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1844. 22 May Declaration of the Báb's Mission

Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad makes His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í.

  • See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
  • See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
  • See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
  • See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
  • He reveals the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text will later be translated by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
  • Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
  • See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
  • This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
  • This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. ZK320
  • The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
  • See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
  • Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
    1. He chooses the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn is given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
    2. In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He takes the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gives the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn is called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
    3. At His public declaration the Báb declares Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
Shíráz; Iran Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad; declaration; Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru'i; Qayyumu'l-Asma'; Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Bab; Babi Qur'an; Baha'u'llah; Adamic Cycle; Baha'i Cycle; Cycle of Fulfillment; Apostolic; Heroic; Primitive; Age; Shi'i Muslim; Babu'l-Bab; Siyyid-i-dhikr; Fort Tabarsi; Jinab-i Bab; Qa'im; Promised One
1847. Feb - Mar The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [B116; DB213–14]
  • Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informs the Sháh that the Báb is in Isfahán and has been sheltering with Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh orders that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, sets out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [B116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
Tihrán; Tehran; Isfahán; Iran Manuchihr Khan; Bab; Gurgin Khan; Nusayri horsemen
1847 Jul to 1848 Apr The people of Máh-Kú show marked hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they are won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregate at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]

At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán keeps the Báb strictly confined and allows no visitors. He has a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He becomes humble and permits the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]

The winter the Báb spends in Máh-Kú is exceptionally cold. [DB252]

Many of the Báb's writings are revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]

  • It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
  • He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [GPB24]
  • He revealed the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5]
  • The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
  • He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
  • In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
  • The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
Máh-Kú; Iran; Persia; Najaf; Karbalá; Iraq Bab; `Ali Khan; Babi; commentary; commentaries; Qur'an; Persian Bayan; Arabic Bayan; Bayan; Dala'il-i-Sab'ih; Seven Proofs; Christian; Muhammad; Tablet Muhammad Shah
1848. summer Quddús leaves Mashhad for Badasht. Mullá Husayn is prevented from attending. He is invited to stay in the camp of the soldiers garrisoned in the area to control a local revolt. The invitation amounts to a confinement but he is able to teach the soldiers while so confined. [BKG50; DB290; MH165–6]
  • MH160 says that it was at this time that the Báb wrote to all the believers in Persia and Iraq instructing them to go to the aid of Mullá Husayn and Quddús in the `Land of Khá (Khurásán). DB269ff implies this letter was written in 1845.
Mashhad; Badasht; Iran; Persia Quddus; Mulla Husayn; soldiers; confinement
1848. last week
in Jul
The Báb arrives in Tabríz and is brought before a panel of which the 17-year-old Crown Prince Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá is the president. The Báb publicly makes His claim that He is the Qá'im. This claim has also been announced to those gathered at Badasht. [B140–7; BBR157; BBRSM23, 216; BW18:380; DB314–20; GPB21–2; TN14]
  • This constitutes the formal declaration of His mission. [GPB22]
  • The purpose of the public forum is to force the Báb to recant His views; instead He takes control of the hearing and embarrasses the clergy. After considerable argument and discussion, they decide He is devoid of reason. [GPB22]
  • The Báb is bastinadoed. [B145; BBD44; DB320; GPB22; TN14–15] This is the first formal punishment He receives. [BBRSM20]
  • He is first attended by an Irish physician, Dr William Cormick, to ascertain His sanity and later to treat Him for a blow to the face that occurred during the bastinado. Cormick is the only Westerner to meet and converse with Him. [B145; BBR74–5, 497–8 DBXXXIL–XXXIII]
  • The clergy issue a fatwa or legal pronouncement against the Báb condemning Him to death for heresy, but to no purpose as the civil authorities are unwilling to take action against Him. [BBRSM19–20]
  • For an account of the life of Dr. William Cormick see Connections by Brendan McNamara.
Tabríz; Badasht; Iran; Persia Bab; Crown Prince; Nasiri'd-Din Mirza; Qa'im; declaration; bastinado; punishment; Irish; physician; Dr William Cormick; fatwa; death; heresy Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (first entry dated June 21 1848)
1850. 9 Jul Martyrdom of the Báb

In the morning the Báb is taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]

  • The warrants are already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
  • Anís's stepfather tries to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son is also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remains unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]

At noon the Báb and Anís are suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz. They are shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men. [B157; DB512]

  • When the smoke clears the Báb is gone and Anís is standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, is found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
  • See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.

The Báb and Anís are suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, has been found to undertake the execution. After the volley, the bodies of the Báb and Anís are shattered. [B158; DB514]

  • See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
  • The face of the Báb is untouched. [B158]
  • At the moment the shots are fired a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remains dark from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
  • See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.

    At night, the bodies are thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. [B159; TN27]

Tabríz; Iran; Persia Martyrdom; Bab; Anis; Sam Khan; Christian; colonel; Armenian
1861. c. 1861 ‘Abdu'l-Bahá writes the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14]

Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266]

Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, meets Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and becomes a follower. [BKG18]

Baghdád; Iraq; Mashhad; Iran; Persia ‘Abdu'l-Baha; Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan; commentary; Islam; Hidden Treasure; ‘Ali Shawkat Pasha; Haji Ákhund; Mulla ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Hand Cause; Babi; Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurasani; Ismu'lahu'l-Asdaq; Ibn Asdaq; Baha'u'llah
1867. c. Aug Bahá'u'lláh refuses to draw the allowance granted Him by the Ottoman government. [RB2:327]

  • Mírzá Yahyá twice petitions the government to convince it that he ought to be the recipient of the allowance. [RB2:327]
  • Bahá'u'lláh sells some of His belongings to provide the necessities for Himself and His dependents. [RB2:327]
Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; Ottoman government; Mirza Yahya
1893. 23 Sep First public reference in North America to the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Reference was made to it in a paper entitled `The Religious Mission of the English Speaking Nations' by Rev. Henry H. Jessup, a retired missionary from north Syria, read by Rev George A. Ford at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago. [AB63–4; BBD2412; BBR57; BFA1:323; BW2:230; GPB256; SBBH1:76, 88, 202]
  • See AB63–4, BW2:169 for text.
World Parliament of Religions; Chicago Rev. Henry H. Jessup
1894 In the year Green Acre is founded by Sarah J. Farmer in the aftermath of the World Parliament of Religions. [BBRSM:104; BFA2:142–7; BW5:29; GPB261; SBBH1:125]

Two Bahá'ís are arrested and bastinadoed in Níshápúr. One dies seven days later, the other two years later. [BW18:384]

Hájí Yárí, a Bahá'í of Jewish background, is arrested and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384]

A Bahá'í in Dastjirdán, Khurásán, Áqá `Abdu'l-Vahháb Mukhtárí, is beaten and expelled from the village. [BW18:384]

Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, are beaten and Bahá'í homes are looted. [BW18:384]

Green Acre; Eliot; Maine; USA; Níshápúr; Hamadán; Dastjirdán; Khurásán; Fárán; Khurásán Sarah J. Farmer; Haji Yari; Áqa `Abdu'l-Vahhab Mukhtari; World Parliament of Religions; persecution Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia)
1901 29 May The Bahá'í women of Chicago elect their own Board and hold the first business meeting of the `Women's Auxiliary Board'. [BFA2:XV, 49–50] Chicago Women's Auxiliary Board
1901 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá writes His Will and Testament over this seven-year period. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
  • It is written in three parts. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
  • It `may be regarded as the offspring resulting from that mystic intercourse between Him Who had generated the forces of a God-given Faith and the One Who had been made its sole Interpreter and was recognized as its perfect Exemplar'. [GPB325]
  • For an analysis of its content and its import see AB484–93 and GPB325–8.
`Akká Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Baha
1911 9 Sep ‘Abdu’l-Bahá visited the home of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper at 31 Evelyn Mansions, Carlisle Place, Victoria.

In the afternoon ‘Abdu’l-Bahá visited the home of Miss Anett Schepel and Miss Alice Buckton, Vanners, Byfleet, Surrey (since demolished), some 20 miles out of London. He spoke with a number of working women from the Passmore Edwards' Settlement who were visiting while on holidays. (The Passmore Edwards' Settlement began in 1890 as one of the first “settlements” run by socially-conscious middle-class educators for the benefit of local working people and their children.)

Alice Mary Buckton (1867-1944) wrote many plays and poems. Her play Eager Heart was seen by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá on His second visit to England. She became a member of the Froebelian Society which was formed to reform educational methods. She persuaded Anett Schepel who had worked at Pestalozzi-Froebel Haus in Germany to move to England and together they worked to improve child education, opening a school in St John’s Wood. [ABL85-86, In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9-10]

Byfleet; Passmore Edwards' Settlement; First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'; Anett Schepel; Alice Buckton
1911 29 Sep A farewell reception was given for 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the hall of the Passmore Edwards' Settlement in Tavistock Place. It was attended by a capacity crowd of some 460 people. [ABL31-39, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.18] Byfleet; Passmore Edwards' Settlement; First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'
1912 30 Apr Talk at Public Meeting Concluding Convention of Bahá’í Temple Unity, Drill Hall, Masonic Temple, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP65,]

Talk at Hull House, Chicago, Illinois. Hull House was a community centre, one of the earliest in Chicago, founded by the National American Woman Suffrage Association [PUP67, MD70]

Talk at Fourth Annual Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Handel Hall, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP69, MD71]

Chicago; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Public Meeting Concluding Convention of Baha’i Temple Unity; Hull House; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Handel Hall; NAACP; National American Woman Suffrage Association
1912 2 May Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois, [PUP72]

Talk to Federation of Women’s Clubs, Hotel La Salle, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP74]

Talk at Bahá’í Women’s Reception, Hotel La Salle, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP77]

Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP78]

Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP79]

Chicago; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Plaza Hotel; Federation of Women's Clubs; Baha'i Women's Reception
1912 10 May `Abdu'l-Bahá's sits for sketches by Mr Theadore Spicer-Simon. See Medallions for pictures of his work.

In the morning Agnes Parsons takes 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the Capitol then to the Washington Monument where they take the elevator to the top.

He speaks to a small group in the Parsons' home in the afternoon and at the Studio Hall in the evening. [APD63-66]

In The Diary of Juliet Thompson p285 it is reported that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had been horrified by the prejudice He observed against Black people in Washington.

Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Capitol; Washington Monument; Studio Hall; Agnes Parsons
1912 20 Sep Talk at Home of Mr. Albert L. Hall, 2030 Queen Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota. [PUP325]

Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Clement Woolson, 870 Laurel Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota. [PUP329]

`Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Minneapolis for Omaha, Nebraska, arriving the same night. [239D:20]

  • AB279 says this was 21 September.
Omaha; Nebraska; Minneapolis; Minnesota `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Albert Hall; Clement Woolson
1912 7 Oct Talk to Japanese Young Men’s Christian Association, Japanese Independent Church, 576 Sycamore Street, Oakland, California. [PUP343] Oakland; CA Japanese Young Men’s Christian Association; Japanese Independent Church; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
1912 25 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves San Francisco for Sacramento, arriving at noon the same day. [239D:171]

Talk at Hotel Sacramento, Sacramento, California. [PUP370]

San Francisco; ; Sacramento `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Hotel Sacramento
1912 26 Oct Talk at Assembly Hall, Hotel Sacramento, Sacramento, California. [PUP376]

`Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Sacramento for Denver. [239D:172; AB316]

Sacramento; Denver `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Assembly Hall; Hotel Sacramento
1913 7 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Bad Mergentheim by automobile to visit the hotel and mineral bath owned by Consul Schwarz, (Later named Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi). [AB383]
  • Later, in 1916 the local Bahá'í community commemorated the visit with the dedication of a monument, a life-sized likeness of the head of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on a granite stone about two metres in height. The Nazis removed it in 1937 but it was replaced in 2007. [BWNS524]
Bad Mergentheim Consul Schwarz; Disciple of `Abdu'l-Baha; monument; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
1921 29 Dec Shoghi Effendi arrives in the Holy Land from England by train from Egypt. [GBF14; PP42]
  • An envelope addressed to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá is waiting for him. It contained the Will and Testament. [Ruhi8.2p2]
  • He is so worn and grief-stricken that he has to be assisted up the stairs and is confined to bed for a number of days. [CB285]
Haifa Shoghi Effendi; Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Baha
1922 3 Jan The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá is read aloud for the first time, to a group of nine men, mainly senior members of `Abdu'l-Bahá's family. [BBRSM115; CB286; ER194; GBF14; PP45]
  • Shoghi Effendi is not present at the reading. [CB286; ER194]
  • Shoghi Effendi is appointed Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. [WT11]
  • Shoghi Effendi had no fore-knowledge of the institution of the Guardianship nor that he would be appointed Guardian. [CB285; PP423]
Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Baha; Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi
1922 7 Jan The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá is read publicly to an assembled gathering of Bahá'ís from many countries. [ER199-200]
  • Shoghi Effendi is again absent. [ER200]
The Greatest Holy Leaf sends two cables to Persia, informing the Bahá'ís that Shoghi Effendi has been appointed Guardian and instructing them to hold memorial services for `Abdu'l-Bahá. [PP47]
Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Baha; Greatest Holy Leaf; Shoghi Effendi; Guardian
1926 Apr c. Lidia Zamenhof, a daughter of the founder of Esperanto Ludwik Zamenhof, becomes a Bahá’í, the first Pole to accept the Faith. [L71] Lidia Zamenhof; Ludwik Zamenhof
1926 16 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada makes representations to the Iranian government concerning the martyrdoms in Jahrum and asking the Sháh to intervene on behalf of the oppressed Bahá’ís. [BBR469; BW2:287]
  • For text of the petition see BW2:287–300.
America; Jahrum; Iran; NSA; Petition to Iranian government
1930 Dec The first Asian Women’s Conference is held in India. [BW17:180] India Asian Women’s Conference
1942 Lidia Zamenhof is killed in the gas chambers at Treblinka.
  • For her obituary see BW10:533–8.
  • See also Heller, Lidia.
Treblinka Lidia Zamenhof
1946 Oct The Bahá'ís of Iran launch a Forty-five Month Plan (1946 Oct-1949 Jul) The plan calls for goals in three adjoining countries. Every province has specific assignments. The Bahá'ís of Tehran are called upon to raise up fifty families as pioneers and one hundred and sixty answer the call over the duration of the plan. [Ruhi 8.2 p46]

Concurrent with the Forty-Five Month Plan Iran launches a Women's Plan.

