Sarcophagus for Baha'u'llah; International Baha'i Library Building; Lunar Calendar and Holy Days; Leiden; Kings. [about]
    98. Bahá'í World Centre, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the spiritual center of the Bahá’í Faith, established in the twin cities of Acre and Haifa, the focal points of devotion for Bahá’ís around the world, and edifices of the administrative center. [about]
    99. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
    100. Bahá'í-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights (2001). Articles by Kiser Barnes, Greg Duly, Cheshmak Farhoumand-Sims, Graham Hassall, Darren Hedley, Nazila Ghanea-Hercock, Chichi Layor, Michael Penn, Martha Schweitz, and Albert Lincoln. [about]
    101. Bahá'u'lláh, by Juan Cole, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    102. Bahá'u'lláh: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1990). A very brief introduction to the Person of Baha'u'llah and some of His teachings. [about]
    103. Baha'u'llah and the New Era, by John E. Esslemont (1980). The classic introductory text on the Baha'i Faith focusing on Baha'i teachings and the lives of the Bab, Baha'u'llah, and Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    104. Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era Regarding the Explanation of Daniel 12:12: Beckwith's Allegations, by Universal House of Justice (1990). Responses to allegations Francis Beckwith makes in his booklet "Baha'i" about changes to this book. [about]
    105. Baha'u'llah's passport, with translation, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 9 (1940-1944) (1945). Baha'u'llah's passport at the time of His exile from Iran, 1853, with translation of text. [about]
    106. Baha'u'llah's prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
    107. Bahá'u'lláh, A Brief Life: The Word Made Flesh, by Hasan M. Balyuzi (1963). Two long essays on the life of Baha'u'llah, published in conjunction with the Baha'i Centennial (1963): "Baha'u'llah: A Brief Life," followed by an essay on the Manifestation, "The Word Made Flesh." [about]
    108. Baha'u'llah, the Messenger of God: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1990). Short biography of Baha'u'llah with scriptural excerpts. [about]
    109. Baha'u'llah, The Promised One: Warwick Leaflet, by Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Warwick (1990). [about]
    110. Bahai Movement, with Some Recollections of Meetings with Abdul Baha, The, by Maude M. Holbach, in The Nineteenth Century and After, 77 (1915). Overview of Babi and Baha'i history, and an account of a multi-day visit with Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    111. Bahá'u'lláh and the Luminous Mind: Bahá'í Gloss on a Buddhist Puzzle, by Roland Faber, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). Non-duality is of central importance to Buddhist thought and experience; on monism and non-dualism as reflected in Asian religious expressions, including Hinduism's Advaita Vedanta. [about]
    112. Baker, Richard Edward St. Barbe, by Wendi Momen and Anthony A. Voykovic, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the world-famous environmentalist, founder in 1922 of Men of the Trees, the first global conservation movement, author of many books and articles. [about]
    113. Base Espiritual de la Igualdad, La, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    114. Bayan (Bayán-i-Farsí and Bayán-i-'Arabí), The: Letters and Letters of the Living, by Universal House of Justice and Iraj Ayman (1994). [about]
    115. Bible, Preferred English Translation of, by Universal House of Justice (1996). While Shoghi Effendi recommended the use of the King James translation of the Bible, Baha'is are yet welcome to use any translation they wish. [about]
    116. Biblical Questions, Interpretation of: Ezekiel 10:19, Jeremiah 49:38 and Micah 7:12, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Can certain passages from the Hebrew Bible be taken as prophetic references to the Babi or Baha'i Faiths? [about]
    117. Bicentenaire de Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahá'í International Community (1992). French translation of the Bahá'í International Community's 1992 Statement on Bahá'u'lláh, updated for the 2017 bicentennial of the Birth of Bahá’u’lláh. [about]
    118. Birth and Childhood of Baha'u'llah, by David Merrick (2008). Childhood and Early Life of Baha'u'llah, told in plain English and suitable for reading aloud. [about]
    119. Birth and Childhood of the Bab, by David Merrick (2007). Childhood and Early Life of the Bab, told in plain English and suitable for reading aloud. [about]
    120. Black Pearls: The African Household Slaves of a Nineteenth Century Iranian Merchant Family, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram (2003). The African slave trade to Iran in the 1800s, and the lives of household slaves of one specific merchant family from Shiraz, that of The Báb, as described in the narrative of Abu'l-Qasim Afnan. [about]
    121. Black Pearls: Notes on Slavery, by Anthony Lee and Abu'l-Qasim Afnan, in Black Pearls: Servants in the Households of the Bab and Bahá'u'lláh (1988). Editor's notes and introduction to two editions of Black Pearls; brief overview of the institution of slavery. [about]
    122. "Book of Names" Mentioned in the Tablet of Carmel, The, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi (2003). Letter from the House and a compilation explaining "People of Bahá" and the line in the Lawh-i-Karmil "Ere long will God sail His Ark upon thee, and will manifest the people of Bahá who have been mentioned in the Book of Names." [about]
    123. Breastfeeding and the Bahá'í Faith, by Haig V. Setrakian and Marc B. Rosenman, in Breastfeeding Medicine, 6:4 (2011). The Writings reference breast-feeding literally and symbolically, and provide guidance as to its practice. As the ideal form of infant nutrition, breastfeeding women are exempted from fasting, and it is linked to childhood moral development. [about]
    124. Brief Account of My Visit to Acca, A, by Mary L. Lucas (1905). Detailed notes of a visit to Haifa, January-February 1905, and Abdu'l-Baha's interpretations of several passages from the Bible. [about]
    125. Building Creative Communities: Approaching the arts as social & economic development through professionalizing, training, and networking internationally, by Robin M. Chandler, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). On the Global Arts Training Institute, a model for building professionalism in the arts which can be implemented in Bahá’í communities and incorporated into teaching plans to develop the next generation of artists. [about]
    126. "By the Fig and the Olive": `Abdu'l-Bahá's Commentary in Ottoman Turkish on the Qur'ánic Sura 95, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). [about]
    127. Capital Punishment and Amnesty International. Letter from the House to Amnesty International on the death penalty. [about]
    128. Carta de la Tierra, by Bahá'í International Community (1991). Combatiendo el Racismo. BIC comment on the UN Earth Charter proposal. [about]
    129. Celestial Pavilion, Inmates of, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). [about]
    130. Challenges of Sustainable Development, by Augusto Lopez-Carlos, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22 (2012). Economic growth contributes to global prosperity, but it may conflict with environmental constraints. The interactions among conservation, technology, international cooperation, and human values can prevent future crises and assist collective evolution. [about]
    131. Child of the Covenant, by Adib Taherzadeh: Review, by Tricia Fallon-Barry, in Solas, 1 (2001). Brief review of this sequel to Covenant of Baha'u'llah. [about]
    132. Choice of the West for Abdu'l-Bahá's Epoch-Making Trip, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Reasons for Abdu'l-Baha choosing Western nations for the climax of his ministry, and results he achieved in Europe and the United States. [about]
    133. Chosen Highway, The, by Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield (Sitarih Khanum) (1940). [about]
    134. Church and State: A Postmodern Theology, Book One, by Sen McGlinn, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 19 (2005). Review of Bahá'í literature and of the scriptures of Christianity and Islam show that the separation of state from religion is a universal ideal. Excerpt from a lengthy book; includes Contents, Foreword, and Introduction. [about]
    135. Church and State in the World Order of Baha'u'llah, by Sen McGlinn (1994). The concept of theocracy as it applies to the Baha'i model of government. [about]
    136. City of Dancing Dervishes, The: And other sketches and studies from the Near East, by Harry Charles Luke (1914). One-half page summary of the Mahdi and Baha'i history. [about]
    137. Ciudadanía Mundial: Ética Global Para El Desarrollo Sostenible, by Bahá'í International Community (1993). Comunidades Sostenibles en un Mundo Integrante [about]
    138. Climate Change: Policies and Political Discourse, by Universal House of Justice (2017). On the science behind anthropogenic (human-caused) global warming, and how Baha'is might participate in activism and raising awareness of the issue while avoiding political divisiveness. [about]
    139. Collective Consciousness, Human Maturity, and the Challenge of Sustainability: Response, by Arthur Lyon Dahl (2009). Response to presentations "The Essential Role of Religion in Fostering a Sustainable World" by Peter Adriance and "Right Relationship: Building a Whole Earth Economy" by Peter Brown. [about]
    140. Commentary on the Islamic Tradition "I Was a Hidden Treasure...", by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 3:4 (1995). [about]
    141. Commentary on the Surah of the Sun, by Bahá'u'lláh (1994). Baha'u'llah's explanation of a passage from the Qur'an. [about]
    142. Commentary: Some Interpretive Principles in the Bahá'í Writings, by Sen McGlinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). [about]
    143. Compilation on Detachment. [about]
    144. Compilation on the Importance of Thankfulness, Gratitude, and Contentment, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu’l-Bahá (2004). [about]
    145. Comunidades Sostenibles en un Mundo Integrante, by Bahá'í International Community (1996). Enunciado presentó por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í a la Conferencia sobre Domicilios Humanos (Albergue II) de las Naciones Unidas. Estanbul, Turquía, 3 al 14 de junio de 1996. [about]
    146. Concealment and Burial of the Báb, by Peter Terry, in A Most Noble Pattern: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb (2012). This chapter from A.-L.-M. Nicolas' seminal biography Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Bab (1905) tells the story of the death and burial of the Bab, compiled from the reports of several eye-witnesses consulted by the author. [about]
    147. Concept of the Manifestation of God in Chinese Symbolism: An Inter-civilizational Hermeneutic Study, by Amrollah Hemmat, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:1-2 (2016). Seemingly incompatible symbols can point to a common underlying meaning, connecting worldviews and perspectives often considered incommensurable. There are elements of the Chinese tradition that resonate deeply with the Bahá’í concept of Manifestation. [about]
    148. Condicion juridica y social de la mujer, La, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    149. Condition of non-Bahá'í Relatives after Death, The, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Four questions: Do the non-Bahá'í parents of believers become Bahá'ís in the next world? What is the definition of "kin"? What is the requisite spiritual state of the believer? What conditions are associated with the divine bounty? [about]
    150. Conferencia Mundial del Año Internacional de la Mujer: Declaración presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í (en carácter consultivo con el Consejo Económico y Social — Categoría II) Ciudad de México, México, 1975 [about]
    151. Conferencia Mundial para el Examen y la Evaluación de los Logros del Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer: Igualdad, Desarrollo y Paz, by Bahá'í International Community (1985). Informe presentado por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í acerca de las actividades de la Comunidad Bahá'í Mundial para mejorar la condición de la mujer durante el Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer y Programas Futuros para el Adelanto de la Muje [about]
    152. Conservación y el Desarrollo Sostenible en la Fe Bahá'í, La, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    153. Conservation of the Earth's Resources, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). [about]
    154. Considerations Relating to the Inheritance Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, Some, by Sen McGlinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Gender distinctions in the Baha'i inheritance laws might at first glance seem to favor male heirs, but the laws actually create a symmetrical equality. [about]
    155. Constitutional Movement and the Bahá'ís of Iran, The: The Creation of an 'Enemy Within', by Moojan Momen, in British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 39:3 (2012). Bahá'ís had a complex relationship with the Constitutionalist Movement, sometimes supporting it and sometimes abstaining from involvement, but the impact of the Bahá'ís on the reformers and on the Revolution has been underestimated. [about]
    156. Consultation and Compromise in Environment Affairs, by Bill Knight-Weiler, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). Examples of environmental disagreements — involving ranchers, off-road vehicle use, acid rain, and protected-lands designation — from Oregon and Washington, illustrating how the process of consultation can lead to environmental protection. [about]
    157. Consultation, Portraits, Rakahs, Murtus, and Unknown Language, by Universal House of Justice (2009). Three replies from the Research Department to an individual, dated 2009, 2010 and 2018, on a variety of topics. [about]
