Search for tag "Mullá Husayn"
|1813. c. 1813
||Birth of Muhammad Husayn-i-Bushrú'í (Mullá Husayn).
||At the age of 12 Mulla Husayn finished his studies in Bushíhr and went to Mashhad, the most prestigious centre of religious study in Iran. In 1830-1 he relocated to Karbala to study under Siyyid Kázim. [MH7-8; MH113]
||Karbila; Mashhad; Bushihr
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
|1844. 22 Jan
||Mullá Husayn returns to Karbalá after a journey of two years in Persia. He has been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he has successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
- After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting in the vicinity of the shrine in Najaf he sets out for Persia in the company of his brother and his nephew following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party go to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28]
- See SI dustjacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
|Karbala; Isfahan; Mashhad; Najaf; Bushihr; Shiraz; Iraq; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
|1844. 22 May
||Declaration of the Báb's Mission
Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad makes His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í.
- See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
- See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
- See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
- See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
- Nabíl-i-A`zam relates that Mullá Husayn was welcomed at the Báb's mansion by Mubárak, His Ethiopian servant. [DB53]
- He reveals the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text will later be translated by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
- Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
- See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
- This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
- This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. ZK320
- The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
- See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
- Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
- He chooses the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn is given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
- In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He takes the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gives the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn is called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
- At His public declaration the Báb declares Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Holy days; Bab, Writings of; Mulla Husayn; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Bab, Life of; Cycles; Ages (time); Qaim; Promised One; - Basic timeline; Mubarak
|1844 Jul - Aug
||Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, has a vision that leads him to Mullá Husayn and he accepts the Báb. During this period of waiting for the second person to recognize the Báb, He called Mulla Husayn to His house several times. He always comes at night and stays until dawn. [HotD41]. Sixteen others recognize Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 are later designated `Letters of the Living'. [BBD138, B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121, SBBH1:16–17, GPB7-8]
- See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
- See B26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 for a list of the Letters of the Living.
- See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
- See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih.
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Dreams; Mulla Husayn; Letters of the Living; Quddus; Tahirih
|1844 Jul - Aug
||The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructs them to spread out and teach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36, DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
- To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
- Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
- Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
- See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
- From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja`far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
- See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
- On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
- Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
- See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after The Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
|Iran; Turkey; Kashan; Isfahan; Tihran; Mazindaran; Khurasan; Qum
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Bahaullah; Shahs; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdul-Majid; First believers
|1844 30 Sep
||The Báb receives the letter from Mullá Husayn giving Him details of his journey and meeting with Bahá'u'lláh and others he had contacted.
- Nabíl indicates that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129]
- Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [B57]
- GPB8-9 says He received the letter in the month of Sha'bán, 1260 (16 August to 13 September, 1844).
- See MH119 where the author speculates that if the letter arrived on 16 Ramadan (29 September) and the Báb departed from the port of Búshihr on the 19th of Ramadan (2 October, 1844), He had to have been in Búshihr when He received the letter.
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Pilgrimage
|1844 2 or 3 Oct
||The Báb departs from Búshihr on His pilgrimage. [B57; MH119, 121, GPB9]
- He instructs His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
- He has been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
- The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah is probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [B69]
- He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
|Karbala; Iraq; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Husayn; Ships
|1845. Jul and months following
||The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
- He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
- see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
- Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
- After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
- This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
- The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
- Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
- Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
|Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Hidden Imam; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi
|1847 c. Aug
||Mullá Husayn is residing in Mashhad, in Khurásán, where he has been since returning from Shíráz in 1845. The leader of a local rebellion wishes to enlist the Bábís on his side and seeks a meeting with Mullá Husayn. To avoid entanglement in the affair, Mullá Husayn decides to make a pilgrimage to Máh-Kú. [TB56; DB254–5; MH133–5]
- As an act of piety, he makes the whole 1,200-mile journey on foot. Along the route he visits the Bábís and in Tihrán meets secretly with Bahá'u'lláh. No account of their interview survives. In Qazvín, Mullá Husayn meets Táhirih for the first time. [DB255; MH137]
|Khurasan; Mah-Ku; Qazvin; Tihran
||Mulla Husayn; Tahirih; Bahaullah, Life of
|1848. 20 March
||Mullá Husayn and his companion, walking from Mashhad, arrive at Máh-Kú on the eve of Naw-Rúz. The Báb meets them at the gate and together they celebrate Naw-Rúz, the fourth after the declaration of the Báb. Mullá Husayn stays the night at the fortress. He remains with the Báb for nine days. [B131; DB257, 262; MH138, 143]
- MH137 says Mullá Husayn arrived in Tabríz on 21 March.