Iran Teaching Plans; Forty-five Month Plan; Women's Plan
1946 22 Nov Amelia Collins is appointed a Hand of the Cause of God by Shoghi Effendi. [PP258; PSBW878]
  • He does not make this appointment public until 24 December, 1951 when he announces the first contingent of the Hands. [MoCxxiii]
Amelia Collins; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand; First Contingent
1946 13 Dec The passing of Muhamman Taqí Isfahání. He had been born in Persia and was horrified by the behaviour of Mullá Huhammad Báqir (The Wolf) and Imám-Jum'íh who killed the two brothers Muhammad Hasan and Muhammad Hasan so he left for Egypt and encounter many believers on his way. He passed through Akka and met both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'-Bahá.
  • His name is closely associated with the early progress of the Faith in Egypt. His house was the centre of activity and was were both Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl and Lua Getsinger spent their last days. He received 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit to Egypt. He was the chief member of the Publishing Committee and helped to translate many books into Arabic such as the Iqán and Some Answered Questions.
  • The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God two days after his passing and donated a sum of money to be used for his tomb. He is buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery. [MoCxxii, BW11p500-502]
Egypt; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand; Muhamman Taqi Isfahani; Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abu'l-Fadl
1951 24 Dec Shoghi Effendi appoints 12 Hands of the Cause of God, the first contingent of Hands to be appointed. BBRSM127; BW12:38–40, 374–5; BW13:333–4; MBW20]
  • They are Sutherland Maxwell, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins (she had been appointed in 1946, but her appointment had not been made public), Valíyu’lláh Varqá, Tarázu’lláh Samandarí, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Horace Holley, Dorothy Baker, Leroy Ioas, George Townshend, Herman Grossmann and Ugo Giachery [GBF110–11; MBW20; PP253–4]
Haifa Hand of the Cause; Sutherland Maxwell; Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Valiyu’llah Varqa; Tarazu’llah Samandari; Ali Akbar Furutan; Horace Holley; Dorothy Baker; Leroy Ioas; George Townshend; Herman Grossmann; Ugo Giachery; Appointment Hand - First Contingent
1952 26 Mar Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Montreal. (b.14 November, 1874) [DH143; MBW132; PP246]
  • For his obituary see BW12:657–62.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his relationship with Shoghi Effendi and work on the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb see PP236–43.
  • Shoghi Effendi names the southern door of the Báb’s tomb after him in memory of his services.
  • On June 16th, 1952, friends for the Montreal area gather at the grave to place, under the headstone, an alabaster box that had been sent by the Guardian. The box contains a piece of plaster taken from the walls of the prison in Máh-Kú where the Báb had been incarcerated in 1847. Another piece of plaster from the same source had been placed under the first golden tile of the dome of the Shrine of the Báb. The superstructure of the Shrine had been designed by Sutherland Maxwell. [TG55]
Montreal Sutherland Maxwell; Hand of the Cause; Shrine of the Bab; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent
1953 Grant Mensah, a Ghanaian, becomes a Bahá’í in Ruanda-Urundi, the first person to accept the Faith in that country. Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) Grant Mensah find reference
1953 27 Jul Siegfried (Fred) Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Montreal and is buried beside the grave of Sutherland Maxwell in Mount Royal Cemetery. He was born in Germany in 1877. [BW12:664-666, LOF390, TG119, CBNS 24 July 2014, Bahá'í Chronicles, SCRIBD, Schopflocher, Siegfried (1877–1953) by Will C. van den Hoonaard]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • See TG32, 228 for a short biography.
  • See Schopflocher, Siegfried by Will C. van den Hoonaard.
  • For his obituary see BW12:664–6.
  • He was known as the “Temple Builder” because of his great contributions to the completion of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the West. [BW12:664-666]
Montreal; Canada Siegfried Schopflocher; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Second Contingent; Temple Builder
1954 José Mingorance Fernandez and his wife, Carmen Tost, a Spanish couple, accept the Bahá’í Faith, the first to enrol in Andorra. Andorra José Mingorance Fernandez; Carmen Tost
1954 3 Jan Howard and Joanne Menking arrive in the Cape Verde Islands and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cape Verde Islands Howard Menking; Joanne Menking; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
1954 10 Jan Dorothy Baker, (b.21 December, 1898) Hand of the Cause of God, dies in a plane crash in the Mediterranean Sea, near the island of Elba. [BW12:670]
  • For the Guardian’s cable see BW12:670, CF161.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For her obituary see BW12:670–4.
  • See also Freeman, From Copper To Gold.
  • See TG229 for a short story about her and a comment from her on the Long Obligatory Prayer.
Mediterranean Sea Dorothy Baker. Long Obligatory Prayer; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent
1954 Feb Rahmatu’lláh and Írán Muhájir arrive in Mentawai Islands and are named Knights of Bahá’u‘lláh. [BW13:454]
  • For the story of their pioneering activity see Muhájir, Dr Muhajir, Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh.
Mentawai Islands Rahmatu’llah Muhajir; Íran Muhajir; Knight of Baha’u’llah
1955 12 Nov Hand of the Cause of God Valíyu’lláh Varqá passes away in Stuttgart.
  • For his obituary see BW13:831–834.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
Stuttgart; Germany Valiyu’llah Varqa; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent
1957 25 Mar Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend passes away in Dublin, Ireland. (b.14 June, 1896) [BBD226, BW02-03p169]
  • For his obituary see BW13:841–846.
  • See also David Hofman's biography, George Townshend.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • /ul>
Dublin; Ireland Hand of the Cause; George Townshend; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent
1960 The first Maya-Quiche to become a Bahá’í in Guatemala, Filomena Cajas de Velasquez, a tourist guide, enrols.
  • She is later the first Guatemalan woman to serve on the national spiritual assembly.
Guatemala Filomena Cajas de Velasquez
1960 12 Jul Horace Hotchkiss Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 April, 1887 in Torrington, CT) [MC226-227, BW13:849]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW13:849–858.
  • For cable from the Hands of the Cause see MC217–18.
  • See also SBR214-247, LoF253-264 and Holley, Horace Hotchkiss by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram.
  • His publications Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion, Religion for Mankind, World Unity, Bahai, The Spirit of the Age, Baha'i Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha, Read-aloud Plays, Divinations and Creation, The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh, The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse .
Haifa; Torrington; CT Horace Holley; Hand of the Cause of God; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent; Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion; Religion for Mankind; World Unity; Bahai; The Spirit of the Age; Baha'i Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha; Read-aloud Plays; Divinations and Creation; The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh; The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse
1960 18 Nov Clara Dunn, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Sydney. (b.12 May 1869) [BW13:859; MC245]
  • For her obituary see BW13:859–62.
  • For cable from the Hands see MC245.
  • See also SBR153–75.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
Sydney; Australia Clara Dunn; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Second Contingent
1961 3 Apr Corinne True, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Chicago. [BW13:846]
  • For her obituary see BW13:846–9.
  • For cables from the Custodians see MC257.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • See also Rutstein, Corinne True.
Chicago; US Corinne True; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Second Contingent
1962 1 Jan Amelia Collins passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 June, 1873) [BW13:399, 840; MC12]
  • For her obituary see BW13:834–41.
  • Shoghi Effendi appoints her (publicly) among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For the cable of the Hands of the Cause see MC333.
  • See also Faizí, Milly ,"The Fulfilled hope of 'Abdu'l-Bahá" by Richard Francis and PSBW73–106.
  • For a timeline of her life see Shareable Bahá'í Resources
  • While serving in Haifa she was given 'Abdu'l-Bahá's room. She was the last person to occupy it. [TG231]
Haifa Amelia Collins; Hand of the Cause; Appointment Hand - First Contingent; In Memoriam
1965 22 Jul Leroy Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b.15 February, 1986) [BW14:291-300, VV7]
  • For his obituary see BW14:291–300.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see WG157.
Haifa Leroy Ioas; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent
1968 Ernest Ndouba (G Beadoumadji Moadoumgar) of the Sara ethnic group and the first Chadian to become a Bahá’í, enrols in Ndjamena. Ndjamena; Chad Ernest Ndouba
1968 7 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause Hermann Grossmann in Neckargemünd, near Heidelberg, (b.16 February, 1899) [BW15p416-421]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his biography see Herman Grossmann: Hand of the Cause of God, A Life for the Faith by Susanne Pfaff-Grossmann.
Neckargemünd; Germany In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent; Herman Grossmann
1968 2 Sep Tarázu’lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b.1874 in Qazvin, Persia)
  • For his obituary see BW15p410-416.
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:416 and WG158–9.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
Haifa Tarazu’llah Samandari; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent
1971 1 Jan The passing of Agnes Baldwin Alexander, Hand of the Cause; “the daughter of the Kingdom”, and “the beloved maid-servant of the Blessed Perfection” (‘Abdu’l-Baha); the only Hand of the Cause mentioned in the Tablets of the Divine Plan; The first Baha’i to set foot on Hawaiian soil; the first Baha’i to settle in Japan; and the first Baha’i to teach the Faith in Korea passes away in Honolulu. (b. 21 July 1875) [BW15:423; VV8]
  • She was appointed a Hand of the Cause on the 27th of March, 1957 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend. [MoCxxiv]
  • For her obituary see BW15:423–30.
  • See Life of Agnes Alexander by Duane Troxel.
Honolulu Agnes Alexander; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Individual Appointment
1971 4 Sep Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Kampala, Uganda. (b.1886) [BW15:42; VV7]
  • For his obituary see BW15:421–423.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
Kampala; Uganda Musa Banani; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Second Contingent
1973 5 Sep John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Cambridge, England. (b. 9 January,1914) [BW16:511, VV8]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW16:511–12.
Cambridge; England John Ferraby; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
1974 4 Feb The death of Charles Mason Remey, Hand of the Cause of God (1951-60) and subsequently a Covenant-breaker. in Florence, Italy. (b.15 May 1874) [Wikipedia]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • He was declared a Covenant-breaker by the Hands of the Cause on the 26th of July, 1960.
Florence; Italy. Mason Remey; Appointment Hand - First Contingent; Covenant-Breaker
1975 Feb The first Bahá’í Women’s Conference of the Solomon Islands takes place at Auki, Malaita Island, attended by more than 90 women. [BW16:282] Solomon Islands Baha'i Women's Conference
1975 Oct The New Era Rural Development Project, the first project of its kind in the world, begins in the villages around Panchgani, India. [BW17:227–8] Panchgani; India New Era Rural Development Project
1977 13 – 16 Oct The Asian Bahá’í Women’s Conference is held in New Delhi, attended by more than a thousand women from across Asia. 1,200 women from 36 countries were in attendance. [BW17:180]
  • For picture see BW17:212.
New Delhi Asian Baha’i Women’s Conference; Conference
1977 Dec The first International Conference of Bahá’í Women in South America is held in Lima, Peru, attended by 200 women from 12 countries. [BW17:172]
  • For picture see BW17:211.
Lima; Peru International Conference of Baha’i Women; Conference
1978 15 Jan The first National Bahá’í Women’s Conference of Niger takes place. Niger National Conference of Baha’i Women; Conference
1978 28 – 30 Dec The West African Bahá’í Women’s Conference is held in Monrovia, Liberia. [BW17:154] Monrovia; Liberia West African Baha’i Women’s Conference; Conference
1979 16 Sep Enoch Olinga—Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh—his wife and three of his children are murdered in Kampala, Uganda. (b.24 June, 1926) [BBD 172; BW18:633]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:618–35.
Kampala; Uganda Enoch Olinga; Hand of the Cause; Knight of Baha’u’llah; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
1979 29 Dec Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir, Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Quito, Ecuador. (b. 1923) [BW18:486, 651]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:651–9.
  • See also Muhájir, Dr Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh.
Quito; Ecuador Rahmatu’llah Muhajir; Hand of the Cause; Knight of Baha’u’llah; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
1980 12 Feb Hasan M. Balyuzi, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in London. (b. 7 September, 1908) [BW18:635; VV52]
  • For his obituary see BW18:635–51 and SBBR5:XI–XX.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
London Hasan M. Balyuzi; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
1980 29 Jul Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away at his pioneer post in Athens, Greece. (b.16 June 1897) [BW18:613; VV52]
  • For his obituary see BW18:611–13.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
Athens; Greece Adelbert Mühlschlegel; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Second Contingent
1980 Sep The European Parliament, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe and the United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities adopt resolutions on the plight of the Bahá’ís in Iran. [BW19:38] Iran European Parliament; Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe; United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities’ religious persecution
1980 20 Nov Abu’l-Qásim Faizí, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b.1906) [BW18:659; VV52] Haifa Abu’l-Qasim Faizi; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
1982 The Canadian Bahá’í International Development Service is established. [BBRSM154] Canada Canadian Bahá’í International Development Service
1982 3 Dec Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, dies in Haifa in an automobile accident. [BW18:617; VV52]
  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 19th of March,1954 following the death of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker. [MoCxxiv}
  • For his obituary see BW18:613–18.
Haifa Paul Haney; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Individual Appointment
1983. 24 Feb The inauguration of the Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women at Indore, India. It offers rural women residential courses on literacy, health care and income generating skills. The success of this school was recognized in 1992 when it won one of the Global 500 Environmental Action awards that was presented at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro [The Baha'ismagazine]. Indore,India Baha'i Vocational Institute for Rural Women
1983 Jul The Office of Social and Economic Development is opened at the Bahá’í World Centre. [AWH8; BBD70; BBRSM154; BW19:58; VV78]
  • See BW19:351–5 for a survey of Bahá’í social and economic projects.
Haifa; BWC; Office of Social and Economic Development
1983 20 Oct The Universal House of Justice calls on individuals and Bahá'í communities to apply the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh systematically to the problems of their societies. This seminal statement points to the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh as a source of order in the world, asserts the coherence of the spiritual and the material dimensions of human life, praises the social and economic progress achieved by the Bahá'í community of Iran, announces the establishment of the Office of Social and Economic Development at the World Centre and defines the role of various Bahá'í agencies in fostering development. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 20 October, 1983, Mess63-86p602-603,AWH6–10; BW19:153, BW92-93pg229-245]
  • For the response of the Bahá’í world to the letter see BW19:112–13.
  • See also Vick, Social and Economic Development: A Bahá’í Approach.
BWC; Haifa; Office of Social and Economic Development
1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Yemen (North) is formed. [BW19:524] Yemen; NSA
1984 16 Nov Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Scottsdale, Arizona. (b. 16 November 1889) [BW19:594; VV123]
  • BW19: 159 says this was 17 November.
  • For his obituary see BW19:593–5.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
Scottsdale; Arizona Shu’a’u’llah ‘Ala’i; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Second Contingent
1985 Jul Three Bahá’í youths in Mentawai are imprisoned for having married according to Bahá’í law. [BW19:42] Mentawai religious persecution
1985 15 – 26 Jul Ten representatives of the Bahá’í International Community attend the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women and Forum ‘85 in Nairobi. [BW19:147–8, 412; VV28–9]
  • For a report of the Bahá’í participation see BW19:4.12–15.
  • For pictures see BW19:413, 415.
Nairobi BIC; World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women and Forum ‘85
1986. 1 Jan The publication of the compilation entitled "Women" by the Universal House of Justice. [Messages63-86p704, Compilation of CompilationsVol 2 p355]
  • Also see a message to an individual from the Universal House of Justice entitled "Women-Their Role in Society and the Establishment of Peace; Membership on the Universal House of Justice". [Messages63-86p707-709]
BWC Women; Women-Their Role in Society and the Establishment of Peace; Membership on the Universal House of Justice
1986 18 – 24 Jul The European Bahá’í Youth Movement is launched at the Bahá’í Youth School, Landegg Conference Centre, Switzerland. [BINS157:9–10; BINS158:10] Switzerland European Baha’i Youth Movement
1986 13 Nov Zikrullah Khadem (Dhikru’lláh Khádem), Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Skokie, Illinois. (b.1904) [VV123; ZK151]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • See also Khadem, Zikrullah Khadem: The Itinerant Hand of the Cause of God.
Skokie; Illinois Zikrullah Khadem; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Second Contingent
1987 22 Apr A ceremony is held to sign a ‘status agreement’ between the Bahá’í International Community and the Government of Israel defining the relationship of the Bahá’í World Centre with the State of Israel. [LETTER OF THE UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE, 30 APR 87]
  • Shimon Peres, Vice-President and Foreign Minister, represents the Government of Israel while Donald Barrett signs the agreement in his capacity as Secretary-General of the Bahá’í International Community. [LETTER OF THE UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE, 30 APR 87]
Israel; Haifa; BWC; status agreement; BIC; Shimon Peres; Donald Barrett
1988 The first Caribbean Bahá’í Women’s conference takes place in Antigua. Antigua Caribbean Baha’i Women’s conference
1988 The Bahá’í International Community becomes a founding member of ‘Advocates for African Food Security: Lessening the Burden for Women’, a coalition of agencies and organizations formed to act on behalf of farm women in Africa, and is convener for 1988–92. BIC; Advocates for African Food Security: Lessening the Burden for Women
1988 8 Mar Shirin Fozdar, ardent champion of women’s rights and influential women’s leader, is honoured for her work for equality and women’s advancement at a ceremony organized by the Singapore Council of Women, which she founded in 1952. [BINS176:7] Singapore Shirin Fozdar; Singapore Council of Women
1988 15 Jul The first International Women’s Conference of Paraguay opens, attended by 130 women from seven countries. [BINS180:5] Paraguay International Women’s Conference of Paraguay
1988 30 Nov The Bahá’í International Community is elected Secretary of the Board of the ‘Conference on Non-Governmental Organizations in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations’ (CONGO) for the period 1988–91. [BINS189:2] New York BIC; Conference on Non-Governmental Organizations; Economic and Social Council of the United Nations
1989 The establishment of the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment in New York. Ridván Message 1992 [AWH75; VV54 106] New York Baha'i International Community's Office of the Environment
1989. 9 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Right to Development”, to the forty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva Right to Development; United Nations
1989 23 – 26 Mar The First National Women’s Conference of Spain is held in Madrid. [BINS201:6] Madrid National Women’s Conference of Spain
1989 1 – 2 Jul The first European Bahá’í Women’s Conference is held at De Poort Conference Centre, the Netherlands. [BINS203:2] De Poort; Netherlands European Baha’i Women’s Conference
1989 5 Jul Dr Ugo Giachery, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away while on a visit to Western Samoa. [BINS204:1; VV123]
  • For the cable of the Universal House of Justice see BINS204:1.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
Western Samoa Ugo Giachery; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent
1989 Sep The Bahá’í Office of the Environment is established as part of the Bahá’í International Community in New York. [AWH75; VV54, 106] New York Baha’i Office of the Environment; BIC
1989 21 – 22 Oct The Southern African Bahá’í Association for the Advancement of Women is formed in Johannesburg. [BINS210:8] Johannesburg Southern African Baha’i Association for the Advancement of Women
1989 26 Oct The Universal House of Justice issued statement on the environment. [AWH144] UHJ; environment
1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan West Berlin Bahá’í communities are joined by 26 Bahá’ís from six European countries and the United States in proclamation and teaching activities among East Germans. [BINS215:2]
  • More than 50,000 copies of a shortened version of the Peace Statement and other Bahá’í materials are distributed at four major border check-points in West Berlin and at the Brandenburg Gate. [BINS215:2]
West Berlin; Germany Peace Statement
1990 The Council of Agriculture of the Executive Yuan (Senate) of Taiwan co-sponsors with the National Spiritual Assembly a Bahá'í educational programme on environmental protection. [BINS218:5]
  • This is the first formal joint effort between the Bahá'ís of Taiwan and the government authorities.
Taiwan Agriculture; Environment
1990 The National Spiritual Assembly of Taiwan opens a permanent Bahá'í Office of the Environment for Taiwan in Taipei. [BINS221:5] Taipei; Taiwan Environment
1990 The University of Maryland announced its decision to establish "The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace" in its Centre for International Development and Conflict Management. In 1992 Professor Suheil Bushrú’í was named as the first scholar to hold the Chair. [AWH76; VV108] University of Maryland; Baha'i Chair for World Peace; Centre for International Development and Conflict Management; Suheil Bushru’i
1990 22 Feb Jalál Kházeh, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Toronto. (b.1897) [BINS219:90]

Note: VV123 says it was 20 February.