    158. Contacting the Universal House of Justice; Obligatory Prayer, Greatest Name, Exemptions, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Procedures on contacting the Universal House of Justice; memorandum on obligatory prayer, reciting the Greatest Name, and exemptions from prayer. [about]
    159. Convention for the Election of the UHJ, and Completion of the Seat of the UHJ (1983), by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Two documents from Baha'i World 18 part four section one, The World Order of Baha'u'llah: The Universal House of Justice: Fifth Int'l Convention for the Election of the UHJ, and Completion of Construction of the Seat of the UHJ. [about]
    160. Conversations with Shoghi Effendi, by May Maxwell (1924). A set of informal notes taken by Maxwell at Haifa in 1924, and "reproduced for the information of the Baha'i friends with the permission of the National Spiritual Assembly." [about]
    161. Conversion of the Great-Uncle of the Báb, The, by Ahang Rabbani, in World Order, 30:3 (1999). The history of Hájí Mírzá Sayyid Muhammad (1798-1876), maternal uncle of the Bab. [about]
    162. Conversion, Transformation, and Sacrifice in the Revelation of The Bab, by Peter Ashelman (2001). Hermeneutics in early Babi/Baha'i history and its relationship to conversion, and the historical evolution of the world Bahá’í community since its origins. [about]
    163. Coordinates of Baha'i Holy Sites and the Junaynih Garden (2016). Latitude, longitude, and brief descriptions of key sites such as Akka prison, Bahji, Ridvan Garden, Baha'i cemetery, cave of Elijah, and the houses of Baha'u'llah, Abbud, Udi Khammar, and Abdu'l-Baha, followed by a history of the Junaynih Garden. [about]
    164. Corporate Social Responsibility and Business Success, by Marcello Palazzi and George Starcher (1998). How social responsibility can contribute to competitiveness and success. [about]
    165. Course on Bahá'í Symbolism, by Ernesto Fernandez (2013). Symbolic forms in the Writings and Baha'i architectural systems, and their analogues in universal religious symbolism. Includes Spanish translation, "Curso de simbología bahá ́í." [about]
    166. Creating Environments that Enhance Spirituality, by Dawn Staudt, in Solas, 3 (2003). The teachings and laws of the Bahá’í Faith are for spiritual advancement of both the individual and society. Three areas in particular help individual development: the use of personal prayer, the arts and Tranquility Zones, and the role of encouragement. [about]
    167. Crime and Punishment: Bahá'í Perspectives for a Future Criminal Law, by Udo Schaefer, in Law and International Order. Proceedings of the first European Bahá'í Conference on Law and International Order (1996). [about]
    168. Crown of Glory: Memoirs of Jinab-i-Aziz'u'llah Azizi, by Aziz'u'llah Azizi (1991). Autobiography of Jináb-i-Azízí, "the Tailor," a companion of 'Abdu'l-Baha who travelled with the Master to London and Paris, and also met with Shoghi Effendi. Includes photographs, and provisional translations of several Tablets. [about]
    169. Cry in the Wilderness: An Environmentalist Looks at Bahá'í Teachings on Nature, by Bill Knight-Weiler, in dialogue magazine, 2:1 (1987). Baha'i Writings use images from nature to illustrate spiritual truths and call mankind to recognize the beauty of God. [about]
    170. Cultivation of Belief, The: 'The Gardener,' Mohsen Makhmalbaf's Inquiry Into Religion, by Manohla Dargis, in New York Times (2013). A review of The Gardener, a meditative documentary by an outsider which is partly about the Baha'i Faith. [about]
    171. Daily Lessons Received at Akka: January 1908, by Helen S. Goodall and Ella Goodall Cooper (1979). Includes translations of three Tablets of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    172. Daniel's Prophecies, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
    173. Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). Seven essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. [about]
    174. Dawn-Breakers: Nabil's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Nabil-i-A'zam (1932). The extensive and preeminent history of Babism and the early Baha'i Faith, by Nabil-i-A'zam [aka Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí, aka Nabíl-i-Zarandí]. [about]
    175. Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of The Bahá'í Revelation: Study Guide, by National Teaching Committee (1932). [about]
    176. Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í ante la Conferencia Internacional de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Relación Entre el Desarme y el Desarrollo, by Bahá'í International Community (1987). El Año Internacional de la Mujer. Nueva York, Nueva York, 24 de agosto-11 de septiembre de 1987 [about]
    177. Demographics of the United States National Spiritual Assembly, by Archives Office of the United States Bahá'í National Center (2016). Percentage of women, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latino Americans serving on the U.S. and Canadian NSAs from 1922-2015. [about]
    178. Desarme y la Paz, El, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    179. Development of Humankind, The, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). [about]
    180. Dialogue between Yin-Yang Concepts and the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). Yin-yang, a pivotal theory in Chinese thought influencing government, architecture, relationships, and ethics, has many similarities with the Bahá’í Faith, including the origin of matter, the nature of history, man-woman relationships, and health. [about]
    181. Diary of Juliet Thompson, by Juliet Thompson and Marzieh Gail (1983). Experiences in the life of Juliet Thompson, a prominent early Baha'i and friend of Abdu'l-Baha. Includes preface by Marzieh Gail. [about]
    182. Divine Illumination, by W. W. Harmon (1915). [about]
    183. Division and Unity in the Baha'i Community: Towards a Definition of Fundamentalism, by Moojan Momen (2009). 15 criteria that define "fundamentalism," and their applicability and/or inapplicability to the Baha'i community; it may be more useful to use a psychological definition that sees the phenomenon as a value-free cognitive style, a way of perceiving. [about]
    184. Dr. Cormick's Accounts of his Personal Impressions of Mirza 'Ali Muhammad, The Báb, by Dr. Cormick, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion. A Westerner's account of meeting the Bab and an account of separate incidents involving the persecution of Babis. [about]
    185. Early Bahá'í Census in Iran, by Universal House of Justice (2016). No systematic census was taken of the numbers of early believers, before the Guardian's call for such a count in 1923. Iran's own statistics in the 1920s count "several tens of thousands" of Baha'is. [about]
    186. Early Pilgrimage, An, by May Maxwell (1917). Notes from an 1898 pilgrimage by the mother of Ruhiyyih Khanum, published in 1917 and reprinted in 1953. [about]
    187. Earth in the Balance, by Al Gore (1993). One-paragraph mention in a book by Senator, then just-elected Vice-President, of the US. [about]
    188. "Easy Familiarity," Explanations of, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum and Ann Boylan (1912). Statements on displays of affection (hugging and kissing) between members of the opposite sex. Also questions on assembly infallibility, and whether one with a minority opinion should vote against his conscience. [about]
    189. Eco Principle, The: Ecology and Economics in Symbiosis, by Arthur Dahl: Review, by Brad Pokorny, in One Country, 8:3 (1996). [about]
    190. Eco Principle, The: Ecology and Economics in Symbiosis, by Arthur Dahl: Review, by Stephen Vickers, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). [about]
    191. Economic Prosperity: A Global Imperative, by Mary Fish, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:3 (1997). Economic growth does not necessarily enhance human welfare. The Prosperity of Humankind recognizes the role of economics in igniting the capacity of humankind. The Baha'i concept of human nature opens a dialogue between religion and economists. [about]
    192. Education of women and socio-economic development, by Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions, volume 13 (2002). The findings of recent research on the social and the economic benefits of female education, which provides insights as to why Bahá'u'lláh stressed its importance. [about]
    193. Education of women and socio-economic development, by Geeta Gandhi Kingdon: Commentary, by Erin Murphy Graham and Felicity Rawlings, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). [about]
    194. Effect of Philosophical and Linguistic Gender Biases on the Degradation of Women's Status in Religion, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). [about]
    195. Efforts to preserve the remains of the Bab: Four historical accounts, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Accounts by Mirza Hasan Adib Taliqani, Fadil Mazandarani, ‘Abdu’l-Husayn Avarih, and Aqa Husayn ‘Ali Nur. [about]
    196. El Desarrollo Sostenible y el Espíritu Humano, by Bahá'í International Community. El Desarrollo Sostenible y el Espíritu Humano, presentado Río de Janeiro, Brasil, junio de 1992 [about]
    197. El Papel de la religión en el desarrollo social, by Bahá'í International Community. Comentarios al borrador de la Declaración y Programa de Acción para el desarrollo social. Presentado durante la reunión del Comité Preparatorio para la Cumbre Mundial sobre el Desarrollo Social, New York, New York, 1994 [about]
    198. Elegibilidad de las Mujeres en la Casa Universal de Justicia, by Universal House of Justice (1988). [about]
    199. Encouragement, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2006). [about]
    200. Encouragement, Challenges, Healing, and Progress: The Bahá'í Faith in Indigenous Communities, by Alfred Kahn, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:3 (2016). On the challenges of community-building among Indigenous people, written from the perspective of a childhood spent among Baha'i pioneers on Native American land, and on reconciling traditional views with global Baha'i teachings. [about]
    201. English Sources and Authenticity of Fifteen Prayers in the Dutch Prayer Book Bahá'í Gebeden, by Universal House of Justice (2001). [about]
    202. Enigmatic Questions Surrounding the Appearances of the Prophets, by John S. Hatcher (2011). [about]
    203. Enslaved African Women in Nineteenth-Century Iran: The Life of Fezzeh Khanom of Shiraz, by Anthony Lee, in Iranian Studies, 45:3 (2012). Through an examination of the life of this servant of The Bab, this paper addresses the enormous gap in our knowledge of the experience of enslaved women in Iran. [about]
    204. Environment, Caring for: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2008). [about]
    205. Episode in the Childhood of the Bab, An, by Stephen Lambden, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Parallels legends of the Bab's early childhood with those of Jesus. [about]
    206. Episodes in the Life of Munirih Khanum, by Munirih Khanum (1924). A short autobiography by the wife of 'Abdu'l-Baha; early draft of Munirih Khanum: Memoirs and Letters. [about]
    207. Equality and Baha'i Principles in Northern Ireland, by Edwin Graham, in Solas, 1 (2001). A paper in two parts: (1) the development of equality legislation in Northern Ireland, and (2) the Bahá’í Teachings in relation to equality and the extent to which Northern Irish legislation applies or does not apply them. [about]
    208. Equality of Women, The: The Bahá'í Principle of Complementarity, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:3 (1990). [about]
    209. Essential Role of Religion in Fostering a Sustainable World, The, by Peter Adriance (2009). [about]
    210. Estudios Preliminares Sobre la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer en la Comunidad Mundial Bahá'í, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración presentada al 25° período de sesiones de la Comisión de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer, New York, 1974. [about]
    211. Evolution of Institutional Capacity for Social and Economic Development, The, by Office of Social and Economic Development (1994). Baha'i principles of development and guidelines for individual initiative. [about]
    212. Evolution, Diagram Illustrating the True Story of, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Explanation of the chart Cycle of Life prepared by Lua Getsinger. [about]
    213. Examination of the Environmental Crisis, by Chris Jones Kavelin (2001). With a specific focus on the balance between the instrumental and intrinsic value of nature from a Baha'i perspective. [about]
    214. Exemption, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Thoughts on Bahá'u'lláh's meaning in "exempting" women from certain Bahá'í obligations, especially pilgrimage. [about]
    215. Exemption from Obligatory Prayer for the Sick, by Universal House of Justice (2000). [about]
    216. Exploration of the Ridvan 2010 Message, An, by Sana Rezai (2010). Six common elements of Plan letters by the Guardian and the Universal House of Justice (praise, analysis, directives, reminder of fundamentals, guidance, encouragement), statistically analyzed by word counts. [about]
    217. Eyewitness Account of the Massacre of Bahá'ís in Nayriz, 1909, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Shaykh Dhakariyya's rebellion in Nayriz culminated in the martyrdom of nineteen Baha'is on Naw Ruz, 1909, the same day Abdu'l-Baha interred the remains of the Bab in the mausoleum on Mount Carmel. This is a history of both events. [about]
    218. Fadil-i-Mazandarani, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Was Fadil-i-Mazandarani declared a Hand of the Cause of God, and on determining if there were other Hands. [about]
    219. Family Law in Iran, by Sen McGlinn (2001). Detailed overview of 20th-century Iranian laws regarding marriage, divorce, marriage rights and duties, dowry, and inheritance. Contains passing mentions of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
    220. Female Representations of the Holy Spirit in Bahá'í and Christian writings and their implications for gender roles, by Lil Osborn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). A response to feminist theologian Mary Daly's argument that a male representation of God reinforces patriarchy with the suggestion that sexual equality is independent of, and unrelated to, gender images of the Divine. [about]