- See DB255–7 for story of the dream of `Alí Khán, the prison warden, preceding the arrival of Mullá Husayn at Máh-Kú. From this time on the pilgrims are allowed unrestricted access to the Báb. [DB258]
- The warden requests that the Báb marry his daughter. [DB259; MH143]
|Mashhad; Mah-Ku; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Bab
|1848. 30 Mar
||Mullá Husayn departs for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
- The Báb tells him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he is to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
- In Tihrán he again meets Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
|Mazindaran; Khuy; Urumiyyih; Maraghih; Milan; Tabriz; Zanjan; Qazvin; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Life of
|1848. late Spring
||Mullá Husayn goes to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, and realizes that the `hidden treasure' is his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]
Mullá Husayn proceeds to Mashhad and builds a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús take up residence in it and begin to teach the Bábí religion.
- See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
- Among those who come to the Bábíyyih is Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
- See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
|Barfurush; Mazindaran; Mashhad; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Babi centre
||Quddús leaves Mashhad for Badasht. Mullá Husayn is prevented from attending. He is invited to stay in the camp of the soldiers garrisoned in the area to control a local revolt. The invitation amounts to a confinement but he is able to teach the soldiers while so confined. [BKG50; DB290; MH165–6]
- MH160 says that it was at this time that the Báb wrote to all the believers in Persia and Iraq instructing them to go to the aid of Mullá Husayn and Quddús in the `Land of Khá (Khurásán). DB269ff implies this letter was written in 1845.
|Mashhad; Badasht; Iran; Persia
||Quddus; Mulla Husayn; Army
|1848 c. Jul
||Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]
Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.
Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]
|Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazindaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles
|1848. 21 Jul
||Mullá Husayn and his 202 companions leave Mashhad for Mázindarán under the Black Standard. They will arrive in September. [BBRSM26, 216]
||Mashhad; Mázindarán; Iran; Persia
|1848. Jul - Sep
||Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, are joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
- Their numbers swell into hundreds, possibly 300 and beyond. [B172; BKG50]
- The Black Standard is raised on the plain of Khurásán. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
- The Black Standard will fly for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
- See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
- See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
|Mazindaran; Badasht; Khurasan; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Husayn; Babis; Black Standard; Prophecies; death; Muhammad Shah
|1848. 10 Oct
||Mullá Husayn and his company arrive near Bárfurúsh. The Sa`ídu'l-`Ulamá, threatened by their presence, has stirred up the townspeople, who go out to meet them. Some three or four miles from the city they clash and seven of Mullá Husayn's companions are killed. [B172; BW18:381; DB329–31; MH192–3]
MH188 says that the journey from Mashhad had taken 83 days.
- In the ensuing battle, the townspeople are worsted. They beg for peace and a truce is agreed. [B172; DB336; MH197]
- It was here that Mullá Husayn cut a man, a musket and a tree with one blow from his sword. [B172; DB 330–1; MH193]
- Mullá Husayn and his companions take shelter in a caravanserai. Three young men who mount the roof to raise the call to prayer are each met with a bullet and killed. Mullá Husayn gives the command to attack the townspeople, who are again routed. [BW18:381; DB337–8; MH201–5]
- Mullá Husayn and his companions are offered safe passage by the town's leaders if they will leave Bárfurúsh. They agree but are attacked by their escort, Khusraw-i-Qádí-Kalá'í and his hundred men. [B172; DB338–42; MH206–9]
|Barfurush; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Husayn; Saidul-Ulama
|1848. Oct - May 1849
||The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí.
