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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1899 The Consulting Assembly of Tihrán, a forerunner of the National Spiritual Assembly, is established. [EB175–6]
  • Four Hands of the Cause are permanent members; nine others are elected by special electors appointed by the Hands. [EB175–6]
Tihran; Iran NSA; Spiritual Assemblies; Hands of the Cause; Appointments
1909 21 Mar The first American Bahá'í Convention opens in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
  • It is held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
  • It is attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
  • The Convention establishes the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', which is incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution is framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. This body becomes the future National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146]
Chicago; United States; Canada Conventions, National; Corinne True; Bahai Temple Unity; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conventions; NSA
1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
  • The difference between this body and its forerunner is little more than a change in name. [DP122]
  • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
  • The election procedure followed that used in the United States: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
Chicago; United States NSA; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1923 Apr National Spiritual Assemblies are elected in the British Isles, India and Germany. [GPB333]
  • The election of the British National Spiritual Assembly is by postal ballot. [ER228]
  • For membership of the British National Spiritual Assembly see ER228 and SBR71.
  • See also ER223-31 for the election and functioning of the British National Spiritual Assembly.
British Isles; India; Germany NSA
1923 13 Oct The National Spiritual Assembly of Britain meets for the first time, at the home of Ethel Rosenberg. [ER228; UD13, 163]
  • It becomes the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles in 1930 and the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom in 1972.
United Kingdom NSA; Ethel Rosenberg; NSA of UK
1924 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and the Sudan is formed, the first national body in Africa. [BBRSM121; GPB333]

Martha Root gives the first African radio broadcast about the Bahá'í Faith, in Cape Town.

Egypt; Sudan; Cape Town; South Africa NSA; Martha Root
1925 4–9 Jul The Seventeenth Annual Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is held at Green Acre. [GAP117; SBR94]
  • National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is elected for the first time. [GPB333, SETPE1p107]
  • Like the previous attempts at electing a National Assembly in 1922, 1923 and 1924, the delegates didn't fully understand the Bahá'í election procedure. Nine members were elected as well as nine alternates whose purpose was to replace absent members. [SETPE1p108]
  • The members were: Alfred Lunt, William Randall, May Maxwell, George Latimer, Louis Gregory, Elizabeth Greenleaf, Mariam Haney and Keith Ransom-Kehler with Horace Holley becomes its first full-time secretary. [BW13:852; SBR233, SETPE1p108]
United States; Canada Alfred Lunt; William Harry Randall; May Maxwell (Bolles); George Latimer; Louis Gregory; Elizabeth Greenleaf; Mariam Haney; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Horace Holley; NSA; First National Spiritual Assemblies
1925 Dec "A Plan of Unified Action to Spread the Baha'i Cause Throughout the United States and Canada January 1, 1926-December 31, 1928" was formulated by The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada in response to Shoghi Effendi's message to the annual National Convention. [BA86-89]
  • It can be found at [Plan] The goals were (1) to unify the American Bahá'í community's efforts, (2) to increase the number of Bahá'ís, (3) to "penetrate the consciousness of the public with the spirit of Bahá'u'lláh", and (4) to raise $400,000 so that the construction of the first unit of the Temple's superstructure could begin. [SBBR14p160, BFA1p110]

  • This was the first of two Plans developed by the North American National Assembly in the years from 1926 to 1934 the second being "A New Plan of Unified Action To complete the Bahá'í Temple and promote the Cause in America (1931-1934)". [SBBR14p155-197]
  • The above two plans were the first to have the expansion and development of the Bahá'í community as a primary goal and it is likely that they provided the model for other plans organized by Shoghi Effendi and other National Assemblies. [SBBR14p155

  • The first Plan of Unified Action indicates the ascendancy of those Bahá'ís who supported a centralizing authority over those who wanted a more amorphous system or no organization at all.[BiW177-8] For an essay on this subject see "Some Aspects of the Establishment of the Guardianship" by Dr Loni Bramson-Lerche in SBBR5p253-293

  • During the years of these two plans the National Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada developed practices commonly used in subsequent plans, organized propagation, a central budget and the modern form of the Nineteen Day Feast. [SBBR14p160]

United States; Canada Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; NSA
1926 Green Acre comes under the direct supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [GAP118] United States; Canada Green Acre; NSA United States and Canada
1926 16 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada makes representations to the Iranian government concerning the martyrdoms in Jahrum and asking the Sháh to intervene on behalf of the oppressed Bahá’ís. [BBR469; BW2:287]
  • For text of the petition see BW2:287–300.
United States; Jahrum; Iran NSA; Petitions; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Human rights
1927 8 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appoints seven people to a National Race Unity Committee. [SBR94; TMW166]
  • For the functions and challenges faced by the committee see TMW165–72.
United States; Canada NSA; Race (general); Race Unity; Race Amity
1927 Apr The American National convention is held in Montreal, a major subject of which is race relations. [TMw178]
  • Edwina Powell speaks on the subject, as she had been asked by Shoghi Effendi. [TMw178]
  • In her address, Sadie Oglesby recalls her conversations with Shoghi Effendi on the subject of race. [TMw178–80]
Montreal; Quebec; Canada NSA; Conventions, National; Edwina Powell; Race (general); Sadie Oglesby
1927 29 Apr The British delegates, at their first National Convention, elects ten members as there is an equal number of votes for ninth and tenth places. [ER253; UD70–1]
  • One of the members is a Rev. Biggs. [ER253; UD71]
  • Shoghi Effendi writes on 13 May recommending that next year the number of members be strictly confined to nine. In an earlier letter written on his behalf he explained that all of the delegates were to choose nine members of the National Assembly from all of those eligible. Prior to that time the understanding was that, for example, the London delegates would vote for a proportional number of persons from the London area, the Manchester delegates would choose a number of members based on their proportion of the total Bahá'í population. [ER253; UD70, SETEP1p140]
United Kingdom NSA; Elections; Conventions, National; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; First conventions
1927 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada draws up and publishes a ‘Declaration of Trust’ and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly’. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
  • For text see BW2:90–8.
  • The Guardian describes it as the Bahá’í ‘national constitution’ heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá’í World Community’. [GPB335; PP302–3]
  • The drafting is largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
  • In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatum. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
United States; Canada NSA; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions; By-laws; Recognition; Firsts, Other
1928 In this year there are 579 localities in the world in which Bahá’ís live, 102 local spiritual assemblies, nine national spiritual assemblies, and about eight languages into which Bahá’í literature is translated. [BBRSM160–1] NSA; LSA; statistics
1929 May The American National Spiritual Assembly incorporates as a voluntary Trust. [BBRSM122; GPB335]
  • This enables the National Spiritual Assembly to hold property, receive bequests and enter into contracts. [BBRSM122; GPB335–6]
United States NSA; Voluntary Trust
1931 1 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Iraq is elected for the first time. [BBRSM:121] Iraq NSA
1932 10 Jun The American National Spiritual Assembly addresses a petition to the Sháh of Iran requesting that the ban on Bahá’í literature be removed and asking that its representative, Mrs Keith Ransom-Kehler, be recognized to present in person the appeal. [BW5:390–1] United States; Iran NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
1932 15 Aug Keith Ransom-Kehler meets the Iranian Court Minister Taymur Tash. [BW5:392]
  • She presents the American petition to him asking that the ban on Bahá’í literature in Iran be lifted and receives assurances from him that this will be effected. [BW5:392]
  • She made seven successive petitions addressed to the Sháh of Persia. [GPB345]
  • For the history and unsuccessful outcome of this effort see BW5:391–8.
