Search for tag "Nabil-i-Azam"
|1831 29 Jul
||Birth of Nabíl-i-A`zam, Muhammad-i-Zarandí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. [“Nabil-e Aʿẓam Zarandi, Mollā Moḥammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
||Nabil-i-Azam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
|1858 19 Jul
||Nabil, who had met Bahá'u'lláh in 1850, was one of the Bábí leaders who claimed to be the promised messianic figure according to the Báb’s prophecies. After his return to Baghdad he withdrew his claim when he recognized Bahá'u'lláh’s status as the fulfillment of the Báb’s predictions and the leader of the Bábís. He became one of Bahá'u'lláh’s earliest followers. [RoB1p202, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
|1867 Sep - Aug 1868
||In this period the extent of the Faith is enlarged, with expansion in the Caucasus, the establishment of the first Egyptian centre and the establishment of the Faith in Syria. [GPB176]
While Nabil was in Khorasan in spring 1866, at his suggestion, the greeting Alláh-u-Abhá (God is the most Glorious) was adopted by the followers of Bahá'u'lláh, replacing the old salutation of Allāho Akbar (God is the Greatest), which was common among the Bábis. This was a significant action that gave group identity to the Bahá'ís and was a sign of their independence from the Bábís and the Azális, a Bábí faction that considered Mírzá Yaḥyā Ṣobḥ-e Azál as the legitimate successor to the Báb. The greeting Alláh-u-Abhá superseded the Islamic salutation and was simultaneously adopted in Persia and Adrianople. [BKG250; GPB176, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica,]
- The phrase ‘the people of the Bayán', which now denotes the followers of Mírzá Yahyá, is discarded and is replaced by the term ‘the people of Bahá'. [BKG250; GBP176]
|Caucasus; Egypt; Syria; Khurasan; Iran; Edirne; Turkey
||Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Nabil-i-Azam; People of the Bayan; People of Baha; Allah-u-Abha; Greatest Name; Most Great Separation
|1867 Sep - Aug 1868
||Nabíl-i-A‘zam was dispatched to Iraq and Iran to inform the Bábís of the advent of Bahá'u'lláh. He was further instructed to perform the rites of pilgrimage on Bahá'u'lláh's behalf in the House of the Báb and the Most Great House in Baghdad. [BKG250; EB224; GPB176–7]
- For details of his mission see EB224–7.
- On hearing Nabíl's message, the wife of the Báb, Khadíjih Khánum, immediately recognized the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB225]
- Nabil was the first Bahá'í to perform pilgrimage to the house of the Báb in Shiraz in fall 1866, in accordance with the rites prescribed in the Surat al-ḥajj revealed by Bahá'u'lláh. He also went to Baghdad and performed the pilgrimage to the House of Bahá'u'lláh in spring 1867, according to another sura, Surat al-damm written by Bahá'u'lláh for that purpose. Nabil’s pilgrimage to those two houses marked the inception of pilgrimage laws ordained by Bahá'u'lláh later in his Kitāb-i-Aqdas. For the rites of these two pilgrimages performed by Nabíl see SA113–15. [GPB176-177, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, DB434-435]
|Shiraz; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq
||Nabil-i-Azam; Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Khadijih Khanum; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
|1868. c. May
||Bahá'u'lláh sends Nabíl-i-A`zam to Cairo to enquire after Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí. He was instructed by Bahá'u'lláh to appeal to the officials for the release of several Bahá'ís who had been imprisoned in Cairo at the instigation of their enemies. He was thrown into prison in Cairo for two months and then in the Alexandria jail for a few more months. While there he befriended a Christian cellmate, Fáris Effendi, who soon becomes a Bahá'í. [BKG248, 265–6; EB268; GPB178]
- Fáris Effendi was probably the first Christian to become a Bahá'í. [RB3:10, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
- See BKG265–8 for an account of Nabíl's arrest and imprisonment.