    221. Feminine Forms of the Divine in Bahá'í Scriptures, by Paula A. Drewek, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:1 (1992). Examples of the interaction between male and female principles in the writings. Complementarity of masculine and feminine images of divinity enriches our understanding of the divine–human encounter, but does not supplant the unity or unknowability of God. [about]
    222. Feminism, Men and the Bahá'í Faith, by Morgan Wilson, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). [about]
    223. Fiftieth Anniversary of The Master: Performance piece, by Jim Wood (1968). An artistic piece appropriate for play at the commemoration of the ascension of 'Abdu'l-Baha. Produced, performed, and narrated by Jim Wood; also read by Deborah Buttrey. [about]
    224. Fifty Bahá'í Principles of Unity: A Paradigm of Social Salvation, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 18 (2014). World religions are systems of salvation, liberation, or harmony, in direct response to the perceived human predicament. To Baha’is, this predicament is profound estrangement and the solution is world unity, from family to international relations. [about]
    225. Fifty Three Years In Syria, by Henry H. Jessup (1910). Passing encounters between Baha'is and a Christian missionary in Iran, 1867-1901. [about]
    226. First Public Mentions of the Bahá'í Faith in the West, by Bahá'í Information Office of the UK (1998). Short essay based on research by Moojan Momen and Derek Cockshutt. The first mention for the Faith in the West was not in 1893, but rather in a number of earlier talks on the Faith in England, and reports on the Babis in the 1850s. [about]
    227. Five Questions: Loss of Voting Rights, Mani, Magi, Five-Pointed Star, Joseph Smith, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:3-4:4 (1991). Responses to various questions. Closes with quotations on Confucianism and Genesis. [about]
    228. Five unpublished contemporary documents relating to The Bab's examination at Tabriz in 1848, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1848). [about]
    229. For the Betterment of the World: The Worldwide Bahá'í Community's Approach to Social and Economic Development, by Office of Social and Economic Development (2018). Essays, photographs, and overviews of local projects around the world, illustrating how Bahá'í principles are being carried out in practice, prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development of the Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    230. Foreword to 'Abdu'l-Baha in America: The Diary of Agnes Parsons, by Sandra Hutchison, in Abdu'l-Bahá in America: The Diary of Agnes Parsons (1996). Overview of 'Abdu'l-Baha's journeys to America and his meetings with Agnes Parsons. [about]
    231. Four Levels of Detachment in Doris Lessing's Shikasta, The, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:3-4 (2004). [about]
    232. Fragility of Goodness, The: Hexis and Praxis in the Historical Figure of 'Abdu'l-Baha, by Shahbaz Fatheazam, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). How personal character and activity can survive negative pressures from the external world, and what can be learned from the example of Abdu'l-Baha's social action. [about]
    233. From Adrianople to Akka, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, in Conqueror of Hearts (1968). A talk to the Oceanic Conference, Palermo, Sicily, on the exile journeys of Baha'u'llah. [about]
    234. From Iran East and West, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 2 (1984). [about]
    235. From Oppression to Empowerment, by Nader Saiedi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:1-2 (2016). On four contemporary types of oppression: in the international political order, forms of the state, economic structures, and forms of cultural identity; Bahá’u’lláh’s personal response to oppression; and a Bahá’í approach to empowerment and liberation. [about]
    236. FUNDAEC and Fragmentation, by Thaddeus Benjamin Herman (2014). The Foundation for the Application and Teaching of the Sciences, with a conceptual framework inspired by Bahá’í principles that views reality as essentially spiritual, can address the fragmentation of unity. [about]
    237. Fundamentalism and Liberalism: Towards an Understanding of the Dichotomy, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). Explores extremes of religious belief in an attempt to understand their distinctions and commonalities. [about]
    238. Fundamentalism and Liberalism: Towards an Understanding of the Dichotomy, by Moojan Momen, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, 13 (2002). Explores extremes of religious belief an attempt to understand their distinctions and commonalities. (Updated version.) [about]
    239. Further extracts concerning the remains of the Bab in Tehran, by Fadl Mazandarani and Avarih. Two brief excerpts [about]
    240. Gaia Concept, The, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Overview of the Gaia hypothesis, a concept which regards the entire planet as a living organism. [about]
    241. Gender in Babi and Bahá'í Law, by Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam (2010). [about]
    242. Gender perspectives and the work of the United Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (2007). Statement to the UN Human Rights Council on integrating gender perspectives. [about]
    243. Genealogy of Bab, The, by Mirza Abid, in The Dawn-Breakers. Genealogy of the family of the Bab and the family of Baha'u'llah in relation to the Bab. [about]
    244. Genealogy of Shoghi Effendi, by Grover Gonzales (1957). A hand-drawn chart of Shoghi Effendi's family history. [about]
    245. Genealogy of The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh, by Kay Zinky (1950). Chart showing the Semitic line of prophets, including source citations. [about]
    246. Generation of Knowledge and the Advancement of Civilization, by Haleh Arbab (2007). [about]
    247. Glimpse of Glory, A: Stories of the Life of Baha'u'llah, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Anecdotes about some early followers of Baha'u'llah, and the circumstances of his own life. [about]
    248. Glimpses of Life and Manners in Persia: With Notes on Russia, Koords, Toorkomans, Nestorians, Khiva, and Persia, by Lady Mary (Leonora Woulfe) Sheil (1856). Considered first travel book on Persia by a woman. Of particular interest to Baha'is are her accounts on Babism (Babeeism) and the Bab. [about]
    249. Globalization and the Environment, by Arthur Lyon Dahl (1998). Some responses to possible problems associated with globalization. [about]
    250. God the All-Humorous, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Did Baha'u'llah ever refer to God as the "All-Humorous"? [about]
    251. Goddess Religion, Ancient, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Ancient goddess religions and the role of the feminine in theology. [about]
    252. Grammatical Clarifications, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Letter and memorandum in response to questions about possible misprints in published extracts from letters of Shoghi Effendi and the Universal House of justice [about]
    253. Greatest Holy Leaf's Unparalleled Role in Religious History and the Significance of the Arc, the Site of Her Resting Place, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Biography of Abdu'l-Baha's sister, who acted as his "deputy, His representative and vicegerent, with none to equal her." Her burial place on Mount Carmel determined the location of the Arc and the later buildings of the World Centre. [about]
    254. Greenacre on the Piscataqua, by Anna Josephine Ingersoll (1900). An early history of Greenacre and some of its notable visitors and presentations. [about]
    255. Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1988). An abridged and updated version of the author's biography Priceless Pearl. [about]
    256. Guardianship, Anticipation of, in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Did Baha'u'llah anticipate the Institution of the Guardianship in the Kitab-i-Aqdas? [about]
    257. Hacia un modelo de desarrollo para el siglo XXI, by Bahá'í International Community. Hacia un modelo de desarrollo para el siglo XXI [about]
    258. Haifa Notes, by Ramona Brown (1954). Notes from a pilgrimage in 1954. [about]
    259. Half the Household Was African: Recovering the Histories of Two African Slaves in Iran, by Anthony Lee, in UCLA Historical Journal, 26:1 (2015). Biographies of two enslaved Africans in Iran, Haji Mubarak and Fezzeh Khanum, the servants of The Bab. A history of slavery in Iran can be written, not only at the level of statistics, laws, and politics, but also at the level of individual lives. [about]
    260. Handicapped facilities at the Bahá'í World Center pilgrimage sites, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Two letters giving an overview of wheelchair access to various points on pilgrimage tours. [about]
    261. Handmaidens of God: Baha'i Prayers for Women, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1987). [about]
    262. Hands of the Cause (Ayádí Amr Alláh), by Eunice Braun, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the institution, established by Bahá’u’lláh, of individuals named by Bahá’u’lláh, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi, charged with protecting and propagating the Bahá’í Faith; one of the two parallel lines of responsibility in Bahá’í administration. [about]
    263. Hands of the Cause of God Cannot Appoint a Guardian, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Short letter quoting the Guardian's statement that the Hands of the Cause of God have to ratify the current guardian's appointment of another guardian, and they may also suggest another guardian, but cannot themselves appoint one. [about]
    264. He who knoweth his self hath known his Lord: Commentary, by Bahá'u'lláh (1996). Translation by Shoghi Effendi, completed by Cole. Themes include Islamic mysticism and the meaning of detachment, the meaning of the hadith about knowing one's self, the meaning of Return, and the hadith "The believer is alive in both worlds." [about]
    265. Heaven, Hell and the Afterlife, by Lynette Thomas, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). Judeo-Christian and Muslim views of life after death are often seen literally as bodily resurrection and a judgement day, vs. the Baha'i perspective of the nature of the soul and its existence after the death of the body, heaven/hell, and the afterlife. [about]
    266. Hidden Word #63; quote from Promulgation of Universal Peace, by Universal House of Justice (2010). Two minor questions regarding matters of translation: a passage from Hidden Words Persian #63, and a passage from PUP quoted in Portals to Freedom. [about]
    267. Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith, by Moojan Momen (1990). An attempt to explore the relationship between Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith and to explain the Bahá'í Faith to those who are from a Hindu background. [about]
    268. 'His Eminence Mírzá ‘Abbás Effendi Has Reached the Shores of Alexandria': Abdu'l-Baha in Egypt, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 4 (2004). Contacts ‘Abdu’l-Bahá had with influential people in Egypt, the impressions he made on them, and the description of his journey there as contained in Century of Light and many other Baha'i texts and histories. [about]
    269. Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
    270. Holy Places at the Bahá'í World Centre, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1968). [about]
    271. Hora Decisiva para todas las Naciones, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í con motivo del 50 aniversario de Naciones Unidas Octubre 1995 [about]
    272. House of Abdu'llah Pasha, The, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Short history and restoration of a house associated with "some of the most dramatic and historically significant events of the Heroic Age of the Bahá'í Faith." [about]
    273. Human environment interactions and collaborative adaptive capacity building in a resilience framework, by Peter T. Bruss (2012). Lengthy study of human effects on the environment informed by a Baha'i perspective, with passing mentions of the Faith and the Native American Baha'i Institute. Link to offsite document. [about]
    274. Human Knowledge and the Advancement of Society, by Hoda Mahmoudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22 (2012). Knowledge is the means toward realizing a global civilization. The current Five Year Plan focuses the Baha'i community’s consultation, reflection, and global growth, and the individual’s applying spiritual and secular knowledge to help this process. [about]
    275. Human Nature and Mental Health: A Bahá'í-Inspired Perspective, by Michael L. Penn, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:1-2 (2015). Overview of one research-practitioner’s understanding of the nature of mind from the perspective of the Bahá’í teachings, and implications of this view for understanding mental health and mental illness. [about]
    276. Husband and Wife, Relationship between, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice, 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). The "functional" divisions between husband and wife in the Baha'i Writings should be considered in the light of the general principle of equality between the sexes. [about]
    277. I, Mary Magdalene, by Juliet Thompson (1940). Semi-autobiographical account of Thompson's contact with Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    278. Identity of Man Who Asked "What is the object of life to a Bahá'í?", by Universal House of Justice (2004). On the identity of the individual to whom Shoghi Effendi said "The object of life to a Bahá’í is to promote the oneness of mankind." [about]
    279. In All the Ways that Matter, Women Don't Count, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). The Bahá'í goal of achieving sexual equality cannot be achieved merely by trying to advance the position of women in society, but rather society itself must be "feminized." [about]