Iran; United States Keith Ransom-Kehler; NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
1934 The first National Spiritual Assembly of Sudan is elected. Sudan NSA find reference
1934 The first National Spiritual Assembly of Iran is elected. [BBRSM:121; BW6:268]
  • For a picture see BW6:268.
Iran NSA
1934 15–18 May The first National Convention of the Bahá’ís of Australia and New Zealand is held in Sydney, with nine delegates in attendance. [SBR165]
  • The first National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand is elected with its seat in Sydney. [SBR165]
Sydney; Australia; New Zealand Conventions, National; NSA; First conventions
1934 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and the Sudan incorporate. [GPB336]
  • This is the first national assembly in an Islamic country to secure civil recognition and the status of an independent religion. [BW6:24]
Egypt; Sudan; NSA
1936 The first woman is elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of India, Shirin Fozdar. India Shirin Fozdar; Women; NSA; Firsts, Other
1936 The National Assembly of Australia and New Zealand first issues its news organ, the Bahá’í Quarterly. Australia; New Zealand; NSA
1936 Jul Following on the success of the initial Race Amity conferences in Washington, DC, the National Spiritual Assembly formed a racial amity committee. For a list of the committees complete with membership from 1921 until 1932 see The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America: Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christoper Buck. [Baha’i Studies Review 17, 2011, 3–46]
In July, 1936 it was announced that "The National Spiritual Assembly has appointed no Race Amity Committee this year. Its view is that race amity activities have sometimes resulted in emphasizing race differences rather than their unity and reconciliation within the Cause. Local Assemblies are requested to provide for amity meetings and regard them as a direct part of teaching." [TMW213]
United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Unity; NSA
1936 1 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appoints the first Inter-America Committee, beginning an organized and coordinated effort to establish the Faith in the Republics of Central and South America. [BW10:181] America NSA
1938 (In the year) The publication of The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, a compilation of the communications to the North American Bahá'í community between 1929 and 1936. "These...communications unfold a clear vision of the relation between the Bahá'í community and the entire process of social evolution under the Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh." [WOBv] World Order of Bahaullah (book); Dispensation of Bahaullah (letter); World order (general); Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1938 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand incorporate. [GPB336] Australia; New Zealand NSA of Australia; NSA of New Zealand; Incorporation; Recognition
1939 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the British Isles incorporates after a long and difficult struggle. [BW8:161–2; UD127] United Kingdom NSA of UK; Incorporation; Recognition
1939 Aug The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles incorporate as an unlimied non-profit company under the Companies Act of 1929. GPB336 United Kingdom NSA of UK; Incorporation; Recognition
1944 The National Spiritual Assembly of Australia incorporates. Australia NSA; Incorporation
1944 22–23 May The Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb is celebrated at the House of the Báb in Shíráz. [BW10:181]
  • Ninety delegates to the national convention and members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran assemble discreetly for the occasion.
  • For details of this event and the caution with which the arrangements for it are made see BW10:181–3.
  • The Guardian sends the Persian Bahá’ís a lengthy letter detailing how the observance and the week-long festivities to follow are to be made. [BW10:183]
  • For details of the events see BW10:183–8.
Shiraz; Iran Bab, Declaration of; Bab, House of (Shiraz); Conventions, National; NSA; Centenaries
1946 21 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of Germany and Austria is re-established. [BBRSM185]
  • It is elected for the first time since 1937.
  • Three American soldiers are members. [BBRSM185]
Germany; Austria; NSA Germany and Austria
1947 spring The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is accredited by the United Nations as a non-governmental organization. [BW12:597; PP303] America NSA United States and Canada; United Nations; NGO
1947 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of India and Burma is established. India; Burma NSA India and Burma
1948 24-25 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of the Dominion of Canada is established. [BBRSM:186; BW13:856; MBW143; PP397]
  • See BW11:160, 184 for pictures.
  • The first National Convention was held in the Maxwell's home (in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's home as will be the election of the Universal House of Justice some 15 years hence.) with 13/19 delegates from all the provinces attending. (Six were unable to attend due to a flood.) Those elected to the first National Spiritual Assembly were: Laura Davis, Rowland Estall, Lloyd Gardner, Doris Richardson, John Robarts, Emeric Sala, Rosemary Sala, Siegfried Schopflocher, and Ross Woodman. [TG110, OBCC269]
  • For a picture of the first Canadian National Spiritual Assembly see OBCC148.
Canada NSA Canada
1949 30 Apr An Act to incorporate the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada is passed. The act establishes the name, names the officers as directors, states the location of the headquarters, defines the objectives, gives it the right to manage the affairs of the Bahá'ís, to make by-laws and to hold property. It was used as a model for registration/incorporation in other states. Canada NSA; Incorporation; Firsts, Other; Recognition
1951 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Central America is elected at a convention in Panama City. [BW12:60]
  • 25 delegates representing 12 countries are present at the convention. [BW12:60]
Panama NSA of Central America
1951 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of South America is elected at a convention in Lima, Peru. [BW1 2:60]
  • 18 of the 27 delegates are present at the convention. [BW12:60]
Lima; Peru NSA of South America
1952 Ridván The National Convention of the Bahá'ís of Central America was scheduled to be held in a prestigious hotel in San Jose, Costa Rica. When a distinguish believer, Mr Matthew Bullock, was not allowed to register at the hotel because of his race, the National Assembly moved the Convention to another venue and registered guests moved to small pensions rather than staying at the hotel. [SDSC65]
  • Matthew Bullock was one of the early African-American believers in the United States. He became an enrolled believer in 1940 after 15 years of knowledge of the Faith. In 1952 he was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly and along with fellow NSA member Elsie Austin, represented that institution at the first Intercontinental Teaching Conference in Uganda in 1953. [LoS108, SDSC102]
San Jose; Costa Rica; Central America Conventions, National; NSA; Race (general); Matthew Bullock; Elsie Austin
1952 8 Oct Shoghi Effendi announces his decision to launch ‘the fate-laden, soul-stirring, decade-long world-embracing Spiritual Crusade’ in the coming year. [BW12:253–5; MBW411
  • For the objectives of the Crusade see BW12:256–14.
  • Among the goals to be achieved is the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives building. [BBD22; DH168; MBW43]
  • He calls upon the Hands of the Cause to appoint during Ridván 1954 five auxiliary boards to act as their adjuncts or deputies to work with the national spiritual assemblies to execute the projected national plans. [MBW44, BW13p335]
BWC Ten Year Crusade; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; International Bahai Archives; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm; NSA; Teaching plans; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1953 Grant Mensah, a Ghanaian, becomes a Bahá’í in Ruanda-Urundi, the first person to accept the Faith in that country. Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) Grant Mensah find reference
1953 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Italy and Switzerland is established. Italy; Switzerland NSA
1954 Apr Bahá’í women in Iran are accorded full rights to participate in membership of both national and local Bahá’í assemblies. [MBW65]
  • This removes the ‘last remaining obstacle to the enjoyment of complete equality of rights in the conduct of the administrative affairs of the Persian Bahá’í Community’. [MBW65]
Iran NSA; LSA
1954 Ridván Adelaide Sharp, who had been in Iran since 1929, is elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, the first woman elected to that body. [BFA2:361] Iran Adelaide Sharp; NSA; Firsts, Other; Women
1955 Aug Appeals are made by National Spiritual Assemblies around the world through the Bahá’í International Community to the UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld to ask the Iranian government to halt the attacks on the Bahá’ís. [BW13:789–91; BW16:329; MBW88–9; PP304, 311]
  • The intervention of the Secretary-General of the UN, along with the efforts of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, bring an end to the physical persecution of the Bahá’ís, although their human rights are still denied. [BW13:790; BW16:329]
  • This marks the first time the Faith is able to defend itself with its newly born administrative agencies. An “Aid the Persecuted Fund” was established.