- After his release he travelled to Cyprus and Beirut and then joined the Bahá'u'lláh's exiled community in Akka in late October of 1969. He spent the last two decades of his life in that area. [“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
||Nabil-i-Azam; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Faris Effendi; Imprisonments; First believers by background; Christianity; Conversion; Interfaith dialogue
|1868. c. 7 Jun
||Nabíl has a dream in which Bahá'u'lláh appears to him in his cell and assures him that he will have reason to rejoice within the next 81 days. [BKG267]
|1868 26 - 27 Aug
||The steamer carrying Bahá'u'lláh docks at Alexandria, early in the morning. [BKG265; RB3:6]
- The exiles change ships, again onto an Austrian-Lloyd ship. [BKG265]
Several exiles go ashore to make purchases. One passes by the prison house where Nabíl is detained. Nabíl, watching from the roof of his prison cell, recognizes him. [CH65, BKG265, 267; RB3:6]
Nabíl and Fáris Effendi write letters to Bahá'u'lláh which are delivered by a Christian youth. The youth returns with a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh and gifts from `Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Mihdí. [BKG267–8; RB3:6–7]
The ship bearing Bahá'u'lláh and the exiles leaves Alexandria for Port Said. [BKG268]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Nabil-i-Azam; Faris Effendi; Gifts; Ships
|1868. c. Oct
||Nabíl is released from prison in Egypt and departs for `Akká. [BKG290–1; RB3:57]
- He visits Cyprus on the way. [BKG291]
|Cairo; Egypt; Akka; Cyprus
|1868. end Oct
||Nabíl enters `Akká in disguise but is recognized and after three days is thrown out of the city. [BKG290–1; GPB188; RB3:57]
- He spends the next four months wandering about Haifa, Mount Carmel and the Galilee waiting for another opportunity to enter `Akká. He lived for a time in the cave of Elijah on Mount Carmel. He would walk the 10 miles to the vantage point outside of the citadel where he might, on rare occasion, see the hand of Bahá'u'lláh waving from the small middle window.[BKG290–1; RB3:57, CH68]
||Nabíl makes a second attempt to enter `Akká. He is able to remain for 81 days and meets Mírzá Áqá Ján and others but does not see Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG291; RB3:57]
- DH35 says Nabíl spent 81 days in the citadel from 21 March to 9 June 1870.
|1869. 1 May
||Nabíl meets Bahá'u'lláh. [RB3:57]
||Nabíl begins his chronicle, The Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation. [DBXXXVII]
||Nabil-i-Azam; Dawn-Breakers (book)
||Nabíl presents his chronicle, The Dawn-Breakers, to Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá for approval. [DBXXXVII]
||Nabil-i-Azam; Dawn-Breakers (book)
|1892 After the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh
||`Abdu'l-Bahá asked Nabíl-i-Azam to choose a number of passages from the writings of Bahá'u'lláh to be used as a tablet of visitation. Nabil selected four passages and composed the text which is known as the Ziārat-nāma. This Tablet is also used at observances commemorating the Martyrdom of the Báb. [BBD234; BKG427; GPB222; RB4:419, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
- For an analysis of this Tablet, see SA121–2.
||Nabil-i-Azam; Tablets of Visitation
|1892 3 Sep
||Nabíl, inconsolable at the death of Bahá'u'lláh, committed suicide by drowning himself in the sea. [AB56; BBD167; BKG265-268, , 427–8; MF32-37; DH81; EB268-270; GPB222; Rob1p201-206]
- He left a note paying homage to `Abdu'l-Bahá, writing the date of his death in the single Arabic word `Gharíq' (drowned), the numerical value of which is AH 1310 (AD 1892–3). [MF35; RB1:205]
- See OPOP86 for "Pilgrim's Note" concerning what Jináb-i-Fádil said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá said about Nabil's suicide.
- See DH81 for his own epitaph.