    280. In the Days of the Guardian, by Leroy Ioas (1958). Includes the well-known comments by Shoghi Effendi about his reactions to being appointed Guardian. [about]
    281. In the Presence of the Beloved: Bahá'u'lláh's Lawh-i-Liqá': A Revised Provisional Translation and Notes, by Nima Rafiei, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). In Arabic, liqá’ indicates the promise of meeting the Lord. Bahá’u’lláh has transformed the concept of attainment unto the divine presence. Comparison of Shí'ih and Bábí-Bahá’í interpretations of liqá', including the practice of service. [about]
    282. Indigenous rights and women's rights in the Samoan Bahá'í community, by Maureen Sier, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). [about]
    283. Individual Bahá'í Perspective on Spiritual Aspects of Cultural Diversity and Sustainable Development: Towards a Second Enlightenment, by Chris Jones Kavelin, in The International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities, and Nations, 8:1 (2008). This paper discusses the spiritual value of cultural diversity and explores how such reflection impacts development policy on the local, national and international levels. [about]
    284. Inheritance, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). The apparent contradiction between sexual equality and the unequal inheritance laws contained in the Aqdas. [about]
    285. Inheritance Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Sen McGlinn (1995). [about]
    286. Integracion de la mujer en el desarrollo enocomico y social de America Latina y el Caribe, La, by Bahá'í International Community. Revisión y evaluación crítica de algunos aspectos de la condición de la mujer en la region, incluso su integración en el mercado laboral, mujeres jefes de familia y el papel de la mujer en el comercio en el Caribe. [about]
    287. Interdependence of Bahá'í Communities, The: Services of North American Bahá'í Women to Iran, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). [about]
    288. Interpretation as Revelation: The Qur'an Commentary of the Báb, by Todd Lawson, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:4 (1990). Overview and context of two of the Bab's earliest writings and their relevance to Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsá’í and Siyyid Kázim Rashtí: a commentary on the Qur'an's Chapter of the Cow, and his famous Qayyúm al-Asmá, Commentary on the Chapter of Joseph. [about]
    289. Interpretive Principles in the Bahá'í Writings, Some, by Khazeh Fananapazir and S. Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). Aspects of hermeneutics and authorized interpretation. [about]
    290. Introduction to a Statement on Race Unity, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). An informal letter on the "most challenging issue confronting America." [about]
    291. Introduction to Abdu'l-Baha's The Secret of Divine Civilization, An, by Nader Saiedi, in Converging Realities, 1:1 (2000). [about]
    292. Introduction to Bahá'í Law, An: Doctrinal Foundations, Principles and Structures, by Udo Schaefer, in Journal of Law and Religion, 18:2 (2003). [about]
    293. Introduction to the Doctrines of Soul and Enlightenment in Mahayana Buddhism and the Bahá'í Faith, An, by Yeo Yew Hock, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). The development of Mahayana and how the Chinese people adopted and adapted it; non-self/enlightenment vs. the "True Poverty and Absolute Nothingness" of the Seven Valleys; sunyata/emptiness and Buddhist monism vs. the Valley of Unity's nonduality. [about]
    294. Introduction to the Lawh-i Haqqu'n-Nas, An, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Summary of the tablet Lawh-i Haqqu’n-Nas, Tablet of the "Right of the People," on the metaphorical character of this world. [about]
    295. Is the Bahá'í Faith a "World Religion" or a "New Religious Movement"?, by Denis MacEoin and Robert Stockman (1997). Compilation of emails about the socio-religious classification of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
    296. Ishraqát, Tablet of, Date of Revelation, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Clues that could provide a date for the revelation of Baha'u'llah's "Tablet of Ishraqat." Includes part of Sen McGlinn's original query to which the House. [about]
    297. Islam and the Baha'i Faith: A comparative study of Muhammad ‘Abduh and ‘Abdul-Baha ‘Abbas: Review, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 40 (2010). [about]
    298. Journalist in the Holy Land, A: Glimpses of Egypt and Palestine, by Arthur E. Copping (1913). [about]
    299. Journey Motif in the Bahá'í Faith, The: From Doubt to Certitude, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22 (2012). The process of individual spiritual growth lies at the heart of human purpose. Bahá’u’lláh speaks about the collective spiritualization of humanity — creating new patterns of community and social relations — as the "journey" of the human body politic. [about]
    300. Just System of Government: The Third Dimension to World Peace, by John Huddleston, in The Baha'i Faith and Marxism (1987). Highlights a few points in the Bahá'í approach to government and collective action. [about]
    301. Keys to the Proper Understanding of Islam in The Dispensation of Baha'u'llah, by Brian Wittman, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). [about]
    302. Kirk, Durbin Introduce Resolution Condemning Iran's Continued Persecution of Bahá'í Minority, by Mark Kirk and Dick Durbin (2013). In recognition of the five-year anniversary of imprisonment of Bahá'í leaders in Iran, senators meet with their family members and friends and introduce a joint resolution calling attention to this persecution. [about]
    303. Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): The Obligatory Prayers, by Universal House of Justice and Ismael Velasco (2000). [about]
    304. Kitáb-i-Íqán, The Book of Certitude: Notes on paragraph numbering, by Universal House of Justice Research Department, in A Companion to the Study of the Kitáb-i-Íqán, ed. Hooper Dunbar (1998). Official paragraph numbering. [about]
    305. Law of the Land and the State of the Soul, The: Analyzing Theoretical Frameworks of Bahá'í and Islamic Law Within and Beyond the Nation-State, by Moussa Z. Traore (2012). Details, laws, and constitution of the Baha'i system which, analogous to the United Nations or a Supreme Court, presents a legal framework for a non-State governance structure at the international level. [about]
    306. Laws from the Kitab-i-Aqdas Not Yet Binding, by Universal House of Justice (1974). Which laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas are and are not currently (as of 1974) binding upon Western believers. [about]
    307. Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, Further Application of, by Universal House of Justice (1999). Announcement to the Baha'i world that all elements of the laws dealing with obligatory prayer and fasting are now applicable. [about]
    308. Left in Contemporary Iran, The, by Sepehr Zabih (1986). Discussion of "urban guerilla warfare" pre-1979 with one passing mention of an unnamed Baha'i businessman as owner of Export Bank. [about]
    309. Legislación Internacional para el Medio Ambiente y el Desarrollo, by Bahá'í International Community. Una declaraciòn presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í al Comité Preparatorio para la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Medio Ambiente y el Desarrollo. Ginebra Suiza, Agosto 1991. [about]
    310. Legislating on Morality, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Areas in which the Universal House of Justice is refraining from legislating on, e.g. abortion and homosexuality. [about]
    311. Legislative Responsibilities of the Universal House of Justice Regarding Obligatory Prayers, Guardian's Statement on, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Brief note about which aspects of obligatory prayer the House may one day legislate on. [about]
    312. Letter to Corinne True re Women on the House of Justice, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1909). Translation by Amín Faríd of a short letter stating that "men and women are equal in all rights save in the Universal House of Justice; for the Chairman and the members of the House of Justice are men according to the Text of the Book." [about]
    313. Letter to Jináb-i-Áqá Mírzá Bádí'u'lláh Khán of Abadih, by Shoghi Effendi (1997). Answers four questions: (1) re "Crimson Scroll"; (2) re the "Sacred Night"; (3) re the "Tablet of the Bell"; and (4) using the Kitab-i-Aqdas for bibliomancy. [about]
    314. Letters and Essays, 1886-1913, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1985). Treatises of "the greatest and most learned of all Bahá'í scholars" about Alexander Tumansky; on meeting Abdu'l-Baha; and on the meaning of angels, resurrection, civilization, tests, angels, holy spirit, and the saying "Knowledge is twenty-seven letters." [about]
    315. Letters of Living, Dawn-Breakers, Quddús, Terraces, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Five unrelated questions: Identity of the Letters of the Living; "List of Illustrations" in the Dawn-Breakers; Status of the Writings of Quddus; Naming of the Terraces at the Arc; and The Bab's Tablets in the Dawn-Breakers. [about]
    316. Letters to Bahá'í princesses: Tablets revealed in honour of the women of Ibn-i Asdaq's household, by Dominic Parvis Brookshaw, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
    317. Letters Written on Behalf of the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Three questions: Letters Written on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi; Status of Research Department Memoranda; Bahá'í Writings Based in Fact? [about]
    318. Lidia Zamenhof, by John T. Dale (1996). Brief biography of the daughter of Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto. [about]
    319. Lifetime with Bahá'u'lláh, A: Events in Baghdad, Istanbul, Edirne and ‘Akká while in the Company of Bahá'u'lláh, by Aqa Husayn Ashchi, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 14 (2007). One-third of a lengthy primary-source history, annotated by translator. [about]
    320. List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Babi studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
    321. List of Descendants of Mirza Buzurg of Nur, the Father of Baha'u'llah, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion. Brief genealogy of Baha'u'llah and His family. [about]
    322. Lot and His Daughters, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Discussion of two Bahá'í references on the Biblical story of Lot; an interpretation of a Bible verse is not inevitably dependent on the Biblical source being authentic or reliable. [about]
    323. Mahmúd's Diary: The Diary of Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Zarqání Chronicling 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey to America, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani (1998). Extensive account of the 1912 travels of Abdu'l-Baha in the West. [about]
    324. Making the Crooked Straight: A Contribution to Baha'i Apologetics [excerpt], by Udo Schaefer and Nicola Towfigh (2000). Front- and back-matter of the book only: Contents, Preface, Introduction, Conclusion, Bibliography, Index. [about]
    325. Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer and Nicola Towfigh, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Two pages on a prophecy concerning the advent of Man Yuzhiruhu'llah. [about]
    326. Management of Small Rural Businesses: Some Views of the European Bahá'í Business Forum, by Michel P. Zahrai (1998). The challenge and benefits of restoring pride in rural non-farm businesses. [about]
    327. Map of Stages in Baha'u'llah's Successive Exiles from Tihran to Akka, by Muhammad Labib (1968). Map of Stages in Baha'u'llah's Successive Exiles from Tihran to Akka, compiled and designed by Muhammad Labib in 1968, includes an extensive list of which tablets Baha'u'llah revealed and where. [about]
    328. Map of the Travels of Baha'u'llah (1991). The progressive exiles of Baha'u'llah through the Middle East. [about]
    329. Mark of the Beast and Implanted Computer Chips, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Concerns about implanted computer chips as the "Mark of the Beast," and the response of individual Baha'is to government. [about]
    330. Marking the Bicentenary of the Birth of Bahá'u'lláh, by Universal House of Justice (2017). Thoughts on the meaning of Baha'u'llah's life and current Baha'i activities, inspired by the 200th anniversary of his birth. [about]
    331. Marriage certificates of The Bab and Baha'u'llah, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 5 (1932-1934) (1934). Marriage certificates of The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    332. Martyrdom of Hájí Muhammad-Ridá: 19 Historical Accounts, by Ahang Rabbani, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 5 (2007). [about]
    333. Martyrdom of Haji Muhammad-Rida, The, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1890). Gulpaygani's firsthand account of the events leading up to and following the murder of Muhammad-Rida and the trial of his killers. [about]
    334. Mary Magdalene: Lioness of God in the Bahai Faith, by Lil Osborn (2013). On the symbolic role of Mary Magdalene in the Baha’i tradition as a female archetype in the context of the doctrine of "return," and thus linked to the poet Tahirih, heroine of the Babi-Baha’i dispensation. [about]
    335. Master Humorist, The, by Robert Ballenger, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Examples of the humor of Abdu'l-Baha, jokes he told, and how this aspect of the Master's personality has been downplayed in biographies and portrayals of him which cast him in a more serious light. [about]
    336. Meaning of Detachment, The, by Phyllis Peterson. Detachment as it relates to women, teaching, the media, and unity. [about]
    337. Meetings for women only, by International Teaching Centre (1997). It is acceptable and perhaps even sometimes necessary for Baha'is to hold gender-segregated meetings. [about]
    338. Members of the Universal House of Justice 1963-2014 and Hands of the Cause: Timeline (2003). List of names and dates of all who served on the House of Justice or as Hands. [about]