  • Historian Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi noted that the 1955 anti-Bahá'í campaign was both the apogee and the point of separation of the state-clergy co-operation. The Shah succumbing to international pressure to provide human rights, withdrew support. The result was that the period from the late fifties until 1977-1978 was a period of relative safety. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
New York; United States; Iran Bahai International Community; Dag Hammarskjöld; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; United Nations; NSA; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
1956 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces the extension to Egyptian Bahá’í women of the right to be elected to the national spiritual assembly and to participate in the national convention. [MBW96–7] Egypt NSA
1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of South and West Africa is formed with its seat in Johannesburg, South Africa. [BW13:284]
  • Its area of jurisdiction is the Union of South Africa, Basutoland, Zululand, Swaziland, Bechuanaland, South West Africa, Angola, Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Mozambique, Madagascar, Réunion Island, Mauritius and St Helena Island.
Johannesburg; South Africa NSA
1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Central and East Africa is formed with its seat in Kampala, Uganda. [BW13:284]
  • Its area of jurisdiction is Uganda, Tanganyika, Kenya, Belgian Congo, Ruanda-Urundi, French Equatorial Africa, Zanzibar, Comoro Islands and Seychelles Islands.
Kampala; Uganda NSA
1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa is formed with its seat in Tunis, Tunisia. [BW13:284]
  • Its area of jurisdiction is Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco (International Zone), Spanish Morocco, French Morocco, Rio de Oro, Spanish Sahara, French West Africa, Gambia, Portuguese Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Gold Coast, Ashanti Protectorate, British Togoland, French Togoland, Nigeria, British Cameroons, French Cameroons, Spanish Guinea, St Thomas Island, Cape Verde Islands, Canary Islands and Madeira.
Tunis; Tunisia NSA
1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of North East Africa is formed. [BW13:284]
  • Its area of jurisdiction is Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Eritrea, French Somaliland, Italian Somaliland, Ethiopia and Socotra Island.
NSA
1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Benelux Countries is formed with its seat in Brussels, Belgium. [BW13:274]
  • Its area of jurisdiction is Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.
Brussels; Belgium; Netherlands; Luxembourg; Benelux NSA
1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly for the Iberian Peninsula is formed with its seat in Madrid, Spain. [BW13:274] Madrid; Spain NSA
1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Mexico and the Republics of Central America is formed at Panama City, Panama. [BW13:257] Panama; Mexico; Central America NSA
1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia is formed at Buenos Aires, Argentina. [BW13:257] Buenos Aires; Argentina NSA
1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela is formed at Lima, Peru. [BW13:257] Lima; Peru NSA
1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Greater Antilles is formed with its seat in Kingston, Jamaica. [BW13:257] Kingston; Jamaica NSA
1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of North East Asia is formed with its seat in Tokyo, Japan. [BW13:304]
  • Its area of jurisdiction is Japan, Korea, Formosa, Macau, Hong Kong, Hainan Island and Sakhalin Island.
Tokyo; Japan NSA
1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of South East Asia is formed with its seat in Djakarta. [BW13:302]
  • Its area of jurisdiction is Borneo, Indo-China, Indonesia, Malaya, Sarawak, Siam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Philippines, Dutch New Guinea, Mentawei Islands, Cocos Islands, Portuguese Timor and Brunei.
Djakarta NSA
1957 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Pakistan is formed. Pakistan NSA
1957 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of New Zealand is formed. New Zealand NSA
1957 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Alaska is formed and incorporated immediately upon formation.
  • This is the first time a political entity (i.e. the United States) is subdivided to form a national spiritual assembly. [BW13:270]
Alaska; United States NSA; Incorporation
1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Scandinavia and Finland is formed with its seat in Stockholm, Sweden. [BW13:274] Stockholm; Sweden NSA
1957 2 Dec On the advice of their lawyer, Dr Abraham Weinshall, the Custodians ask each National and Regional Assembly to send a letter recognizing them as the supreme body in the Cause. [MC40–1] Haifa NSA
1958 26 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of France is formed.
  • For the message of the Custodians to the French National Convention see MC86–9.
France NSA
1959 Ridván Separate national spiritual assemblies are formed for Germany and Austria. [BBRSM186]
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention of Austria see MC158–60.
Austria NSA
1959 Ridván Separate national spiritual assemblies are formed for India and Burma.
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention of Burma see MC155–7.
Burma NSA
1959 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Turkey is formed.
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention see MC148–51.
Turkey NSA
1959 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Islands is formed with its seat in Suva, Fiji.
  • Its area of jurisdiction comprises ten island groups: Samoa, Fiji, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, Loyalty Islands, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Marshall Islands, Cook Islands, Solomon Islands, and Tonga. [BW13:308]
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention see MC151–5.
Suva; Fiji NSA
1960 30 Apr – 10 May Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions send messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of France votes to recognize the claim. [MC203]
France NSA; Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
1960 5 May Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí is sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
  • After consultation, five members of the assembly continue to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resign from the assembly. The national assembly is dissolved. [MC203]
France Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abul-Qasim Faizi; NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
1960 12 – 31 May Six national spiritual assemblies send messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC207–8] NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Argentina is formed. [BW13:258] Argentina NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia is formed. [BW13:258] Bolivia NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Chile is formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:260.
Chile NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Colombia is formed. [BW13:258] Colombia NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Costa Rica is formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:261.
Costa Rica NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cuba is formed. [BW13:258] Cuba NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Dominican Republic is formed. [BW13:258] Dominican Republic NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador is formed. [BW13:258] Ecuador NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of El Salvador is formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:263.
El Salvador NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guatemala is formed. [BW13:258] Guatemala NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Haiti is formed. [BW13:258] Haiti NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Honduras is formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:265.
Honduras NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Jamaica is formed. [BW13:258]
  • Elected Randolph Fitz-Henley, William A. W. Mitchell, Alfred Senior, Clarence Ullrich, Alice Maud Gallier, Percival Aiken, Emily Taylor, Margarite Ullrich and Ruby Taylor. [The Gleaner]
Jamaica NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mexico is formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:266.
Mexico NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nicaragua is formed. [BW13:258] Nicaragua NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Panama is formed. [BW13:258] Panama NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Paraguay is formed. [BW13:258] Paraguay NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Peru is formed. [BW13:258] Peru NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Venezuela is formed. [BW13:258] Venezuela NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uruguay is formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:268.
Uruguay NSA
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Brazil is formed. [BW13:258] Brazil NSA
1961 15 Jul The Turkish court declares the Bahá’í Faith to be a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land.
  • The Bahá’ís are ‘forgiven’, released and the case against them dropped. [MC308]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly decides to appeal the decision to a higher court and national spiritual assemblies are asked to make representations to the Turkish ambassadors in their respective countries. [MC308]
Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights; NSA
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Denmark is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:276.