- See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
- The episode lasts seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
- See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
- See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
- See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
- Bahá'u'lláh visits the fortress and approves the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227]
- He advises Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn sets out immediately and secures the release of Quddús, who has been in detention for 95 days. [B173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
- Quddús arrives towards the end of the year. Some sources say October 20. [B173]
- See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brings the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
- Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
- 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
- The siege begins with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
- it is said that 2000 soldiers were involved in the siege.
||Shaykh Tabarsi; Bahaullah, Life of; fortress; Mulla Husayn; Quddus
||Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)|
|1849. 11 Jan
||Quddús and Mullá Husayn lead a night attack on the encamped army. Two hundred and two Bábís disperse the camp. [BW18:381; BD365; MH254]
DB 368 says this occurred on 21 December 1848.
||Quddus; Mulla Husayn; Armies; Shaykh Tabarsi; Swords
|1849. 27 Jan
||The arrival of reinforcements for the besiegers under the leadership of ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán-i-Láríjání. [BW18:381; DB378–9; MH263]
- This is the third army to be mustered.
- The water supply is again cut off and Mullá Husayn orders that a well be dug and a bath constructed. [DB379; MH263]
||Abbas-Quli Khan-i-Larijani; Armies; Mulla Husayn; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 1 Feb
||The well is completed. Mullá Husayn performs his ablutions and puts on clean clothes and the turban of the Báb. [DB379; MH264–6]
||Mulla Husayn; Turbans; Relics; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 2 Feb
||Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn leads a charge of 313 men that again routs the king's army. He is struck in the chest by a bullet and dies. His body is carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís are also wounded, about 40 of whom die. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]
- Mullá Husayn is 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
- See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
- See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
- See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
- See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
- Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
- It takes the army 45 days to reassemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
||Mulla Husayn; Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. c. 11 Mar
||On learning through a traitor of the death of Mullá Husayn, ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán launches a fresh attack on the fort. [DB384–6]
- DB386 says this was 10 days before Naw-Rúz.
- Nineteen Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir overcome the attackers. [DB386–8]
||Abbas-Quli Khan-i-Larijani; Armies; Mulla Husayn; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 26 Nov
||The Báb sends Mullá Ádí-Guzal to the graves of Quddús and Mullá Husayn to make a pilgrimage on His behalf [DB431]
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Adi-Guzal; Cemeteries and graves; Quddus; Mulla Husayn; Pilgrimage
from the main catalogue
- Mulla Husayn, by Lowell Johnson (1982). A biography of Mulla Husayn, the first Letter of the Living. [about]
- Mulla Husayn Bushru'i: The Indomitable, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Life story of the first believer in the Bab. [about]
- Mulla Husayn Bushrui, by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
- Story of Mulla Husayn. Life of the first Baha'i. Speaker not known. [about]
- The Báb; Husayn Bushru'i; Ruh al-Quddus; Tahirih, by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in Holy People of the World: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia (2004). [about]
- Various questions: Psychic powers, Persepolis, portrait of Mulla Husayn, etc., by Universal House of Justice (2007). Answers to: psychic powers and "natural" healing; 'Abdu'l-Bahá's statement on Persepolis; inauthenticity of a portrait of Mullá Husayn; a passage on childhood; list of sites for future Houses of Worship; Prayer of the Báb; and a jungle story. [about]
- Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
- Wronged One, The: Shí'í Narrative Structure in Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of Visitation for Mullá Husayn, by William F. McCants, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]