  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 6th of December, 1953 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. [MoCxxiv]
Toronto; Canada Jalal Khazeh; Hand Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Individual Appointment
1990 18 - 20 May The first of seven European women's conferences sponsored by the Continental Board of Counsellors is held in Iskenderun, Turkey. [BINS230:1] Iskenderun; Turkey European women conference; Continental Board; Counsellors
1990 22 May The nations of Northern Yemen and Marxist Southern Yemen unite to become the Republic of Yemen with Ali Abdullah Saleh, a former a conservative military leader, as President. Saleh had served as President of North Yemen for 12 years until then.

Ali Salim al-Beidh, a Soviet-trained southern army commander, was chosen as Vice President. Mr. Bidh, had. ruled Southern Yemen when it was a Marxist state. A unification of the two countries' political and economic systems was to take place over 30 months. In that time, a unified parliament was formed and a unity constitution was agreed upon. Tensions between North and South continued with sporadic fighting.

Yemen; Recent history Yemen
1990 29 Sep The passing of Hand of the Cause of God H. Collis Featherstone in Katmandu, Nepal. He was born at Quorn, South Australia on May 5th, 1913. [BINS232:8, VV12, The Bahá'í Encyclopedia, Find a grave]
  • For his obituary see BW20p809-818.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • See Bahá'í Recollections for an article complete with pictures by Narenda Pande about Mr. Featherstone last days and funeral.
Kathmandu; Nepal; Quorn; South Australia Hand of the Cause; Collis Featherstone; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
1991 25 Jan Mottahedeh Development Services was established by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States as a non-profit agency to promote social and economic development to benefit individuals of any race, creed, or nationality. The agency name honours more than fifty years of dedicated service by Mildred and Rafi Mottahedeh, two pioneers in social and economic development.
  • Mottahedeh Development Services was organized as a charitable organization under US law. [MDS]
US Mottahedeh Development Services; NSA; social and economic development; Mildred Mottahedeh; Rafi Mottahedeh
1991 25 Feb In Irán, a secret Government memorandum, drawn up by the Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council which was obtained and made public in 1993 by United Nations' Special Representative Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, who was then charged with investigating the human rights situation in Iran. Signed by Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the memorandum established a subtle government policy aimed at essentially grinding the community into nonexistence by
  • forcing Bahá'í children to have a strong Islamic education,
  • pushing Bahá'í adults into the economic periphery and forcing them from all positions of power or influence, and
  • requiring that Bahá'í youth "be expelled from universities, either in the admission process or during the course of their studies, once it becomes known that they are Bahá'ís."
[One Country, Iran Press Watch]
Irán Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council; United Nations' Special Representative; human rights; Ali Khamenei; Iranian persecution
1991 14 May The first local spiritual assembly in Armenia is formed at Yerevan. Yerevan; Armenia Find ref
1991 18 Jun The passing of Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, John Aldham Robarts at Rawdon, Quebec. He was born in Waterloo, Ontario 2nd of November, 1901. [VV124]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • Bahá’í World, Vol. 20, 1986-1992, “In Memoriam,” pp. 801-9.
  • For his obituary see BINS250:10.
  • For picture see VV124.
  • For the story of how he came to learn of the Faith see SBR137.
Rawdon; Quebec Hand of the Cause of God; Knight of Baha'u'llah; John Aldham Robarts; John Robarts; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
1992 The Universal House of Justice announces its decision to establish an Office for the Advancement of Women at the headquarters of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. [VV29, 54] New York Office for the Advancement of Women Find ref
1992 The International Bahá'í Community's Office for the Advancement of Women established in New York. [VV54] New York International Baha'i Community; Office for the Advancement of Women
1992 25 Mar William Sears, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Tucson, Arizona. (28 March, 1911) [BINS267; VV124]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
Tucson; Arizona Hand of the Cause of God; Hand of the Cause; William Sears; Bill Sears; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
1992 Ridván The former Spiritual Assembly of the USSR with its seat in Moscow became the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Russia, Georgia and Armenia. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Russia; Georgia; Armenia NSA; Regional National Spiritual Assembly
1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) is formed with its seat in Ashkhabad. [BINS270:4-5; BW92–3:119; BW94–5:29; CBN Jan92 p2, VV121] Kazakhstan; Kirgizia; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Ashkhabad NSA; Regional National Spiritual Assembly
1992 1 - 14 Jun Bahá'ís from many countries participate in the United Nations Conference on the Environment (UNCED), known as the Earth Summit, and the Global Forum for non-governmental organizations in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [BINS272:1–3; BW92–3:124; VV110]
  • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement at the Earth Summit see BW92–3:177–89.
  • For the text of the statement of' the Bahá'í International Community read at the plenary session see BW92–3:191–2.
  • For pictures see BW92–3:179, 183, 186.
Rio de Janeiro; Brazil United Nations Conference on the Environment; Earth Summit; Global Forum
1992 5 Jun The Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women, a non-profit education project based in Indore, India, is one of 74 individuals and institutions presented with the United Nations Environment Programme ‘Global 500' award in Rio de Janeiro. [BINS272:5; BW92–3:125; VV110]
  • For picture see BW92–3:183.
Rio de Janeiro; Brazil Baha'i Vocational Institute for Rural Women; United Nations Environment Programme ‘Global 500' award
1992 Dec The Universal House of Justice announces the establishment of the Office for the Advancement of Women in New York. [BW92–3:136; VV29] New York Office for the Advancement of Women
1993 Vice President Ali Salim Al-Beidh quits Saleh’s government and returns to Aden in southern Yemen and said he would not return to the government until his grievances were addressed. These included northern violence against his Yemeni Socialist Party, as well as the economic marginalization of the south. Negotiations to end the political deadlock dragged on into 1994. The government of Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr Al-Attas, the former PDRY Prime Minister, became ineffective due to political infighting. yemen Recent History Yemen
1993 29 – 31 Jan The first Latin American Bahá'í Social and Economic Development Seminar takes place in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. [BINS308:2; BW92–3:139] Santa Cruz; Bolivia Latin American Baha'i Social and Economic Development Seminar
1993 22 Feb At the 49th session of the UN Commission on Human Rights, the United Nations in Geneva released a report providing evidence that the Iránian Government has established a secret plan approved by Irán's highest ranking officials including both President Hashemi Rafsanjani and Ayatollah Khomeini's successor, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Irán and abroad. Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, Galindo Pohl, special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, highlights the contents of the secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council. [BW92–3:139; BW94–5:134] [from Bahá'í Community of Canada Department of Public Affairs press release dated 25 February, 1993] Iran; Geneva; President Hashemi Rafsanjani; Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei; Galindo Pohl; human rights in Iran
1993 26 May The Office for the Advancement of Women officially opens at the headquarters of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. [BINS296:2; BW93–4:83–9; VV29]
  • For pictures see BW93–4:83, 86.
New York Office for the Advancement of Women
1993 16 Oct The passing of Marzieh Nabíl Carpenter Gail, the second child and eldest daughter of the first Persian-American marriage in the Bahá'í Faith between Persian diplomat Ali-Kuli Khan and Boston debutante Florence Breed. (b. 1 April, 1908) [BW1993-1994p320-321, Find a grave]
  • A translator (Arabic and Persian into English) and author. Poet Roger White would say of his friend: "She is the first lady of Bahá'í literature and I and many writers are indebted to her for leading the way."
  • translations include: The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys (1945) and The Secret of Divine Civilization (1957) with her father; Memorials of the Faithful (1971); Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1976) with a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre; My Memories of Bahá'u'lláh (1982).
  • author of a dozen Bahá'í and non-Bahá'í books in addition to countless essays, articles, and short stories. Her remembrances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá are contained in The Sheltering Branch (1959), and those of His Exalted Sister in Khanum: The Greatest Holy Leaf (1981).
  • Many of her essays and pioneering stories are contained in Dawn Over Mount Hira (1976) and Other People, Other Places (1982). As well she wrote “Six Lessons in Islam” (1953), Summon Up Remembrance (1987), Arches of the Years (1991) and, “Bahá'í Glossary” (1955). [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol6, 1996]
San Francisco; Marzieh Nabil Carpenter Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; "Patron Saint" of women Baha'i scholars; In Memoriam; Marzieh Gail
1993 8 Dec In Iran, death sentences are pronounced against two Bahá'ís on the grounds of their membership in the Bahá'í community. [BW93–4:141–2] Iran capital punishment
1994 May An accord between northern and southern leaders was signed in Amman but this could not stop the civil war. During these tensions, both the northern and southern armies–which had never integrated–gathered on their respective frontiers Yemen Recent History Yemen
1994 27 Aor Civil war (The War of Secession of 1994, May to early July) erupts in Yemen and ends in a victory for Saleh within three months. A major tank battle erupted in Amran, near San'a. Both sides accused the other of starting it.

On 4 May, the southern air force bombed San'a and other areas in the north; the northern air force responded by bombing Aden.

President Saleh declared a 30-day state of emergency, and foreign nationals began evacuating the country.

Vice President al-Beidh was officially dismissed.

South Yemen fired Scud missiles into San'a, killing dozens of civilians.

Prime Minister Haidar Abu Bakr al-Attas was dismissed on May 10 after appealing for outside forces to help end the war.

Southern leaders seceded and declared the Democratic Republic of Yemen (DRY) on 21 May 1994. No international government recognized the DRY.

In mid-May, northern forces began a push toward Aden. The key city of Ataq, which allowed access to the country's oil fields, was seized on May 24.

The United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 924 calling for an end to the fighting and a cease-fire. A cease-fire was called on 6 June, but lasted only six hours; concurrent talks to end the fighting in Cairo collapsed as well.

The north entered Aden on 4 July. Supporters of Ali Nasir Muhammad greatly assisted military operations against the secessionists and Aden was captured on 7 July 1994. Most resistance quickly collapsed and top southern military and political leaders fled into exile.

Almost all of the actual fighting in the 1994 civil war occurred in the southern part of the country, despite air and missile attacks against cities and major installations in the north. Southerners sought support from neighbouring states and may have received military assistance from Saudi Arabia and Oman, which felt threatened by a united Yemen. The United States repeatedly called for a cease-fire and a return to the negotiating table. Various attempts, including by a UN special envoy and Russia, were unsuccessful to effect a cease-fire.