Denmark NSA
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Finland is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:277.
Finland NSA
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Italy is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:278.
Italy NSA
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Luxembourg is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:279.
Luxembourg NSA
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Netherlands is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:279.
Netherlands NSA
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Norway is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:280.
Norway NSA
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Portugal is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:280.
Portugal NSA
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Spain is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:281.
Spain NSA
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sweden is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:281.
Sweden NSA
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Switzerland is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:282.
Switzerland NSA
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ceylon is formed in Colombo. [BW13:301] Colombo; Ceylon NSA
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Belgium is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:275.
Belgium NSA
1962 22 Aug The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to make representations to the diplomatic missions of Morocco in Washington and at the United Nations concerning the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MC368–9] United States; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; NSA; Custodians
1962 23 Sep The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to obtain an interview with the personal representative of the King of Morocco who heads that country’s delegation to the United Nations General Assembly in New York in connection with the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MC373–4] United States; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; NSA; United Nations
1962 23 Dec The Custodians ask national spiritual assemblies to cable Secretary General of the United Nations U Thant requesting his intervention on behalf of the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in Morocco. [BW13:794; MC397–8] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; United Nations
1962 27 Dec The Custodians ask national and local spiritual assemblies to write to the Moroccan ambassador in their respective countries pleading for justice and religious freedom. [MC398–9] Morocco; Worldwide Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; LSA
1963 1 Jan The Custodians ask all national and local spiritual assemblies to cable the King of Morocco appealing for justice for the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in his country. [BW14:97; MC19] Morocco; Worldwide Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; LSA
1963 4 Apr The Custodians issue a statement of information to the national spiritual assemblies of the United States and Europe regarding the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco and under threat of death, reminding them that clemency or a pardon are not sufficient, as the condemned Bahá’ís cannot be pardoned for a crime they did not commit. [MC414]
  • For text of statement see MC414–20.
Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of West Africa is formed with its seat in Monrovia. Monrovia; West Africa NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Kenya is formed with its seat in Nairobi. Nairobi NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tanganyika and Zanzibar is formed with its seat in Dar-es-Salaam. Dar-es-Salaam; Tanganyika (Tanzania); Tanzania; Zanzibar NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of South Central Africa is formed with its seat in Salisbury. Salisbury NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South and West Africa is formed with its seat in Johannesburg. Johannesburg NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean is formed with its seat in Port Louis. Port Louis NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the Hawaiian Islands is formed with its seat in Honolulu. Honolulu NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Ocean is formed with its seat in Suva. Suva NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean is formed with its seat in Honiara. Honiara NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of North East Asia is formed with its seat in Tokyo. Tokyo NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Korea is formed with its seat in Seoul. Seoul NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Malaysia is formed with its seat in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Indonesia is formed with its seat in Djakarta. Djakarta NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Viet Nam is formed with its seat in Saigon. Saigon NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand is formed with its seat in Bangkok. Bangkok NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Philippines is formed with its seat in Manila. Manila NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of is North West Africa formed with its seat in Tunis. Tunis NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of West Central Africa is formed with its seat in Victoria, Cameroon. Victoria; Cameroon NSA
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uganda and Central Africa is formed with its seat in Kampala. Kampala NSA
1964 5 Nov Followers of Charles Mason Remey file suit in the United States District Court for Northern Illinois against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, claiming they are the rightful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States. [BW14:95]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States files a counter claim asking the court to restrain the Covenant-breakers from using Bahá’í names and symbols protected by trademark. [BW14:95]
United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; NSA; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks; Criticism and apologetics
1966 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Brunei is formed with its seat in Brunei town. [BW14:99] Brunei NSA
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Laos is formed with its seat in Vientiane. [BW14:99] Vientiane; Laos NSA
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sikkim is formed with its seat in Gangtok. [BW14:99] Gangtok; Sikkim; India NSA
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Taiwan is formed with its seat in Taipei. [BW14:99; The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p51] Taipei; Taiwan NSA; Z****
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Cameroon Republic is formed with its seat in Victoria. [BW14:96] Victoria; Cameroon NSA
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland, Lesotho and Mozambique is formed with its seat in Mbabane. [BW14:96] Mbabane NSA
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zambia is formed with its seat in Lusaka. [BW14:97] Lusaka; Zambia NSA
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward, Windward and Virgin Islands is formed with its seat in Charlotte Amalie. [BW14:93] Charlotte Amalie NSA
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Eastern and Central Arabia is formed with its seat in Bahrain. Bahrain NSA
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands is formed with its seat in Tarawa. [BW14:99] Tarawa NSA
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Algeria and Tunisia is formed with its seat in Algiers. [BW14:96] Algiers NSA
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Belize is formed with its seat in the city of Belize. [BW14:93] Belize NSA
1969 Apr The Bahá’í Faith is banned in Algeria by official decree, all Bahá’í institutions are disbanded and the National Spiritual Assembly dissolved. [BW15:189; BW19:41] Algeria Persecution, Algeria; Persecution, Other; Persecution; NSA; Persecution, Bans
1969 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Papua New Guinea is formed with its seat in Lae. [BW15:265]
  • For picture see BW15:142.
Lae; Papua New Guinea NSA
1969 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi and Rwanda is formed. [BW15:205]
  • For picture see BW15:142.
NSA
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Botswana is formed with its seat in Gaborone. [BW15:199]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
Botswana NSA
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Dahomey, Togo and Niger is formed with its seat in Cotonou, Dahomey. [BW15:189]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
Dahomey NSA
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nigeria is formed. [BW15:192] Nigeria NSA
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa is formed with its seat in Banjul, The Gambia. [BW15:193]
  • For picture see BW15:147.
Gambia, The NSA
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Samoa is formed with its seat in Apia. [BW15:274]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
Samoa NSA
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Central Africa is formed with its seat in Bangui. [BW15:206] Central Africa NSA
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zaire is formed with its seat in Kinshasa. [BW15:205]
  • For picture see BW15:147.
Zaire NSA
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Rhodesia is formed. [BW15:200] Rhodesia NSA
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guyana, Surinam and French Guiana is formed with its seat in Georgetown, Guyana. [BW15:238]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
Guyana NSA
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Malawi is formed with its seat in Limbe. [BW,5:201]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
Malawi NSA
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Fiji is formed with its seat in Suva. [BW15:271] Fiji NSA
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tonga and the Cook Islands is formed with its seat in Nuku’alofa. [BW15:275]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
NSA
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ghana is formed with its seat in Accra. [BW15:192]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
Ghana NSA
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Central African Republic is formed with its seat in Bangui. [BW15:207]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
Central African Republic NSA
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Chad is formed with its seat in Fort Lamy. [BW15:207]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
Chad NSA
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Congo and Gabon is formed with its seat in Brazzaville, the Congo. [BW15:206]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
Congo NSA
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Lesotho is formed with its seat in Maseru. [BW15:202]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
Lesotho NSA
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ivory Coast, Mali and Upper Volta is formed with its seat in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. [BW15:193]
  • For picture see BW15:150.
Ivory Coast NSA
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sudan is formed. [BW15:187]
  • For picture see BW15:150.