    339. Memories of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Ali M. Yazdi, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). [about]
    340. Memories of Ashchi: Background, by Ahang Rabbani and Sen McGlinn (1999). Background information on and a start at translation of the narratives of Aqa Husayn Ashchi. [about]
    341. Memories of Nine Years in Akka, by Youness Afroukhteh (1952). Translation of Khatirát-i-Nuh-Saliy-i-‘Akká, the memoirs of Dr. Yúnis Afrukhtih, who served ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as secretary and interpreter from 1900-1909. Includes discussion of the history of Covenant-breaking. [about]
    342. Memories of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Memoirs of Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 4 (2005). Autobiography of a close confidant of the holy family. Includes appendices on Baha'i historical places in Shiraz, the Afnán family genealogy, and excerpts from Houshmand Fatheazam’s diary [about]
    343. Men and the Baha'i Faith: The role of indigenous men in the early Baha'i community in the British Isles, by Lil Osborn (2016). Includes slide-show included when presenting the paper at the Baha'i Studies Seminar, Kellogg College, Oxford (July 2016). [about]
    344. Mental Tests, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Meaning of the phrase "mental tests" in the writings of Abdu'l-Baha and of Shoghi Effendi. Includes short compilation of relevant passages. [about]
    345. Message from Abdu'l-Baha, Head of the Baha'is, A, in New York Times (1912). News article of Abdu'l-Baha's tour. Includes scanned image of various newspaper clippings and photographs of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    346. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    347. Midhat Pasha and 'Abdu'l-Baha in 'Akka: The Historical Background of the Tablet of the Land of Bá, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). Background of the tablet Lawh-i-Ard-i-Bá, revealed by Baha'u'llah on occasion of Abdu'l-Baha travelling to Beirut to meet the governor of Syria. Includes an account by Mirza Haydar Ali of the Pasha's visit. [about]
    348. Millennium Forum, by Universal House of Justice (2000). [about]
    349. Mirza Mihdi, "Holy Family", capitalization of pronouns, Guardian's use of English, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Five unrelated questions about Mirza Mihdi; use of the title "Holy Family"; capitalization of personal pronouns; and the Guardian's use of English in his translations. [about]
    350. Mírzá Yahyá Azal, Designation of in the Writings of the Báb, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
    351. Mobilizing Institutional, Legal and Cultural Resources to Achieve Gender Equality, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    352. Monogamy, Sexual Equality, Marital Equality, and the Supreme Tribunal, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Questions about monogamy, the Supreme Tribunal, and the Baha'i concept of equality of the sexes in light of some Baha'i laws and history which appear to undermine it [about]
    353. Mortensen, Fred, by Justin Penoyer (2007). Three biographies of an American who met Abdu'l-Baha, by his great-grandson. [about]
    354. Mother's Stories: Recollections of Abdu'l-Baha, by Muriel Ives Barrow Newhall (1998). [about]
    355. Mountain of God, The, by E. S. (Ethel Stefana) Stevens, in World Order, 4:3-4:4 (1911). Sympathetic portrayal by a non-Baha'i of Abdu'l-Baha and the small band of Bahá’ís who lived in Haifa and 'Akká early in 20th Century. [about]
    356. Mujeres y Hombres, Una Sociedad para un Planeta Saludable, by Bahá'í International Community. Exposición presentada al "World Women's Congress for a Healthy Planet", Miami, Florida, 8-12 Noviembre, 1991. [about]
    357. Munirih Khanum: Memoirs and Letters, by Munirih Khanum (1986). Autobiography of Khanum (1847-1938), the wife of Abdu'l-Baha. Includes the arrangements for her marriage, her travel to Akka, her time with the wife of the Bab, and memorial letters written on the anniversaries of the passing of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    358. Mutilated Body of the Modern Nation: Qurrat al-'Ayn's Unveiling and the Persian Massacre of the Bábís, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 18:2 (1998). [about]
    359. My Memories of Baha'u'llah, by Ustad Muhammad-'Ali Salmani. [about]
    360. Napoleon III and Queen Victoria, Responses to the Tablets of Baha'u'llah, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Do we know what Napoleon and Queen Victoria really said upon receiving tablets from Baha'u'llah? [about]
    361. National Spiritual Assembly members who are women, Percentage of, 1953-2007, by Bahá'í World Centre (1998). Two letters from the House, with attached tables, showing the number of women serving on NSAs 1953-1993, 1987-1997, and 1997-2007. Includes graphs showing numbers and percent of women serving on NSAs by continental region. [about]
    362. Natural Stirrings at the Grassroots: Development, Doctrine, and the Dignity Principle, by Anna C. Vakil, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 11:1-2 (2001). [about]
    363. Nature, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1988). [about]
    364. New Framework for Global Prosperity, A, by Bahá’í International Community (2006). Bahá'í International Community's submission to the 2006 Commission on Social Development on the review of the First United Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty [about]
    365. New Race of Men and the meaning of "Tread Under", A, by Universal House of Justice (2013). The meaning of the phrase "A race of men ... will tread under all who are in heaven." Includes compilation on the topic. [about]
    366. New Religious Movements, Tolkien, Marriage, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Various questions: new religious movements; Indian Letter of the Living; J.R.R. Tolkien; eternality of the marriage bond; illumination of Baha'u'llah's tablets. [about]
    367. Nine-Pointed Star, The: History and Symbolism, by Universal House of Justice (1999). The history and the proper place and use of the nine-pointed star, a common Baha'i symbol, in comparison and relation to the official five-pointed star and the Greatest Name symbols. [about]
    368. Notes on Bahá'í Proofs Based on the Qur'an, Some (2000). [about]
    369. Notes Taken in the Presence of Shoghi Effendi, by Agnes Baldwin Alexander (1937). Notes from a pilgrimage in spring, 1937. Two editions of the notes are presented in parallel. [about]
    370. Nuri, Mirza Abbas Buzurg: Complete Genealogy Report (2008). [about]
    371. Obedience to Civil Authority, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, in The Bahá'í National Review, 32 (1970). A statement on the problem of whom one should obey when there is apparent conflict between the immediate civil authority under which one resides and a superior authority, such as a state or the Federal Government. [about]
    372. Obligatory Prayer, Ablutions, and Repetition of the Greatest Name, by Universal House of Justice (2004). On recitation of the specific verses associated with the performance of ablutions for the medium Obligatory Prayer. Includes compilation of references regarding repetition of the Greatest Name 95 times per a Day. [about]
    373. Obligatory Prayer, Questions about, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Answers to four questions about reciting prayers at meetings; changing language gender; repetition of Greatest Name; and raising hands. [about]
    374. Off the Grid: Reading Iranian Memoirs in Our Time of Total War, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Middle East Research and Information Project (2004). Observations on contemporary culture and gender issues in Iran. [about]
    375. One Common Faith, by Universal House of Justice (2005). Review of relevant passages from both the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and the scriptures of other faiths against the background of contemporary crises. [about]
    376. Ornaments (Tarázát): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Robert Stockman (1999). [about]
    377. Our Beloved Guardian: An Introduction to the Life and Work of Shoghi Effendi, by Lowell Johnson (1993). A comprehensive summary biography of Shoghi Effendi. Includes glossary of some antiquated English words and their contemporary or simplified English equivalents. Introduction by Marguerite Sears. [about]
    378. Overview of Bahá'í Social and Economic Development, by Holly Hanson, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 21 (1992-1993) (1993). Evolution of Bahá'í involvement in social and economic development, and some current projects. [about]
    379. Papel de la educación, los medios de información y las artes en el desarrollo social, El, by Bahá'í International Community. El papel de la educación, los medios de información [about]
    380. Paradox of Protest in a Culture of Contest, The, by Michael Karlberg, in Peace and Change, 28:3 (2003). In our culture, political and legal institutions are structured as contests and reform is characterized as protest. This leads to injustice and unsustainability. Baha'i models of elections and decision-making offer a practical alternative. [about]
    381. Participation in Anti-War Demonstrations, by Universal House of Justice and National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United Kingdom (2003). Two short letters from the House of Justice on avoiding political protest and anti-war demonstrations, followed by a longer letter from the NSA of the U.K. on "Responding to the Middle East Crisis." [about]
    382. Passing of Shoghi Effendi, The: 1896-1957, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum and John Ferraby (1958). Detailed account of the final days of the life of the Guardian. [about]
    383. Path of God, The, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
    384. Paz y el Desarrollo, La, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración presentada al Seminario de las Naciones Unidas para las regiones de Asia, el Pacífico y Asia Occidental, para el Año Internacional de la Paz, Bangkok, Tailandia, 20 al 24 de mayo de 1985 [about]
    385. Perceiving Differences: A Look at Gender and Equality, by Mark Brush, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Observations on what Richard DeNovellis' "Personality Type Preference Indicator" tests show about ages and genders; laws of nature vs. laws of God. [about]
    386. Perfection and Refinement: Towards an Aesthetics of the Bab, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The writings of the Bab have implications for the "plastic" arts; significance for native traditions; relevance to the performing arts; and the concept of refinement which comes across in both the person and the writings of the Báb. [about]
    387. Permanence of Change, The: Contemporary Sociological and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Hoda Mahmoudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18 (2008). Sociohistorical changes of the Axial Age and the Renaissance, sociological views on modernity and its contemporary challenges, and key features of modernity as identified in the Bahá’í writings as "the universal awakening of historical consciousness." [about]
    388. Persia Past and Present: A Book of Travel and Research, by A. V. Williams Jackson (1906). A few passing mentions of the Babis. [about]
    389. Petition from the Persian Reformers (1867). A petition sent by Baha'is in Baghdad and Shushtar, Iran, in 1867 to the US Consulate general, seeking assistance in getting Baha'u'llah released from imposed exile. [about]
    390. Philosophical Basis for the Centre for Renewable Energy at Dundalk Institute of Technology, A, by Lawrence D. Staudt, in Solas, 3 (2003). Nature of the physical world, the principle of sustainability, the present energy situation, options for Ireland, a vision for the use of renewable energy in Ireland, and the role of the Centre for Renewable Energy at Dundalk Institute of Tech (CREDIT). [about]
    391. Pilgrim's Notes, by Ben Levy (1953). Notes from a pilgrimage March 9-16, 1953. [about]
    392. Pilgrim's notes about Shoghi Effendi, by Ramona Brown, in Memories of 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Recollections of the Early Days of the Bahá'ís of California (1980). Notes from a pilgrimage in 1954. [about]
    393. Political Non-Involvement and Obedience to Government: Compilation by Peter Khan with Cover Letter from Secretariat, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (2003). Current world events can cause confusion and anguish among those seeking global peace. Rather than being drawn into prevailing attitudes and disputes, Baha'is must hold a broader long-term perspective. [about]
    394. Prayer "Make me a hollow reed," Source of, by Universal House of Justice (1999). The prayer "Oh, God, make me a hollow reed..." is neither by Abdu'l-Baha nor George Townshend, and its author is unknown. [about]
    395. Prayer for Shaykh Kázim Samandar, by Bahá'u'lláh and Universal House of Justice (2001). Brief prayer revealed by Bahá'u'lláh to aid in making decisions. Translation and accompanying letter by the Bahá'í World Centre. [about]
    396. Prayer of the Bab "God Sufficeth...," Two versions of, by Universal House of Justice (1996). The original text of the prayer "God Sufficeth" has not been found, and there may be two versions. [about]
    397. Prayers and rituals in the Bahá'í Faith: Introduction to A Tablet to Jináb-i-Mullá 'Alí-Akbar fí Ardi'l-Álif, by Julio Savi and Faezeh Mardani, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
    398. Prayers and Tablets, Authenticity of, by Universal House of Justice, in American Bahá'í (1992). List of some prayers and tablets which are not or might not be authentic. [about]
    399. Précis Commentary on One Common Faith, by William S. Hatcher (2008). [about]
    400. Preliminary Survey of the Bahá'í Community of Iran during the Nineteenth Century, A, by Moojan Momen, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Enstehung der Baha'i Religion, ed. Christoph Burgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). [about]