President Saleh now had control over all of Yemen. A general amnesty was declared, except for 16 southern figures accused of misappropriation of official funds.

YSP (Yemen Socialist Party) leaders within Yemen reorganized following the civil war and elected a new politburo in July 1994. However, much of its influence had been destroyed in the war.

Yemen Recent History Yemen
1994 May 19 The first National Bahá'í Conference of Armenia is held in Yerevan. [BINS318:5–6] Yerevan; Armenia National Baha'i Conference of Armenia
1994 1 Oct President Ali Abdallah Saleh was elected by Parliament on 1 October 1994 to a 5-year term. However, he remained in office until 2012. Yemen Recent History Yemen
1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Armenia is formed [BINS343:3] Armenia
1996 23 – 24 Mar The first National Women's Seminar of Bulgaria is held in Sofia, organized by the European Task Force for Women. [BINS365:8] Sofia; Bulgaria National Women's Seminar of Bulgaria
1997 27 Aor In the second parliamentary election in Yemen the GPC won a majority of the seats, Iṣlāḥ finished second, and the YSP (Yemen Socialist Party) virtually committed political suicide by boycotting the elections. Given its sizable majority, the GPC chose to rule alone, thereby making Iṣlāḥ the major opposition party in parliament. In late 1994 the plural executive had been abolished and President Ṣāliḥ reelected to a five-year term by parliament. Yemen Recent History Yemen
1997 24-26 Oct The International Environment Forum was launched at the first International Bahá'í Environment Conference in de Poort, Netherlands, with participants from nine countries, who were joined electronically by people from 21 countries participating in the e-mail version of the conference.
  • A BAHÁ'Í PERSPECTIVE ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT was presented by Michael Richards of the Overseas Development Institute in London.
  • At the conference, the objectives, activities and structure of the Forum were agreed and statutes adopted, and a governing board of five people was elected.
  • It is a Bahá'í-inspired non-governmental organization that links together Bahá'ís and others interested in the fields of environment and sustainable development. Development of the Forum has been encouraged and guided by the Bahá'í International Community, although it has no formal link with the Bahá'í administration.
de Poort; Netherlands International Environment Forum; Baha'i International Community; International Baha'i Environment Conference iefworld.org/conf1.htm
1998 6 - 8 Nov The 2nd International Conference of the Environment Forum was held in the Netherlands with wide electronic participation on the themes of sustainable consumption and the Earth Charter. The first theme of the conference, sustainable consumption, was introduced by a keynote address on "Sustainable Consumption and True Prosperity" by Arthur Dahl. [ iefworld.org/conf2.htm ] Netherlands 2nd International Conference of the Environment Forum; Arthur Dahl; International Conference of the Environment Forum
1999 19 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Russia formally received its re-registration documents under the new law on religious organizations that was passed by the Russian Parliament in the fall of 1997.
  • Formal recognition as a “centralized religious organization” entitled the community to full rights to teach and proclaim the Faith, publish and import literature, rent and own property, invite foreign nationals etc. [From “European Bulletin” Issue 60 February 1999]
Russia NSA; Russian Parliament
1999 15 - 18 Aug The third conference was held Sidcot, Avon, United Kingdom, jointly with the Bahá'í Agency for Social and Economic Development - UK. It brought together 44 participants from 13 countries on 5 continents, as well as internet connection with an additional 70 "electronic" conference participants in 29 countries, for a total of 114 participants from 38 countries, including 8 in Africa. (From web site) United Kingdom Baha'i Agency for Social and Economic Development; Baha'i Agency for Social and Economic Development Conference Find ref
1999 Sep September 1999 President Ṣāliḥ was again returned to office, this time in the country’s first direct presidential elections and for a term lengthened to seven years. He had run virtually unopposed, as the YSP candidate was unable to secure the minimum number of votes necessary in the GPC-dominated parliament to stand in the election. Yemen Recent History Yemen
2000 19 Jan The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in Haifa. She was born in New York on 8 August 1910. [One CountryVol.11,Issue4]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her as a Hand of the Cause of God after the passing of her father, Hand of the Cause of God Sutherland Maxwell on the 26th of March, 1952. [MoCxxiv]
Haifa Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Individual Appointment
2000 19 Sep In a ceremony, the final earth samples from 26 nations were deposited in the Peace Monument, which was built by the Bahá'í International Community and the Bahá'í Community of Brazil in 1992 for the 1992 Earth Summit. Designed by the renowned Brazilian sculptor Siron Franco, the five-meter concrete and ceramic monument is located near the entrance to the Santos Dumont Airport in Rio de Janeiro, just north of Flamengo Park and the site of the 1992 Global Forum, the parallel conference of non-governmental organizations held during the 1992 Earth Summit, which was formally known as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. [BWNS85] Rio de Janeiro; Brazil; Rio Summit; Global Forum; Earth summit; Siron Franco; Santos Dumont Airport; 1992 Global Forum; United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
2000 12 - 14 Dec The 4th Annual Conference of the International Environment Forum (IEF) was held in Orlando, Florida. The theme was Applying the Baha'i Teachings to the Environmental Challenges Facing the World. (IEF Web Site) Orlando; Florida 4th Annual Conference of the International Environment Forum
2000 17 - 21 Dec The first International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Bábí-Bahá’í Faiths was held in Jerusalem with about 90 persons in attendance. [BWNS84] Jerusalem; Israel; International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Babi-Baha’i Faiths
2001 9 Jan The Administrative Order is further developed by the Universal House of Justice in its message to the Conference of the Continental Boards of Counselors of 9 January, 2001 in which the concept of the "cluster" is first introduced. The cluster, a subdivision of the region, is to be formed on the basis of cultural, language, pattern of transport, infrastructure or the social life of the inhabitants.
  • In its message of 12 December, 2011 the Universal House of Justice states that the cluster should have three coordinators appointed by the Training Institute, one concerned with study circles, junior youth groups and a third for children's classes.
BWC Development of the Administrative Order
2001 30 Apr – 2 May The Bahá'í International Community today issued a statement, entitled Sustainable Development: the Spiritual Dimension, for the first session of the United Nations Preparatory Committee of the World Summit on Sustainable Development at the UN in New York. [BWNS93]

For the complete text with footnotes see: Statement.

New York; NY BIC; Sustainable Development: the Spiritual Dimension; UN; United Nations Preparatory Committee of the World Summit on Sustainable Development
2001 23 - 25 Nov International Consultative Conference on School Education in relation with Freedom of Religion and Belief, Tolerance and Non-discrimination, a United Nations conference was held in Madrid, Spain. The Bahá'í International Community presented a statement, entitled Belief and Tolerance: Lights Amidst the Darkness. For the text of the document see BWNS141 or on the BIC Site. Madrid; Spain; UN; statement; Belief and Tolerance: Lights Amidst the Darkness
2001 23 Dec National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States published a full-page advertisement in The New York Times, the statement, entitled The Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace," stated that Bahá'ís believe the American nation will evolve, through tests and trials to become a land of spiritual distinction and leadership, a champion of justice and unity among all peoples and nations, and a powerful servant of the cause of everlasting peace. The 645-word document identified six prerequisites for world peace: universal acceptance of the oneness of humanity; the eradication of racism; the full emancipation of women; the elimination of inordinate disparity between the rich and the poor; an end to unbridled nationalism; and harmony between religious leaders. [BWNS147, Includes text of the statement] New York; NY The Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace; New York Times; Statement; NSA of US
2002 26 Aug – 4 Sep World Summit on Sustainable Development, a United Nations conference in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Bahá'í International Community issues a statement, entitled Religion and Development at the Crossroads: Convergence or Divergence?. [BWNS169, BWNS170] Johannesburg; South Africa World Summit on Sustainable Development; UN; Religion and Development at the Crossroads: Convergence or Divergence?; BIC
2003 11 Mar Bani Dugal Gujral was appointed Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations.
  • Ms. Dugal Gujral had been serving as interim Principal Representative since the resignation of Techeste Ahderom in 2001.
  • Ms. Dugal Gujral came to the Bahá'í International Community in 1994 and served as Director of the Community's Office for the Advancement of Women. A native of India, where she practiced law before coming to the United States, Ms. Dugal Gujral holds a Master's degree in Environmental Law from Pace University School of Law in New York. [One Country Vol.14 Issue4]
New York; NY Bani Dugal Gujral; Baha'i International Community; Office for the Advancement of Women; Techeste Ahderom; UN
2003 28 Apr The retirement of Mr. Ali Nakhjavani and Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam from the Universal House of Justice. Both had served since the inception of the Universal House of Justice in 1963. They are replaced by Mr. Hartmut Grossmann and Dr. Firaydoun Javaheri. [BWNS208] BWC Mr. Ali Nakhjavani; Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam; retirement
2003 26 Nov The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furútan in Haifa at the age of 98. [BWNS261, BW'03-‘04pg227]
  • Born in Sabzivar, Iran, on 29 April 1905.
  • Moved with his family to Ashgabat in what was then Russian Turkestan (now part of Turkmenistan), and, through his years of school and university, he took an active part in the work of the Baha'i communities of Ashgabat, Baku, Moscow, and other parts of Russia.
  • In 1930 expelled from the Soviet Union during the Stalinist persecution of religion and from that time on played an ever more significant role in the work and administration of the Iranian Baha'i community. [BW03-04p227-230]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For a tribute from the Universal House of Justice see message of 27 November, 2003.
Haifa; Sabzivar; Iran; Ashgabat; Turkmenistan; Baku; Moscow; Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furutan; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent
2004 11 Feb A member of the British Baha'i community, Lois Hainsworth, received the award of Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) at Buckingham Palace.
  • The announcement of the award for services to three organizations that promote the rights of women was made in the United Kingdom's New Year's Honours List. The citation refers to Mrs. Hainsworth's services to the Women's National Commission, the Baha'i Office for the Advancement of Women, and UNIFEM UK. [BWNS273]
Buckingham Palace; England Lois Hainsworth; Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE); Women's National Commission
2006 4 Apr In late 2004 or early 2005 the government of Egypt introduces a computerized identity card system that locks out all religious classifications except Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. Baha'is are unable to get ID cards and other documents essential to day-to-day life. Thus begins an epic struggle for Bahá'í appellants to win the right to have their religious affiliation properly identified on goverment documents.

The issuance of birth certificates is at the heart of the first case, which concerns 14-year-old twins Imad and Nancy Rauf Hindi. Their father, Rauf Hindi, obtained birth certificates that recognized their Baha'i affiliation when they were born but new policies require computer generated certificates and the computer system locks out any religious affiliation but the three officially recognized religions. Without birth certificates, the children are unable to enroll in school in Egypt.