Sudan NSA
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Solomon Islands is formed with its seat in Honiara. [BW15:269] Solomon Islands; Oceania NSA
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Trinidad and Tobago is formed with its seat in Port-of-Spain. [BW15:219, 242] Trinidad and Tobago NSA
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Afghanistan is formed with its seat in Kabul. [BW15:243]
  • For picture see BW15:151.
Kabul; Afghanistan NSA
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Arabian Peninsula is formed.
  • For picture see BW15:151.
Arabian Peninsula NSA
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bangladesh is formed with its seat in Dacca. [BW15:243]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
Dacca; Bangladesh NSA
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Iceland is formed with its seat in Reykjavik. [BW15:225, 281]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
Reykjavik; Iceland NSA
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Republic of Ireland is formed with its seat in Dublin. [BW15:283]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles is renamed the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom. [BW15:290]
Dublin; Ireland NSA
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Malagasy Republic formed with its seat in Tananarive. [BW15:199, BWNS288]
  • For pictures see BW15:153, 198.
Tananarive (Antananarivo); Malagasy Republic (Madagascar); Madagascar NSA; BWNS
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Puerto Rico is formed with its seat in San Juan. [BW15:218]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
San Juan; Puerto Rico NSA
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi is formed with its seat in Bujumbura. [BW15:205]
  • Because of disturbances in the country; the assembly is dissolved in the same year and the affairs of the Faith placed under an administrative committee. [BW15:205]
Bujumbura; Burundi NSA
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nepal is formed with its seat in Kathmandu. [BW15:249]
  • For pictures see BW15:155, 248.
  • With Hand of the Cause Ali-Akbar Furutan representing the Universal House of Justice, the Bahá'ís of Nepal held their first national convention to elect their National Spiritual Assembly in 1972 during the reign of King Mahendra. The convention had forty delegates. The members of the first national assembly were: Amar Pradhan, Shyam Maherjan, Jujubhai Sakya, Aranda Lal Shrestha, Dinesh Verma, Keith de Folo, W. F. Chaittonalla, P. N. Rai, D. K. Malla - from Buddhist, Hindu, Christian backgrounds. [Religion in Nepal website]
Kathmandu; Nepal NSA; Cultural diversity
1972 Ridván The first national spiritual assembly in Micronesia, the National Spiritual Assembly of the North West Pacific Ocean, is formed with its seat in Ponape. [BW15:268]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
Ponape; Micronesia NSA
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Réunion is formed with its seat in St Pierre. [BW15:199]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
St Pierre; Reunion; France NSA
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Seychelles is formed with its seat in Victoria. [BW16:156]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
Victoria; Seychelles NSA
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Rwanda is formed. [BW15:205]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
Rwanda NSA
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Gabon is formed. [BW15:206] Gabon NSA
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Singapore is formed with its seat in Singapore. [BW15:257]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
Singapore NSA
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Eastern Malaysia and Brunei is formed with its seat in Kuching, Sarawak. [BW15:253]
  • For picture see BW15:254.
Kuching; Sarawak NSA
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Windward Islands is formed with its seat in St Lawrence, Barbados. [BW15:220]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
St Lawrence; Barbados NSA
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tunisia is formed. Tunisia NSA
1973 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of Equatorial Guinea is formed. [BW16:141]
  • Owing to local circumstances, it is disbanded within the year. [BW16:141]
Equatorial Guinea NSA
1974 Owing to difficulties within the Bahá’í community, the National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand is disbanded. Thailand NSA
1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Hong Kong is formed. [BW16:251]
  • For picture see BW16:452.
Hong Kong NSA
1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Japan is formed with its seat in Tokyo. [BW16:233] Tokyo; Japan NSA
1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Morocco is formed. Morocco NSA
1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sierra Leone is formed with its seat in Freetown. [BW16:141] Freetown; Sierra Leone NSA
1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Togo is formed with its seat in Lomé. [BW16:141] Lomé; Togo NSA
1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa is formed with its seat in Dakar, Senegal. [BW16:141] Dakar; Senegal NSA
1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of The Gambia is formed with its seat in Banjul. [BW16:165] Banjul; Gambia, The NSA
1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ethiopia is formed. [BW16:144] Ethiopia NSA
1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Jordan is formed with its seat in Amman. [BW16:264]
  • For picture see BW16:452.
Amman; Jordan NSA
1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Niger is formed with its seat in Niamey. [BW16:141] Niger NSA
1975 21 Jun Following the revolution in Portugal in April, the National Spiritual Assembly is officially recognized.
  • The process of incorporation began in 1951.
Portugal NSA
1977 The National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand is re-formed. Thailand NSA
1977 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of The New Hebrides is formed. (BW17pxviii, 341] New Hebrides NSA
1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper Volta is formed with its seat in Ouagadougou. [BW17pxviii, 141, 341] Ouagadougou; Upper Volta NSA
1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands is formed with its seat in Majuro. [BW17:174] Majuro; Marshall Islands NSA
1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the New Hebrides is formed with its seat in Port Vila. [BW 17:186] Port Vila; New Hebrides NSA
1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Greece is formed with its seat in Athens. [BW16:287; BW17:190] Athens; Greece NSA
1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Surinam and French Guiana is formed with its seat in Paramaribo. [BW16:219, 341]. Suriname; French Guiana NSA
1977 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of the French Antilles is formed. ]BW17pxviii, 336] French Antilles NSA
1977 16 Sep In Uganda, 27 religious organizations are banned, including the Bahá’í Faith, and the Bahá’í House of Worship is closed. [BW17:81]
  • The national spiritual assembly and all 1,550 local assemblies are dissolved. [BW17:141]
Uganda Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA; LSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala
1978 The Bahá’ís of Vietnam are prohibited by the government from meeting and practising their religion. [BW17:81; BW19:50]
  • Bahá’í centres throughout the country are closed or confiscated;
  • The national Hazíratu’l-Quds in Ho Chi Minh City is seized and made into an orphanage;
  • Two members of the national spiritual assembly are arrested and sent to ‘re-education’ camps.
  • One is released in 1982, owing to ill health.
Vietnam Persecution, Vietnam; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA; Haziratul-Quds
1978 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritania is formed with its seat in Nouakchott. [BW17:141, 348, BW19:491] Nouakchott; Mauritania NSA
1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cyprus is formed with its seat in Nicosia. [BW17:190, 348] Nicosia; Cyprus NSA
1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Mariana Islands is formed with its seat in Nicosia. [BW17:176, 348] Mariana Islands NSA
1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi is re-formed. [BW16:137; BW17:141, 347] Burundi NSA
1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahamas is formed with its seat in Nassau. [BW17:162, 348] Nassau; Bahamas NSA
1978 26 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Mariana Islands is formed with its seat in Guam. [BW17:174–5; DM348, 386]
  • For picture see DM387.
Guam; Mariana Islands NSA
1978 Jul In Niger, an announcement is made on the national radio banning ‘the Baha’ist sect and the Nineteen Day Feast’ throughout the country; immediately, all Bahá’í administrative activities are stopped and the national spiritual assembly is dissolved. [BW17:147]
  • Mr Djoneidi is called into police-headquarters in Niger for questioning and is held for three days; upon his release, unharmed, other Bahá’ís are also called in.