    401. Preparación para Vivir en Paz, La Contribución de la Mujer, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración preparada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í para el Seminario Regional Europeo para el Año Internacional de la Paz, Viena, Austria: 6 al 10 de mayo de 1985 [about]
    402. Preparing Bahá'í Communities in the East and West to Embrace Gender Equality, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The way Abdu'l-Baha dealt with the matter of gender equality, some of his writings revealed in honor of the Bahá’í women in Iran and North America, and the practical ways he educated Baha'i men to accept women as their equals. [about]
    403. Priceless Pearl, The, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1969). The classic biography of The Guardian, written by his wife. [about]
    404. Promise of All Ages, The, by George Townshend (1934). Overview of Baha'i teachings: a "sketch of the religious teaching of Bahá’u’lláh on the subject of the unity of mankind and the establishment in this century of a universal and permanent peace." [about]
    405. Promise of World Peace, by Universal House of Justice (1985). A document distributed to many politicians and prominent individuals since its writing in 1985, it was the first official public statement made by the Universal House of Justice since its inception in 1963. [about]
    406. Promoting the Equality of Women and Men: The Role of the Covenant, by Janet A. Khan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:1-2 (2000). [about]
    407. Prophecy of Daniel; Modifications of Baha'u'llah and the New Era, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Two topics: the fulfilment of the Biblical prophecy of Daniel concerning 1,335 days, and modifications made to Baha'u'llah and the New Era. [about]
    408. Proselytizing, Development, and the Covenant, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986, The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Teaching vs. proselytization; applying Baha'i social teachings without becoming ensnared in prevailing cultural mores; and the uniqueness of the Baha'i covenant. [about]
    409. Prosperity of Humankind, by Bahá'í International Community (1995). A statement prepared by the Bahá'í International Community Office of Public Information, Haifa, first distributed at the United Nations World Summit on Social Development, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1995. [about]
    410. Qourrèt-oul-Aíne [Qurratu'l-`Ayn], by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Tahirih in History: Perspectives on Qurratu'l-'Ayn from East and West, ed. Sabir Afaqi (2004). First publication in English translation of early accounts of the life and death of Táhirih. These passages are from Seyyed Ali Mohammad dit le Bab (1905) by A.-L.-M. Nicolas, French diplomat and author. [about]
    411. Questions and Answers 1950-51, by Mirra Alfassa (1951). The Mother's recollections of Abdu'l-Baha speaking to her about sacrifice and suffering. [about]
    412. Questions of Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali Muhammad occasioning the Revelation of the Kitab-i-Iqan, by Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali Muhammad (1997). Translation of the questions submitted to Baha'u'llah by Haji Mirza Siyyid Muhammad, the maternal uncle of the Bab, which led to the revelation of the Kitab-i Iqan. [about]
    413. Qur'an Commentary as Sacred Performance: The Bab's tafsirs of Qur'an 103 and 108, the Declining Day and the Abundance, by Todd Lawson, in Der Iran um 19 Jahrhundert und die Enstehung der Bahá'í Religion (1998). Quranic commentary played a major role in the formation of the Babi movement. Early Babis were impressed by the Bab's innovative interpretation of scripture. As the Bab's claims became more widely known, his language became less esoteric. [about]
    414. Qur'an Commentary of Sayyid 'Alí Muhammad, the Báb, The: Doctoral dissertation, by Todd Lawson (1987). A study of the Báb's two earliest works, partial commentaries on the Qur'an entitled "Tafsír súrat al-baqara" and "Tafsír súrat Yúsuf" (aka The Qayyum al-Asma), in an attempt to appreciate the Bab's attitude towards the Qur'an. [about]
    415. Quranic Roots of Some Legal and Theological Terms of the Kitáb-i Aqdas Regarding Women and Homosexual Relations, The, by Kamran Ekbal (1995). Interpretations and etymologies of Arabic terms for prostitution, virginity, dowry, menstruation, sodomy, pederasty, uncleanliness, and adultery. [about]
    416. Rabindranath Tagore: Some Encounters with Bahá'ís, by Peter Terry (1992). 'Abdu'l-Baha is alleged to have met India's poet laureate Tagore in Chicago in 1912. This article examines the historical sources for that story. [about]
    417. Raising Children of Light: editorial, by Bahá'í International Community, in Jerusalem Post (2008). [about]
    418. Recovering the Lives of Enslaved Africans in Nineteenth-Century Iran: A First Attempt, by Anthony Lee, in Changing Horizons in African History (2016). Reconstructing the lives of four slaves in the Middle East, including Haji Mubarak and Fezzeh Khanum, servants of The Bab. [about]
    419. Reflection on the Theory of Alchemy as Explained in the Bahá'í Writings, A, by Keven Brown (2002). [about]
    420. Reflections on Climate Change: A Baha'i Response, by Rod Duncan, in Interreligious Insight, 8:1 (2010). [about]
    421. Regarding the implementation of the Badi` calendar, by Universal House of Justice (2014). Message to the Bahá’ís of the world on the updated calendar of Baha'i holy days. Includes a table of Bahá’í Dates 172 to 221 B.E., and a letter to an individual explaining the date of the astronomical new moon in Islamic and Baha'i calendars. [about]
    422. Relating the Faith to Current Issues, by Peter J. Khan (1986). Short essay outlining an approach to relate the teachings to current thoughts and problems of humanity. [about]
    423. Relationship to Government, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Three short sections: Loyalty to the government, the Baha'i view of pacifism, and the Guardian's instructions regarding military service. [about]
    424. Religions of the World: Divisive or Divine?: A Look at Religious Fundamentalism, by Moojan Momen (2001). [about]
    425. Religious Authority and Apocalypse: 
Tafsír as Experience in an Early Work by The Báb, by Todd Lawson, in Unity in Diverity: Mysticism, Messianism and the Construction of Religious Authority in Islam, ed. Orkhan Mir-Kasimov (2013). Analysis of the Báb's commentary on the Qur'an's longest chapter, Surat al-baqara, regarded as his first significant work, which includes themes such as divine self-manifestation, the hierarchy of existence, eschatology, and religious authority. [about]
    426. Remains of the Bab in Tehran, The, by Ahang Rabbani (1997). Brief bio of Aqa Husayn-'Ali Nur and an extract from Khatirat Muhajiri Az Isfahan, "Memoirs of a Refugee from Isfahan," discussing the history of these remains. Includes biographical notes. [about]
    427. Remember My Days: The Life-Story of Bahá'u'lláh, by Lowell Johnson (1980). Biography of the prophet-founder of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
    428. Research Department, Functions of; Etymologies of three terms, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Two questions: (1) what is the function of the Research Department, and (2) etymologies of the three terms "world of exemplars," "'álam," and "barzakh." [about]
    429. Resistance, Resilience and the Role of Narrative: Lessons from the Experiences of Iranian Bahá'í Women Prisoners, by Donna Hakimian, in Enquire (Electronic Nottinghom Quarterly for Ideas, Research, and Evaluation), 3 (2009). A study of Iranian Bahá’í women who were imprisoned in Iran following the 1979 revolution. Aspects of individual resistance and resilience are explored through life history interviews. Link to article (offsite). [about]
    430. Response, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani: Review, by Elizabeth Shema, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). [about]
    431. Resurrection and Return of Jesus, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). The body of Christ; the burial of Christ; His return; and explaining the Baha'i view to Christians. [about]
    432. Rewriting the Script: Some thoughts on gender roles and the Bahá'í Teachings, by Sonja van Kerkhoff (2000). A collection of visual and physical art exploring these themes. [about]
    433. Ridvan 2010 comments, by Paul Lample (2010). Reflections on the 2010 Ridvan letter and the teaching plans, delivered in Foundation Hall at the Bahá'í House of Worship in Wilmette. [about]
    434. Right Relationship: Building a Whole Earth Economy, by Peter Brown (2009). [about]
    435. Rights and Responsibilities in the Bahá'í Family System, by Hoda Mahmoudi and Richard Dabell, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). [about]
    436. Rise and Fall of the Parliament of Religions at Greenacre, The, by Robert P. Richardson, in The Open Court, 45:3 (1931). Background of the first parliament and Chicago Columbian Exposition and the role of Sarah Farmer and other Baha'is in bringing it to fruition, written from an unsympathetic outsider's perspective. Not yet proofread. [about]
    437. Rizal, Revelation and Revolution: Rizal's Letter to the Women of Malolos and Baha'u'llah's letter to Nabil Akbar Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) , by Stephen Ramo (2011). Comparison of letter by Philippine national hero José Rizal to the women of Malolos with Bahá'u'lláh's "Tablet of Wisdom" to Nabil. [about]
    438. Role of Business in Enhancing The Prosperity of Humankind, The, by William Walker and Jane Nelson (2001). Three articles about exploring and implementing concepts from Prosperity of Humankind, including building partnerships, toward a new concept of prosperity, preservation of wildlife, and examples of successful initiatives. [about]
    439. Role of the Feminine in the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). [about]
    440. Role of the Feminine in the New Era, The, by Marion Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:1 (1989). [about]
    441. Ruhi Institutes and the Five-Year Plan, by Universal House of Justice (2011). Letter to all National Spiritual Assemblies about the role of the Ruhi Institute, coordination of clusters, education of children, and training institutes in the 2011-2016 5-Year Plan. [about]
    442. Ruptured Spaces and Effective Histories: The Unveiling of the Babi Poetess Qurrat al-'Ayn-Tahirih in the Gardens of Badasht, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1998). Implications of Tahirih's revolutionary act at Badasht in terms of a decisive break with Islamic history; also Shaykh Abu Turab's recollections of the event and his literary role in Nabil's Dawn-Breakers. [about]
    443. Russian Publication of Baha'u'llah's Last Will and Testament, The: An Academic Attestation of 'Abdu'l-Baha's Successorship, by Christopher Buck and Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 19 (2013). On the content of the Kitab-i-Ahdi, its manuscript history, and textual variants; Andalib's eyewitness account of its unveiling; Tumanski's scholarly work; contemporary attestation of 'Abdu'l-Baha's successorship by Tumanski and other Russian notables. [about]
    444. S.W. Persia: A Political Officer's Diary 1907-1914, by Arnold, Sir Wilson (1941). Two passing mentions of Baha'is and Babis. [about]
    445. Sabaeans and African-based Religions in the Americas, The, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview of the religion of the Sabaeans [aka Sabeans], and some indigenous practices in the southern Americas such as Yoruba, Santeria, and Brazilian Candomble. [about]
    446. Sacred Pilgrimage: Visits with The Guardian, by Bill Washington, in Herald of the South (1957). Letter to the Australian newsletter, summarizing of nine days in the Holy Land and talks with Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    447. Salaam Cinema: On Mohsen Makhmalbaf, by Adina Hoffman, in The Nation (2013). An Iranian director's ongoing meditations on the nature of illusion and reality, truth and consequences. Includes a review of The Gardener, a documentary about the Baha'i Faith. [about]
    448. Salmani's My Memories of Baha'u'llah, Publication of, by Universal House of Justice (1982). Two letters, to a Baha'i publisher and an individual, regarding the 1982 publication of My Memories of Baha'u'llah, an autobiography of Baha'u'llah's barber, Ustad Salmani. [about]
    449. Science and Religion, Quotations on, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Regarding a compilation on science and religion; includes a short list of references to science and religion. [about]
    450. Science in the Hands of Women: Present Barriers, Future Promise, by Rhea Howard Harmsen, in World Order (1998). [about]
    451. Secret of Divine Civilization translation, capital punishment, and other quesions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On the capitalization of pronouns, reference to "we Muslims," works of Abdu'l-Baha revealed during the time of Baha'u'llah, the first person to recognize Baha'u'llah, and designer of the temple in Ishqabad. Includes a compilation on capital punishment. [about]
    452. Seed of Creation: A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation, by Ahmad Aniss (1998). A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation. [about]
    453. Seeds of Revelation and the Mystic Bond between The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: An Exposition on Excerpts from the Persian Bayán, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
    454. Selected Talks and Statements on Interfaith Issues by Religious Leaders and Scholars, by George Townshend and Swami Vivekananda, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). Compilation of addresses to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Inter-Religious Organisation of Singapore; also includes talks by Jonathan Sacks, Abdullah Yusof Ali, Robert Runcie, and Pope John Paul II. [about]
    455. Selected Topics of Comparison in Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Peter Mazal (1999). Comparison of Baha'i and Christian morality, archetypal events and people (e.g. the ideal woman) in early Christian and Bábí-Bahá'í history plus concepts of Christ (Christology) and the Messiah compared to Prophets, Messengers and Manifestations of God. [about]