A lower administrative court rules that the couple should be identified as Baha'is on official documents, a decision that, if upheld, will essentially overturn the government's policy of forcing citizen to choose from only the three officially recognized religions -- Islam, Christianity and Judaism -- on state documents. The lower court's ruling provokes an outcry among the fundamentalist elements in Egyptian society, particularly Al Azhar University and the Muslim Brotherhood who object to any kind of recognition of the Baha'i Faith as a religious belief. The case gains international attention in the news media and from human rights groups and sparks a wholesale debate in newspapers and blogs throughout the Arab world over the right to freedom of religion and belief. [BWNS454]

Cairo; Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2006 15 May The government appeals the lower court's ruling to the Supreme Administrative Court and the hearing focuses on procedural issues concerning the case. The emotions stirred by the case are evident at the initial hearing. Lawyers and other individuals seated in the courthouse interrupt and heckle defense counsel each time they try to address the court. They yell insults at them, calling them 'infidels' and threatening them with physical violence during the hearing. Because the Court is unable to impose order in the courtroom, the Court briefly adjourns the hearing before resuming the proceedings in camera. When the hearing is adjourned courthouse security officers refuse to protect lawyers who are surrounded by members of the crowd, verbally threatening, pushing, shoving and not allowing them to walk away from the area.

After the government's appeal of the lower court's ruling a court hearing is set for 19 June, however, the Court commissioner's advisory report is not submitted in time for the hearing and the hearing is further postponed until the 16th of September. [BWNS454, BWNS456]

Cairo; Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2006 16 Sep The Supreme Administrative Court again postpones its hearing on the government appeal of a lower court's ruling upholding the right of a Baha'i couple to have their religion properly identified on government documents. In a brief hearing the Court continues the case until 20 November in order to await the completion of an advisory report from the State Commissioner's Authority on the case. [BWNS480] Cairo; Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2006 20 Nov Lawyers representing a Baha'i couple seeking to have their religious affiliation properly identified on state documents present arguments at a full hearing before the Supreme Administrative Court. The hearing is short and the court adjourns until 16 December when a judgment in the case is expected. [BWNS492] Cairo; Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2006 16 Dec Egypt's Supreme Administrative Court rules against the right of Baha'is to be properly identified on government documents. There are now two cases related to this issue; the first involves a lawsuit by the father of twin children, who is seeking to obtain proper birth certificates for them and the second concerns a college student who needs a national identity card to re-enroll in university.

The decision upholds current government policy, a policy which forces the Baha'is either to lie about their religious beliefs or give up their state identification cards. The policy effectively deprives Egyptian Baha'is and others of access to most rights of citizenship, including education, financial services, and even medical care. [BWNS492]

Cairo; Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2006 21 Dec A message is sent from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of Egypt regarding the recent Supreme Administrative Court decision with respect to their right to hold identification cards. [BWNS499]
  • For a the full text of the message from the Universal House of Justice 21DEC2006 in English.
Cairo; Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2007 7 Apr A memorial removed by the Nazis when the Bahá'í Faith was outlawed in 1937 has been restored by municipal authorities in the resort town of Bad Mergentheim in Germany. The stone commemorates the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on April 7-8, 1913. The new memorial was unveiled on 7 April, by Mayor Lothar Barth accompanied by Bahman Solouki, a representative of the Baha'i community of Germany. Please see the news story for pictures of both the original and the replacement monuments. [BWNS524] Bad Mergentheim; Germany monument to 'Abdu'l-Baha
2007 22 Sep The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Dr. Ali-Muhammad Varqa at his home in Haifa. (b.1911) He was the last survivor of the 27 Hands of the Cause who were alive when Shoghi Effendi passed away in 1957. [BWNS579]
  • He had been appointed Hand of the Cause on the 15th of March, 1955 after the passing of his father Hand of the Cause of God Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, [MoVxxiv]
Haifa; Israel Hand of the Cause Dr Ali-Muhammad Varqa; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Individual Appointment
2007 12 Nov Human Rights Watch and the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights release a report that states that Egypt should end discriminatory practices that prevent Baha'is and others from listing their true religion on government documents. The 98-page report, titled Prohibited Identities: State Interference with Religious Freedom, focuses on problems that have emerged from Egypt's practice of requiring citizens to state their religious identity on government documents but then restricting the choice to Islam, Christianity, or Judaism. "These policies and practices violate the right of many Egyptians to religious freedom," states the report. [BWNS587]
  • See HRW.org for the full text of the report.
Cairo; Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2007 25 Dec The two cases, the first by the father of twin children who is seeking to obtain proper birth certificates for them and the second by a college student who needs a national identity card to re-enroll in university, were set for "final judgment" by the Court of Administrative Justice in Cairo but the hearings were unexpectedly postponed until 22 January 2008. The court indicated it is still deliberating on the cases. On 22 January it was announced that the cases had been continued until 29 January. [BWNS597] Cairo; Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2008 29 Jan In a victory for religious freedom, a lower administrative court ruled in favour of two lawsuits that sought to resolve the government's contradictory policy on religious affiliation and identification papers. The Court of Administrative Justice in Cairo upheld arguments made in two cases concerning Baha'is who have sought to restore their full citizenship rights by asking that they be allowed to leave the religious affiliation field blank on official documents. a lower court again ruled in their favor. Two Muslim lawyers filed an appeal. [BWNS600] Cairo; Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2008 20 Jun The Bahá’is were also persecuted on account of their faith prior to the armed conflict under the regime of President Ali Abdullah Saleh. Four Bahá'ís were arrested in Sana'a on the accusation of proselytizing. The three Bahá’is of Iranian origin who were arrested are Mr. Zia'u'llah Pourahmari, Mr. Keyvan Qadari, and Mr. Mr. Behrooz Rohani . A fourth Bahá’i, Mr. Sayfi Ibrahim Sayfi, was also arrested and faces the possibility of deportation to Iraq. [BWNS651] Sana'a; Yemen
2009 16 Mar The Supreme Administrative Court removes any grounds for preventing Baha'is from receiving proper official identity documents by dismissing an appeal by two Muslim lawyers thus clearing the way for an end to years of deprivation for Egyptian Baha'is and opening the door to a new level of respect for religious privacy in Egypt. The appeal sought to prevent the implementation of a lower court ruling last year that said Baha'is can leave blank the religious classification field on official documents, including all-important identity cards and birth certificates. [BWNS703] Cairo; Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2009 17 Apr With respect to the Supreme Administrative Court decision of 16 March 2009, the decree, dated 19 March, 2009 is signed by General Habib al-Adly, Egypt’s Interior Minister, and published on 14 April in the official gazette. According to the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (EIPR), which represented Baha’is in many of the recent court cases concerning religious affiliation on government documents, the decree amends the Implementing Statutes of Egypt’s Civil Status Law of 1994. It specifically instructs officials to place a dash (--) before the line reserved for religion in the official documents of citizens who can show that they, or their ancestors, were followers of a religious belief other than the three recognized by the state. [BWNS707] Cairo; Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2009 8 Aug Two young Egyptian Bahá'ís, Imad and Nancy Rauf Hindi, received the new identity cards. They had been at the center of a court case over religious identification on government documents. Their new computerized ID cards show a dash instead of their religion. They are the first such cards to be issued following a ruling by the Egyptian Supreme Administrative Court of 16 March, 2009 that cleared the way for the government to issue documents without reference to religious identity. For nearly five years, since the government began introducing a computerized identity card system that locked out all religious classifications except Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, Bahá'ís have been unable to get ID cards and other documents essential to day-to-day life in Egypt. [BWNS707, BWNS726, BWNS499, BWNS495, BWNS492, BWNS480] Cairo; Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2011 Hundreds killed in crackdown on mass protests calling for fall of President Saleh, an end to corruption and repression and accountability for human rights violations. President Saleh forced to resign and sign power-transfer deal. Yemen Recent History Yemen
2012 Abd Rabbu Mansour Hadi elected as president initiating a two-year transitional period. However, government forces continue to commit human rights violations, including unlawful killings and enforced disappearances, against supporters of secession in south and a conflict with the Huthi armed group in north is renewed. Yemen Recent History Yemen
2013 3 Dec Mr. Hamed Kamal Muhammad bin Haydara (sometimes referred to in the media as "Hamed Merza Kamali Serostani ") is arrested in al-Mukalla, capital of Hadramout province in eastern Yemen. It is suggested that he was arrested on the orders of Mr. Khaled al-Mawari, the Chief Prosecutor who was involved in the unwarranted arrest and detention of another member of the Yemeni Baha'i community. the family had lived in Socotra since 1945, when his father arrived on the Yemeni island from Iran as a doctor under British colonial rule and was granted Yemeni citizenship. According to Baha'i estimates, there are about 2,000 Baha'is in Yemen [BIC website, Reuters] Sana'a; Yemen persecution; Hamed bin Haydara; Khaled al-Mawari
2014 Sep In Yemen, Houthis call for mass protests after government slashes fuel subsidies. The group advances south and seizes Yemen’s capital, Sana’a overthrowing President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi's internationally-recognised government. By February 2015 the group dissolves parliament and announces plans for a transitional government. Sana'a; Yemen Recent History Yemen
2015 Clashes between pro and anti Huthis escalate. After President Hadi appeals to Gulf and Arab states to intervene militarily, Saudi Arabian-led military coalition launches air strikes against the Huthi armed group positions in Sana’a and Sa’da. President Hadi flees to Saudi Arabia. Over the next six months the conflict spreads across Yemen. Yemen Recent History Yemen
2015 Mar Southerners took arms and formed resistance to further progress their cause for independence by fighting in order to defend their territory from northern control and a coup of the legitimate government.

A Saudi-led coalition, backed by the United States, began a campaign against Houthi forces allied with ousted President Ali Abdullah Saleh in support of Hadi's government. The Houthis were dislodged from most of the south, but remained in control of Sanaa and much of the north.

In the southern part of the country, the United Arab Emirates, which is part of the Saudi-led coalition, set up its own security forces, running virtually a state-within-a-state and fuelling the south's independence movement.

Yemen Recent history Yemen
2016 The conflict continues to rage throughout the year. UN-sponsored peace talks begin in Kuwait in April but breakdown in early August. On 8 October, a Saudi Arabia-led coalition killed more than 100 people attending a funeral gathering in Sana’a and injured more than 500 others – one of the largest death tolls in any single incident since the start of the coalition’s bombing campaign. Yemen; Reent History Yemen
2016 25 Apr Mr. Hamed Bin Haydara, who has been imprisoned without trial since December 2013, was again brought to court for a hearing but the trial was again postponed, this time to 1 August 2017. Reports indicate that he has been sent to solitary confinement in the National Security Prison on the orders of Mr. Rajeh Zayed, the prosecutor who has caused the delays which have kept him in jail for more than three years and who has been mainly responsible for the arrest and persecution of Baha’is in Yemen. Mr. Rajeh Zayed also recently said he plans to delay Mr. Hamed Bin Haydara’s court hearings and treatment until he “dies in jail.” He is suffering from serious health conditions that require proper medical attention. He stands accused of ‘compromising the independence of the Republic of Yemen’, including spreading the Bahá’í faith in the Republic of Yemen as well as "apostasy" (He has been a Bahá'í from birth.) and “insulting Islam” . [BIC 30 Apr 2017] Yemen Hamed Bin Haydara; Rajeh Zayed; persecution
2016 10 Aug Armed, officers masked in balaclavas from Yemen’s National Security Bureau (NSB) intelligence agency, which works hand in hand with the armed Houthi authorities, (also knowns as Ansar Allah) stormed a Bahá’í youth educational workshop in Sana’a. The event was part of a nine day, cross country moral and educational program for Bahá’í youth organized by the Baha’i-run Nida Foundation for Development. Sixty-five people were arrested including 14 women and six people under 18 without an arrest warrant. Half were Baha'is and, currently, it is believed some fourteen remain in prison, including young mothers. Further arrests were carried out later and within a week all but 10 of those who had been incarcerated had been released.