- He was buried in the Muslim Cemetery near `Akká. [DH81]
- He was one of 19 Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh designated by Shoghi Effendi in recognition of distinguished services that those nineteen loyal and devoted Persian Bahá'ís have rendered to their faith. [BW3p80-81]
- Nabíl was born in the village of Zarand on the 29th of July, 1831. He had become a Bábí around 1847 after over-hearing a conversation between two men about the Báb. He accepted the faith of Bahá'u'lláh in 1858. During his years as a Bábí, Nabil traveled to Lorestan, Kermanshah, Tehran, and Khorasan; he met with the Bábís and Bábí leaders in those provinces to foster the Bábí ideology and inspire the believers to arise, consolidate, and expand the new Bábí communities. He also transcribed and distributed Bábí literature among the rank and file of the society to promote the Bábí faith. He was jailed in Sāva for four months because of his pro-Bábí activities. In September 1854, he set out for Baghdad and Karbala, where he stayed until October 1856. During late 1856 to July 1858, he traveled to Hamadan, his hometown Zarand, and many major Babi communities in the capital province and returned to Baghdad on 19 July 1858.
Nabil’s life as a Bahá'í is summed up in his extensive travels throughout Iran, Iraq, Turkey, the Caucasus, Egypt, and Palestine. In his early travels as a Bahá'í, he met with the Bábí communities to invite them to the Bahá'í faith; he attracted the Bábi leaders to the recognition of Bahá'u'lláh as the fulfillment of the Báb’s prophecies concerning the promised messianic figure and helped reinforce the belief of the new Bahá'ís in the teachings and principles that were being advanced by Bahá'u'lláh. Through these activities, Nabíl became an outstanding teacher, defender, and promulgator of the Bahá'í faith.
[Dawn over Mount Hira, "The Poet Laureate" p19-104, or p85-98, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, DB434-435]
- Although known primarily as an historian in the West he was a gifted and prolific poet who devoted most of his poetry to the historical events in the Bábí and Bahá'í faiths. His most famous poem in couplet form about the history of the Bahá'í faith was published as Maṯnawi-e Nabil Zarandi in Cairo in 1924 in 65 pages and reprinted in Langenhain in 1995. In this poem he describes major historical events from the early days of the Bábí movement to the year 1869. His second poem, in 666 verses, deals with Bahá'u'llāh’s banishment from Edirne to Akka. Other historical poetry of Nabil consists of his poem titled “Maṯnawi-e weṣāl wa hejr” in 175 verses (pub. in Rafati, 2014, Chap. 6; Ḏokāʾi, p. 416) and his poem on the life of Āqā Moḥammad Nabil Akbar Qāʾeni in 303 verses (Ḵušahā-i az ḵarman-e adab wa honar 13, pp. 108-16). In addition to those poems, Nabil left behind a great collection of poetry in different forms, only a fraction of which has been published.
His other works in prose included a treatise on the Bábí-Bahá'í calendar, a treatise on Bahá'í inheritance laws (Fāżel Māzandarāni, IV pp. 1, 214), and his account on the event of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh (Nabil Zarandi, Maṯnawi-e Nabil Zarandi, Langenhain, 1995, pp. 67-108). But Nabil’s most celebrated work is Maṭāleʿ al-anwār, an extensive historical narrative of the Bábí faith, written in Akka in 1888-90, which was edited and translated into English by Shoghi Effendi as The Dawn-Breakers. The work was first published in the United States in 1932. [“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica; DB434-435]
|Akka; Zarand; Sava; Baghdad; Karbala; Cairo; Erdine; Turkey
||Nabil-i-Azam; Suicide; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves
||Shoghi Effendi’s translation of Nabíl’s Narrative entitled The Dawn-Breakers was published. Maṭāleʿ al-anwār, as Nabíl's word was entitled, is the most authentic and the main primary source on the early history of the Bábí movement in Iran, is regarded by the Bahá'ís as the definitive account of the Bāb’s dispensation. The work has been translated into many languages, and it has played a major role in familiarizing the Bahá'ís around the world with the historical background of their faith and helping them understand its link to the socio-religious climate of the Persian society in the early days of its development. The original Persian manuscript of Maṭāleʿ al-anwār, preserved at the International Bahai Archives in Haifa. It is comprised 1,014 pages of 22-24 lines.[“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, GBF91; PP215]
- Shoghi Effendi's translation covers only the first part of Nabil's manuscript, up to 1852, and it may be an abridgement. The original covered up until the time of the book's completion in 1890. [RR425]
- The work took him two years of research. [PP217]
- He sent Effie Baker to Iran to take photographs for the book. [PP217]
- For George Townshend’s assistance to the project see GT59, 60, 64–9.