    456. Self-Defense, the Ungodly, Infallibility, and Sexual Violence and Abuse, by Universal House of Justice (2004). Answers to a number of questions, with extracts from four letters of the House, on self-defense, the ungodly, infallibility, sexual violence, and abuse. [about]
    457. Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation, by Bradford W. Miller, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:3 (1998). [about]
    458. Servants in the Households of Baha'u'llah and the Bab, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Whether or not the servants of the Bab and Baha'u'llah were slaves, and a list of relevant sources for further research. [about]
    459. Sex, Gender, and New Age Stereotyping, by Lata Ta'eed, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Advocates the abolishing of culturally produced differences between men and women and challenges gender inconsistencies inherent in many Bahá'í discussions. [about]
    460. Sexual Equality in the Bahá'í Community, by Shiva Tavana, in dialogue magazine, 1:3 (1986). Women are oppressed minorities who often feel isolated, even in Baha'i communities. Baha'is need to explore new models of family life. Includes statistics on the percentages of female members of Baha'i institutions. [about]
    461. "Share your time with God", by Universal House of Justice (2004). Source of the quotation "Share your time with God. Spend half of the day in search of livelihood," from a pilgrim's note. [about]
    462. Shoghi Effendi: Recollections, by Ugo Giachery (1973). Biography of Shoghi Effendi from the close standpoint of the author's personal experiences. Short excerpt from book; Part 1 only. [about]
    463. Shoghi Effendi: After a Hundred Years, in World Order, 29:1 (1997). Editorial for an issue dedicated to the centennial of the Guardian's birth, summarizing his life and his place in Baha'i history. [about]
    464. Silent Road: In the light of personal experience, by Wellesley Tudor Pole (1960). PDF of the entire book, followed by a short HTML-formatted excerpt about the "healing miracles" of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    465. Sin-covering Gaze, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Brief explanation of a possible source for a story of Christ told by Abdu'l-Baha about encountering a dead dog and commenting on the beauty of its teeth; i.e., having a "sin-covering gaze." [about]
    466. Six-Year Plan, 1986, by Universal House of Justice (1986). Outline of Baha'i goals for 1986-1992, and collection of letters from the House. [about]
    467. Social Action, by Office of Social and Economic Development (2012). A paper sent to all LSAs, and the subject of the plenary talk by Valerie Dana at the 2012 SED conference (Orlando, FL). Prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development of the Bahá'í World Centre. [about]
    468. Social adaptation of marginal religious movements in America, The, by Bryan F. Le Beau, in Sociology of Religion (1993). Includes four mentions of Baha'i, in passing. [about]
    469. Social and Economic Development, by Harris Eyeford Polk. [about]
    470. Social and Economic Development, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). [about]
    471. Social Basis of the Bábí Upheavals in Iran (1848-1953): A Preliminary Analysis, by Moojan Momen, in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 15 (1983). In the mid-19th century, Iran was shaken by unrest caused by the Babi movement, which set off a chain of events that led on the one hand, to the constitutional movement in Iran, and on the other, to the establishment of the now world-wide Baha'i Faith. [about]
    472. Social Justice, Wealth Equity and Gender Equality: Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís of Alberta, by Leslie William Kuzyk (2003). Baha'i theology takes distinctive positions on wealth distribution and gender equality. These issues are causal factors in a more just model of society. A social survey establishes empirically whether a Baha'i population differs from common society. [about]
    473. Socrates in History and the Bahá'í Writings, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Historical facts known about Socrates, some of the difficulties inherent in endeavouring to unravel the historical Socrates, and quotations from the Baha'i Writings. [about]
    474. Sources for studying the life and writings of Abdu'l-Baha: A topical bibliography (1999). [about]
    475. Speaking in Edinburgh, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1981). Address at Edinburgh Baha'i Centre. Includes discussion of Shoghi Effendi in Scotland and the eagle and pillar at his resting place. [about]
    476. Spiritual Approach to Microcredit Projects, A, by Michel P. Zahrai (1998). Spiritual considerations that should guide the elaboration and implementation of microcredit schemes and measure their success. [about]
    477. Spiritual Dimensions of Microfinance, The: Towards a Just Civilization and Sustainable Economy, by Barbara J. Rodey (2001). Prepared for the Microcredit Summit to emphasize the importance of universal spiritual principles to achieve the real benefits of microfinance services. [about]
    478. Spiritual Dimensions of Sustainable Development, by Arthur Lyon Dahl (1996). The many meanings of "development" and their spiritual aspects. [about]
    479. Spiritual Foundations for an Ecologically Sustainable Society, by Robert A. White, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). [about]
    480. Spiritual Inheritors, The, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in dialogue magazine, 2:1 (1987). Reflections on growing up Baha'i, and a report on a conference about capturing the power of the Six Year Plan to focus attention on the role of women in establishing global peace, the destiny of the women of North America, and equality of sexes. [about]
    481. Spiritual Nature of Reality, The: Has the Future Already Been Written?, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:3-4 (2000). Meditations on "Who is Writing the Future": why is spiritual development a social as well as personal matter; what is epistemological methodology for this development; how is it distinct from materialism; and how does it relate to the Covenants? [about]
    482. Spiritual Oppression in Frankenstein, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:4 (1999). [about]
    483. Statement on Bahá'u'lláh, A, by Bahá'í International Community (1992). Introduction to the life and work of Baha'u'llah, released in 1992 in honor of the centenary of his death, at the request of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    484. Still Lives, by Denis MacEoin, in New Jerusalems: Reflections on Islam, Fundamentalism, and the Rushdie Affair (1993). The nature of private lives and biography in Middle Eastern culture, with brief discussion of Rushdie's Satanic Verses and the lives of Tahirih and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    485. Stories of Baha'u'llah and Some Notable Believers, by Adib Taherzadeh (2003). Extracts compiled from Adib Taherzadeh’s The Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh, Volumes 1-4. [about]
    486. Structure of Existence in the Bab's Tafsir and the Perfect Man Motif, The, by Todd Lawson, in Studia Iranica: Cahiers 11: Recurrent Patterns in Iranian Religions from Mazdaism to Sufism (1992). The Perfect Man is the mediator between God and the World. He is the mirror in which creation sees God, the eye by which God sees creation. The Bab phrased his cosmology and his Quranic exegesis in light of wahdat al-wujud, the Unity of Being. [about]
    487. Suffering of Bahá'u'lláh, The, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Deepening Portfolio Number 3 (1974). [about]
    488. Supreme Tribunal (Mahkamiy-i-Kubra), by Ali Nakhjavani, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Meaning of "Baha'i Court" in the writings of the Guardian and how it compares with the General Assembly of the United Nations. [about]
    489. Surih of the Sun (Súriy-i-Vash-Shams): Introduction and Commentary, by Juan Cole (1994). Overview of a tablet of Baha'u'llah touching on matters of interpretation and theology. [about]
    490. Sustainable Consumption and True Prosperity, by Arthur Lyon Dahl (1998). The problems of consumption and their solutions. [about]
    491. Sustainable Development and Prosperity, by Arthur Lyon Dahl (2001). [about]
    492. Sustainable Development and the Environment of the World: An Overview, by Arthur Lyon Dahl (1997). [about]
    493. Sustainable Development, A Bahá'í View: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1995). [about]
    494. Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Baha Concerning Arius, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Arius was an early Christian theologian whose rejection of the Trinity, Abdu'l-Baha said, destroyed the unity of the Church. [about]
    495. Tablet of Ahmad and Tablet of the Holy Mariner, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Date of publications of translations of the Tablet of Ahmad and the Tablet of the Holy Mariner. [about]
    496. Tablet of Maqsud, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Date of the revelation of the Tablet of Maqsúd and its mention of "Two great powers." [about]
    497. Tablet of Patience (Surih Sabr): Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh and Selected Topics, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). This significant Tablet from Ridvan 1863 covers the Seal of the Prophets, appearance and presence of God, resurrection, and the Qayyum al-Asma. Includes context of Baha'u'llah's life and troubles during this period. [about]
    498. Tablet of the 'Light Verse' (Lawh-i-Áyiy-i-Núr), also known as Commentary on the Disconnected Letters: Overview, by Adib Taherzadeh and Nabil-i-A'zam (1999). [about]
    499. Tablet of the Báb Lawh-i-Vasaya, "Will and Testament"; Titles of Mírzá Yahyá, by Universal House of Justice (2004). Two questions: on the Tablet of the Bab "Lawh-i-Vasaya: The Will and Testament"; the nature of the appointment and titles of Mírzá Yahyá. Includes two attachments: Tablet of the Bab Lawh-i-Vasaya and excerpt from Making the Crooked Straight. [about]
    500. Tablet of The Desired One (Lawh-i-Maqsúd): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Universal House of Justice and Juan Cole (1999). [about]
    501. Tablet of the Maiden: Commentary on its translation, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Two letters on the mystical/symbolic content of Tablet of the Maiden, with comments on the translation by Juan Cole [about]
    502. Tablet of the Manifestation, by Bahá'u'lláh (1998). [about]
    503. Tablet to Amir Khan and Tablet of the Holy Mariner, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Three letters about Abdu'l-Baha'is Tablet to Amír Khán; one letter about the Tablet of the Holy Mariner, the "Call of God," and Native American Prophets; short note from David Ruhe about Deganawida. [about]
    504. Tablet to Sháh-Muhammad-Amín (Amínu'l-Bayán): Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh and Universal House of Justice (2003). Excerpt of a tablet revealed in honour of the first Trustee of Huquq’u’lláh, surnamed the “Trusted of the Bayán," with introductory letter from the House of Justice. [about]
    505. Tablets and Utterances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá Quoted in Compilations and Letters of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (2003). Discusses the authenticity of quotations included in letters from the Universal House of Justice, plus comments on pilgrims' notes. [about]
    506. Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Bahá'u'lláh (1988). [about]
    507. Tablets to the Kings, by Universal House of Justice (1989). Two questions on the Tablets to the Kings: which ones were delivered and how, and the response of Queen Victoria. [about]
    508. Táhirih: A Religious Paradigm of Womanhood, by Susan Maneck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1989). [about]
    509. Tahirih and Women's Suffrage, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:2 (1990). Two letters on the same topics. [about]
    510. Tahirih, Letter of the Living, and Khadijih Bagum, Wife of the Báb, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Life stories of two key heroines of Babi history. [about]
    511. Texts, Authenticity of, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Status of texts of Abdu'l-Baha's talks, of letters from the Universal House of Justice versus its Secretariat, of letters from the Guardian, and of the books Baha'i World Faith and Foundations of World Unity. [about]
    512. Texts, Sacred, Numbers and Classifications of, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2002). Three letters, from 2002, 2010, and 2013, about numbers of Sacred Texts catalogued by the Baha'i World Center and their classification into "authenticated," "revised," and "transcribed." [about]
    513. Textual Resurrection: Book, Imám, and Cosmos in the Qur'án Commentaries of the Báb, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
    514. Themes of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablets of The Divine Plan Illustrated by Scriptural References to the Bible and the Qur'án, by Lameh Fananapazir, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). The Tablets of the Divine Plan, as well as Abdu'l-Baha's Will and Testament and the Tablet of Carmel, are three “Charters” for promotion of the Cause of God, which can also heal the problems facing humanity in its crisis of faith. [about]
    515. Theocracy, separation of church and state, by Universal House of Justice (1995). The issue of theocracy in relation to the Baha'i model of government. [about]
    516. Theology of the Sacraments in the Roman Catholic Church, The, by Kevin Brogan, in Solas, 1 (2001). Helping Baha'is understand the Catholic church's historical perspectives and spiritual significance placed on sacraments, which are: Baptism, Penance, Confirmation, Eucharist (or Mass), Marriage, Holy Orders, and Sacrament of the Sick (“Extreme Unction"). [about]
    517. Three Meditations on the Eve of November Fourth, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi (1970). Essays and poems written by Hand of the Cause A.Q. Faizi on the evening of Shoghi Effendi's death, November 4 1957. [about]