Among those detained are Nadim Tawfiq Al-Sakkaf, (British Council’s country manager in Yemen), his brother Nader Tawfiq Al-Sakkaf and Kaiwan Mohamed Ali Qadri. [UN Human Rights 4 Oct 2016, BWNS1118, publicaffairs.bahai.us, UN Human Rights]

Sana'a; Yemen Nadim Tawfiq Al-Sakkaf; Nader Tawfiq Al-Sakkaf; Kaiwan Mohamed Ali Qadri
2016. 27 Nov Nadim al-Sakkaf and his brother Nader, who were detained from August 10th are unexpectedly released from prison in Sana'a. Their release, it is believed, was in no small part due to the relentless advocacy of their wives Ruhiyeh al-Sakkaf and Nafheh al-Sakkaf. Their friend Kaiwan Mohamed Ali Qadri, who was arrested in the same raid, remains in custody. [Religion News Service 20161129]

Photos of the four can be found on the same page.

Sana'n; Yemen Nadim al-Sakkaf; Ruhiyeh al-Sakkaf; Nader al-Sakkaf; Nafheh al-Sakkaf; Kaiwan Mohamed Ali Qadri
2017 19 Apr Houthi-Saleh political security officers arrested Walid Ayyash, Mahmood Humaid, and Badi'u'llah Sanai at a check point near the city border of Hudiedah, all members of the Baha’i community. Sanai was released one week later, but was rearrested in May. All three remain detained, their whereabouts unknown. [UN News Centre 22 May 2017] Yemen Walid Ayyash; Mahmood Humaid; Badi'u'llah Sanai
2017 15 May Hundreds of Yemenis gathered in front of the Criminal Prosecution building in the capital city of Sanaa. They were denouncing the arrest of Yemeni citizens of the Baha’i faith and calling for their release. The demonstrations were not led by the usual human rights crew but by tribal leaders of some of the most influential tribes in the country, prominently that of the Bani Mattar.

What brought the tribes out was the arrest of Sheikh Walid Saleh Ayyash, who has the distinction of being both a prominent tribal figure and one of the 2,000 or so Yemenis who practice the Baha’i faith. It was Ayyash’s faith that led to his arrest on April 19, as he was driving from the city of Ibb to the port of Hudaydah. Along with another Baha’i who was in the car, Ayyash was arrested by Houthi forces and transferred to the Hudaydah prison. A statement by the tribal leaders calls Ayash “a distinguished personality among the Arab tribes … well-known for his integrity and wisdom, for his love, loyalty and devotion to his country, for his tolerance and respect for the government and the law.” The leaders had previously met with Khalid Al-Mawari, the Houthi government’s Chief of Special Criminal Prosecution. He had promised them that Ayyash would be transferred to Sanaa. When that failed to happen, they organized the demonstration. [TRACKPERSIA 25 Aug 2017]