- For Shoghi Effendi’s purpose in translating and editing the book see WOB123.
- See also BBD64; GBF913 PP215–18.
- In the "Acknowledgement" Shoghi Effendi credits Lady Blomfield for her suggestions, "an English correspondent for his help in the preparation of the Introduction, Mrs E Hoagg for typing the manuscript and Effie Baker for the photographs. [DB page lxi]
- See RR422-440 for other historical accounts that might be used as source documents for the Bábí-Bahá'í history.
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Nabil-i-Azam; Dawn-Breakers (book); Effie Baker; George Townshend; Publications; Translation; Lady Blomfield
|| 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad translated The Dawn-Breakers into Arabic. His translation was published but because of the war it had to be referred to the Publicity Section of the government for approval. From that department it was passed to the high Muslim authorities who determined that it was against the Muslim faith and so should be condemned. The entire publication run was gathered for destruction and upon hearing this 'Abdu'l-Jalíl interviewed all the officers concerned and not only secured the release of the books but obtained official permissions to distribute them in Egypt and abroad. [BW-598-599]
||Dawn-Breakers (book); Nabil-i-Azam; Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Translation; Publications; Arabic language; Opposition
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- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Dawn-Breakers: Nabil's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Nabil-i-A'zam (1932). The extensive and preeminent history of Babism and the early Baha'i Faith, by Nabil-i-A'zam [aka Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí, aka Nabíl-i-Zarandí]. [about]
- Literature of Persia, The: A Lecture delivered to the Persia Society, by E. G. Browne (1912). A selection of Persian poetry, featuring poems by Nabil, Tahirih, and Babi martyrs. [about]
- Nabil-i A'zam (Mulla Muhammad Zarandi), by Vahid Rafati, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2016). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Reunion with the Beloved: Poetry and Martyrdom (2004). Poetry by or in honor of early Babi and Baha'i martyrs. Includes foreword by Hushmand Fatheazam, and discussion of the concept of martyrdom, cultural issues, and history of persecutions. [about]
- Selected Poems by Qurratu'l-`Ayn, Nabil, and other Babis, by Tahirih Qurratu'l-Ayn and Nabil-i-A'zam, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1918). [about]
- Suggestions for Bahá'í Hermeneutics, by Mark A. Foster (1999). Four essays: "Non-Overlapping Magisteria [science, religion, and Stephen Jay Gould]," "Infallibility: Sinlessness and Prophetic Ecology," "The Case of Some Answered Questions [pedagogy and evolution]," and "The Gospel According to Nabíl." [about]
- Tablet to Rad'ar-Rúh, by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). Raḍ’ar-Rúḥ, a believer from Mashad, received this tablet shortly after Baha'u'llah arrived in Akka. In it, Baha'u'llah describes being pleased about the recent declaration of Christian doctor named Faris. [about]
- Whilst He Was in Suleymaniah: Extracts and poems from the memoirs of Nabil Zarandi, by Nabil-i-A'zam (2002). Handful of short extracts and poems from the memoirs of Nabíl-i-A`zam [aka Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí, aka Nabíl-i-Zarandí]. on the conduct of the Bábís in 'Iráq during Bahá'u'lláh's self-imposed exile. From Nabil's unpublished narrative. [about]