    518. To Build Anew: Creating Bahá'í-inspired Enterprises, by Don Brown (2002). A study in social and economic development, applying Baha'i principles in a business how-to manual. Sample chapter: "The Enterprise and the Spiritual Principle Paradigm." [about]
    519. Toward a New Environmental Stewardship, by Michael Karlberg, in World Order, 25:4 (1994). [about]
    520. Translations of the Bible Used by Abdu'l-Baha, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Which translations of the Bible were used by Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    521. Translations of the Qur'án and Introductory Books on the Bahá'í Faith, Recommendations Concerning, by Universal House of Justice (2002). On translations of the Qur'an, and introductory books on the Baha'i Faith. [about]
    522. Travels of `Abdu'l-Bahá and their Impact on the Press, The, by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The presence of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in Western countries aroused great interest in the general public and the media. The surveys the news reports of the events related to His visit and the impressions gained by His audiences. [about]
    523. Trial of the Báb: Answers given during the interrogation of the Báb (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial. [about]
    524. Trial of the Báb: Alim-i Hashtrud's account (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial. [about]
    525. Trial of the Bab: Mulla Muhammad Mamaqani's account (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial. [about]
    526. Trial of the Báb: Questions, rebukes, statements made during the interrogation of the Bab (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial. [about]
    527. Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image, by Denis MacEoin, in Studies in Honor of Clifford Edmund Bosworth 2: The Sultan's Turret (2000). Overview of, and documents preserved from, the Bab's 1848 trial for heresy against Islam. [about]
    528. True Foundation of All Economics, The, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2000). Book-length compilation ordered by chapters covering 26 themes on the economy, welfare, development, women's employment, work ethics, morality, agriculture, extremes of wealth and poverty, profit-sharing, health and alcohol, consultation. [about]
    529. Turning Point for All Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (1995). A statement on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations, about the scope, function, and mandate of the UN, and world concerns it must address. [about]
    530. Turning Point for All Nations Study Outline (2001). Summary and an extensive, detailed outline of this book's contents. [about]
    531. Two Shall Appear, by Olivia Kelsey, Revised Second Edition (1943). A play which attempts to depict in a brief form the background and some of the heroic events of Baha'i history. [about]
    532. Two Wings of a Bird: The Equality of Women and Men, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). The emancipation of women, the achievement of full equality between the sexes, is essential to human progress and the transformation of society. [about]
    533. Unclipping the Wings: A Survey of Secondary Literature in English on Bahá'í Perspectives on Women, by Trevor R. J. Finch, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Annotated bibliography of Bahá'í perspectives on women and women's issues. [about]
    534. Unity and Consultation: Foundations of Sustainable Development, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1994). [about]
    535. Unity and Progressive Revelation: Comparing Bahá'í Principles with the Basic Concepts of Teilhard de Chardin, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
    536. Universal House of Justice and the Principles of Jurisprudence, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2001). Authorized translation of an excerpt of a tablet on "the wisdom of referring certain important laws to the House of Justice." [about]
    537. Unrestrained as the Wind: A Life Dedicated to Bahá'u'lláh (1985). Compilation of quotations on topics of especial interest to Bahá'í youth. [about]
    538. Valorando la espiritualidad en el Desarrollo: Consideraciones Iniciales en cuanto a la Creación de Indicadores de Base Espiritual para el Desarrollo, by Bahá'í International Community. Consideraciones Iniciales en cuanto a la Creación de Indicadores de Base Espiritual para el Desarrollo, presentado al "Diálogo Mundial de las Fes y el Desarrollo", 1998 [about]
    539. Varqá, Ali-Mohammad, by Iraj Ayman, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2017). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    540. Varqá, Wali-Alláh, by Iraj Ayman, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2017). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    541. Views of Akka, Haifa, Mt. Carmel, and Other Places: Photographs of "The Dwelling Place of the Most High," Authorized by Abdu'l-Baha (1911). Pictures of Akká taken between 1903-1911, with historical annotations and bibliographical data added later, in 2007 by Troxel and in 2008 by Cary Enoch Reinstein. [about]
    542. Violence Against Women and Children, by Universal House of Justice, in American Bahá'í (1993). Explains the nature and treatment of all forms of violent oppression against the weak. [about]
    543. Vision of Race Unity: America's Most Challenging Issue, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1991). A formal statement from the US NSA on "the most challenging issue confronting America." [about]
    544. Voluntad y Testamento de Abdu'l-Baha, by Abdu'l-Bahá. Spanish translation of Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    545. War, Governance, and Conscience in This Age of Transition, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, in The Bahá'í National Review, 20 (1969). A whitepaper on issues of Baha'i involvement in the military services. [about]
    546. Water as a symbol used in the Sacred Writings, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2002). [about]
    547. What do Baha'is believe about gender?, by Gleibys L. Buchanan, in Washington Post (2011). [about]
    548. Whilst He Was in Suleymaniah: Extracts and poems from the memoirs of Nabil Zarandi, by Nabil-i-A'zam (2002). Handful of short extracts and poems from the memoirs of Nabíl-i-A`zam [aka Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí, aka Nabíl-i-Zarandí]. on the conduct of the Bábís in 'Iráq during Bahá'u'lláh's self-imposed exile. From Nabil's unpublished narrative. [about]
    549. Who Is Writing the Future?: Summary outline, by Graham Hassall (1999). Summary of the BIC statement "Who is Writing the Future: Reflections on the Twentieth Century" [about]
    550. Who is Writing the Future?: Reflections on the Twentieth Century, by Bahá'í International Community (1999). A statement on the current state of human society and its evolution, by the BIC's Office of Public Information. [about]
    551. "Who is Writing the Future? Reflections on the Twentieth Century": Thoughts on the Statement Prepared by the Bahá'í International Community's Office of Public Information, by Jack McLean (2001). Reflections on the structure and themes of this document. [about]
    552. Who is Writing the Future? Reflections on the Twentieth Century, by Bahá'í International Community: Review, by Iain S. Palin, in Bahá'í Journal (UK) (1999). [about]
    553. Why There are No Women in the Universal House of Justice, by Vladimir Chupin (2011). Upon learning that it is forbidden to elect women to the Universal House of Justice, many people become puzzled, given the Faith's strong emphasis on the equality of the sexes. This essay offers some perspectives. [about]
    554. Will and Testament: Translation and Commentary, by Báb, The (2004). Examination of four available manuscripts, dates of issue, variations, exclusions, verse numbering followed by a running commentary on its tone, message and implications for the future of the Babi movement. [about]
    555. Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Baha: A Commentary, by David Hofman, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 9 (1940-1944) (1945). [about]
    556. Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Study Outlines (2002). [about]
    557. Will and Testament of Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1992). 'Abdu'l-Baha's Will and Testament consists of three parts - all three written in His own hand. The first one was revealed around 1905 and the second and third sometime around 1907. [about]
    558. Will and Testament of The Báb, by Báb, The, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). One-page scan of a document commonly, though inaccurately, referred to as the "Will and Testament." [about]
    559. Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
    560. Wives of Baha'u'llah, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Information on Baha'u'llah's three wives, and a background to the Baha'i teaching that people should be monogamous in the modern age. [about]
    561. Woman and Islam, by Elihu Grant, in Life and Light for Woman, 42:1 (1912). One-paragraph sympathetic mention. [about]
    562. Women, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). Explores the status of women in the world, the development of women, the role of education in that development, the Baha'i concept of gender equality and the application of that principle to family life. Includes bibliography of related Baha'i literature. [about]
    563. Women and Religious Change: A case study in the colonial migrant experience, by Miriam Dixson, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). The story of Margaret Dixson, and one woman's growth from Anglicanism, via numerology and astrology, to commitment to the world ideals of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
    564. Women and Wisdom in Scripture, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Treatment of women in religion; influence of Baha'i teachings in raising awareness about the plight of women and transforming attitudes across the globe; role of linguistic biases in degrading their status; role of wisdom in achieving gender equality. [about]
    565. Women Entrepreneurs: Catalysts for Transformation, by Diane Chamberlin Starcher (1997). Describes the dramatic rise in importance of women entrepreneurs and how feminine qualities contribute to their success. [about]
    566. Women in the Bahá'í Faith, by Susan Maneck, in Religion and Women (1994). Bahá'í paradigms of womanhood, and some highlights of women's participation in the Faith's history. [about]
    567. Women in the works of the Bab and in the Babi Movement, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2011). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    568. Women on the House of Justice; meaning of "Umumi", by Universal House of Justice (1997). Clarifies that 'Abdu'l-Baha, in a tablet to Corinne True, indeed refers to the Universal House of Justice when affirming that membership is confined to men only. Includes a portion of Corinne True's original query to 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    569. Women on the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Response to a paper presented at a Baha'i Studies conference which raised the possibility that women could one day be eligible for membership on the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    570. Women Serving as Continental Counselors or in the International Teaching Centre, Percentage of: 1980-2010, by Universal House of Justice (2013). Chart showing the percentage of women serving as members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors from 26 November 1980 — when the number of Boards was fixed at five — until November 2010. [about]
    571. Women's Education and Socio-Economic Development: The Pathways of Impact, by Geeta Gandhi Kingdon (2010). [about]
    572. Women, The Status of: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1995). Overview of the status of women in education, marriage, and the future. [about]
    573. Words of Long Ago, by Mirra Alfassa (1912). Transcript of a talk The Mother delivered to some Baha'is in Paris in 1912 by request of Abdu'l-Baha; reflections inspired by the departure of Abdu'l-Baha from Paris in June 1913. [about]
    574. Writing on the Ground, by Wellesley Tudor Pole (1968). PDF of the entire book, followed by HTML-formatted excerpt of Part Three, "The Baha'i Faith." [about]
    575. Writings, Bahá'í: Importance of collecting and safeguarding, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). [about]
    576. Younger Generation Has Always Had the Power to Reshape Our World, The, by Ted Slavin, in St. Catharines Standard (2010). Young people have a great potential to shape society. Youth trained to lead junior youth groups are called "animators"; they can help guide activist potential to achieving positive effect. [about]
    577. Zaynab, by John Walbridge, in Military Women Worldwide: A Biographical Dictionary (2003). Brief biography of a female Babi fighter. [about]
    578. Во имя улучшения мира: Подход мирового сообщества Бахаи к социально-экономическому развитию, by Международное Сообщество Бахаи. Несмотря на десятилетия серьезных усилий и огромные финансовые вложения, не появилось ни одной ясной стратегии развития, но лишь общее чувство отчаяния от неудач в достижении высоких целей развития. [about]
    579. Завещание Абдул-Баха, by Абдул-Баха (2011). Один из важнейших документов Веры Бахаи, устанавливающий многие ключевые элементы Административного Порядка, включая Национальные Духовные Собрания [«Дома справедливости второго уровня»] и институт Хранительства. [about]
    580. Об изменении климата и доверии к науке, by Universal House of Justice (2017). Всемирный Дом Справедливости обсуждает вопрос изменения климата и затрагивает более общие темы доверия к науке, важности избегания крайностей в дискуссиях, совещания бахаи и действий в связи с глобальными проблемами, стоящими перед человечеством. [about]
    581. 谁在写我们的未来 (Who's Writing the Future?): 二十世纪的省思 (Reflections on the Twentieth Century), by Bahá'í International Community. Prepared by the Office of Public Information. [about]
     
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