Niger Persecution, Niger; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA
1978 15 Dec A cabled message is sent to 93 national spiritual assemblies stating that the Bahá’ís in Iran and the Holy Places in Tihrán and Shíráz are in peril. [BW17:79] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; NSA
1979 The National Spiritual Assembly of Afghanistan is disbanded owing to persecution of the Bahá’ís and the political instability of the country. Afghanistan Persecution, Afghanistan; Persecution, Other; Persecution; NSA
1979 15 Feb The National Hazíratu’l-Quds of Iran is seized by the Revolutionary Guards. [BW18:250]
  • All the records of the National Spiritual Assembly, including a membership list of all the Bahá’ís in Iran, are confiscated by the government. [BW19:43]
Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds; NSA
1979 25 – 26 Aug An Administrative Committee for Uganda is appointed by the Universal House of Justice to prepare the Bahá’í community for the re-establishment of the national spiritual assembly. Uganda NSA
1979 11 Nov Dr ‘Alímurád Dávúdí, a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, is kidnapped in Tihrán and presumed dead. [BW18:254, 294] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; NSA
1980 Feb The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran enters a new, more dangerous phase. [BW18:255]
  • Prominent Bahá’ís are abducted. [BW18:256]
  • The homes of members of the National Spiritual Assembly are raided. [BW18:256]
Iran NSA; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1980 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Transkei is formed with its seat in Umtata. [BW18:107, 163] Umtata NSA
1980 21 Aug The members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran are arrested; they disappear without trace and are presumed dead. [BW19:43, 235] Iran NSA Iran
1981 The National Assembly of Zaire is dissolved temporarily and three administrative committees are appointed in its place. [BW19:62, 147] Zaire NSA Zaire
1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bophuthatswana is formed with its seat in Mmbatho. [BW18:107, 163] Mmbatho NSA
1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of South West Africa/Namibia is formed with its seat in Windhoek. [BW18:107, 163] Windhoek NSA
1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward Islands is formed with its seat in St John’s, Antigua. [BW18:107, 171] St John’s; Antigua NSA
1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Windward Islands is formed with its seat in Kingstown, St Vincent. [BW18:171] Kingstown; St Vincent NSA
1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tuvalu is formed with its seat in Funafuti. [BW18:107; BW19:62] Funafuti NSA
1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uganda is re-formed after a period of 19 months during which the Faith was banned. [BW18:107, 163] Uganda NSA Uganda
1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bermuda is formed with its seat in Hamilton. [BW18:107, 171] Hamilton NSA
1981 27 Dec Eight of the nine members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran are executed. [BI13; BW19:43] Iran NSA; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1982 Jan After a lapse of six years, the first formal meeting of the National Spiritual Assembly of Laos is held at the Bahá’í Centre. [BW18:96; BW19:49] Laos NSA Laos
1982 10 – 11 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of Panama petitions its government to issue a stamp in commemoration of the dedication of the Mother Temple of Latin America. [BW18:172–3] Panama NSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Stamps
1982 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nepal is re-formed. [BW18:107, 181, 553(photo)]

Due to the conditions in Nepal during the reign of King Birendra and at the instance of the Universal House of Justice, the National Assembly and the 40 other Local Assemblies were dissolved in 1975. For a few years, untill 1982, there was an Administrative Committee which looked after the affairs of the Cause in Nepal.

In the Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal, the believers have, through the integrity of their character and the excellence of their conduct, overcome in recent years restrictions on the expansion of the Cause. They are now held in high regard and are successfully engaged in presenting the Faith to the people as a unifying force which can contribute to the progress of the nation. As they grow in strength, they can begin to look beyond their own borders and assist in the propagation of the Faith in those areas to which they have such easy access. [Ridván 153]

Nepal NSA dissolved; NSA re-formed; LSA dissolved; LSA re-formed
1983 Mar Five local and two pioneer Bahá’ís are arrested, interrogated and held briefly in prison in Mauritania. [BW19:49]
  • The National Assembly is dissolved. [BW19:49]
Mauritania NSA; Persecution, Mauritania; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1983 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Dominica is formed with its seat in Roseau. [BW18:107, 171] Dominica NSA
1983 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of St Lucia is formed with its seat in Castries. [BW18:107, 171] Castries NSA
1983 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of St Vincent and Grenada is formed. [BW18:107] NSA
1983 29 Apr - 2 May The Universal House of Justice is elected for the fifth time at the International Convention held in Haifa.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Iran is unable to attend but sends 133 red roses as its gift to its sister Assemblies. [BW18:461]
  • For a report of the Convention see BW18:461–4.
  • See BW18:462, 464 for pictures.
BWC; Iran Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Gifts; Roses; NSA
1983 29 Aug The Bahá’í Faith is banned in Iran and membership of Bahá’í institutions made a criminal offence. [BW19:43]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly dissolves all Bahá’í institutions throughout the country. [BW19:43]
Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA
1983 3 Sep The National Spiritual Assembly of Iran sends an open letter to the Prosecutor General of the Islamic Revolution refuting the false charges made against the Bahá’ís and informing him of their willingness to obey the government. [BW19:43]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iran is dissolved. [BW19:62]
Iran NSA Iran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is formed with its seat in Port Blair. [BW19:62, 162]
  • See BW19:520 for picture.
Port Blair NSA
1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Canary Islands is formed with its seat in Santa Cruz. [BW19:62, 169]
  • See BW19:520 for picture.
Santa Cruz NSA
1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cape Verde is formed with its seat in Praia. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:521 for picture.
Praia NSA
1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of French Guiana is formed with its seat in Cayenne. [BW19:62, 155]
  • See BW19:522 for picture.
Cayenne NSA
1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Gabon is formed with its seat in Libreville. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:522 for picture.
Libreville NSA
1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Grenada is formed with its seat in St George’s. [BW19:62, 155]
  • See BW19:523 for picture.
St Georges; Grenada NSA
1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Martinique is formed with its seat in Fort-de-France. [BW19:62, 155]
  • See BW19:523 for picture.
Fort-de-France NSA
1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Yemen (North) is formed. [BW19:524] Yemen; NSA
1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Equatorial Guinea is re-formed with its seat in Malaho. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:521 for picture.
Malaho NSA Equatorial Guinea
1984 9 Nov The Universal House of Justice meets with representatives of the Bahá’í International Community and various national spiritual assemblies at the World Centre. Haifa UHJ; BIC; NSA
1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ciskei is formed with its seat in Mdantsane. [BW19:62]
  • BW19:147 says the seat is in Bisho. However, it was not possible to obtain a site in Bisho, the capital, and so the offices of the National Spiritual Assembly were built in Mdantsane in 1990.
  • See BW19:524 for picture.
Mdantsane NSA
1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Cook Islands is formed with its seat in Rarotonga. [BW19:62, q68] Rarotonga; Cook Islands NSA
1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mali is formed with its seat in Bamako. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:525 for picture.
Bamako NSA
1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mozambique is formed with its seat in Maputo. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:526 for picture.
Maputo NSA
1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Western Caroline Islands is formed with its seat in Colonia, Yap. [BW19:62, 168]
  • See BW19:526 for picture.