Yemen Sheikh Walid Saleh Ayyash

from the main catalogue

  1. Absolute Poverty and Utter Nothingness, by Rodney H. Clarken, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). Bahá’u’lláh’s ideas of poverty as detachment, and nothingness as selflessness. Cites some commonalities in concepts of detachment and nothingness from Buddha, Confucius, Jesus, Muhammad and Socrates as five of the greatest philosophers or prophets. [about]
  2. Advancement of Women: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Janet and Peter Khan: Transforming the roles of women and men, a Review, by Veronica Shoffstall, in One Country, 10:3 (1999). [about]
  3. African Culture, Traditional, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Challenges and opportunities in the African continent; eliminating prejudices; dance and music; alcohol; hunting; initiation rites; the supernatural; tribal leadership; status of women. [about]
  4. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Baha (1990). [about]
  5. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2014). New 2014 translation (with a version side-by-side with the original). [about]
  6. Authority of the Feminine and Fatima's Place in an Early Work by the Bab, The, by Todd Lawson, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). While Tahirih inspired many in Europe and eventually America, she is very much a daughter of her own culture, history, mythology, and religion. She was a religious mystic who felt a new day arising in the world, and seen by some as the "return" of Fatima. [about]
  7. Avoidance of Politics and Controversial Matters, by Universal House of Justice (2003). A short explanation that the aim of Baha'is is to reconcile viewpoints and heal divisions, but not become involved with disputes of the many conflicting elements of society around them. Includes introductory letter from the US NSA, and a compilation. [about]
  8. Baha'i Approach, The: Moderation in Civilization, by Arthur Lyon Dahl (1995). Baha'i approach to nature and ecology. [about]
  9. Bahá'í Hermeneutics: An Academic and Primary Source Inquiry, by Peter Terry (2009). An exploration of the practice of scriptural interpretation by contrasting the "normative" approaches of the Central Figures with contemporary scholastic approaches by Juan Cole, Christopher Buck, Dann May, Michael Sours, Jack McLean, and Sen McGlinn. [about]
  10. Bahá'í Perspective on Water, The, by Arthur Lyon Dahl (1997). Water in the Baha'i Faith and Baha'i Writings. [about]
  11. Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
  12. Breastfeeding and the Bahá'í Faith, by Haig V. Setrakian and Marc B. Rosenman, in Breastfeeding Medicine, 6:4 (2011). The Writings reference breast-feeding literally and symbolically, and provide guidance as to its practice. As the ideal form of infant nutrition, breastfeeding women are exempted from fasting, and it is linked to childhood moral development. [about]
  13. Building Creative Communities: Approaching the arts as social & economic development through professionalizing, training, and networking internationally, by Robin M. Chandler, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). On the Global Arts Training Institute, a model for building professionalism in the arts which can be implemented in Bahá’í communities and incorporated into teaching plans to develop the next generation of artists. [about]
  14. Challenges of Sustainable Development, by Augusto Lopez-Carlos, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22 (2012). Economic growth contributes to global prosperity, but it may conflict with environmental constraints. The interactions among conservation, technology, international cooperation, and human values can prevent future crises and assist collective evolution. [about]
  15. City of Love, The: Ishqábád and the Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by Bruce Whitmore, in Bahá'í News, 52:7 (1975). History of the building of the temple in Turkmenistan, north of the Iranian province of Khurasan. [about]
  16. Compilation on Detachment. [about]
  17. Compilation on the Importance of Thankfulness, Gratitude, and Contentment, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu’l-Bahá (2004). [about]
  18. Concept of the Manifestation of God in Chinese Symbolism: An Inter-civilizational Hermeneutic Study, by Amrollah Hemmat, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:1-2 (2016). Seemingly incompatible symbols can point to a common underlying meaning, connecting worldviews and perspectives often considered incommensurable. There are elements of the Chinese tradition that resonate deeply with the Bahá’í concept of Manifestation. [about]
  19. Conservation of the Earth's Resources, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). [about]
  20. Constitutional Movement and the Bahá'ís of Iran, The: The Creation of an 'Enemy Within', by Moojan Momen, in British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 39:3 (2012). Bahá'ís had a complex relationship with the Constitutionalist Movement, sometimes supporting it and sometimes abstaining from involvement, but the impact of the Bahá'ís on the reformers and on the Revolution has been underestimated. [about]
  21. Consultation and Compromise in Environment Affairs, by Bill Knight-Weiler, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). Examples of environmental disagreements — involving ranchers, off-road vehicle use, acid rain, and protected-lands designation — from Oregon and Washington, illustrating how the process of consultation can lead to environmental protection. [about]
  22. Corporate Social Responsibility and Business Success, by Marcello Palazzi and George Starcher (1998). How social responsibility can contribute to competitiveness and success. [about]
  23. Crime and Punishment: Bahá'í Perspectives for a Future Criminal Law, by Udo Schaefer, in Law and International Order. Proceedings of the first European Bahá'í Conference on Law and International Order (1996). [about]
  24. Cry in the Wilderness: An Environmentalist Looks at Bahá'í Teachings on Nature, by Bill Knight-Weiler, in dialogue magazine, 2:1 (1987). Baha'i Writings use images from nature to illustrate spiritual truths and call mankind to recognize the beauty of God. [about]
  25. Development of Humankind, The, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). [about]
  26. Division and Unity in the Baha'i Community: Towards a Definition of Fundamentalism, by Moojan Momen (2009). 15 criteria that define "fundamentalism," and their applicability and/or inapplicability to the Baha'i community; it may be more useful to use a psychological definition that sees the phenomenon as a value-free cognitive style, a way of perceiving. [about]
  27. Economic Prosperity: A Global Imperative, by Mary Fish, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:3 (1997). Economic growth does not necessarily enhance human welfare. The Prosperity of Humankind recognizes the role of economics in igniting the capacity of humankind. The Baha'i concept of human nature opens a dialogue between religion and economists. [about]
  28. Education of women and socio-economic development, by Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions, volume 13 (2002). The findings of recent research on the social and the economic benefits of female education, which provides insights as to why Bahá'u'lláh stressed its importance. [about]
  29. Encouragement, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2006). [about]
  30. Encouragement, Challenges, Healing, and Progress: The Bahá'í Faith in Indigenous Communities, by Alfred Kahn, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:3 (2016). On the challenges of community-building among Indigenous people, written from the perspective of a childhood spent among Baha'i pioneers on Native American land, and on reconciling traditional views with global Baha'i teachings. [about]
  31. Enslaved African Women in Nineteenth-Century Iran: The Life of Fezzeh Khanom of Shiraz, by Anthony Lee, in Iranian Studies, 45:3 (2012). Through an examination of the life of this servant of The Bab, this paper addresses the enormous gap in our knowledge of the experience of enslaved women in Iran. [about]
  32. Exemption, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Thoughts on Bahá'u'lláh's meaning in "exempting" women from certain Bahá'í obligations, especially pilgrimage. [about]
  33. Family Law in Iran, by Sen McGlinn (2001). Detailed overview of 20th-century Iranian laws regarding marriage, divorce, marriage rights and duties, dowry, and inheritance. Contains passing mentions of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  34. Female Representations of the Holy Spirit in Bahá'í and Christian writings and their implications for gender roles, by Lil Osborn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). A response to feminist theologian Mary Daly's argument that a male representation of God reinforces patriarchy with the suggestion that sexual equality is independent of, and unrelated to, gender images of the Divine. [about]
  35. For the Betterment of the World: The Worldwide Bahá'í Community's Approach to Social and Economic Development, by Office of Social and Economic Development (2003). Essays, photographs, and overviews of local projects around the world, illustrating how Bahá'í principles are being carried out in practice, prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development of the Bahá'í International Community. [about]
  36. Four Levels of Detachment in Doris Lessing's Shikasta, The, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:3-4 (2004). [about]
  37. From Oppression to Empowerment, by Nader Saiedi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:1-2 (2016). On four contemporary types of oppression: in the international political order, forms of the state, economic structures, and forms of cultural identity; Bahá’u’lláh’s personal response to oppression; and a Bahá’í approach to empowerment and liberation. [about]
  38. Generation of Knowledge and the Advancement of Civilization, by Haleh Arbab (2007). [about]
  39. Handmaidens of God: Baha'i Prayers for Women, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1987). [about]
  40. Husband and Wife, Relationship between, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice, 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). The "functional" divisions between husband and wife in the Baha'i Writings should be considered in the light of the general principle of equality between the sexes. [about]
  41. Individual Bahá'í Perspective on Spiritual Aspects of Cultural Diversity and Sustainable Development: Towards a Second Enlightenment, by Chris Jones Kavelin, in The International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities, and Nations, 8:1 (2008). This paper discusses the spiritual value of cultural diversity and explores how such reflection impacts development policy on the local, national and international levels. [about]
  42. Law of the Land and the State of the Soul, The: Analyzing Theoretical Frameworks of Bahá'í and Islamic Law Within and Beyond the Nation-State, by Moussa Z. Traore (2012). Details, laws, and constitution of the Baha'i system which, analogous to the United Nations or a Supreme Court, presents a legal framework for a non-State governance structure at the international level. [about]
  43. Management of Small Rural Businesses: Some Views of the European Bahá'í Business Forum, by Michel P. Zahrai (1998). The challenge and benefits of restoring pride in rural non-farm businesses. [about]
  44. Mark of the Beast and Implanted Computer Chips, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Concerns about implanted computer chips as the "Mark of the Beast," and the response of individual Baha'is to government. [about]
  45. Meaning of Detachment, The, by Phyllis Peterson. Detachment as it relates to women, teaching, the media, and unity. [about]
  46. Men and the Baha'i Faith: The role of indigenous men in the early Baha'i community in the British Isles, by Lil Osborn (2016). Includes slide-show included when presenting the paper at the Baha'i Studies Seminar, Kellogg College, Oxford (July 2016). [about]
  47. Mírzá Yahyá Azal, Designation of in the Writings of the Báb, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
  48. Monogamy, Sexual Equality, Marital Equality, and the Supreme Tribunal, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Questions about monogamy, the Supreme Tribunal, and the Baha'i concept of equality of the sexes in light of some Baha'i laws and history which appear to undermine it [about]
  49. Nature, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1988). [about]
  50. New Framework for Global Prosperity, A, by Bahá’í International Community (2006). Bahá'í International Community's submission to the 2006 Commission on Social Development on the review of the First United Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty [about]
  51. New Race of Men and the meaning of "Tread Under", A, by Universal House of Justice (2013). The meaning of the phrase "A race of men ... will tread under all who are in heaven." Includes compilation on the topic. [about]
  52. New Religious Movements, Tolkien, Marriage, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Various questions: new religious movements; Indian Letter of the Living; J.R.R. Tolkien; eternality of the marriage bond; illumination of Baha'u'llah's tablets. [about]
  53. Obedience to Civil Authority, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, in The Bahá'í National Review, 32 (1970). A statement on the problem of whom one should obey when there is apparent conflict between the immediate civil authority under which one resides and a superior authority, such as a state or the Federal Government. [about]
  54. Philosophical Basis for the Centre for Renewable Energy at Dundalk Institute of Technology, A, by Lawrence D. Staudt, in Solas, 3 (2003). Nature of the physical world, the principle of sustainability, the present energy situation, options for Ireland, a vision for the use of renewable energy in Ireland, and the role of the Centre for Renewable Energy at Dundalk Institute of Tech (CREDIT). [about]
  55. Political Non-Involvement and Obedience to Government: Compilation by Peter Khan with Cover Letter from Secretariat, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (2003). Current world events can cause confusion and anguish among those seeking global peace. Rather than being drawn into prevailing attitudes and disputes, Baha'is must hold a broader long-term perspective. [about]
  56. Prosperity of Humankind, by Bahá'í International Community (1995). A statement prepared by the Bahá'í International Community Office of Public Information, Haifa, first distributed at the United Nations World Summit on Social Development, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1995. [about]
  57. References to the Bahá'í Faith in the U.S. State Department's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, by United States Department of State (1991). Excerpts from the State Department's annual compilation of Country Reports on Human Rights Practices on discrimination against the Baha'i Faith and persecution of its adherents in twenty countries. [about]
  58. Reflection on the Theory of Alchemy as Explained in the Bahá'í Writings, A, by Keven Brown (2002). [about]
  59. Reflections on Climate Change: A Baha'i Response, by Rod Duncan, in Interreligious Insight, 8:1 (2010). [about]
  60. Relating the Faith to Current Issues, by Peter J. Khan (1986). Short essay outlining an approach to relate the teachings to current thoughts and problems of humanity. [about]
  61. Relationship to Government, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Three short sections: Loyalty to the government, the Baha'i view of pacifism, and the Guardian's instructions regarding military service. [about]
  62. Rewriting the Script: Some thoughts on gender roles and the Bahá'í Teachings, by Sonja van Kerkhoff (2000). A collection of visual and physical art exploring these themes. [about]
  63. Rizal, Revelation and Revolution: Rizal's Letter to the Women of Malolos and Baha'u'llah's letter to Nabil Akbar Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) , by Stephen Ramo (2011). Comparison of letter by Philippine national hero José Rizal to the women of Malolos with Bahá'u'lláh's "Tablet of Wisdom" to Nabil. [about]
  64. Role of Business in Enhancing The Prosperity of Humankind, The, by William Walker and Jane Nelson (2001). Three articles about exploring and implementing concepts from Prosperity of Humankind, including building partnerships, toward a new concept of prosperity, preservation of wildlife, and examples of successful initiatives. [about]
  65. Ruptured Spaces and Effective Histories: The Unveiling of the Babi Poetess Qurrat al-'Ayn-Tahirih in the Gardens of Badasht, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1998). Implications of Tahirih's revolutionary act at Badasht in terms of a decisive break with Islamic history; also Shaykh Abu Turab's recollections of the event and his literary role in Nabil's Dawn-Breakers. [about]
  66. Russian Publication of Baha'u'llah's Last Will and Testament, The: An Academic Attestation of 'Abdu'l-Baha's Successorship, by Christopher Buck and Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 19 (2013). On the content of the Kitab-i-Ahdi, its manuscript history, and textual variants; Andalib's eyewitness account of its unveiling; Tumanski's scholarly work; contemporary attestation of 'Abdu'l-Baha's successorship by Tumanski and other Russian notables. [about]
  67. Salaam Cinema: On Mohsen Makhmalbaf, by Adina Hoffman, in The Nation (2013). An Iranian director's ongoing meditations on the nature of illusion and reality, truth and consequences. Includes a review of The Gardener, a documentary about the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  68. Science in the Hands of Women: Present Barriers, Future Promise, by Rhea Howard Harmsen, in World Order (1998). [about]
  69. Seed of Creation: A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation, by Ahmad Aniss (1998). A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation. [about]
  70. Selected Topics of Comparison in Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Peter Mazal (1999). Comparison of Baha'i and Christian morality, archetypal events and people (e.g. the ideal woman) in early Christian and Bábí-Bahá'í history plus concepts of Christ (Christology) and the Messiah compared to Prophets, Messengers and Manifestations of God. [about]
  71. Spiritual Dimensions of Sustainable Development, by Arthur Lyon Dahl (1996). The many meanings of "development" and their spiritual aspects. [about]
  72. Spiritualism, Reincarnation and Related Subjects, in Bahá'í Institutions (A Compilation) (1973). Includes psychic phenomena, spiritual healing, and astrology. [about]
  73. Supreme Tribunal (Mahkamiy-i-Kubra), by Ali Nakhjavani, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Meaning of "Baha'i Court" in the writings of the Guardian and how it compares with the General Assembly of the United Nations. [about]
  74. Sustainable Consumption and True Prosperity, by Arthur Lyon Dahl (1998). The problems of consumption and their solutions. [about]
  75. Sustainable Development and Prosperity, by Arthur Lyon Dahl (2001). [about]
  76. Sustainable Development and the Environment of the World: An Overview, by Arthur Lyon Dahl (1997). [about]
  77. Sustainable Development, A Bahá'í View: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1995). [about]
  78. Tablet of the 'Light Verse' (Lawh-i-Áyiy-i-Núr), also known as Commentary on the Disconnected Letters: Overview, by Adib Taherzadeh and Nabil-i-A'zam (1999). [about]
  79. Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Bahá'u'lláh (1988). [about]
  80. Táhirih: A Religious Paradigm of Womanhood, by Susan Maneck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1989). [about]
  81. Tahirih and Women's Suffrage, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:2 (1990). Two letters on the same topics. [about]
  82. True Foundation of All Economics, The, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2000). Book-length compilation ordered by chapters covering 26 themes on the economy, welfare, development, women's employment, work ethics, morality, agriculture, extremes of wealth and poverty, profit-sharing, health and alcohol, consultation. [about]
  83. Two Wings of a Bird: The Equality of Women and Men, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). The emancipation of women, the achievement of full equality between the sexes, is essential to human progress and the transformation of society. [about]
  84. Unity and Consultation: Foundations of Sustainable Development, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1994). [about]
  85. Unrestrained as the Wind: A Life Dedicated to Bahá'u'lláh (1985). Compilation of quotations on topics of especial interest to Bahá'í youth. [about]
  86. War, Governance, and Conscience in This Age of Transition, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, in The Bahá'í National Review, 20 (1969). A whitepaper on issues of Baha'i involvement in the military services. [about]
  87. Water as a symbol used in the Sacred Writings, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2002). [about]
  88. Why There are No Women in the Universal House of Justice, by Vladimir Chupin (2011). Upon learning that it is forbidden to elect women to the Universal House of Justice, many people become puzzled, given the Faith's strong emphasis on the equality of the sexes. This essay offers some perspectives. [about]
  89. Will and Testament of The Báb, by Báb, The, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). One-page scan of a document commonly, though inaccurately, referred to as the "Will and Testament." [about]
  90. Woman and Islam, by Elihu Grant, in Life and Light for Woman, 42:1 (1912). One-paragraph sympathetic mention. [about]
  91. Women, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). Explores the status of women in the world, the development of women, the role of education in that development, the Baha'i concept of gender equality and the application of that principle to family life. Includes bibliography of related Baha'i literature. [about]
  92. Women and Religious Change: A case study in the colonial migrant experience, by Miriam Dixson, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). The story of Margaret Dixson, and one woman's growth from Anglicanism, via numerology and astrology, to commitment to the world ideals of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  93. Women and Wisdom in Scripture, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Treatment of women in religion; influence of Baha'i teachings in raising awareness about the plight of women and transforming attitudes across the globe; role of linguistic biases in degrading their status; role of wisdom in achieving gender equality. [about]
  94. Women Entrepreneurs: Catalysts for Transformation, by Diane Chamberlin Starcher (1997). Describes the dramatic rise in importance of women entrepreneurs and how feminine qualities contribute to their success. [about]
  95. Women in the works of the Bab and in the Babi Movement, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2011). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  96. Women on the House of Justice; meaning of "Umumi", by Universal House of Justice (1997). Clarifies that 'Abdu'l-Baha, in a tablet to Corinne True, indeed refers to the Universal House of Justice when affirming that membership is confined to men only. Includes a portion of Corinne True's original query to 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
  97. Women on the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Response to a paper presented at a Baha'i Studies conference which raised the possibility that women could one day be eligible for membership on the Universal House of Justice. [about]
  98. Women Serving as Continental Counselors or in the International Teaching Centre, Percentage of: 1980-2010, by Universal House of Justice (2013). Chart showing the percentage of women serving as members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors from 26 November 1980 — when the number of Boards was fixed at five — until November 2010. [about]
 
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