Colonia NSA
1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Eastern Caroline Islands is formed with its seat in Pohnpei. [BW19:168] Pohnpei NSA
1986 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritania and all ten local spiritual assemblies in the country are dissolved. Mauritania NSA; LSA
1987 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zaire is re-formed. [AWH48] Zaire NSA Zaire
1987 autumn The National Spiritual Assembly of Brazil submits proposals based on Bahá’í principles such as human rights to the National Constitutional Assembly drafting the new constitution. [BINS174:2]
  • Favourable responses are received from 46 Senators and Deputies. [BINS174:2]
Brazil NSA; Constitutions
1988 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guinea is formed with its seat in Conakry. [BINS178:8] Conakry NSA
1989 Apr The first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Macau was formed. [PH73; AWH62] Macau NSA
1989 Apr The first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Guinea-Bissau was formed. [PH73; AWH62] Guinea Bissau NSA
1989 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guinea-Bissau is formed. [AWH62; BINS199:1, 4] Guinea Bissau NSA
1989 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Macau is formed. [AWH62; BINS199:1; VV104] Macau NSA
1990 The highest legal authority in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, overturned the decisions of a number of lower courts that had refused to register the by-laws of a Local Spiritual Assembly on the grounds that the authority granted to the National Spiritual Assembly in the document violated the legal principle requiring the autonomy of all legally incorporated associations.
  • ruling affirmed Bahá'í community, by it’s right as a recognized religion, recognized by public knowledge and by the testimony of scholars of comparative religion, had the right to a legal identity. [AWH87]
Germany LSA; NSA; By-laws
1990 The National Spiritual Assembly of South Africa made a submission for the drafting of a new constitution.
  • The judge that received it, the President of the South African Law Commission, commented that this document stated the Bahá’ís were the only group whose ideas had a spiritual and moral basis for the constitution. [AWH87-8]
South Africa NSA; Constitutions
1990 Ridván Maureen Nakekea and Marao Teem are elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Kiribati, the first indigenous women to be elected to the institution. [BINS224:7] Kiribati; Oceania NSA; Indigenous people; Women; Islands; Firsts, Other
1991 25 Jan Mottahedeh Development Services was established by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States as a non-profit agency to promote social and economic development to benefit individuals of any race, creed, or nationality. The agency name honours more than fifty years of dedicated service by Mildred and Rafi Mottahedeh, two pioneers in social and economic development.
  • Mottahedeh Development Services was organized as a charitable organization under US law. [MDS]
United States NSA USA; Social and economic development; Mildred Mottahedeh; Rafi Mottahedeh
1991 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the West Leeward Islands (Basseterre, St. Kitts). [AWH86] [VV113] West Leeward Islands NSA
1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Romania is formed with its seat in Bucharest. About 200 believers were present at the inaugural National Convention. [AWH86; BINS246:1; VV113] Bucharest; Romania NSA
1991 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Czechoslovakia. [AWH86] [VV113] Czechoslovakia NSA
1991 Ridván Number of National Spiritual Assemblies-155 [CBNJun91 Vol4no2pg5; AWH86] NSA; Statistics
1991 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the Soviet Union. [AWH86] [VV113] Soviet Union NSA
1991 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Romania. [AWH86] [VV113] Romania NSA
1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Czechoslovakia is formed with its seat in Prague. [AWH86; BINS246:3–4; VV113] Prague; Czechoslovakia NSA
1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the West Leeward Islands is formed. [AWH86; BINS246:1; VV113] West Leeward Islands NSA
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Greenland is formed with is seat in Nuuk. About 35 to 40 people attended the inaugural Convention. [BINS270:3; BW92–3:119; VV121, CBN Jan92 p2] Nuuk; Greenland NSA
1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Baltic States is formed with its seat in Tallinn. [BINS270:2; BW92–3:119, CBN Jan92 p2, VV121]
  • For picture see BINS282:9.
Tallinn; Baltic States NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
1992 Ridván The formation of a Regional Spiritual Assembly for Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova with the seat in Kiev. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Ukraine; Belarus; Moldova; Kiev NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
1992 Ridván The former Spiritual Assembly of the USSR with its seat in Moscow became the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Russia, Georgia and Armenia. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Russia; Georgia; Armenia NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) is formed with its seat in Ashkhabad. [BINS270:4-5; BW92–3:119; BW94–5:29; CBN Jan92 p2, VV121] Kazakhstan; Kirgizia; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Ashkhabad NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Poland is formed with its seat in Warsaw. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:2; BW92–3:119; VV121] Warsaw; Poland NSA
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bulgaria is formed with its seat in Sofia. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:1; BW92–3:119; VV121]
  • For picture see BINS279:9.
Sofia; Bulgaria NSA
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Congo Republic is reformed after 14 years suspension of the Bahá'í Faith. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:5; BW92–3:119; VV121]
  • For picture see BINS275:7.
Congo NSA
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Niger is re-formed after a 14-year interruption. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:5; BW92–3:119; VV121] Niger NSA
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Hungary is formed with its seat in Budapest. [BINS270:2–1; BW92–3:119; VV121] Budapest; Hungary NSA
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Albania is formed with its seat in Tirana. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:3–4; BW92–3:119; VV121] Tirana; Albania NSA
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Azerbaijan is re-formed after half a century of prohibition and persecution. The seat is in Baku. [BINS270:4; BW92–3:119; VV121] Baku; Azerbaijan NSA
1992 Ridván The re-formation of the National Assembly of Angola. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:4; BW92–3:119, VV120-1] Angola NSA
1993 In the year The establishment of the Labranza Training Institute to complement the work of all the socio-economic development projects owned and operated by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Chile.
  • Located about 680 kms. south of Santiago, in the heart of the agricultural belt of the country, its main purpose is to serve the needs of the rural Mapuche population.
  • The operational costs are covered by a mix of contributions from individual Bahá'ís and Bahá'í institutions as well as the rental of its facilities for academic and vocational training to government agencies and Non Government Organizations (NGOs). Its staff are Bahá'í volunteers offering their services for determined periods of time.
  • The Bahá'í programs are focused on capacity building of the Mapuche population in order to allow for self-administration at the grass roots level, which includes practical as well as spiritual content. It has often been used for government training programs in the areas of health, drug prevention, agriculture and rural education.
Chile Labranza Training Institute; Social and economic development; NSA
1993 21 Mar The presentation of the first Race Unity Award by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada. Canada NSA; Race unity; Race (general)
1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cambodia is formed with its seat in Phnom Penh. [BINS317:1; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 30–1] Phnom Penh; Cambodia NSA
1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mongolia is formed with its seat in Ulaan Baatar. [BINS317:1–2; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 31–2] Ulaan Baatar; Mongolia NSA
1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Slovenia and Croatia is formed with its seat in Ljubljana, Slovenia. [BINS317:2; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 3–6]
  • For picture see BINS320:9 and BW94–5:35.
Ljubljana; Slovenia; Croatia NSA
1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Kazakhstan is formed with its seat in Astana. The 120 Baha'is gathered at the Convention were joined by Lauretta King, Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre, who represented the Universal House of Justice for the occasion. [BINS317:2–3; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 29–30]
  • For picture see BW94–5:28.
Astana; Kazakhstan Lauretta King; NSA
1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tajikistan is formed with its seat in Dushanbe. Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre, Shapoor Monadjem, represented the House of Justice at their Convention. [BINS317:3; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:26, 29–30] Dushanbe; Tajikistan NSA; Shapoor Monadjem
1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uzbekistan is formed with its seat in Tashkent. [BINS317:3–4; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:26, 29–30]
  • For picture see BINS328:9 and BW94–5:30.
Tashkent; Uzbekistan NSA
1994 Ridván Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre Lauretta King represented the House of Justice at the first National Convention of the Baha'is of Kyrgyzstan, held 23-24 April in Bishkek. The 150 adults, youth, and children gathered for the historic event expressed their "deepest gratitude and devotion to the Blessed Beauty, Bahá'u'lláh." [BW94-95p29] Bishkek; Kyrgyzstan NSA; Conventions, National; First conventions; ITC
1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Georgia is formed with its seat in Tbilisi. [BINS341:1] Tbilisi; Georgia NSA
1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Armenia is formed [BINS343:3] Armenia NSA
1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Belarus is formed. [BINS341:2] Belarus NSA
1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Eritrea is formed. [BINS341:2] Eritrea NSA
1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sicily is formed. [BINS341:1–2] Sicily NSA
1996 Ridván National Spiritual Assemblies of Burundi and Rwanda were not able to re-elected this year due to political instability in the region. The number of National Spiritual Assemblies remained at 174. [Riḍván 153 – To the Bahá’ís of the World] Burundi; Rwanda NSA
1996 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Moldova is formed. [BINS363:1–2]
  • The National Convention was attended by Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Annemarie Kruger. At that time she was a pioneer in Bulgaria and was in a very advanced age. [Candle 9]
  • See Candle9 28 July, 2008 for a history of the Faith.
Moldova NSA
1996 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of São Tomé and Príncipe formed. [BINS363:1]
  • For picture see BINS366:9.
Sao Tome; Principe NSA
1997 Ridván The re-formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Rwanda bringing the total number of national spiritual assemblies to 175. [BW97-98p32] Kigali; Rwanda NSA; Re-formation
1998. 25 March The passing of former Universal House of Justice member (1963-1993) Mr. Hugh E Chance (b. 28 December, 1911 in Winfield, Kansas d. 25 March,1998 in Tisdale KS.). [BW97-98p271-272]
  • Mr Chance had been a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
  • He was the co-author of "A Crown of Beauty" with Eunice Braun which was published by George Ronald in 1982.
Tisdale; Kansas; United States Hugh Chance; In Memoriam
1998 29 Jul The passing of actor and writer O. Z. Whitehead at the age of 87 in Dublin. (b. in New York City on 18 March 1911).
  • His most acclaimed performance and best remembered role remained that of Al in John Ford's classic 1940 film version of John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath.
  • After the World Congress in 1963 he pioneered to the Irish Republic where, among other services to the Faith, he served on the National Spiritual Assembly.
  • He published three volumes of pen portraits, Some Early Bahá'ís of the West (1976), Some Bahá'ís to Remember (1983), and Portraits of Some Bahá'í Women (1996).
  • Remembered as a champion of the Arts. [Bahá'í Studies Review Vol8, 1998]
Dublin; Ireland O. Z. Whitehead; Pioneers; NSA; Biographies (general)
1999 19 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Russia formally received its re-registration documents under the new law on religious organizations that was passed by the Russian Parliament in the fall of 1997.
  • Formal recognition as a “centralized religious organization” entitled the community to full rights to teach and proclaim the Faith, publish and import literature, rent and own property, invite foreign nationals etc. [From “European Bulletin” Issue 60 February 1999]
Russia NSA; Russian Parliament
1999 Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of Latvia was formed. [BW99-00p44-45, Ridván Message 156] Riga; Latvia NSA
1999 Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of Lithuania was formed. [BW99-00p44-45, Ridván Message 156] Lithuania NSA
1999 Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of Macedonia was formed. [Ridván Message 156] Macedonia NSA
1999 5 May Firuz Kazemzadeh, Secretary for External Affairs for the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States, is appointed by President Clinton as a member of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. White House Press Release United States Firuz Kazemzadeh; NSA; United States government; United States Commissions; Religious freedom; Human rights Find ref
2001 23 Dec National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States published a full-page advertisement in The New York Times, the statement, entitled The Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace," stated that Bahá'ís believe the American nation will evolve, through tests and trials to become a land of spiritual distinction and leadership, a champion of justice and unity among all peoples and nations, and a powerful servant of the cause of everlasting peace. The 645-word document identified six prerequisites for world peace: universal acceptance of the oneness of humanity; the eradication of racism; the full emancipation of women; the elimination of inordinate disparity between the rich and the poor; an end to unbridled nationalism; and harmony between religious leaders. [BWNS147, Includes text of the statement] New York; United States Promise of World Peace (statement); Statements; NSA of US; Peace; BWNS
2011 Ridván Burundi elected its first National Spiritual Assembly in 17 years. Civil war and unrest during recent decades made it difficult for the Bahá'í community to administer its affairs. [BWNS816, BWNS822] Burundi NSA; Re-election; BWNS
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Near East is formed with its seat in Beirut, Lebanon. [BW15:146; BW16:264]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
Lebanon NSA

from the main catalogue

  1. Background and Centrality of Apophatic Theology in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions vol. 8 (1997). History of the theological position of the incomprehensibility-unknowability of God in past major Abrahamic religions and its importance and significance for contemporary Bahá'ís. [about]
  2. Celestial Burning, A: A Selective Study of the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Jack McLean (2012). Style, content, and context of World Order of Baha'u'llah and Dispensation of Baha'u'llah: part of chapter 1 of this lengthy analysis of the work of Shoghi Effendi (pages 1-71), offered as a sample. [about]
  3. Demographics of the United States National Spiritual Assembly, by Archives Office of the United States Bahá'í National Center (2016). Percentage of women, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latino Americans serving on the U.S. and Canadian NSAs from 1922-2015. [about]
  4. Dispensación de Bahá'u'lláh, by Shoghi Effendi. Spanish translation of Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
  5. Dispensation of Baha'u'llah: Study Guide, by Soroush Shakib (2000). Short study questions, some by Morten Bergsmo, for each paragraph of this document. [about]
  6. Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh, by Ahang Rabbani (2005). A course on Shoghi Effendi's book, a summary of its contents, and its historical context. [about]
  7. Dispensation of Baha'u'llah, The: Its Continuing Place In History, by Helen T. Wilson (2000). Historical context of the Dispensation of Baha'u'llah and some of the Guardian's objectives in writing it. [about]
  8. Explanation of a Zoroastrian Prophecy: Length of the "Bahá'í Cycle", by Karl Weaver (2017). Review of certain concepts in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, ancient astrology, and modern astronomical findings to shed light on Abdu'l-Baha's interpretation of a prophecy by Zoroaster about the sun being brought to a standstill. [about]
  9. Keys to the Proper Understanding of Islam in The Dispensation of Baha'u'llah, by Brian Wittman, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). [about]
  10. Scriptures of Previous Dispensations, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1981). Excerpts on what writings constitute the holy scriptures of previous Dispensations. [about]
  11. Shoghi Effendi's The Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh: A Theology of the Word, by Jack McLean, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
  12. Shoghi Effendi's Question, by Emeric Sala, in The Vision of Shoghi Effendi (1983). Recollections of Sala (1906-1990) on Shoghi Effendi discussing the meaning of the World Order of Baha'u'llah. Includes audio version. [about]
  13. Use of Generative Imagery in Shoghi Effendi's Dispensation of Baha'u'llah, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram (1998). Examination of metaphors such as "conception," "offspring," and "seed" in some of the Guardian's writings. [about]
  14. World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, by Shoghi Effendi (1991). Letters written by the Guardian, 1929-1936. [about]
  15. 巴哈欧拉之天启;新的世界体制之目的 (Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh; Goal of a New World Order), by Shoghi Effendi, in The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh (1991). [about]
 
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